296 - Lesson E]even
residences in Lhasa. At the time of theperfornlance, all the opera perfornmers have
scarves put around their necks and will be given a large present consisting of tea, barley,
and money.i̅The operaperfornnersshoutatthistime, "Maythegodsbevictorious, "andi̅
also offer wishes for the patrons (donors) to have success in their business and no harnm in
their ives. The reason for these operatroupeshavingtocometoLhasaisthattherewasa
government operatax.
In the "old society, " withthe exception of the famous Gyomo luunga opera troupe,
all the others came only from villages. The opera troupes who came from thevillages
were always (engagedir) doing agricultural work except when they come toLhasai̅to
perfornm. As for the opera association Tashishöpa, it is fromVarlunginLhoka. Similarly,
Iungba is from NgamringinDö, andGyaungkarwaisfromRimpuung.
During the Great Cultural Revolution a movement called "Destroytheo]d, begin
the new" was startedand such things as Tibetanre]igion, culture, and natiVe customs
were seriously destroyed. AtthistimeinTibettheoperaperfornlancesalsowere
absolutely not allowed. Since 1980 , the goVernment policy has become looser and opera
perfornlaunces were graduallystarted. Since1985 theOperaFestivalalsostartedagain.
Gyomo lunga current]y is the Tibet Nationa]OperaAssociation, theirsalarybeingpaid
by the state. Besides this, all the other groups are just sparetime opera associations.
l l .20.2.3 Grammaticalnotes

. དགའི་ལྡན་ཕོ་བྲང་ was the name ofthe Dalai Lama"sresidence in Drepung monastery at the
time of the 5 th Dalai Lama and becami̅e the nameof the goVernment he headed. གཞུང་ས་
means "place of the goVernment" andis commonly used with དགའི་ལྡན་ཕོ་བྲང་ when the
government is meant.
2. ཞོ་སྟོན་བྱེད་སྒོ་ཁག་ breaks down into ཞོ་སྟོན་ ("the name of the festiVal") , བྱེད་སྒོ་ ("actiVities,
work, duties") , and ཁག་, thepluralizerdescribedin10.15.2.3.16. Togethertheymeanthe
variousactivities ot Shodön. A genitiVe particle cou]d have been used here ཞོ་སྟོན་གྱི་བྱེད་སྒོ་
ཁག་
3. སྲལ་, asdescribedinLesson 9 (9.17 l 3.l) , is usedafterverbs to convey "the custom"
of doing the verbal action. Here it means that "the government made it the custom that
the various activities of ShodönwouldbedoneatDrepungmonastery."
4. The clause དེའི་དུས་བོད་ལ་ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་ཁག་བཙུ་གཉིས་ཡོད་པ་ཚང་མ་ consists of the existential


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