276 - Lesson Eleven
b. དཔེ་ཆ་དེ་བླ་མས་མ་ཟད། ཐ་ན་གྲྭ་པ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་གིས་ཀྱང་ཀློག་ཤེས་ཀྱི་རེད།
Let a]one Lamas, even a new monk knows how toread that book.
c. ཟ་འཐང་ནི་ཐ་ན་དུད་འགྲོས་ཀྱང་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Even animalsi̅know how to drink and eat. (lit., As for eating and drinking, eVen
animalsknow.) ཚེ་ཚེ
d. ཚོང་ཁང་དེའི་ནང་ཐ་ན་མུ་སི་ཡན་ཆད་ཚོང་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད[ ]
That shop sells even everything upwards from (largerthaun) matches.
ཡན་ཆད་ in examp]e d. nornmally means "upwards of, " or "aboVe, " or "more than, "
including the item mentioned, for examp]e, བཙུ་ཡན་ཆད་ conveys the meaning "tenaund i̅
aboVe" aund ཟླ་བ་བཙུ་པ་ཡན་ཆད་ means "frorn the tenth month onwards." In a parallelfashiC
མུ་སི་ཡན་ཆད་ meauns "from matches upwards'" or "everything from a match onwards, " i.e.
match and eVerything larger.
II.7 Causative constructions
l l .7..lconstructions using འཇུག་ (p. བཙུག་) i̅ i̅
i̅ There are several ways to fornm causatives. One places the Verb འིཇུག་ ("to putin'
or "insert into") immediately after the nonpast stem of a Verb. ThisconVeysthe
strongest, most coerciVe expression of causation (Vmade Vdo something) --- direct for
or coercion. Such constructions sometimesincludei̅the dativelocative particle
immediately after the nonpast stem of the verb as in b. below.
a. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་བཙུག་པ་རེད།
The government rnade the monks ཚེdo agricultural work.
b. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་དུ་བཙུག་པ་རེད།
The ཚེgoVernment made the monks do agriculturalwork.
C. སང་ཕོད་གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་དུ་འཇུག་གི་རེད།
The government will make the monks doagricultural work next year.
Il .7..2 Constructionsusing བཟོ་̅

̅ A second causative construction uses དགོས་།and བཟོ་ after Verbstems (nonpast) .
literallymeans"madeitnecessauryfor themtodotheVerbalaction."Thisgenerallyi̅
conveys the idea that the actor did something so that someone had to do the action in
question. ཚེ་ a
The goVernment made the monks
The goVernment made the monks (have to) doagricultural work.


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