202 - Lesson 8
sheep or goats
b. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ལུག་གམ་ར་ཉོས་སམ།
you by sheep orgoat bought ?
Didyou buy a sheepora goat? i̅ If the final of the first syllable is a Vowel
c
c. ར་འམ་ལུག་
goats or sheep ཚེ་ d
student plby farnling did or
student plby farnling did ort ade didpast compl.

The students farnled ori̅traded. i̅ i̅[ ]
"Whether or not" constructions are similarly fornmed.
e. ཁོས་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་དམ་མེད་ང་ར་བཤད་མ་སོང་།
heby india to go pres.compl. orno-exist i to said neg. went compl.
i̅ He didn"t te]li̅me whether or not he is going to India. i̅ i̅ [ ]་̅
This, of course, literally means, " He didn"t tell me whether he is going to India or not
going ཚེto India."
f. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁོ་བོད་ལ་སྡོད་དུས་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་ནམ་མིན་འདྲི་གི་འདུ་ག།
he pl. by he tibet toliVe when monk is or no-isask pres. comp].̅
They are asking whether or not he wasa monk when he liVedin Tibet.
g. ཁོས་འདིར་ཉི་མ་ཁ་ཤས་སྡོད་དམ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་པ་ང་ལ་མ་བཤད།
heby here day seVeral live whetherornot tomorrow go fut. compl. i to no said
He didn"t tell me whether he will stay here for severaldaysorgotomorrow.
i̅ i̅ Thei̅more usual manner of forn ingi̅"whether or not" constructions consists of
joining positive and negative linking or existential verbs without any intervening
particles. Thus ཡིན་མིན་ conveys"whetheritisorisnot" (inthelinkingVerbsense) and
མེད་ "whether there is or is not" (in the existential verb sense) . In essence, wherever
linking verb wou]d be used, ཡིན་མིན་ is used, and wherever an existential Verbi̅wou]dl
used, ཡོད་མེད་ is used. Thus, in examp]e h., the sentence " He is Chinese" requires a lir
verb, so ཡིན་མིན་ is used. ཚེ
h. ཁོ་རྒྱ་མི་ཡིན་མིན་ངས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མེད།
he chinese is no-isiby know neg. i̅
i̅ Ido not know whether or not he is Chinese.
i. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་སྡོད་དུས་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་མིན་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
he tibet to live when monk is no-is ask pres. compl. i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅ (They, he, etc.) are asking whether or not he was a monk when he lived in Tibet.
j. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁོ་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་མིན་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
hepl.by he foodeat fut.is no-isaski̅pres. compl.
They are asking whether or not he will eat.


tibetan OCR www.dharmabook.ru
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