Lesson 821l

(མ་) i̅ is due to tense མི་ nornlally is used in presentfuture constructions. These thoughts
are incomp]ete, howeVer, aund པ་དང་ connects them to the rest of what Lhaksam was
worriedabout. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ ཚེ
Clause four begins with the sub-clause, "if (l) do not haVe firewood" (མེ་ཤིང་མེད་ན་) ,
and then the main subject ofLhaksam"s thought, "the lord wi]l scold and beat (me) " (ས་
བདག་གིས་
གཤེ་གཤེ་དང་ཉིས་རྡུང་གཏོང་གི་རེད་) . Note ཚེthat the Tibetandoesnot ཚེspecifytheobject
("me") , andabbreviates གཤེ་གཤེ་གཏོང་ and ཉེས་རྡུང་གཏོང་ into གཤེ་གཤེ་དང་ཉིས་རྡུང་གཏོང་ Thus, once
agai ཚེn, we see a single construction that in English would be sentences within sentences
སྟ་རེ་མེད་ན་མེ་ཤིང་འཐ་མི་ཐུབ་པ་དང་། མེ་ཤིང་མེད་ན་ས་བདག་གིས་གཤེ་གཤེ་དང་ཉིས་རྡུང་གཏོང་གི་རེད་ within ཆུ་དེ་
ནས་
ལེན་མ་ཐབ་ཙང་། ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་སེམས་ཁྲལ་བྱུང་སྟེ་ . . . བསམ་
The "because" clause ConnectiVe (སྟབས་) links this t0 the last clause. It c0 nsists of
the subject fo]lowed by a གི་ངང་ནས་ type adverbial phrasemeaning"inthemanneror
being frightened" (དངངས་སྐྲག་གི་ངང་ནས་ . Then thissection ends with the activei̅verb "cried"
or "shed tears" (མཆི་མ་བཏང་) . Note that the syllable མ་ is not the negative partic]e but a part
of the word for tears (མཆི་མ་) . 7
ཡོང་ནས་ 2
ཡོང་ནས་ 2. ལྷག་བསམ་ལ། བུ་ཁྱོད་ཅི་ཕྱིར་མཆི་མ་གཏོང་གི་འདུག་ཞེས་དྲིས་
The subject of the first clause is "an old rnan" (རྒད་པོ་ཞིག་) and the verb is "to come"
(ཡོང་) . The clause begins withi̅theadverbial "suddenly" (གློ་བུར་) andis fo]lowed byi̅a
typical "Kthan V" compaative phrase------དུང་̅ལེས་དཀར།་བའི་ "conch thaun white" (whiter than
conch) . This phrase is then joined to the subject by thegenitive so that it describes him ---
"an o]d m an with a beard whiter than a conch shell."The last e]ement in this clause is the
ternm དེ་གར་ ("there") , which explainswherethe oldmancameto. Thus, theentire clause
meau̲ns, "Suddenly, an old man with a beard whiter than a conch shell came there."̅
i̅ T he "having" connectivelinks this to the next clause, which contains no explicit
subject. Context, however, indicates clearly that the subject of this actiVe construction is
the "old man." The main Verb of the clause isasked" (དྲིས་) and eVenrything else indicates
what was askedand toi̅whom it was asked. The old man"s question is a straightforward
interrogatiVe construction "you why crying" or "why are you crying" (ཁྱོད་ཅི་ཕྱིར་མཆི་མ་གཏོང་
གི་འིདུག་) . Notethatuseofthenonpasttensestemoftheverb (གཏོང་) conVeysthepresent
tense here. If past tense were to be conveyed this would have been written ཁྱད་ཅི་ཕྱིནཱར་མཆི་མ་
བཏང་ཞེས་དྲིས་
8 The eighth segment consists ofthe sentence ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་སྟ་རེ་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་བའི་གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་
རྒད་པོར་བ་ཤད་
This is a simple actiVe Verb sentence"by Lhaksam ---to thei̅old maun---told" (ལྷག་
བསམ་གྱིས་།
རྒད་པོར་བ་ཤད་) . Theremainder explainswhat he told him. As is so common, thisis
accomplished by means of a nomina]ized phrase"theeventsoftheaxefallingintothe


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