[58 Lesson Six

action, i.e., where he fell------"from the side of the mountain" (རི་ལྡེབས་ནས་) . The word མར་
means dow nward and modifies the verb "to fall." Thi s Clause is li nk ed to the next by a
"because" clause connective (སྟབས་) . i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅i̅The second clause is also an i nvoluntary sentence. It begi ns with a subject
consisti ng of the possessive phrase " his li fe" (ཁོ།་པའི་ སྲག་) and then the i nvol u ntary verb
"escaped" (ཐ་ར་) , fol lowed by the verbi̅"to be able" (ཐུ་ བ་) . Together these convey, " [i s life
was able to escape, " or i n better Engli sh, " He escaped with his li fe."
15. The last segment consists of a single sentence འོན་ཀྱང་ཁོ་པའི་ལུག་ཁྱུ་ རྣམས་སྤྱང་ཀིས་ཚང་མ་བཟོས་
སོ།
It starts with " nevertheless, "i̅and then the object phrase "hi s sheep flock " (ཁོ་ པའི་ལུག་
ཁྱུ་
རྣམས་) . This is foll owed by the subjecti̅m ark ed by the instrumental case particl e ("by the
wolf" སྤྱང་ཀིས་) . Then comes the adverbial "all" or "completely" (་ཚང་མ་ ་) and the fi nal verb
"ate" (བཟོས་) with the sentence fi nal particle སོ་ Thus, " Neverthel ess, the wol f ate his sl leep
flock completely."
6.lIVocabulary i̅
ཀྲུང་ག་ ch. China (drūŋgo) (k ǖǖ chɛ̲ɛ̀)
ཀྲའོ་ཙི་དབྱང་ p.n. ɔ̲rhaoɔ̲ iyang (drāo ཁོ་ པ་ he (koba) i̅
dzyaŋ) ཁོངས་ (སུ་) part of, belonging to (kōŋsu)
རྐོ་མ་
pick axe (goma) ཁོསི་ he (by) (kȫö̀)
སྐད་ཆ་
conversation, speech, va. ------ ཁྱུ་ herd, flock (kyū)
འེདྲི་ to ask (gɛ̅ja tri̲) ཁྱད་ you (nh) (l yȫC ་) i̅
སྐད་ ཡིག་ spok en and written language, གད་མོ་ laugh, laughter, vi. ------ དགོད་
i̅i̅speech and writing (gɛ̅yiì) i̅ to laugh (gɛ̲ ɛ̲mo gɛ̲ɛ̀)
སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་
criticism, Criticizi ng, va. - --- གལེ་ཏེ་ "if " clause connective
བྱེད་ to critici ze (gyȫnjöö̀i̅ (kɛ̲ɛ̲ de) i̅ ཏུ
i̅che̲è) གལེ་སྲིད་ "if clause connective (k ɛ̲ɛ̲siì)
སྐྱོ་པོ་
with སེམས་ = sa d (sēm gy obo) གྲ་ སྒྲིག་ preparation, v a. --- བྱེ་ ད་ to
སྐྱོབ་ va. to sav e, to potect (gy ōb) preparei̅ (trə̲dri che̲è)
ཁ་
mouthva. ---གདང་ to open + གིs flour (tr lshi)
i̅one"s mouth (k āda̲ŋ) གླ་ཆ་ wages (l aja) ཏུ
ཁག་པོ་
difficult (kāgo) i̅ གློ་བུར་ (དུ་) su [den (ly) (loburtu)
ཁུལ་ "pretend" clause connective, གླག་ བརྙན་ movie (lɔ̅ɔ̅ ñɛn)
(k ǖǖ) i̅ དགའེ་ སྤྲོ་ happi ness, joy (ga̲dro)
ཁུལ་བྱས་
"pretend" cl ause connective, དགའེ་བུ་ welcomi ng va. ------ ཞུ་ to
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