Lesson Seven 19 l
བར་ in clause two is a variant of བར་ ་དུ་ in clause one above, conveyi ng the meani ng
"up to." Therefore, "they fled (up) to Pakistan." i̅ i̅ i̅ The
The construction གྲོས་བྱོལེ་དུ་ functions here as an adverbial conveying i n what
manner they c am e------they cam e seeki ng refuge.
4. The fourth segment consists of five clauses l. ལ་མ་ཁ་ལེ་ཉི་མ་མ་ང་པོ་གོམ་པ་བརྒྱབ་པའི་དུས་ལ་ 2.
.
.
Clause onei̅begi ns by specifyingi̅the l ocation of the verbal action, namely, "on the
road" (ལམ་ཁ་ལ་) . It is fol lowed by the mai n verb ("walked") aund a phrase meani ng "many
days." Together these mean "(they) walked many days on the road."Note that the clause
connective དུས་ལ་ is identical with the more common སྐབས་ (སུ་) .
i̅i̅ Clause two is a sentence based on the i nvoluntaryverb ཆད་ ("to be short of,
missing") . ལྟོ་ཆས་ ("[ ood") conveys what is i n short supply------food----and སྐབས་རེ་
(
"som etim es") convey s when this occurs. i̅ i̅ i̅
Clause three is another involuntarysentence that begi ns with the subject ------ "old
people" (རྒན་གོག་) --- followed by the involuntaury verb "to be sick" (ན་) . It is linked to the
verb ཤི་ ("to die") by the ནས་ connective so that together they convey, i̅"ol d people havi ng
become ill, i̅died." Theclause ends with the " not only" clause connective (མ་ཚད) , so that,
"not only did oldpeople get sick and die." i̅ i̅ ཚེ
The fourth clause begins with the adverb of time "sometimes" (མཚམས་མ་ ཚམས་) ,
followed by the subject i n the i nstrum ental case"by planes" (གནམ་གྲུས་) . Th e clause ends
with the verbal phrase "fired gu ns" ((མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱ་ བ་) i̅
i̅The fifth clause conti nues the subject of the previous clause ("by planes") . It
begi ns with the object phrase མི་ མང་པོ་ ("many people") , followed by the active verb
"killed" (བསད་པ་རེད) . Together these convey, "Planes fired guns and killed many people."
5. The fifth segment consists of three clauses l. འོན་ཀྱང་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ས་མཚམས་སུ་སླེབས་ཚེ་ 2. པ་
ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་
གཞུང་དང། རོགས་རམ་ཚོགས་པ་ནམས་ཀྱིས་ང་ཚོར་སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོའི་སྒོ་ནས་ལྟོ་ཆས་དང། གོས་ལོག། སྨན་
སོགས་
སྐྱོབ་གསོ་གནང་བས་ 3. ང་ཚོར་ཕན་ཐོག་ཆེན་པོ་བྱུང་།
འོན་ཀྱང་
(" nevertheless") i n clause one is one of the clausei̅connectives that occur at
the begi nning of the second clause rather than at the end of the first. It is followed by a
phrase that specifi es the location (པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ ས་མ་ ཚ་མས་ུ̅་-aton the border of Pakistaun) of
the verb "to arrive." The "when" clause connective links this with clause two. i̅
The second cl ause begi ns with a long subject i n the i nstrumental case that consists
of two elements joined by the conjunction "and" (དང་) པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་གཞུང་ ("Pakistan"s
government") and རོགས་ར་ མ་ཚོགས་པ་ ("aid agencies") . Both of these are modified by the
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