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One: Scansion and Related Matters    Two: Description of the Metres

a: Vatta    b: Tuññhubha    c: Measure Metres    d: Bar Metres    e: Fixed Metres

Three: The Mixing of Metres    Four: Glossary & Index

Five: The Evolution of Vatta & Tuññhubha    Six: Guide to Further Study

 

Six: Guide to Futher Study
(including bibliography)
(with abbreviations, and method of quoting)

         

The following books and articles contain further information on the gàthàs and metres of the Pàëi canon (all volumes are as published by PTS, unless otherwise stated):

Texts:

DN: Dãghanikàya - each volume has a gàthà index (quoted by sutta name, number, bhàõavàra (where appropriate), and paragraph number)

MN: Majjhimanikàya - volume 3 contains a very incomplete gàthà index (quoted by sutta name, number, bhàõavàra (where appropriate), and paragraph number)

SN: Saüyuttanikàya - each volume has a gàthà index, and the index volume (no 6) collates these (quoted by Saüyutta name, and sutta number)

AN: Anguttaranikàya - each volume has a gàthà index, and the index volume (no 6) collates these (quoted by nipàta number, and sutta number)

Khp: Khuddakapàñha - has a gàthà index and an analysis of the metres (quoted by sutta name and verse number)

Dhp: Dhammapada - index volume contains a pàda index (quoted by verse number)

Ud: Udàna - includes udàna index (quoted by vagga & sutta number)

It: Itivuttaka - includes gàthà index (quoted by vagga & sutta number)

Sn: Suttanipàta - the gàthà index and metre analysis are contained in Vol 3 of the commentary Paramatthajotikà, (quoted by sutta name, vagga and sutta number, and/or verse number)

Vv: Vimànavatthu - (quoted by Vimàna name and line number)

Pv: Petavatthu - (quoted by Peta name and line number)

Th: Theragàthà - 2nd edition (1966) contains Alsdorf's reconstruction of the gaõacchandas metres in Appendix 2 (quoted by Thera name and verse number)

Thã: Therãgàthà - as above (quoted by Therã name and verse number)

Ja: Jàtaka - (quoted by Jàtaka name and verse number)

KJa: Kuõàla-jàtaka - contains a metre analysis, including a commentary on the lines in Veóha metre

Ap: Apadàna - Buddha Jayanti edition (quoted by verse number)

Bv: Buddhavaüsa - (quoted by book and line number)

Cp: Cariyapiñaka - (quoted by book and line number)

 

Translations, Studies etc.

Alsdorf, L: Die âryà-Strophen des Pàli Kanon, Mainz 1967

Bechert, H: "Alte Vedhas" im Pàli-Kanon, Gottingberg 1988

Bechert, H: A Metric `Vaçõaka' in the Pàli Scriptures, in Studies in Buddhism and Culture, Tokyo 1991

Boll‚e, W. B: Reverse Index of Dhammapada, Sutta Nipàta, Theragàthà, and Therãgàthà, with Parallels from the âràranga, Såyagaóa, Uttarajjhàya, Dasaveyàliya and Isibhàsiyàiü, Reinbeck 1980

Boll‚e, W. B: Kuõàla-Jàtaka (edition & translation, including a study of the Veóha metre), PTS 1970

Franke, R. O: Die Gàthàs des Dãghanikàya mit ihren Parallelen, JPTS 1909, contains parallels passages to the Dãgha verses, including Lakkhaõasuttanta

Franke, R. O: Konkordanz der Gàthàs des Majjhimanikàya, in Kleine Schriften vol 2, Wiesbaden 1978

Hare, E. M: Woven Cadences of Early Buddhists (trans of Sn), contains a complete concordance to the pàdas of Sn

Lienhard, S: Sur la Structure Poetique des Thera-Therãgàthà, JAs 1975

Moore, J. H: Metrical Analysis of the Pàli Itivuttaka, JAOS 28 1907

Norman, K .R: Elders Verses 1 (trans of Th), contains a list of the metres and metrical analysis in the Introduction, and a running commentary on the metres of the verses (EV 1)

Norman, K. R: Elders Verses II (trans of Thã), contains a list of the metres and metrical analysis in the Introduction, and a running commentary on the metres of the verses (EV II)

Norman, K. R: The Group of Discourses II (trans of Sn), contains a running commentary on the metres of the verses (GD II)

Norman, K. R: Word of the Doctrine (trans of Dhp), contains metrical analyses in the Introduction, and a running commentary on the metres of the verses (WD)

Norman, K. R: Collected Papers, Vol 3, 4, & 5 contain reconstructions of 3 metres found in Lakkhaõasuttanta (future volumes should include papers on the other metres found in this sutta). Vol 4, & 5 also have articles on gaõacchandas metres (CP).

Sakamoto-Goto, J: Les Stances en Màtràchandas dans le Jàtaka, Paris 1982

Simon, R: Der øloka im Pàli, ZDMG 1890

Smith, H: Conspectus terminorum (metricorum), in Saddanãti, Vol IV, Lund 1966 (reprinted Oxford 2001)

Smith, H: Epilegomena to Critical Pali-English dictionary Vol 1, Copenhagen 1947

Stede, W: The Pàdas of Thera- and Therã- gàthà, JPTS 1924-7

Warder, A. K: Introduction to Pàli, chapter 30 contains an all-too-brief outline of Pàëi metre (Intro)

Warder, A. K: Pàli Metre, the most comprehensive book on the subject studying the development of Pàëi metre against its historical background, contains many useful tables on usage (PM)

 

Other Abbreviations occuring in the literature

AMg: Ardhamàgadhã, the language of the Jaina Canon

Apa: Apabrahüsa, a late Pràkrit language

Be: Text in Burmese characters, usually refers to the relevant Chaññha Saïgàyana text

BHS: Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

Ce: Text in Sinhalese characters, usually refers to the relevant Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka text

Ee: Text in Roman characters, usually refers to the relevant PTS edition; or to the Harvard Oriental Series

m.c.: metri causa, the metre is the cause (of a change in word form)

MIA: Middle Indo-âryan = Pàëi & Pràkrit

OIA: Old Indo-âryan = Vedic & Classical Sanskrit

Pkt: Pràkrit

Se: Text in Thai characters, usually refers to the relevant Royal Thai edition of the text

Skt: Sanskrit

v.l.: variant reading (in the manuscripts)

v.r.: variant reading (in the commentaries, grammarians, etc.)

     

Home Page

One: Scansion and Related Matters    Two: Description of the Metres

a: Vatta    b: Tuññhubha    c: Measure Metres    d: Bar Metres    e: Fixed Metres

Three: The Mixing of Metres    Four: Glossary & Index

Five: The Evolution of Vatta & Tuññhubha    Six: Guide to Further Study