152 Lesson Six
Together they convey the meaning. "In (a pl ace) belongi ng to Tsang"s Gyantse district, a
child herdedi̅a flock of sheep every day." i̅ i̅
This is li nked to the second clause by the ནས་ clause connective which here
conveys l) that the second clause occurred simultaneously with the first clause, and 2)
cl arifies how the first cl ause occurredi he herded them i n the manner of goi ng to look
after them i n the m ountai ns. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
The second clause implicitly conti nues the subject ("the child") from the first
clause, elaborati ng on what he di d and where. It begi ns with a location phrase telling i̅
where the mai n verb (འགྲོ་ "go") occurred, i.e., "on (or in) the mountain" (རི་སྟེང་དུ་) . This
is followed by the i nfi nitive phrase " goes tolook after take care of (འེཚོ་བར་འེགྲོ་ཚེཡི་ཡོད) ,
which breaks down i nto the main verb འ་ གྲོ་ ("to go") and the i nfi ntivized verb འེཚོ་བར་ ("to
take care of look after") . The object, the sheep flock, is implicit.
i̅The second clause ends with the usual verb complement ཡི་ཡོད་, the clause thus
mea ni ng, " goes to look after i n the m ou ntai ns." Both clauses together m ea n, " A Child
was herding a flock of sheep every day by going to look after (them) in the mountains. "
3. The third segment consists of one sentence that contains a quotation ཉིན་ཞིག་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་ ས་གློ་བུར་
དུ་སྤྱང་ཀི་
སླེབས་བྱུང་ཞེས་སྐད་ཐེངས་ཁ་ཤས་བརྒྱབ་ .
i̅i̅ It begins with the timeslot ternm ཉིན་ཞིག་ ("one day") , followed by the subject i̅
modifi ed by a dem onstative i n the i nstrum ental case (ཕྲུ་ གུ་དེས་ "byi̅th at chi l d") . Thi s is
followed by the adverbial phrase གློ་བུ་ར་དུ་ ("suddenly") , which modifies the m ain active
verb སྐད་བརྒྱབ་ ("shouted") . Thus, the subject "suddenly shouted." i̅
What he shouted follows in the fo m of a simple i nvoluntary sentence meaning "A
wolf has a rived" (སྤྱིང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་) . It is immedi ately foll owed by the quotati on m arking
particle and the mai n active verb. However, the main verb phrase is split by another
adverbi al phrase m ea ni ng "several tim es" ((ཐེངས་ཁ་ཤ་ ས་) . Thus, "Th at child su ddenly
shouted several times." i̅ ཚེ
4. The fourth segment consists of 4 clauses l. རི་ལྡེབས་སུ་ཞིང་ཁ་འདེབས་མཁན་དང་། མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མཁན་
ཚོས་
སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་ཞེས་པའི་འབོད་སྒྲ་ཐོས་མ་ཐག་ 2. ཚང་མས་ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་ 3. ཟོར་ར་དང་རྐོ་མ་བཅས་འཁྱེར་
ཏེ་
4. ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་
i̅The long first cl ause has as its core a simple involuntary verb construction
subject ("the pla nters and firewood collectors") + verb (" heard" ཐོས་) + object (" a
cryshout" འབོད་སྒྲ་) . The rest of the clause el aborates thi s event. i̅ i̅
The clause begi ns with a phrase telli ng the l ocation of the action "on the facesi de
of the mountain" (རི་ལྡེ་ བས་སུ་) . It is fol lowed by a compound subject (x + y) , each hal f of which
which is a nomi na li zed phrase. The first h alf of the subject is ཞིང་ཁ་འེ་ དེབས་མ་ཁ་ ན་ ("persons

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