Lesson Seven [ 7.3
7.8 Constructions expressing "certainty"ངེས་, ལོས་, and ཤཁ་ i̅i̅
i̅i̅ Like ཐག་ཆོད་, ངིས་ is used with active and invi̅oluntaury verbs (the nonpast stem) and
li nki ngexistenti al verbs to express the i dea that it is "certai n'' that the verbal acti on wi ll
occur or th at som ethi ng c ertai nly exists.
a. ལས་ཀ་འདི་ཁོས་བྱེད་ཐུབ་ངེས་རེད།
work thisi̅heby do able certain is i̅
It is certain ཚེthat he will be able to do this wor[ . ཚེ་ b.
b. གཞུང་གིས་ཕྲུ་གུ་མེད་པའི་རྒན་ཁོག་རྣམས་ལ་སྐྱོབ་གསོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་ངེས་རེད།
government by child without nom.-of elderly pl. to welfare give need certai n is
It is certain that the government will have to give wel faue to the elderly without
chi l dren. i̅
ལོས་ also convey s certai nty.
c. ལས་ ཀ་འ་ དི་ཁོས་ལོས་བྱེད་ ཐུབ།
work thisi̅heby do able certain is i̅
It i s certai n th at he will be able to do this work .
d. འདི་འདྲ་བྱས་ན་ཕན་ཐོགས་ལོས་ཡོད།
this like di d i f benefit certai n exist i̅ i̅
If (one) does lik e thi s, there will certai nly be a benefit.
i̅ཤག་ conveys cetai nty but with the connotation of I"presume" or I"trust" or I
"take it that"ཚེ་ e.
e. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་གནས་ཚུལ་དེ་ཤེས་ཡོད་ཤག་རེད།
you by news that k now exist certain is
([) presum e th at y ou defi nitely k now th at news.
f. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་དེབ་རྙིང་པ་དེ་ཀློག་ཡོད་ཤག་རེད།
you by book old that read certain is
(I) trust that y ou certai nly h ave read that ol d book .
g. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་དེང་སང་སློབ་སྦོང་ཡག་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་ཤཁ་རེད།
you by these days study good do pres. compl. defi nitely is
(I) take it th at you are studyi ng well these days. i̅
Note should be taken that when ཤག་ is used directly after past verb stems, it conveys the
perfect tense. This wi ll be exami ned fully i n a later lesson.
h. ཁོ་པས་དེབ་རྙིང་པ་དེ་བཀླགས་ཤག།
heby book old thatread perf.
He hasreadthat old book.
རྞ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------ ------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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