Lesson Six 153
who were planti ng fields") .i̅This phrase has been nominalized by the agentive particle
མཁན་, which was discussed i n 5.16. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
This i sli nk ed to the other half of the subjecti̅by the conjunctive paticle དང་
("and") . It is also a verbal phrase that has been nomi nali2.ed by the agentive paticle མཁན་
(
"persons who were collecting firewood") . It is followed by ཚོས་, which consists of a
pl ura lizi ng partic l e (ཚོ་) and the i nstrum ental parti cl e ས་ . This convey s th at there were a
num ber of "firewood collectors" and "sowers, " and th at they did som ethi ng, i.e., th at they
are the subject of aun active sentence. i̅ i̅
This is followed by aHquotation ofi̅what the Child said ("A wolf has arrived" སྤྱིང་
ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་) , followedin tuurn by the quotation particle ཞེས་ However, the quotation paticle
i s partof a nomi nali zed construction ཞེས་པའི་འབོད་སྒྲ་ ("a Cry which sai d . . .") . Fi nally we
get the involuntay verb ཐོས་, which means "to hear." Thus the subject heard the boy i̅ i̅ cnryi
cnryi ng out, " Ai̅wol f h as arrived." Note th at we k now thi s is a subordi nate verb si nce it is
i nvol uuntary------it c a nnot convey the action of thei̅subject i n the i nstrum entali̅case.
This clause is linked tothe next by the "immediate" cl ause connective མ་ཐག་ ("as
soon as"------see 6.2) . Thi̅us the clause fi nal ly says, "A s soon as the sowers and coll ectors
heard the cry which sai d . . . ." i̅ i̅
The secondi̅cl ause (ཚང་མས་ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་) starts to explai n what action they took
when they heard this. It begi ns with a subject in the instrumental case ("by everyone"
ཚང་མས་)
followed by the verbal phrase ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ Thi s break s down i nto the noun "work "
(ལེ་ ས་ཀ་) and the verb "to leave" (བཞག་) , so th at the cl ause m ea ns "everyone left (his)
work." This is li nked to the next Clause by the ནས་ Clause connective which here conveys
atemporal relati onship h avi ng done A , Btook pl ace. i̅ ̅ i̅
i̅Cl ause three (ཟོར་ ་ར་ ་དང་རྐོ་མ་བཅས་འེཁྱེར་ ་ཏེ་) explains what took pl ace. It has an implicit
subject from clause two (i.e., ཚང་མས་) . It begi ns with a compound object phrase, "sickle
and pick axe" ((ཟོ་ར་ར་དང་̅རྐོ་ མ་) , i̅foll owed by the i nclusive particle བཅས་, which i ndi cates th at
this listi ng of the two items is exhaustive (see 6.4) . This is followed by the verb "carry"
(འེཁྱེ་ ར་) and the clause connective ཏེ་, which indicates simultaneous action with the next
clause. Thus this cl ause m eans that while someone was "carryi ng pi ck axes a nd sickles, "
simultaneously somethi ng happened. ̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅Clause four ((ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་) i ndicates what was done sim ulta neous with carryi ng
the implements. It consists of a noun ("sheep") servi ng as the object of the i n i nitivized
verb phrase "came to protect" ((སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་) . Thus, clauses three a nd four convey , "carryi ng
sickles and pickaxes, (everyone) came to protect (or save) the sheep."
The structure of the entire segment is ------ ཚོས་ --- ཐོས་མ་ཐག་ ------ བཞག་ན་ ས་ ------འེཁྱེར་ཏེ་
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