334 — ༣༣༤ Lesson Thirteen
རོགས་དངུལ་ he]p + money╱finance = money to help, aid funds, relief
རྨོ་ཕྱུགས་ p]ough + Cattle = draftanima]s
འིབྲི་དེབ་ write + book = book towritein, notebook
13.1..6 Verbal premodifying compounds N. + Vb. i̅ i̅
Like other premodifying constructions, the first syllable modifies the second. For
example, "spring p]anting" breaks down into the first syllable དཔྱིད་ ("spring") (from དཔྱིད་ཀ་
and the verb འིདེབས་̅ ("to plant╱sow") . The first sy]lable tells us whatkind of a planting it
was a "spring planting." This nominal compouundcan then be verbalized.
The faurnners are making preparations for spring p]anting.
། The faurnlers are doing spring planting.
Other common examples of this arei̅
རང་སྐྱོང་ self + govern╱rule = se]f—governing, autonomous
བཙན་འིཛུལ་ force + enter = forcefuli̅entance, inVasion, aggression
སྨན་བཅོས་ medicine + treat = i̅medicinaltreatment
སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་ mistake + tel] = criticism
13. I. .7 Vrerbal sequential compounds Vb.—Vb. i̅ i̅
In these constructions the first verb takes the past stem (if it has more than one
stem) and the second the non—past. The overa]l meaning deriVes from the action of the
second verb on the first. For example, in བཅིངས་འིགྲོལ་ the first syllable meauns "to bind"
and the second "to release, " with the oVerallmeaning "torelease or untie thati̅which was
bxound." This compound is used to express the moderni̅concept of political "liberation."
A nother examp]e is ཉམས་གས་ ("repair, renovation") , which literally means "taking care of
or rearing that which has become deteriorated." i̅ i̅ ། i̅ i̅
i̅ Sequential compounds are usually idiomatic in the sense that the meaning isi̅not
easily derivab]e from the constituent elements. Like the other compounds cited earlier, thu
are verbalized by stau̲ndard verbs such as བྱེད་.
I3.1.9 Ouadrisyllabic compounds i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
Quadrisyllabic compounds consist of two disyl]abic compounds. The relationship
between these two disyllabic units is that of premodification, i.e., the first disyllabic
compound modifies the second. When a quadrisy]]abic compoundis encountered, each of