214 - Lesson 8
(རྗེས་) .
The fourthclauseconsistsof aninvo]untauryverbconstruction. Thesubjectis"old
man" (རྒད་པོ་) and the verb is "vanished (ཡལ་) , modified by the adVerb "sudden]y" (གླ་བུར་དུ) .
It conVeys that "the o]d man vanished suddenly." ཚེ་ i̅ i̅
The last clauseconsists oftheverbal phrase མེད་པར་གྱུར་ ThisisacommHon
construction meaning "came into the (ora) state of not being or not existing."It is
preceded by what came into this state"the seeing (of himl) " (མཐོང་རྒྱུ་) . Note that རྒྱུ་ here
nomina]izes the verb མཐོང་. This may seem a rather straungewaytoconVeythismeaning,
but it is Very typical of Tibetan.i̅ཚེ
17  The seVenteenth segment consists of two clauses . ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་སྐབས་དེར་རྒད་པོ་དེ་ནི་བླ་མའི་
དྲ་ང་སྲོང་ཡིན་པ་གཞི་ནས་ཤེས་པ་དང་ 2. མ་མཐུད་མེ་ཤིང་འཐ་བར་སོང་ i̅ i̅
i̅ The first clause inVerts the usual sentence order by placing the time slot ternl (at
that timeསྐབས་དེར་) after the subject (ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་) . The clause ends with the verb "knew"
(ཤེས་) . It is modified by theadverbial ternl གཞི་ནས་, which conVeys "only then." Thus,
"Lhaksam, atthat time, only then knew. . . .'" What he knew is conveyed by the i̅
nominalizedlinkingverb construction རྒད་པོ་དེ་ནི་བླ་མའི་དྲ་ང་སྲོང་ཡིན་པ་ ("the oldman beingan
ascetic lam a") , so that together they trans]ate as, "Lhaksam knew that the o]d man was an
ascetic ]ama." i̅̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅Thisi̅Clause isi̅linkedwith the next by the "and" connective (པ་དང་) . The final
clause is a simple infinitive construction with the implicit subject "he, " the verb "went"
(སང་) , and the infinitiVized verbal phase "to collect firewood" (མེ་ཤིང་འིཐུ་བར་) . མུ་མཐུད་ is an
adverbial meaning "continuing without a break." It conVeys here that the bxoy continued
on his original task, co]lecting firewood. སོང་ in the phrase འིཐ་བར་སང་ functions not asa
past tense marker but as the past tense stem of the verb "to go" (འིགྲོ་) . It is the equiValent
of ཕྱིན་ i̅ i̅ ཚེ
l . The eighteenth segment consists of four clauses l . ཁོ་པའི་སྟ་རེར་དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་བྱིལ་བའི་དབང་གིས་
2. སྟ་རེ་རྣོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཆགས་ཏེ་ 3. ཤིང་མགྱོགས་པོ་བཅད་ནས་ 4. ཁྱིམ་ལ་ལོག་པ་རེད་
The first clause starts with an object phrase"tohisaxe" (ཁོ་པའི་སྟ་རེར་) . Itisfollowed
by the subject in the instrumental (དྲ་ང་སྲང་གིས་) and then the verb "stroked" (བྱིལ་) . "Thus,
the ascetic stroked his axe. . . ." This clause is linked to the next clause by the "because"
verbal clause connective (པའི་དབང་གིས་) . T hus, "because the ascetic stroked his axe. . . ."
The secondclause is an inVoluntary construction based on the verbi̅"became"
(ཆགས་) . The subject of the sentence is "the axe, " and what the axe became is "Venry shaurn"
(རྣོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་) .
This is linked to the third clause by the gerundive verbal clause connective (ཏེ་) .
Clause three has an implicit subject (by himl) aund consists only of the verb "cut" (བཅད་) ,
the adverb "quickly" (མགྱོགས་པོ་) , and the object "wood" (ཤིང་) . Thus, "because the ascetic


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