154 Lesson Six
------ ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་ i̅
5. The fifth segment consists of four Clauses l. མི་ རྣམ་ ས་ཕྲུ་གུའི་འི་འགྲམ་ ་དུ་སླེབས་སྐབས་ 2. ལུག་ནམས་
རྩ་
ཟ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་ནས་ 3. ཚང་མས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་སྤྱང་ཀི་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ་ཞེས་སྐད་ཆ་འདྲི་སྐབས་ 4. ཁོ་པས་ཧ་ཧ་
ཞེས་
གད་མོ་དགོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད།
i̅The first clause is an i nvolu ntary sentence, so the subject, "peopl e" (མི་རྣ་ མས་) , i s
not i n the i nstrum ental case. Note th at རྣམས་ is a plura li zi ng particle th at i s e [ uivalent to
ཚོ་ encountered above. This isfollowed by the object phase ཕྲུ་གུའི་འེགྲམ་དུ་, which means "to
the si dei̅of the chi l d, " and explai ns where the people "arnved" (སླེབས་) . The སྐབས་ cl ause
connective links this clause to cl ause two, indicating that "when" the first clause took
pl ace, the second occurred. i̅ i̅ i̅
The second Clause ((ལུག་ནམས་རྩ་ཟ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་ནས་) is an involuntary construction
conveying that an unspecified subject ("the people" rom the previous clause) saw (མཐོང་)
som ethi ng. Wh at they saw was རྩ་ཟ་བཞིན་̅ཡོད་པ་ ("sheep eati ng grass") . Note th at the use of
པ་ converts the present tense phrase "eati ng grass" (རྩ་ ཟ་ བཞིན་ཡོད་) i nto a nomi nali zed
phrase that we can translate as "the eating of grass." This then functions as the object of
the verb "saw." What did they see?---they saw "the eati ng of grass by the sheep." The
cl ause connective ནས་ conveys that the first cl ause having occurred, the next cl ause took
place. i̅ i̅ i̅
The third clause (ཚང་མས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་ ར་ ་སྤྱང་ཀི་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ་ ་ཞེས་སྐད་ཆ་འདྲི་སྐབས་) begins with a
subject i n the i nstrum ental case (ཚང་མས་ "by every one") fol l owed by the object ཕྲུ་ གུ་ དེ་ར་
(
"to that child") . Next comes the direct quote, "Where is the wolf?" (སྤྱང་ཀི་ག་པ་ར་འདུག་གམ་ ་) ,
fol l owed by the quotation marker ཞེ་ ས་ The clause ends with the active verb "ask ed" ((སྐད་
ཆ་འེ
དྲི་) . Thus the clausei̅says, "Everyone asked the chil d, Where i s the wol f?"The
"when" clause connective (སྐབས་) links this clause with the next one. i̅
i̅The fourth clause (ཁོ་པས་ཧ་ཧ་ཞེས་ག་ད་ མོ་དགོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་) stats with a pronoun ("he") in the
instrumental case (ཁོ་པས་) . This is fol lowed by a quote "ha ha" (ཧ་ཧ་) and the luotation
pati cle. Next com es the active verb phrase " l aughi ng" (གད་ མོ་ ད་ གོད་ཀྱི་ཡོ་ ད་) . Together these
mean, "He was laughi ng "h a ha." ཚེ་ ཚེ་ ཚེ
6. The sixth segment consists of four clauses l . དེ་ནི་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་རྩེད་མོ་རྩེ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་ཤེས་སྟབས་ 2. ཚང་
མ་ཁོང་
གྲོ་ཟས་ནས་ 3. ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་རྗེས་ 4. ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་ལོག་ཕྱིན་
i̅The first clause paral l els the structure of the second cla use discussed imm e di ately
above i n th at it contai ns a direct object construction th at is a nomi na li ze d verb phrase
created by པ་ The subject of this clause is implicit, i.e., it continues to be "everyone" (ཚང་
མསི་) . The verb is "k new\'\' (ཤེས་) . What everyone k new, ཚེthe direct object, is a nominali zed
verb phrase"the joki ng around by that child" (ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་རྩེད་མོ་རྩེ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་) . [n other words, the
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