[84 Lesson Seven
of a common construction (see 5.ll.2) wherein two verbs li nked by ནས་ convey
simultaneous acti on ཨ་བུ་བསྒུགས་ནས་ + བསྡད་ "waiti ng for A gu, he stayed (there) ." ཚེ
6. The sixth segment consists of. l . ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་རྩམ་སྐྱེ་སྟོང་པ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ནང་གཟན་རྩ་བརྒྱངས་ཏེ་ 2. རྩམ་
པ་ཡིན་
ཁུལ་གྱིས་བོང་བུར་བཀལ་ནས་ 3. དེ་གར་སླེབས་རྗེས་ 4. ཁོང་གཉིས་མཉམ་དུ་ལྷ་སར་ཐོན་
i̅The first clause is a simple active verb sentence. Beginning with the subject in the
instrumental (ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་) , it is followed by the i ndirect object ((རྩམ་སྒེ་སྟང་པ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ནང་) , the
direct object (ཁ་ ཟན་ཙ་) , and the verb (བརྒྱངས་) . i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅i̅ The second clause is a bit tricky. It begi ns with a verb phrase that has been first
modified by the "pretend" particle (ཁུལ་) (see 6.8) i̅and then adverbialized byi̅the
i nstrum ental particle (གྱིས་) (see 6.5.2) . Thus, the li nki ng verb constructi on "it i swas
tsamba" ((རྩམ་པ་ཡིན་) becomes "pretending it was tsamba" (རྩཽཾ་མ་པ་ཡིན་ཁུལ་) and then "i n the
manner of pretending it was tsam ba" ((རྩམ་པ་ཡིན་ཁུལ་གྱིས་) . Cl auses three and four are
unprob lem atic. i̅ ཚེ་ ཚེ་ ཚེ
7. The seventh segment consists of three clauses l. དེ་ཉིན་ཨ་བུ་བསྟན་པ་དང་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཁོང་གཉིས་ཉིན་གང་
བསྐྱོད་ནས་ 2. དགོན་ཧྲུལ་ཆུང་ཆུང་ཞིག་གི་འགྲམ་དུ་སླེབས་པས་ 3. ཁོང་གཉིས་དོ་ནུབ་དགོན་པ་དེའི་ནང་ཞག་སྡོད་བྱ་རྒྱུར་ྒྱུར་ཁ་
འཆམ་
i̅The first clause consists of the ti me-slot phrase "that day " (དེ་ཉིན་) , a comp l ex
subject, "the two of them, A gu and the rich man" (ཨ་བུ་བསྟན་པ་དང་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཁོང་གཉིས་) , the adverbial
adverbial phrase "all day " (ཉིན་ གང་) , and the verb "went" (བསྐྱད་) . The second clause does
not require comHment. i̅ i̅ ̅ i̅The
i̅The third clause contai ns a future nomi nalized verb phrase ཞག་སྡོད་བྱ་རྒྱུ་ར་ ("the
stopping overni ght on a trip") , which functions as the object of the verb "agree" (ཁ་འཆམ་) .
Thus, what did they agree to? ------ to maki ng an overnight stop.
8 The ei ghth segment consists of three clauses l . ཉིན་གང་བསྐྱོད་པའི་ངལ་དུབ་ཀྱིས་ཕྱུག་པོ་ནི་ཉལ་མ་
ཐཁ་ 2. གཉིད་ལ་ཤོར་ནས་ 3. ཤི་བ་ལྟར་དུ་གྱུར་
The first cl ause starts withi̅an adverbialized phra sei̅ཉིན་གང་བསྐྱོད་པའི་ངལ་དུབ་ཀྱིས་ ("in
the m anner of being tired from going all day") . Thi s modifies the verb "to lie down" (ཉལ) ,
explai ni ng that "being tiredfom going all day, (someone) lay down." The subject, i.e.,
the one who lay dow n, is "the rich man" (ཕྱུག་པོ་ནི་) , and the clause connector is the "as
soon as" particl e (མ་ཐག་) . Thus togetheri̅these m ean, "Bei ng tired from goi ng all day , the
rich man lay down, and as soon as he did so. . . ." i̅ i̅ i̅
The second clause is the standard verb phrase convey ing i nvoluntarily falling
asleep. The "havi ng" cl ause connector links it to the third clause, which begi ns withi̅
another m etaphorical phase m ark ed by ལྟར་ like bei ng dead" (ཤི་བ་ལྟར་) . It ends i n with
the past tense verb གྱུར་ " becam e" or "changed i nto." This verb requires use of the dative
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