Lesson Six 137. ཏུ
Beiji ng toi̅go nom.-ot official pl. i̅i̅i̅ ཏུ
(
the) Hofficials (who are) goi ng to Beijing . . . . i̅ i̅i̅ ཏུ
i̅i̅ In thei̅above example, ཚེthe entire phrase "the going to Beiji ng" (པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་̅བའི་) ཏུ
modifies "officials" ((ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོ) explaining what kind of officials they were. A simple ཏུ
adjective suchi̅as " new" ((ལས་བྱེད་པ་གསར་ ་པ་) functions identically. The next example ཏུ
illustrates the importaunce of the tense of the verb ((འིགྲོ་བའི་ versus བྱིན་པའི་) ཏུ
m. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ནམས་ i̅ i̅ ཏུ
Beiji ng toi̅went nom .-of offici al i̅ i̅ ཏུ
(
the) officials whoi̅went (or have gone) to Beiji ng i̅ i̅ i̅ ཏུ
i̅These nomi nalizedrelative constructions caun be used in sentences i n either the ཏུ
subject or object sl ots. In the next three examples the nomi nali zed construction པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འ་གྲོ་ ཏུ
བའི་
ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོ་ acts as the subject of an active verb and so is placed in the instrumental ཏུ
case. ཚེ་ ཚེ་ ཏུ
n. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་བའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་ཀྲའོ་ཙ་དབྱང་མཇལ་གྱི་རེད། ཏུ
beijing to go nom. of official pl.- byi̅chao-jiyang meet (h.) fut. compl. ཏུ
The officials who are goi ng to Beijing will meet ɔ̲ hao ɔ̲ iyang. ཏུ
o. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་བའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་ཀྲའོ་ཙི་དབྱང་མཇལ་བ་རེད། ཏུ
Beiji ngi̅to go nom.-of official si̅pl.by chao-jiyang meet (h.) past compl ཏུ
The officials who went to Beijing met hao རྒྱ་ yang. i̅ i̅ ཏུ
Note th at although the verb " go" i s i n the present tense stem, it is traunsl ated as a ཏུ
past tense verb because of the fi nal verb compleme nt (མཇལ་ བ་རེད) . i̅ i̅ ཏུ
In the next example, the locati on of the verbal action is also a nominalized phrase. ཏུ
p. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་མགྲོན་ཁང་ལ་བཞུགས་པ་རེད། ཏུ
Beiji ng to went nom.-of offici als pl.by forei gn by made nom.-of hotel to stayed (h.)
i̅ pastcompl. i̅i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
The officials who went to Beijing stayed i n a hotel which was built by forei gners.
q. དམག་མིས་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་པའི་སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་དེ་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་སྨན་ཁང་དེར་ཤི་པ་རེད།
sol di erby shoot-of student th at orei gn by made hospital thatto die past compl.
The student who was shot by the soldiers died i n the hospital that was built by the
i̅foreigners. i̅ i̅
The core of this construction (i n q.) is
སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་དེ་སྨན་ཁང་དེར་ཤི་པ་རེད།
student that hospital that-to di espast compl.
That student died in thati̅hospital. ཚེ་ ̅ i̅ i̅
The addition of the nomi nalizi ng phrase དམག་མིས་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་པ་ linked by the genitive
explai ns what k in d of a student? ------one shot by soldiers. Similarly, the nominali zed
--- ------------------------------------------ ------------ --------- --------- --------- ------ --------------------- --------- ------------ ---------------------------------------·


tibetan OCR www.dharmabook.ru
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*