Home Page    First Topic

One: Scansion and Related Matters    Two: Description of the Metres

a: Vatta    b: Tuññhubha    c: Measure Metres    d: Bar Metres    e: Fixed Metres

Three: The Mixing of Metres    Four: Glossary & Index

Five: The Evolution of Vatta & Tuññhubha    Six: Guide to Further Study

    

Two: The Description of the Metres

The Fixed Metres

    

Table of Contents

2.20 The fixed metres: akkharacchandas type 2 aka vutta

2.21 Samavutta

2.22 Aóóhasamavutta

2.23 Visamavutta

2.24 Lakkhaõasuttanta

 

2.20 The fixed metres: akkharacchandas type 2 (akùaracchandas) aka vutta (vçtta).

These metres can be divided into 3 kinds according to their verse structure:

1) Samavutta, have the same line repeated four times.

2) Aóóhasamavutta, have two dissimilar lines repeated.

3) Visamavutta, have four dissimilar lines.

 

2.21 Samavutta (Samavçtta)

The more popular of these fixed metres, Upajàti, Vaüsaññhà, Rucirà, Rathoddhatà, and Svàgatà have been described in 2.8 2.12 & 2.14 above.

Some others occur, which we may outline here:

Pamitakkharà (from gaõacchandas):

 

 

6

2

|

1

2

1

|

1

1

2

|

1

1

3

x4

Example: Lakkhaõasuttanta (DN. 30. 2. 15):

xxxxxxxxxxxx112|121|112|112
ŽŽŽŽAtha ce pi pabbajati so manujo,

xxxxxxxxxxxx22|121|112|112
ŽŽŽŽdhammesu hoti paguõo visavã

xxxxxxxxxxxx22|121|112|112
ŽŽŽŽtassànusàsaniguõàbhirato,

xxxxxxxxxxxx22|121|112|111
ŽŽŽŽanvàyiko bahujano bhavati.

 

Upaññhità:

 

 

2

2

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

3

x4

Example: Ja 125 20-21 21

Dodhaka (a Vegavatã even line repeated):

2

1

1

2

1

1

|

2

1

1

2

3

x4

Example: the last two verses of Kokàliyasutta (Sn III:10) (vs 677-8):

xxxxxxxxxxxx211211|21122
ŽŽŽŽTe gaõità viduhã tilavàhà,

xxxxxxxxxxxx211211|21122
ŽŽŽŽye Padume niraye upanãtà

xxxxxxxxxxxx11211211|21121
ŽŽŽŽnahutàni hi koñiyÖ pa¤ca bhavanti, 22

xxxxxxxxxxxx211211|21122
ŽŽŽŽdvàdasa koñisatàni pun' a¤¤à. (Sn 677)

 

Other Metres: there are 3 others have not been named:

1

1

1

2

2

3

x4

(Th 381)

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

x4

(SN 1:14)

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

2

3

x4

(Th 111)

 

2.22 Aóóhasamavutta (Ardhasamavçtta)

Vegavatã, which in its classical form belongs to this class, has been described in 2.13 above. Pupphitaggà was described in 2.12.

Aparavatta, which is derived from Vetàlãya, shows the following structure:

1

1

1

1

1

1

|

2

1

2

1

3

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

|

2

1

2

1

3

x2

Example: Bhallàñiya Jàtaka Ja 504 vs 25:

xxxxxxxxxxxx111111|21212
ŽŽŽŽVividham-adhimanà suõom' ahaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1111211|21212
ŽŽŽŽvacanapathaü tava-m-atthasaühitaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx111111|21212
ŽŽŽŽm›¤ca giri nudas' eva me daraü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1111211|21212
ŽŽŽŽsamaõa sukhàvaha jãva me ciran-ti.

 

2.23 Visamavutta (Visamavçtta)

In Lakkhaõasuttanta DN. 30 we find two metres belonging to this class, which has four dissimilar lines to the verse. The first is derived from mattàchandas:

Upaññhitappacupita:

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

 

 

6

2

2

1

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

1

2

3

 

 

 

6

2

6

1

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

3

 

There are normally word-breaks after the 8th syllable in the 1st line; 5th syllable in the 3rd line; and 7th syllable in the 4th line.

Example from Lakkhaõasuttanta, (D. 30. 1. 30): 23

xxxxxxxxxxxx22211212,121122
ŽŽŽŽAkkhoda¤-ca adhiññhahã adàsi ca dànaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx221111212122
ŽŽŽŽvatthàni ca sukhumàni succhavãnã,

xxxxxxxxxxxx11111,1112
ŽŽŽŽpurimatarabhavÕ ñhito,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1111111,11121122
ŽŽŽŽabhivisaji mahim-iva suro abhivassaü

 

Uggatà (from gaõacchandas):

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

 

 

 

 

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

1

2

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

1

6

1

1

1

2

1

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

3

 

 

 

Example from Lakkhaõasuttanta, (D. 30. 2.12):

xxxxxxxxxxxx1121211122
ŽŽŽŽSugatãsu so phalavipàkaü,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1111121211
ŽŽŽŽanubhavati tattha modati,

xxxxxxxxxxxx111111112112
ŽŽŽŽidha ca pana bhavati gopakhumo,

xxxxxxxxxxxx1121211121212
ŽŽŽŽabhinãlanettanayano sudassano.

2.24 Lakkhaõasuttanta DN 30

As can be seen from the references supplied to the fixed metres above, the late Lakkhaõasuttanta of the Dãghanikàya supplies us with a number of metres which are either rare or not otherwise found in canonical Pàëi. For easy reference the metres are listed below, giving the bhàõavàra and paragraph number of the PTS edition in brackets: 24

1      (1.6)      Vaüsaññhà 5 vs

2     (1.9)       Vaüsaññhà 6 vs

3     (1.12)      Pupphitaggà 4 vs

4     (1.15)      Rathoddhatà 3 vs

5     (1.18)      Pupphitaggà 4 vs

6     (1.21)      Rathoddhatà 5 vs (total 8 vs)

7     (1.24)      Vaüsaññhà 4 vs

8     (1.27)      Vaüsaññhà 4 vs

9     (1.30)      Upaññhitappacupita 4 vs

10    (1.33)     Vaüsaññhà 4 vs

11    (2.3)       Pupphitaggà 4 vs (total 12 vs)

12    (2.6)       Vaüsaññhà 4 vs

13    (2.9)       Rucirà 3 vs

14    (2.12)     Uggatà 4 vs

15    (2.15)     Pamitakkharà 4 vs

16    (2.18)     Vaüsaññhà 4 vs (total 31 vs)

17    (2.21)     Pamitakkharà 4 vs

18    (2.24)     Pamitakkharà 4 vs (total 12 vs)

19    (2.27)     Upaññhitappacupita 4 vs

20    (2.31)     Upaññhitappacupita 7 vs (total 15 vs)

    

Home Page    First Topic    Next Section

One: Scansion and Related Matters    Two: Description of the Metres

a: Vatta    b: Tuññhubha    c: Measure Metres    d: Bar Metres    e: Fixed Metres

Three: The Mixing of Metres    Four: Glossary & Index

Five: The Evolution of Vatta & Tuññhubha    Six: Guide to Further Study

 

End Notes

21 This is Warder's reference, given on page 221 of Pàli Metre, I have been unable to trace it.

22 This line is irregular

23 The text here is based on K.R.Norman's reconstruction in The metres of the Lakkhaõa-suttanta (I). CP III, pgs 45ff.

24 Please note that Prof K.R. Norman has recently (August 2001) completed his examination of the metres in Lakkhaõasuttanta. The results have been published in various more or less obscure Indological journals and festschrifts, but fortunately most have now appeared in the Collected Papers (see Vols 3, 4, & 5). The remaining papers will appear in forthcoming collections.