Lesson EleVen 277 -
b. འགོ་བྲིད་ཚོས་ཁོ་ཚོ་ལམ་སེང་འགྲོ་དགོས་པ་བཟོ་གི་མ་རེད།
i̅ The ]eaders will not make them have to go immediately. i̅ i̅
རྒྱུ་ is often used toindicate that the action that someone is being made to do is in the
future. ཚེ་ཚེ་ c
The government made monks have to do agricultural work
The government made monks have to do agricultural work (in the future) . i̅
In example c. the main verb ("made") is in the past tense (བཟོས་པ་རེད་) , while the object of
the verb, "the future doing of fieldwork, " is in the presentfuture tense (ཞིང་ལིས་བྱེད་དགོས་རྒྱུ) .
རྒྱུ་ can also be useda]one with བཟོས་
d. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks doi̅agricultuuralwork (inthefuture) .
A nother way to express future ཚེtense is via the future tense stem of verbs
e. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱ་དགོས་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made thei̅monks haVe to do agriculturalwork (inthefuture) .
When བཟོ།is added to nomina]izedverb stems (nonpast) , a causatiVe meaning is also
conveyed. ཚེ
f. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་ནམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་པ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
Thegovernmentmadethemonksdoagriculturalwork.
g. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་མཁན་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The goVernment rnade the monks agriculturalworkers.
h. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་ནམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་མི་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The goVernment made the monks agnculturalworkers.
l l.7.3 Constructions using བྱེད་
The Verb བྱེད་ can be substitutedi̅for བཟོ་ to conVey a causatiVe meaning. CausatiVe
constructions using བྱེད་ fol]ow nominalizedVerbi̅stems and generallyimplycausationdue
to indirect means such as inducements or incentives rather than direct force or the threat
of it. Thus in sentence a. below, the implication is that the doctor would have been
ordered to come with the threat of force hanging over his head, while in sentence b., he
would haVe been coaxed orinduced to come.
a. ཁོས་ཨེམ་ཆི་འདི་འདིར་ལམ་སེང་ཡོང་དུ་བཙུག་པ་རེད།
He madethisdoctorcome hereat once.
b. ཁོས་ཨེམ་ཆི་དེ་འདིར་ལམ་སེང་ཡོང་བ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
He made (did something so that) that doctor come here at once.


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