374 Lesson Fifteen
tuurn (སྐོར་གཅིག་) . In this examp]e it is modified by the "before" clause connective (མ་ + vb.
གོང་ནས་, see7 4) . i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
5 . ཐོག་̅here does not function as the preposition "on" but ratherasanounmeaning"roof."
This is obvious from context and from its being followed by the preposition "under" (འོག་
ཏུ་) .

. ཅི་མ་རུང་ is commonly usedat the end of c]auses to ask "wouldn"t it bei̅nice"' if
something were to come to pass. It conVeys this in a hopeful vein. In this case, "Wouldn"
it be nice if it stopped rainingquickly?"
7  This use of སྟེ་ has the defining function (see 5 . l l .3.i̅ i̅ i̅
8 ན་ཚོད་དར་ལ་བབས་པའི་ is a common literauryphrase meaning "young." When it is p]aced
before the nominal it modifies, it is ]inked to iti̅by the genitive particle. i̅
9. མདོག་སྐྱོ་ is an abbreviation, the longer fornl being མདོག་སྐྱོ་པོ་ "poor color" (of the skinl) . ལ་
of course, here conveys the conjunctiVe meaning "as well as."
10. ཇི་̅མ་ཇི་བཞིན་ is used to mean "exactly what something is or is not" (or "was or was not"
In this sentence it conveys that he answered truly, saying exactly what happened and did
not happen. ཚེA nother example is
ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་སྔོན་མའི་དགོན་པ་དེ་ཇི་མ་ཇི་བཞིན་ཞིག་བརྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
The farnlers made the monastery exactly likei̅it was previously. i̅
l . ཆ་ནས་མཚོན་ན་ nornmally is used to convey hypothetical statementsi̅such as "ifi̅we
hypothetically say K, then V." Here, howeVer, it means simp]y "taking something as an
example." Thus, this clause says, "for example, with regard to his things, he had. . . ."
12. གཅིག་ལྕོགས་ is used to convey the idea that one thing orperson has twojobs or functions.
Here the stick was usedi̅for two things as a cane andto ward off dogs. It isi̅used with
respect to offices orpositions as fo]]ows སྐད་བསྒུར་དང་དྲུང་ཡིག་གཅིག་ལྕོགས་ "combined
inte preter and secretary." i̅ i̅ i̅
l . The author here uses the traditional nonhonorific speech fornm (ཡར་ཤོག་ rather than
ཡར་ཕེབས་) toconvey rea]ism since it was these fornls that were used when speaking to
beggars and people of the lower social strata.i̅ཚེ་̅
14. ཚིམ་ (ས) " is used both asa verb andasan adVerb.i̅In this construction (ཚིམས་པ་བྱིན) it
functions adverbially to convey that the verbal action, "giving, " was done in the manner
of trrying to satisfy or satiate. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
15  Here the imperative fornm (ཉོལ་) of the verb (ཉལ་) is usedi̅with the imperativei̅patic]e
ཅིག་ to conVey the traditional style of speech to inferiors. It is not areal imperatiVe
statement. i̅ i̅ i̅
l . The ཙམ་ནས་ in ཉལ་བ་ཙམ་ནས་ conveys that they laid down "forjust a moment."
17  See note 7.


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