Lesson Thirteen 34 [ -
I3..3 Grammaticalnotes
. Notethat ནམ་མཁར་ s ནམ་མཁའི་ + thedative-locatiVeparticle.
2. ནས་ here joins ཡིབས་ ("hide") and བསྡད་ ("stayed") , conVeying that both are occurring
simultaneously------"staying (there) hiding." See 5  l l. ེ་
3. V+ མེ་ལྟར་འིབར་ is a comHmonly used simile meaning "Kcaught fire like a flame." Here,
Kishisaunger (ཁོང་ཁྲོ་) .
4. The use of ཡིན་པ་རེད་ here conveys some uncertainty, i.e., "It seems it is. . . ."

. The use of སྟེ་ in ཡོད་པ་སྟེ་ conveys the "defining function" discussed in 5.1.3. In other
words, what fo]]ows ཡོད་པ་སྟ་ explains what the amazing deed was---namely, that the stone
lion had his mother"s shoe in its mouth.
6. ནས་ acts here asa simu]taneous clause connector ---"hangingit existed.'" See 2., above,
and5 . l l. ེ་
7. Thiscoreofthissegmentisi̅ན་གཞོན་བླ་རྡོར་གྱིས་̅མཐོང་ ("theyouthlodorsaw...") .
What he saw in his field of Vision when heraised his headandlooked was the existence
of the necklace hanging on the banch ofa pine tree.
8 བསམ་པ་སྐྱེས་ means " a thought was born." ཡ་མཚན་ཆེ་བའི་ conveys what kind of a thought ---
" (a thought) of great amazement." Together these mean he "was amazed."
9. ཡང་ here acts notas "also" but as the "even though" clause connectiVe. Thus སྙམ་ཡང་
means "eVen though he thought."
10. Here the use ofi̅ཡོང་ in ཡར་འིཛེགས་ན་འིཛེག་བདེ་པོ་ཡོང་ conveys future action------"if Iclimb up,
it will be easy to climb."
ll. The use of སྒྲ་[following the verb]དགོད་ ("tolaugh") isa common patternofVb. + noun.
In it the verb modifies the noun, explaining something about it. Thus, here it conveys
"the sound of laughing" (what kindi̅of soundl) ---a sound of laughing) . Thisjoins with
འིཇིགས་རྔམ་ to become a quadrisyllabic compound---"a frightfu] laughing sound."
l. ཨེ་མ་ཡ་མཚན་ཆེ་བ་ཞིག་ལ་ is an idiomatic phase meaning " How stange."
13. དང་བཅས་ conveys "along with"see 6.4 e.h.
14. We have seen how the verb "to go" joins with the comparative stem of adjectives and
the dativelocative particle to convey "becoming bigger" (ཆེ་རུ་འིགྲོ་) . It also can be linked
with verb stems to convey "become. . . ." Thus ཕྱེད་གཤཁ།ས་ཟཐུ་ཕྱིན་ heremeans"becamesplit
inhalf." i̅ i̅
15. ལྟ་བུར་ in the clause ཡིད་ཆགས་ནས་འཇོག་འདོད་མེད་པ་ལྟ་བུར་གྱུར་ conVeys the added meaning of
"it seems." The authoris conVeying that "it seems he didn't want toleaVe it."
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