Lesson EleVen 281
Because Ihad to ive in Tibet for twoyears, Ihad no choice but toleaurn Tibetan.
c. ངའི་གཞུང་གིས་གྲོས་མ་ཐ་ན་དེར་ཆ་འཇོག་མི་བྱེད་མཐུ་མིད་བྱུང་།
My government had no choice but to abide by that agreement. Notethatchaungingthestemoftheverbinb
Notethatchaungingthestemoftheverbinb.tononpastchangestheoveralltense (see
c)
d. ང་བོད་ལ་ལོ་གཉིས་སྡོད་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་སྟབས་བོད་སྐད་མ་སློབ་ཐབས་བྲལ་རེད།
Because Iwill liVe in Tibet for two years, Iwill have no choice but to leaurn Tibetan.
A nother semantically identical "no choice" pattern consists of. མ་ + Vb. + རང་ + Vb.
e. ཁོང་འདིར་མ་ཕེབས་རང་ཕེབས་རེད།
He had no choice but to come here. (h.) ཚེ་ f
Because the government was not good
Because the government was not good, (they, he, etc.) had no choice but torebel.
Note that ཡག་པོ་མིད་ཙང་ is translated as past tense because of the past tense of the second
clause. ཚེ་ཚེ་ཚེ་ཚེཚེ་ཚེ
g. བག་ལེབ་མེད་པར་བརྟེན། ཁོ་ཚོ་འབྲས་མི་ཟ་ཐབས་མེད་རེད།
Because there is ཚེno bread, they haVe no choice but to eat rice.
h. ཁོར་ལས་ཀ་གཞན་དག་མིད་ཙང་། འདི་མ་བྱེད་རང་བྱེད་རེད།
i̅ Because he has no other work, he has no choice but to do this.
i. ཁོ་ཚོར་བཙན་གནོན་གཏོང་གི་ཡོད་པས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ལ་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་དུ་མི་འགྲོ་ཀ་མེད་ཡིན་པ་རེད།
Because (they, he,etc.) are oppressing them, (they) haVe no choice but to seek refuge

abroad. i̅
When no negatiVei̅precedes theverb, many of these can be used to convey that there is no
way the verbal action cauncould occur. For examp]e
j. ཤིང་སྡོང་སྦོམ་པོ་ཡིན་ཙང་གཅོད་ཐབས་བྲལ་བ་རེད། i̅
Because the tree is thick, there is no way to cut it down.
Il . I4 Constructions expressing the idea of "about" and "concerning"སྐོར་ and ཐད་
i̅སྐོར་ and ཐད།auetwoimportant words that conveyi̅"about"and "concerning.'" They
typically are linkedi̅to the words they modify by the genitive particle and often are i̅
followed by the dative]ocative particles. Inexamplea.be]ow, སྐོར་ conveyswhatkindof
a petition he submitted.
a. ཁོས་འགྲོག་པའི་འཚོ་བའི་སྐོར་སྙན་ཞུ་ཞིག་ཕུལ་བ་རེད།
He submittedapetition concerning the livelihood ofthe nomads. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
In example b., howeVer, སྐོར་ ispartofaunadjectivized nominalclause modifying "petition'"
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