Lesson Six [39 — ༡༣༩
Note that changi ng the tense of the verb བཏབ་ to present tense (འདེ་ བས་) i n sentence d.
changes the tense of that part of the sentence
seed newno plant nom.—of village that pl. poor very exist╱
Those villages that are not planti ngthe new seeds are very poor.
Nomi nali zed verb phrases aue frequently used with other verbs such as "k now" and "see"
to conv ey the i dea th at the nomi nal action was "k now n" or "seen." For example
e. ཁོས་མོ་ སོ་པ་ཡིན་པ་ཤེས་ པ་རེད།
he—་ by she spy is nom.k now past compl ╱ i̅
He k new th at she was a spy. (lit., He---—her ཚེbei ng a spy------k new.)
f. ངས་ཆོས་རར་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ཞལ་འདོན་གནང་བཞིན་པ་མu ཐོང་བྱུང་།
i—by religious class monki̅pl. །by pray (h.) do (h.) pres. compl. saw got╱
Isaw the m onk s prayi ng i n the stu dy area. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
Note that both these verbs (མཐོང་ and ཤེས་) require their subjects to be i n the i nstrum ental
6.6.3 Nomi nali zed constructions with the dative— ocative
When the dative—་ locative is usedin conjunction with a nominalized verb a variety
of functions are expressed. We have already seen how thi s is used to express the
i nfi nitive.
he—by store from book one buy nom.—to went compl.╱
He went to buy a book from the (a) store. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
Ai̅ second very important use of the dative—locative is to express the idea of "to" or
"concern ་ i ng"་ the verbal action. It typically becom es the object of the verbal acti on.
he—by gun bought nom —to he pl.—by criticism did past compl.╱
།། i̅ They criticized hi s buyi ng guns. ། i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
This phrase literally tra nslates as "To╱concerni ng hi s buyi ng guns, they critici zed."་
he—་ by forei gnn countrry from bought nom .-of seed that people several by opposition
།did past compl.╱ ། i̅ [ ]
Several people opposed his planti ng seeds that had been bought from abroad.
།་̅ (concerni ng planting th at seed that was bought from ab oad, . . .)
In b., the dative—locative marks "what was criticized" and in c., "what was opposed."