42 Lesson Six
Several farnlers arecriticizing him for not planti ng the seed bought fom
i̅abroad thi s year . [ ]་̅ i̅ i̅
Sometimes, however, it is more appropri ate to use the English "without"for negative nominalized
nominalized constructions with the dativelocative.
k. རྒྱུ་མཚན་མེད་པར་ཁོ་ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟ་བ་རེད།
reason not-exist nom to he aungry past compl.
He got angry wi thout reason (for no reason) . i̅
Note that the subject of the above examplei̅ (ཁོ་) does not have to be accompanied by the i
i nstrum ental case si nce the verb ཁོང་གྲོ་ ཟ་ is i nvol u ntary.
l. བོད་ནས་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་མ་ཕིན་པར་འདིར་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
ti bet from i ndia to nowent nom -to thisto come past compl.
(He, she, they) came here from Tibeti̅without going to India. i̅
The above sentence could be translated literally as "In the manner of not having gone to
India, (he, she, they) cam e here from Ti bet ."
6.7 The use of རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ or ཡག་ i̅ i̅ i̅ རྒྱུ་,
རྒྱུ་, ཡས་ and ཡག་ are importa nt multifu ncti onal parti c l es.
6.7.. IFuture constructi ons
In future contexts (i ndicated by a future temporal word such as སང་ཉིན་ or ཕི་ལོ་ or
དོ་དགོང་) the particles ཡས་ or རྒྱུ་, when followed by a linking verb, express simple future
action.

a. ཁོ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་རེད།
he tomorrow go gyufut.
He will go (be goi ng) tomorrow.
b. ཁོ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་ཡས་རེད།
he tomorrow goyafut.
He will go (be goi ng) tom orrow.
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཕྱི་ལོ་དགོན་པ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་རྒྱག་རྒྱུ་མ་རེད།
he pl by next year monastery new build gyu-fut. neg
They will not build a new monastery next year.
d. དོ་དགོང་ཁོང་ནམས་གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེར་ཕེབས་ཡས་མ་རེད།
tonight he (h ) pl. shigatse to goyafut. neg.
They (h.) will not go to Shi gatse tonight.
e. ཁོས་དོ་དགོང་འདིར་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་རྒྱུ་རེད།
heby tonight here food eat gyu fut.
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