Home Page    First Topic

One: Scansion and Related Matters    Two: Description of the Metres

a: Vatta    b: Tuññhubha    c: Measure Metres    d: Bar Metres    e: Fixed Metres

Three: The Mixing of Metres    Four: Glossary & Index

Five: The Evolution of Vatta & Tuññhubha    Six: Guide to Further Study

            

Two: The Description of the Metres

Tuññhubha, Jagatã, etc.

    

Table of Contents

2.6 Tuññhubha & Jagatã

2.7 Tuññhubha & Jagatã Variations

2.8 Upajàti, Vaüsaññhà, and Rucirà

 

2.6 Tuññhubha (Triùñubh), & Jagatã

Tuññhubha in the canon occurs in basically three forms. In the early period Tuññhubha verses are used in the main independently. Only occasionally do we find Jagatã lines in the early verses, and then only as an expedient, as it were.6 Later in the middle period we find that these two metres are frequently intermixed in composition, and at that point we might better describe the metre as being Tuññhubha-jagatã. Later still these metres are replaced by their classical counterparts Upajàti and Vaüsaññhà (described in 2.8 below).

As the variations that occur in the one also occur in the other, we can describe the two metres together.

Tuññhubha normally has 11 syllables to the line, and is defined thus:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

5

2

1

2

|

3

1

i

|

2

1

2

3

x4

Jagatã is similar, but has an extra short syllable in penultimate position, giving a line of 12 syllables, thus:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

5

2

1

2

|

3

1

i

|

2

1

2

1

3

x4

 

2.7 Tuññhubha & Jagatã Variations

The normal opening in both metres is described as being 3212 , but there are a significant number of occasions when variations are seen (especially in the early period), the most common being 3222, but also we come across 3211, 3122 & 2112. Others occur only very rarely.

In the break (syllables 5-7) the pattern 211 prevails (85% approx), with resolution occasionally giving ,1111. Other patterns that occur in this position are 112, 212, & 111. Rarely we also find the patterns 221 and 121, so that the 6th syllable, though normally short, may occasionally be long.

Sometimes an extended form is produced by resolution at the first syllable, which then gives a line of 12 (13) syllables - note that the pattern of the cadence will help identify the metre in these cases.

Another extended form may be produced by a line having a caesura at the 5th syllable, and restarting from the same syllable, giving the line:

5 & 5

3

2

1

2

|

2, 5

1

3

|

2

1

2

(1)

3

Occasionally replacement takes place, whereby two short syllables are presumed in the 6th & 7th positions, and replaced by one long one. The line then has one syllable less than expected (see 1:16 above for an example):

6&7

5

2

1

2

|

2

2

|

2

1

2

(1)

3

Examples: early Tuññhubha, Khaggavisàõasutta Sn I:3; the "Aññhaka" suttas Sn IV:2-5; and the Tuññhubha verses in Pàràyanavagga Sn V. The second of the extended forms described above is used extensively in the Vatthugàthà to Nàlakasutta Sn III:11 (vs 679ff). Late Tuññhubha tends to conform to the fixed patterns that emerged during this time and which are described below (for more on the development of the Tuññhubha, see Five: The Evolution of Vatta and Tuññhubha).

Example of early Tuññhubha from Guhaññhakasutta (Sn IV: 2) (vs 776-779):

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2122
    Passàmi loke pariphandamànaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|221|2121
    pajaü imaü taõhàgataü bhavesu,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2121
    hãnà narà maccumukhe lapanti -

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|221|2121
    avãtataõhàse bhavàbhavesu.

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2122
    Mamàyite passatha phandamàne,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|212|2122
   macche va appodake khãõasote,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2121
    etam-pi disvà amamo careyya,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2122
    bhavesu àsattim-akubbamàno.

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2122
    Ubhosu antesu vineyya chandaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2122
    phassaü pari¤¤àya anànugiddho,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2122
    yad-attagarahã tad-akubbamàno:

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2122
    na lippatã diññhasutesu dhãro.

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2122
    Sa¤¤aü pari¤¤à vitareyya oghaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|111|2122
    pariggahesu muni nopalitto,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|212|2122
    abbåëhasallo caraü appamatto,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|221|2121
    nàsiüsatã lokaü imaü para¤-càti.

 

Mixed Tuññhubha-jagatã, from Ratanasutta (Khp 6:8):

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|21212             Jagatã 
    Yath' indakhãlo pañhaviü sito siyà

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|21212             Jagatã
    catubbhi vàtehi asampakampiyo,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2121                 Tuññhubha
    
    
tathåpamaü sappurisaü vadàmi,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|21211              Jagatã
    yo ariyasaccàni avecca passati -

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2122                 Tuññhubha
        
idam-pi Sanghe ratanaü paõãtaü:

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2121                 Tuññhubha
    etena saccena suvatthi hotu!

 

Extended Tuññhubha, from Nàlakasutta (Sn III: 11) (vs 679-680):

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|2,1111|2122
ânandajàte tidasagaõe patãte

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|2,1111|2122
sakkacca Indaü sucivasane ca deve,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|2,1111|2122
dussaü gahetvà atiriva thomayante

xxxxxxxxxxxx11211,|2211|2122
Asito isi addassa divàvihàre. 7

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|2,1111|2122
Disvàna deve muditamane udagge,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|2,1112|2121
cittiükaritvà idam-avocàsi tattha: 8

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|2,1111|2122
Kiü devasangho atiriva kalyaråpo?

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|2,1111|2121
Dussaü gahetvà bhamayatha kiü pañicca?

 

2.8 Upajàti, Vaüsaññhà (Vaü÷asthà), and Rucirà

These are the fixed metres in the canon that have been derived from Tuññhubha and Jagatã, their profile looks like this:

i) Upajàti (from Tuññhubha):

 

1

2

3

4

 

5

6

7

 

8

9

10

11

 

 

3

2

1

2

|

2

1

1

|

2

1

2

3

 

x4

 

ii) Vaüsaññhà (from Jagatã):

 

1

2

3

4

 

5

6

7

 

8

9

10

11

12

 

 

 

3

2

1

2

|

2

1

1

|

2

1

2

1

3

 

x4

As can be seen these are the "normal" forms of their respective metres, but now allowing only little flexibility.

iii) Rucirà (from Jagatã, with resolution of the 5th syllable, giving a 13 syllable line):

 

1

2

3

4

 

5

6

7

8

 

9

10

11

12

13

 

 

 

3

2

1

2

,|

1

1

1

1

|

2

1

2

1

3

x4

 

Examples: Upajàti and Vaüsaññhà are used to great effect, both mixed and independently in Tàlaputta's gàthàs Th 1091-1145. Vaüsaññhà and Rucirà both appear as independent metres in Lakkhaõasuttanta DN.30 (see 2.24)

Example Upajàti/Vaüsaññhà, Th 1091-2:

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2121ŽŽŽŽŽŽ    ŽŽUpajàti
ŽŽŽŽ
Kadà nu 'haü pabbatakandaràsu,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2122ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽ   Upajàti
ŽŽŽŽ
ekàkiyo addutiyo vihassaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|2122ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽ   ŽUpajàti
ŽŽŽŽ
aniccato sabbabhavaü vipassaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|21211ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽVaüsaññhà
ŽŽŽŽ
taü me idaü taü nu kadà bhavissati?

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|211|21211ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽVaüsaññhà
ŽŽŽŽ
Kadà nu 'haü bhinnapañandharo muni,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|21212ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽVaüsaññhà
ŽŽŽŽ
kàsàvavattho amamo niràsayo,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|2122ŽŽŽŽ ŽŽ ŽŽ Upajàti
ŽŽŽŽ
ràga¤-ca dosa¤-ca tath' eva mohaü

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|1111|2122ŽŽŽ ŽŽŽ Upajàti
ŽŽŽŽ
hantvà, sukhã pavanagato vihassaü? 9

 

Rucirà from Lakkhaõasuttanta (D. 30. 2. 9):

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|1111|21212
ŽŽŽŽNa pàõinà na ca pana daõóaleóóunà,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|1111|21211
ŽŽŽŽsatthena và maraõavadhena và puna,

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|211|21212
ŽŽŽŽubbàdhanàyà paritajjanàya và, 10

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|1111|21211
ŽŽŽŽna heñhayã janatam-aheñhako ahu.

xxxxxxxxxxxx2212|1111|21211
ŽŽŽŽTen' eva so sugatim-upecca modati

xxxxxxxxxxxx1212|1111|21211
ŽŽŽŽsukhapphalaü kariya 11 sukhàni vindati.

    

Home Page    First Topic    Next Section

One: Scansion and Related Matters    Two: Description of the Metres

a: Vatta    b: Tuññhubha    c: Measure Metres    d: Bar Metres    e: Fixed Metres

Three: The Mixing of Metres    Four: Glossary & Index

Five: The Evolution of Vatta & Tuññhubha    Six: Guide to Further Study

 

End Notes

6 The last two sections of Suttanipàta are considered to contain some of the earliest texts in the canon. And in the first of these sections, Aññhakavagga (Sn IV), there are only 4 Jagatã lines among nearly 400 lines of Tuññhubha (there is also one Jagatã verse, no 836). In Pàràyanavagga (Sn V), the Jagatã lines amount to approx 7% of the lines in the Tuññhubha verses.

7 This line is irregular

8 Perhaps we should understand avÖcàsi m.c.

9 Showing resolution of the 5th syllable

10 This is an Upajàti line.

11 Reading kariya as having 3 syllables