Lesson 8215 -
stroked hisaxe, the axe became very shaurnand cutthe wood quickly."
i̅ This is linked to clause four by the verbal clause connectiVe (ནས་) , to make
"having cut the wood quickly. . . ." C]ause four begins with the object ཁྱིམ་ལི་ (to the i̅
house) , followed by the verb "retuurned'" (ལོག་ + པ་རེད་) . Thus, '"having cut the wood quickly,
heretuurned home." i̅ i̅ 19
མཐོང་སྐབས་
2
མཐོང་སྐབས་ 2. ཁོས་སྒྲིད་ལུག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་གཤེ་གཤེ་བཏང་བས་ 3. ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་ཚང་མ་གསལ་
པོ་བཤད་སྟབས་ 4. ས་བདག་ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟ་བཞིན་པར་ 5  ཁྱོད་ཀྱིས་གསེར་ད་ང་དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་མ་བླངས་པར་ལྕགས་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཁྱེར་
བ་ནི་
དངོས་གནས་མི་ལྐུགས་པ་ཞིག་རེད་ཅེས་ཁ་རྡུང་བཏང་
The first clause begins with the subject in the instrumental case ("by the landlord"
- ས་བདག་གིས་) . The Verb that goes with this is མཐོང་ ("see") . Thus, "the lord saw"
something. i̅ i̅̅ i̅
i̅ Whathei̅saw is presented as a nomina]ized verb phraseཁོ་པ་སྔ་པོ་དེ་འདྲ་ལོག་ཡོང་བ་ ("his
retuurning early like that") . This is structurallyidenticalwithaclauseencounteredearlier
རྒད་པོ་དེ་ནི་བླ་མའི་དྲང་སྲོང་ཡིན་པ་ཤེས་ ("that oldmani̅beingani̅ascetic lama, (he) knew") .
i̅ Note that དེ་འིདྲ་ is commonly used with adjectives to conVey "]ike that" or "so." In
this case ཆེན་པོ་དེ་འདྲ་ means "big like that" or "so big." i̅ i̅
i̅ The "when" clause connective (སྐིབས་) links this clause to clause two, which begins
with the pronouun"he"intheinstrumental (ཁོས་) . Thispronounreferstothelordandgoes
with the subsequent actiVe verb "scold" (གཤེ་གཤེ་བཏང་) .i̅Thus, what he did was to scold i̅
someone, here the boy. HoweVer, in typical literauryTibetanstyle, theobject, theboy, is
]eft implicit, context conveying this. The remainderof the clause is the content of what he
said or scolded, སྐྱིད་ལུག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འིདུག་ ("[you] are acting lazy") . In English we would to
translate this as, " He scolded him saying, "v ou are la2 y." i̅ i̅
i̅ The "because" clause connectiVe (བས་) ]inks this to clause three which consists of
the simple actiVe verb construction, "Lhaksarn saidtold. . . " (ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་ . . བཤད་) . In this
clause the object, ("to the ]ord") , is implicit. ཚེ་ i̅
WhatLhaksam toldthe lordwas. གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་ཚང་མ་ (news + plural + all ------i.e.,
"all the news, events, or situation") . Theredundancy or using the p]uual marker རྣམས་ plus
ཚང་མ་ ("all") is typical. Either one cou]d have been left out with no change in meaning.
NotealsothattheadVerb"clearly" (གསལ་པོ་) modifiestheVerb བཤད་ ItcouldhaVebeen
placedin the datiVe]ocative (གསལ་པོར་) . Thisclauseislinkedtoclausefourbyanotherofthe"because"clausei̅i
connectives
connectives, སྟབས་ Like English, good style in TibetaunrequiresaVoidingrepetition of
words. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
Clause fouris aun involuntary verb construction conVeying that the subject
experienced something------"got angry" (ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟ་) . Since the Verbal action is involuntaury, the


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