14 Lesson Six
i. ཁོ་ཚོས་བོད་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he pl.by tibet to go gyu did past compl.
They decided to go to Tibet. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
An important distinction between genitive (ཡས་ཀྱི་) and dativelocative (ཡས་ལ་)
Constructions emerges i n constructions endi ng i n existential verbs. For example, in j., the
nominalized phrase plus the genitive modifiesi̅the subject, the "book, " descri bing what
kind ot a booj it is (it is ai̅book for studying Tibetan) . In example k., the same i̅
nomi nalized phrase, this time with the dativelocative, conveys what the "book " is goo [
for (i t i s good for studyi ng Tibetan) .
j. བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་ཡས་ཀྱི་དེབ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
tibetan study do ya of b ok this good exist
Thi s book for studyi ng Tibeta n i s good.
k. བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་ཡས་ལ་དེབ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
tibetan language study doya to book this good exist
i̅Thi s book is goodforstudyi ng Tibeta n.
This sentence could also h ave been written
l. དེབ་འདི་བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་ཡས་ལ་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
book this tibetan study doya to good exist
This book i s good for studyi ng Ti betan.
m. ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་རྒྱུའི་ཚལ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
food make gyuof vegetable this good existi̅ i̅ i̅
This vegetable for maki ng food is good. (This vegetabe, which is for m king
food, is goodi)
n. ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་རྦུ་ལ་ཚལ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
food make gyuto vegetable this good exist i̅ i̅ i̅
This vegetable is good for m aking food (cooking) . (For m aki ng food---this vegetable
is good.) i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅The dativelocative is also used withi̅ རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ + active verbs (as in example o.) ,
creating indirect objects that convey the notion of "to" or "conceni ng" or "for."
o. གཞུང་གིས་ཁོ་ཚོར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་རྦུར་དངུལ་གཡར་གྱི་རེད།
government by he pl.to help do gyuto money lend fut. compl.
The govenment will lend money to help them.
p. ཁོ་ཚོས་མེ་མདའ་རྙིང་པ་ཉོ་རྒྱུར་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་སྐྱོན་ ་བརྗོད་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he pl.by gun old buy gyuto official pl.by Criticism did past compl.

The officials criticizedtheir buying old guns.
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