238 Lesson Nine
am about to starve to death, now once again p]ease take action to save me." That peaceful
and kind goat said, "Didn"t you, i̅wolf, swear an oath that you would never harnn me?" The
wolf said, "Because Iam a carnivore, how is it okay to ]et you go?" That goat thought, "I
have noway to escape from the mouth of that wolf, " and fe]t veryregretful. While he was
sitting there (like that) , suddenly a rabbit, ruunningandjumping, aurnvedbeforehim. The
goat at once pleaded to the rabbit (saying) , "Vounowpleaseactasajudgetosaywhois
right regarding the events that have occurred here." Therabbitgotupontopofaboulder
(and withl) his ears standing erect listened to the stories told by the goat and the wolf.
After that he said, "Because both ofyou haVe reasons, Ido not know which ofyour i̅
comments to be]ieve. Vou tworeenact how things first came to be, so that Icani̅see it
myself. Then and on]y then wi]l Ibe ab]e to say whois correct." The wolf thenjumped
into the fornler pit and after that knew that he couldn"t get out (without help) and once i̅
again Called, "Goat" aund pleaded over and over, "P]ease save me." After that, the rabbit
went to the edge of the pit and ]ooked in. He said, "Vou, who are one who does not repay
kindness, caun wait until the hunter comes to save yout" Then the goat and rabbithappily
went togetherin the direction of the forest.
9. I7.1.3 Gammatical notes
l ཤོད་སྲལེ་ལ་ is a common phrase (pattern = vb. nonpast. + སྲོལ་ ("custom") + dat.loc.) i̅
conveying "as is commonly said" or "according to what peop]e traditionallysay."Hereit
is modified by རྒན་རབས་ཚོའི་ to convey "as was traditional]y saidin past generations."
i̅ སྲལ་ can also be usedwith nonpast stems of verbsin the pattern vb. + སྲོལ་ + existential verb
custom of
custom of. . . . Fi̅or example, འིགྲོག་པས་ཉ་ཤ་ཟ་སྲོལ་མི་འིདུག། means "There is no custom of
nomads eating fish." And རྒྱ་མིས་ཉ་ཤ་ཟ་སྲོལ་འིདུག།means "Thereisa custom ofchinese
eating fish." i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ ཚེ་ 2 In more sophisticated writings this would have been expressed as འིཚོལ་བཞིན་པར་
3
3. Thisisi̅a common phraseusedtomean"somethingthatpassesbeyondthemind, "i.e.,
that is unim aginable. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
4 བར་ or བར་དུ་ means "in between" andis commonly used to mean "between" beginning
andi̅finishing thei̅jouurney. In this sense it conveys the meaning "while on the road." A i̅
similar exampleis གནམ་གྲུ་གནམ་བར་དུ་སྐྱོན་ཤོར་སོང་------"The plane got damaged on the way" (lit.,
in the sky between startingandfiHnishing) .i̅བར་དུ་, however, a]socanmeaun"upto."For
example, བོད་བར་དུ་མོ་མཉམ་དུ་འིགྲོ་གི་ཡིན་--- (l) will go together with her up toTibet."
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