u̲སྒྱུཟེསུསྙིསུ༔O--- ཀ་ རྞྞཱརྞྞཱཾ་ ·སྒྱུ་སྒྱུཟེ་ F ཟེ---
13.lWord fornlation introduction
A s we have seen, virtually all Tibetansyl]ableshavei̅independentmeanings. This
"monosy]labic" nature ofTibetan affords tremendous flexibility not onlyi̅in expressing ne
ideas and concepts, but a]soin expressing o]d ones innew ways. In fact, it is a mark of
literauryabilityandaccomp]ishmenttomanipulateandrecombinesyllables (mornhemes)
creatively. For the student, however, this means that you will often encounter new
combinations even forvery staundard ideas. Thus, in order toread written Tibetan i̅
successfully, the basicstructure underlying word fo mation must be understood and this
will be the subject of the fol]owing sections.
I3.1.lNominal compounds
Nominal compounds consist of two syl]ables, l each ofwhich is a nonderiVed
noun.
13. I.2 Synonymic compounds
i̅ Theseconsistoftwosyl]ab]eswhicharesynonyms. Themeaningofthecompound
wordis identical to the oveall meaning of the component parts. For example, སྟབས་ཤུགས་
(
"power, strength") is comprised of two syl]ab]es སྟོབས་ ("power, strength") and ཤུགས་
(
"power, strength") .
a. སྟོབས་ཀྱིས་ས་མང་པོ་བཟུང་བ་རེད།

(They) sei ed many areas byforce.
b. སྟོབས་ཤུགས་ཀྱིས་ས་མང་པོ་བཟུང་བ་རེད།
same as a. i̅
Othercommon synonymic compoundsarei̅
གྲངས་འིབོར་ quantity, number, amount སྒྲ་སྐད་ sound, Voices
དཀའ་ང་ལ་ difficulty རེ་འདུན་ hope
དུས་སྐབས་ time, period ངོ་གདོང་ face i̅
བུ་ཕྲུག་ children གྲལ་རིམ་ class (socia)
I3..3 Premodifying compounds
In these constructions the first sy]lable modifies the second. Thus, intheword སྨན་
ཁང་
("hospital") , the syllable སྨན་ ("medicine") describes what kind of a ཁང་ (པ་) (house,
--------------------------------------------------------------- ------------
l Foursyl]ab]e compounds wi]l be discussed fol lowing the section on two sy]lable units.
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