132 Lesson Six
That lama went toLhasa along with the monks.
6.5 Adverbials
Audverbial constructions are generally expressed in Ti betan by means of l) a class
of adverbi alizi ng particles which transfornt substantives i nto adverbs (see 6.5.l4) , and 2)
asmall class of words we can categori ze as adverbs (see 6.5.5) .
6.5. IThe adverbializing particles [genitive particle] + ངང་ or ངང་ནས་ or སྒོ་ནས་
These two particl es express "how" or "i n what manner" or "by what means" a
verbal action occurs. The are link ed to substantives by the genitive particles.
a. ཁོས་དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་ཀྱི་ངང་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བསུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
heby joy boundless of manner he toi̅welcomed past compl.
(He) welcom ed him with bou ndl ess joy. ཚེ
b. ཁོས་དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་ཀྱི་སྒོ་ནས་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
he-by joy boundless of manner he to welcomed past compl.
(He) welcom ed him with boundl ess joy.
6.5.2 The i nstrum ental partic l es as adverbia i zers
The i nstrumental particles encountered earlier with the subject of active sentences
Can also fuunction to adverbialize nominals. They are usually translated by "with, " ''by, '" or
simply the "ly" endi ng of English adverbs.
a. ཁོས་དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་ཀྱིས་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བསུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
he joy boundless by he to welcomedi̅past compl.
(He) welcomed him with boundless joy.
b. ལོ་མ་འདི་རླུང་གིས་འཁྱེར་སོང་།
leaf thi s wi nd by carry past compl.
This l eaf was camed by the wi nd.
c. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པ་རེད།
heby diligence by work dopast compl.
He worked diligently.
6.5.3 The dative-locative particles as adverbi alizers
The dativelocative particles can also be used to adverbialize adjectives.
a. ཁོས་དར་ཆ་ཞིག་བརྟན་པོར་བཙུགས་པ་རེད།
he by flag one firnl to planted past compl.
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