[40 Lesson Six
he-byi̅ diligence by worj do nom to prize gain fut. compl.
He will get a pri ze for worki ng di ligently. i̅ [ ]
The entire first clause ((ཁོས་ཧུ་ར་ ་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་) literal ly would be translated as
"toconcerni ngi̅hi s doi ng work dili gently , . . . ༔༔ i̅ i̅
T he dativelocative particle may be preceded by a detern i native.
e. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པ་དེར་བྱ་དགའ་ཞིག་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
hebyi̅ diligence by work do nom that-to prize one win fut. compl. i̅
i̅He will get a pri ze for worki ng dili gently. (་ The work is bei ng done i n the present.)
This could also be written ཚེ་ f.
f. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པ་དེ་ལ་བྱ་དགའ་ཞིག་ ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
he- byi̅ dili gence by work do nom. that to pri ze one gai n fut. compl.
He will get a prize for working di igently. i̅ i̅
If the present te nsei̅stem of the verb "do" (བྱེད་) i s replaced by its past tense stem
(བྱས་) , the tense of the nomi nali zed phrase becom es past
g. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་དེ་ལ་བྱ་དགའ་ཞིག་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
he-byi̅ diligence by work do nom. that toprizeone gain fut. compl.

He will get a pri ze for havi ng worked dili gently .
6.6.4 Negative constructi ons with the dativelocative
a. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱས་པ་དེ་ལ་གཞུང་གྱིས་ཉིས་པ་བཏང་བ་རེད།
he-by diligence by work no did nom. that to government by punishment gave past

compl. i̅ i̅ i̅ [ ]་̅ i̅ i̅
The government punished his not havi ng worked diligently. (. . . punished him for not
havi ng work ed di ligently.) i̅ i̅ i̅
If the present tense stem of the verb "do" (བྱེད་) i s used (as i ni̅example b.) , i̅it convey s th at
the work was done i n the present or recent past, rather than i n the more distant past.
b. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱེད་པ་དེ་ལ་གཞུང་གྱིས་ཉིས་པ་བཏང་བ་རེད།
heby diligence by work no do nom. that to government by punishment gave past
compl. i̅ i̅ i̅̅̅
The government punished hisi̅not worki ng diligently. i̅
If the m ai n verb is placed i n the future tense, for example གཏོང་གི་རེད་ in example c.,
then ཚེthe overall m eani ng of the sentence ch a nges to future tense.
c. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱེད་པ་དེ་ལ་གཞུང་གྱིས་ཉིས་པ་གཏོང་གི་རེད།
heby diligence by work no do nom. that to government by punishment gave fut.
[ ]
compl.i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅̅̅
The government wi ll punish him for not worki ng diligently. i̅ i̅
For the entire meani ng to be future tense, the subordinate clause must have a conditional
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