Lesson Six 155 -
simple active sentence, "The Childi̅wasjoking auround" (ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་རྩེད་མོ་རྩེ་ཀི་ཡོད་) , was
nomi nali zed by པ་ to become "the joking around by that child." The "because" cl ause
connective (སྟབས་) links this to the next clause. i̅ i̅ i̅
Clause two i s an i nvolu ntary sentence whose subj ect i s everyone (ཚང་ མ་) without
the i nstrumental particle. It is foll owed by the i nvolu ntary verb " got a ngry" (ཁོང་གྲོ་ ཟ་ ས་) .
The clause connective ན་ ས་ agai n conveys ཥ་ having happened, [ oCCume [.. i̅
i̅The subject i n clause three i s agai n implicit (i .e., "by every one") . In this clause we
first encou nter the object phrase "to th at chi l d" ((ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་ར་) , followe d by the verb phrase
"scolded" (སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་) . The clause ends wi th thei̅"after" clause connective (རྗེས་) .
i̅i̅ i̅ i̅ The fi nal clause is an i nfinitive construction. The verbal phrase "work " is
infi nitivized by the dativelocative particle ((ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་ ་) , and is fol l owed by a compound
verb of m otion (ལོག་ཕྱིན་) , whi ch m eans "retuuned." Thus the subj ect (agai n "every one")
"retuurned to do work ." i̅ i̅
Note th at ལོག་ཕྱིན་ consi sts of two verbs, "retuun" and "went, " whichi̅together
convey , "retuu ni ng went." Thi s is a comm on pattern used to convey two sim ulta neous
actions, one of which (the second verb) is "goi ng" or "comi ng." For example, ཁོས་དེབ་གཅིག་
འེཁྱེར་ཡོང་བ་རེད་ means, " [e came carrying a book."
Thus the core structure of this segment is ----- ཤེས་སྟབས་, --- ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟེས་ན་ ས་, ------ སྐྱོན་
བརྗོད་བྱས་
རྗེས་, ------ ལོག་ཕྱིན་
7. The seventh segment consists of five Clauses l. ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་མི་ནམས་ཀིས་ལེ་ ས་ཀ་བྱེད་པའི་
སྐབས་སུ་
2. སླར་ཡང་ལུག་རྫ་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེས་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། ཞེ་ ས་སྐད་བརྒྱབ་ པ་ ཐོས་ཏེ་ 3. ཚང་
མས་སྔར་
བཞིན་ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་ 4. ཟོར་ར་དང་། རྐོ་མ་འཁྱེར་ན་ ས་ 5. ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་།
The first clause begi ns with the short phrase ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་ It is a standard
construction m ea ning "after several days" a nd can be treated simply as a nother tim esl ot
phrase. It i s followed by ai̅subj ect i n the instrum ental case (མི་ རྣ་ མ་ ས་ ཀྱིས་ " by people") a nd
then an active verb "working" (ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་) . The clause ends with the "when" clause
connective (པའི་སྐབས་ སུ་) . Thus together they mean, " A fer several days, when the people
were worki ng."
The second clause begins with an adverbial te m meaning "once again" (སླིར་ཡང་) ,
foll owed by an active sentence whosei̅core is ལུག་རྫ་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེས་ . . . སྐད་བརྒྱབ་ ("by that sm al l
herder . . . cried out") . Between these is what the sm all herder cal l ed out------སྤྱང་ ཀི་ སླེ་ བས་བྱུང།
སྤྱང་ཀི་ སླེ་ བས་བྱུང་ ("a wol f h as a rnved, a wol f has a ived") plus the quotati on parti cle (ཞེས་) .

This active sentence is then nominalized by པ་, becomi ng "the shouting "a wol f has come,
awolf has come, " by the sm al l herder") . Thi s acts as the object of the verb "heard" (ཐོས་) .
He heard what?------" He heard the shouting 'a wolf has Come, a wolf has come" by the small
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