358 Iesson Fouurteen
nightandday." ཚེ་ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
2. The pattern of noun + མེད་པར་ negatiVizes and adVerbia]izes the nominal. Thus ནུས་ཤུགས་
མེད་པར་
means "in the maunner of being without strength." Similarly ཁོང་གྲོ་མེད་པར་བཤད་
would mean "said (it) without anger." i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
3. Thisis anotheradverbial construction conVeying doing something in the mau̲nner of
"looking down" on someone or something. i̅ i̅
4. This use of ཞིག་ after a verb (དབོར་) conveys the imperatiVe (2.5 2) . i̅ i̅
5 . The pattern of vb. + ཙམ་བྱེད་ is explainedin 13.5  3.20. It conVeys that just a little of the
verbalaction was done. Theaddition of ཡང་ aunda negatiVe (or བྲལ་) conveys that "'even"
a little bit was not done. Here thei̅phrase means, "Therewasnowaytheywereableto
move that Verythick tree eVen a little." i̅ i̅ i̅
6. ཤོར་ is an involuntary verb that is used with nouns to convey that aun action invo]untarily
or uncontrollably occurred. Thus, herehe"involuntarilyshiVered."Similarly མིག་ཆུ་ཤོར་།
conVeys that " (he, she, etc.) involuntarily cried." When used with respect to games and
contests, however, ཤོར་ means "to lose." i̅ i̅ i̅
7  Note that in the construction བོབས་ཤིག་, the verb is an imperative stem.
. སྐྱོབ་ཐབ་པ་ཡིན་ན་ conVeys the same meaning as སྐྱོབ་ཐབ་ན་
9. ཆོག་ here means "al]owed" (see l l .9) . i̅ 10
"y ou know how to act respectful and
"y ou know how to act respectful and. . . ." Another example of this pattern is
ལུགས་སྲོལ་ཤེས་པ་བྱས་ནས་སྙན་ཞུ་བོད་ཡིག་ཐོག་འབྲི་དགོ་ i̅Knowing the customs
ལུགས་སྲོལ་ཤེས་པ་བྱས་ནས་སྙན་ཞུ་བོད་ཡིག་ཐོག་འབྲི་དགོ་ i̅Knowing the customs, you should write thereportin Tibetan. This pattern also
yourself know or do something to find out about something
yourself know or do something to find out about something. For example
འཇིན་གྲྭར་མ་འགྲོ་གོང་ལ་སློབ་གྲྭའི་སྒྲིག་ལམ་ཤེས་པ་བྱེད་དད་གོ་ Before you go to classyou shou
ལུང་པ་དེའི་གནམ་གཤིས་ཤེས་པ་བྱས་ནས་གོས་ལོག་ཁྱེར་དགོ་
ལུང་པ་དེའི་གནམ་གཤིས་ཤེས་པ་བྱས་ནས་གོས་ལོག་ཁྱེར་དགོ་ vrou should know about the weather in that area and take clothes
l
l . In the phrase རྨ་ཁ་གས་བཞིན་̅བསྡད་ཡོད་ theparticle བཞིན་ conVeysthathewasstayingthere
"while" his wound was healing.
l. རོ་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ is a derogatory slang phrasemeaning"Cornseeater."i̅
13. This is aunother colloquia]ismi̅that is comprisedi̅of the imperative stem of the verb
གཏོང་ (ཐོང་ས་) aund the pxolite imperative pa ticle དང་ It is used here in the sense of a dare
"Goaheadand do that, and I'll. . . .". i̅ i̅
14. This is another co]]oquial expression that conveys sarcasm. Thefirstpart------ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་
ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་------means "very good, very good." It is fol]owed by a traditionalsayingusedwhen
someone bringsabout his own destruction "Carryingonesneck, arriVingatthedoorstep


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