[92 Lesson Seven

pl uralizer རྣམས་ and the i nstrumental ཀྱིས་ The subject"s action is "gave relief aid" ((སྐྱོབ་གསོ་
གནང་)
. i̅ i̅ i̅ ཚེ
i̅The rest of the ཚེsegm ent consists of the i ndirect object ང་ ཚོ་ ར་ "i̅ ("to us") , the i̅
adverbial phrase སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོའི་སྒོ་ནས་ ("in the manner of great compassion") , and the direct
object------what was given asrelief aid, namely, ལྟོ་ཆས་དང་། གོས་ལོག། སྨན་སོགས་ ("foodstuffs, i̅
clothes, m edici nes, and so forth") . Note agai n that the use of སགས་ c onveys that this list i s
i ncompl ete, i n other words, it m eans "etc." or "and so forth." Thus, together these m ean,
"Pakistan"s gove nment and Relief A gencies compasionately gave usrelief aid of
foodstuffs, clothes, medicines, etC." ཚེ་ ཚེ
6. The sixth segment consists of three clauses l. ས་མ་ ཚམས་དེར་ ་ཟླ་བ་ཁ་ཤས་བསྡད་རྗེས་ 2. ང་ཚོ་
ཚང་མ་གཞིས་ཆགས་བྱེད་ཆེད་ 3. པ་ཀི་ སི་ཐན་གྱི་ལྟོ་ཕྱོགས་སུ་བཏང་ཞིང་
The first has "we" as its implicit subject. It begins with the locationof the action,
"on that border" ((ས་མཚམས་དེར་) , followed by a tim e phurase m eani ng "several m onths" ((ཟླ་བ་
ཁ་ཤ་
ས་) , and then the verb "to sit, stay , live" (བསྡད་) . Thus, " (we) stayed on that border for
several m onths." i̅ i̅ ཚེ་ ཚེ་ i̅
The second clause consists of an object phrase, "all of us" ((ང་ཚོ་ཚ་ ང་མ་) , an active
verb, "to settle pernl anently" (གཞིས་ ཆགས་བྱེད་) , and the "for the purpxose of" particle (ཆེད་) , so
that together the c l ause convey s, " for the purpose of settli ng all of us." The article does
not specify who wanted to do that. ̅ i̅ i̅
The third c l ause saysi̅wh at was done to accomp lishi̅this. A n u nnamed subject
"sent" (བཏང་) an unnamed object ("us") to the south of Pakistan ((པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ལྷོ་ཕྱོ་ གས་སུ་) .
7. ཚེThe seventh segment consists of five clauses l. ཐོག་མ་ར་གཞིས་ཆགས་འདིར་ ་སླེབས་ནས་ 2. ད་བ་ར་
ང་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ཤིང་ན་ གས་སྟག་པོ་བཅད་པ་མ་ཟད། 3. ས་ཞིང་གསར་པ་མང་པོ་བ་ཟོས་པ་དང་། 4. ཁང་པ་དང། སློབ་
གྲྭ།
ལག་ཤེས་བཟོ་ ག། ཚོང་ཁང་བཅས་གསར་པ་བརྒྱབ་པས་མ་ཚད། 5. ཕི་ལོ་ཡང་ང་ཚོས་སྨན་ཁང་ཞིག་རྒྱག་རྩས་ཡོད་
The first clause is an i nvoluntary sentence with the implicit subject "we" and the
core verb "to aive" (སླེབས་) . The location of the amving isi̅གཞིས་ཆགས་འ་ དིར་ ("in this
settlem ent") . The clause begi ns with the ternn ཐོག་མར་ " ("at first") . Together these convey ,
"At first, having arrived ini̅this settlement." i̅
i̅ The second clause is li nked to clause one by ད་བར་ ་, which meanns "up to now."
Thus, it conveys that "from having aumived in the settlement ཚེup to now. . . ." The clause,
however, is basically an active sentence with the subject ང་ཚོས་ ("by us") doi ng "cutti ng"
(བཅད་) ofi̅dense forests (ཤིང་ནགས་སྟུག་པོ་) . The adverbial phra se ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་̅ i̅
("e nergeti cally ") m odi fi es the active verb. The " not-only " clause connective (མ་ ཟད) i s
joi ned to these, conveyi ng " Not onlydi d we energetically cut dense forests. . . ."ཚེ
The third clause conti nues wh at the subject ("we") did, nam ely , "made" (བཟོས་)
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