ནང་དོན་རིག་པའི་མིང་ཚིག བོད་བད་བྱིན་ཤན་སྦྱར།
Dictionary of
Buddhast Terminology
(Revised and Enlarged Edition)
Tsepak Rigdzin
Library of tibetan works and archives
ISBN: 81-85102-88-0
Published by the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, and printed at Indraprastha Press (CBT), 4 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi-110 002
It gives us pleasure to bring out this second edition of the Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology. The present edition has been revised and upgraded since it's first, and has been expanded with hundreds of new entries from various sources. For example, many new words have been added to the selected lists of terms from the Mahavyutpatti (༼བྱེ་བྲག་ཏུ་རྟོགས་པར་བྱེད་པ་ཆེན་མོ༽) and from many other collected writings and lexicons. Attempts have been made to provide Sanskrit equivalents wherever possible in Romanised transliterated form with care. The English translations and definitions have been selected to provide a general meaning aimed at leading to a deeper understanding of Buddhist concepts.
Of course, a project of such encyclopedic scope would be exceedingly difficult to complete single-handedly, if not impossible. Nonetheless, Mr. Tsepak Rigzin of the Library's Translation Bureau is to be recognized and congratulated for his vision in undertaking such a timely project, as well as for his painstaking labour.
It is hoped that this Dictionary will not only serve as a reference tool but also as a handy book for providing overview of Tibetan Buddhism. Both students and scholars of Tibetan Buddhist culture will find it useful.
Gyatsho Tshering DIRECTOR
When I was informed that a revised edition of my previous Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology was due, I was immediately reminded of both the features (and the flaws) of the first edition. Having never seen myself as a Tibetan Buddhist studies scholar or as a qualified translator, I must confess that the compliments and criticisms that I have received have been extremely rewarding. The entire process of compiling this dictionary, from beginning to end, has been an extremely rewarding learning experience. Over two thousand new entries have been incorporated in this edition—all within the short period of time derived from maximum usage of my office hours as well as of my weekend holidays. With the exception of some minor editing and changes, the majority of these new entries have been directly translated from the glossary found in the three volumes of the Grand Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary.
Many of the first edition's redundant entries have been reduced to a minimum by giving cross references wherever possible in Tibetan transliterated form following the Turrell Wylie system of transliteration. Attempts have been made to occasionally provide Sanskrit equivalents in romanised transliterated form based on the standard dictionaries (primarily splitting the words for better comprehension). The purpose of incorporating Sanskrit in romanised form is to enable more advanced students to go into a deeper study and research. Every care has been taken in revising and editing the Sanskrit words provided herein; although I do not claim these to be absolutely free of flaws. Readers are therefore advised to take care and caution while using these words. In all, I hope that the modifications and changes I have made will prove helpful to all readers. The unfortunate presence of any overlooked mistakes in this dictionary reflects the sheer gift of my own ignorance and carelessness.
Finally, I would like to add that the production of this edition has been a gross experience of the interdependent nature of my own life and the lives of my associates. Th'e biggest change has been the Library's purchase of a computer (an advantage not known during its first edition); but also the assistance of many well wishers and scholars. It is to these people that I give my inexpressible thanks: to the many teachers in my life who taught me everything from the alphabet to philosophy; Ku-Ngo Gyatsho Tshering, Director of this institute, for his unflagging interest and encouragement; Jeremy Russell, for his many years of association at the Translation Bureau; Ms. Marguerite Mullins for her moral support; Robert Moyer for his editorial assistance in revising the english part and Mr. Sangye Tandar, LTWA's Tibetan Language Officer for revising the Tibetan spellings; Dr. Christoph Cuppers, a learned Tibetologist friend, for his generous time and erudition in revising and editing the Sanskrit equivalents and for providing extremely valuable suggestions; Mr. Tsering Dhendup, our Computer Geshe for his guidance through the computer world; and finally to Scott Heftier, for finalization—design, layout, formatting, proof-reading, and incorporating corrections. Mr. Heftler's work was done on a Macintosh Classic that was kindly made available by the Tibetan Medical Institute's Dr. Namgyal Qusa'r.
As always, I thank all those whose moral support has actually caused me to move along with this project.
Tsepak Rigzin
Research and Translation Officer Library of Tibetan Works & Archives Dharamsala

This is a text of religious history, a will left by King Songtsen Gampo and concealed in a pillar marked with tree leaves in the Lhasa Cathedral, which was later discovered by the great teacher, AtiSa This text is also known by the name Guide to Lhasa (༼ལྷ་སའི་དཀར་ཆག༽).

[kātyāyana]/ A direct disciple of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] known especially for his knowledge of Vinaya, and who was also the founder of the Theravadin tradition, one of the four main schools of the Theravada tradition.

1. Primordially pure or pure from the beginning; the original mode of abidance of that which is basically unarisen; a term used in Nyingma teachings.
2. Emptiness.

Innately pure from the beginning; the primordial principle

The nature of primordial purity; the primordial reality.

The primordial breakthrough-path. A core transmission of the secret ༼རྫོག་ཆེན༽ practice, the quintessential instruction for liberating lazy disciples effortlessly. Through the mastering of this instruction one is able to maintain the meaning of primordial reality in its instinctive and natural mode by way of gaining awareness within oneself, reaching a conclusion upon hearing the words and introducing inner confidence upon liberation, through understanding the intrinsically abiding self-arisen primordial mind otherwise stabilized but to be released oniy by means of four modes of liberating it (see ༼གྲོལ་ལུགས་ཆེན་པོ་བཞི༽).

Kadampa Desheg. His real name is Sherab Senge, but is also known by the name Pobpa Thaye. Born in the Water-Tiger year (1122) of the second sexagenerary at Dokham, eastern Tibet, he built Kathog monastery in the Palyul district of the Kham region. He was a great master belonging to the Nyingma tradition. He died in the Water-Mouse year (1192).

Spear-noose; harpoon; a spear with a noose at its end used as a tantric implement.

Kanis.ka/ An early Indian King. With his military power he conquered small kingdom and build the Ganghola kingdom during the first century, but at the end of his life became a Buddhist and erected many temples and stupas. He accepted [ācārya āryaṡūra] (༼རྟ་དབྱངས༽) as his teacher and patronized Buddhist activities. He also invited many Arhats to Kashmir and composed the treatise known as [mahāvibhanga] (༼བྱེ་བྲག་ཆེན་པོ༽).

[kamalaṡīla]/ An Indian [ācārya] professing the philosophy of the [yogācārya] [madhyamaka] school which developed in the eastern part of India during the eighth century A.D. During the reign of King Tri-Song Deu-Tsan he was invited to Tibet and defeated the Chinese monk Hashang [mahāyāna] holding 'ton-mun', the instantaneous path of enlightenment, as opposed to the Bodhisattva doctrine of 'chen-min', the gradual path of enlightenment, in a philosophical contest. As a consequence, he wrote Triple Stages to Enlightenment (sgom-rim rnam gsum) and established the latter tradition of doctrine.

A stupa with four gates built on the highway north of the Lhasa cathedral. It is believed to be a holy place where the great meditator, Thangtong Gyalpo spent many years practising meditation before 1368 A.D.

The Karma Kagyud Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism; one of the many lineages of Kagyud traditions founded by the first Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa (1110-1193), who was a distinguished disciple of Gampopa (see ༼སྒམ་པོ་པ༽). He established Tsurphu Monastery, the main seat of his tradition, in the north-west of Lhasa. In India, the main centre of Karma Kagyud has been re-established in Rumtek, Sikkim.

That which pronounces ki-li ki-li, one of the eight cemeteries (see ༼དུར་ཁྲོད་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱད༽).

[kumārajiva]. A a great translator from Kotan (li-yul). His father, although of Indian origin, married a princess of a northern Kotan (li-yul) king, and gave birth to this translator there. At a young age he entered monkhood, and received the name Zhonu Tsering. He studied Sanskrit language and Hinayana Buddhist doctrines, but later entered into [mahāyāna] tradition and became erudite in the Middle View philosophy. He was proficient in both Tibetan and Chinese language. He translated the Diamond Cut [sūtra] and major and minor texts of the Wisdom Perfection texts, the White Lotus [sūtra], the Stainless Wisdom [sūtra], the Root Middle Way text of [nāgārjuna], [āryadeva]'s Four Hundred Stanzas and many other treatises. He had many disciples and passed away at the age of seventy.

A goddess of power called Rigje-ma (༼རིག་བྱེད་མ༽) common to Sakya's golden transmission lineage (༼གསེར་ཆོས༽).

The [kuṡa] grass, literally meaning that which dispels evil or the supreme grass. It has a fine and rich, crispy tassel of leaves, it is sweet flavoured, moderate to digest, and has the power to prolong one's life and increase the essential energy of the human body.

[kuṡinagarī]/ The city of Kusha, Kushinagara where Buddha

[ṡakyamuni] passed away into [parinirvāṇa]. Located close to the border of India and Nepal near Gorakhpur.

An Indian pandit who was invited to Tibet during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo. He translated many tantric texts of different levels from Sanskrit into Tibetan.

A Yogi mendicant; a yogi who practices the art of tantric exorcism and penance.

A cut-ritual (༼གཅོད༽) practice in which one offers one's body as a feast (༼ཚོག༽) to accumulate merit.

The ever-binding factors; fetters. Those categories of delusions that are responsible for making repeated obstacles for one's mind during meditation on calm-abiding ([ṡamatha]) and equanimity ([upekṣā]/ ༼བཏང་སྙོམས༽). There are four (see ༼ཀུན་དཀྲིས་བཞི༽) and three levels of wrong activities which can be categorized as follows. If a wrong activity is committed fulfilling all the four factors, such a wrong activity becomes great; if only the first, i.e. not regarding a breach as a fault, is present and the others are absent, such a wrong activity becomes middling; and if all other three are present, except not regarding a breach as fault, it becomes weak.

[aṣṭa paryavasthāna]/ The eight ever-binding factors; eight fetters. The delusions that disturbs the mind repeatedly during meditation on calm-abiding ([ṡamatha]) and equanimity (btang-snyoms). These are:
1. རྨུགས་པ [styāna]/ mental sloth
2. གཉིད། [middha]/ sleep
3. རྒོད་པ། [auddhatya]/ agitation
4. འགྱོད་པ། [kaukaṛtyam]/ regret
5. ཕྲག་དོག [īrṣyā]/ jealousy
6. སེར་སྣ། [mātsarya]/ miserliness
7. ངོ་ཚ་མེད་པ། [ahrīkya]/ lack of shame
8. ཁྲེལ་མེད་པ། [anapatrāpyam]/ lack of concern for others.

[daṡa paryavasthāna]/ The ten ever-binding factors; the ten fetters: 1-8. (see ༼ཀུན་དཀྲིས་བརྒྱད༽)
9. ཁྲོ་བ། [krodha]/ anger
10. འཆབ་པ། [mrakṣa]/ concealment.

[catvāri paryavasthāna]/The four ever-binding factors; the four fetters. A breach of the Bodhisattva or tantric vows is complete if these four factors are present:
1. ཉེས་དམིགས་མི་ལྷ་བ། not regarding the breach as wrong
2. སྤྱོད་འདོད་མ་ལོག་པ། not wishing to avoid it in the future
3. དགའ་མགུ་བྱེད་པ། rejoicing in misdeeds
4. ངོ་ཚ་དང་ཁྲེལ་མེད་པ། not being ashamed or embarrassed.

The Omniscient Lama Longchen Rabjam (1308-1363). A Nyingma Lama regarded as a great visionary by all the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism; who was influenced greatly by a vision of [ācārya Padmasambhava]. Out of more than two hundred treatises some of his major works include the Seven Treasures (see ༼ཀློང་ཆེན་མཛོད་བདུན༽), Triple Relaxation (༼ངལ་གསོ་སྐོར་གསུམ༽) and Triple Self Liberation (༼རང་གྲོལ་སྐོར་གསུམ༽).

[saṃṃatīya]/ A school of Buddhist philosophy (see ༼མང་པོས་བཀུར་བའི་སྡེ༽).

The real name of [sakya paṇḍita] (see ༼ས་སྐྱ་པནྡི་ཏ༽).

Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158). One of the five foremost masters of the Sakya tradition. He was the abbot of the Sakya monastic university at Sakya for forty-six years.

[ānanda]; one of the twelve close disciples of Buddha [ṡakyamuni] known for his knowledge of scriptures. He was second of the seven hierarchs (see ༼སྟོན་པའི་གཏད་རབས་བདུན༽) after the passing away of Buddha and recited by heart the [sūtrapitaka] during the first council held at [rājagṛha]. He was also one of the main disciples who attended Buddha's teachings on the four tantras of medicine.

A. Space B. Snake С. Mental factor or factors (see ཀུན་འགྲོ་ལྔ།) that accompanies every instance of mind or mental activity.

[paсca sarvagaḥ]/ Five ever-functioning mental factors. Mental factors that accompany every instance of mind and mental activity. These are:
1. ཚོར་བ [vedanā]/ feeling
2. འདུ་ཤེས། [saṃjсā]/ recognition
3. སེམས་པ [centanā]/ perception
4. རེག་པ། [sparṡa]/ contact
5. ཡིད་ལ་བྱེད་པ། [manasikāra]/ attention.

Ever-functioning cause. One of the six types of causes (see ༼རྒྱུ་དྲུག༽). Those delusions (phra-rgyas) that occur in or travel through all the three realms of existence and act as an obstacle for attaining the state of liberation ([nirvāṇa]).

The five feelings (see ༼ཙོར་བ་ཨཱིང༽) within the mental continuum of ordinary persons.

The five great disciples; the five ascetics (see ༼འཁོར་ལྔ་སྡེ་བཟང་པོ༽).

[maskarin Goṡalīputra]. One of the six non-Buddhist teachers; a self-professed teacher of Hindu philosphy during the time of Buddha [ṡakyamuni]. He taught that the sufferings of all sentient beings were spontaneous without any reliance upon causes and conditions.

[ādeṡanā prātihārya]/ Miracle of speech. The power of Buddha enables him to read others minds (meritorious or non-meritorious) and teach accordingly.

[parikalpita lakṣaṇa]/ Imputed phenomena. One of the three phenomena (see ༼མཙན་ཉིད་གསུམ༽). The existence of a thing by mere conceptual labelling, i.e. the confused mind labels persons and phenomena by misconception and identifies existents as I, self, mine or name, upon imputation.

[samantabhadra]/ A. Those existents that are pure or virtuous throughout all of its parts. B. The sphere of reality ([dharmadhātu]) or the nature truth body ([dharmakāya]). С. [tathāgata samantabhadra]. D. Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, one of the eight close spiritual sons of Buddha [ṡakyamuni] (see ༼ཉེ་བའི་སྲས་བརྒྱད༽). E. According to the Bon tradition, the complete enjoyment body ([sambhogakāya]).

[saṃkalpa]/ A. Thorough investigation; the process of
conceptual analysis. В. Thoughts, concepts, conceptualization and imagination.

[parikalpita]/ Conceptual imputation; intellectual imputation; artificial labelling or imputation. Misconception of the true nature of phenomena developed through reasoning rooted in philosophical and intellectual study or training.

The two types of imputed phenomena
1. རྣམ་གྲངས་པའི་ཀུན་བརྟགས། [pariyāya parikalpita]/ nominally imputed phenomena
2. མཚན་ ཉིད་ཡོངས་སུ་ཆད་པའི་ཀུན་བརྟགས། [alakṣaṇa parikalpita]/ imputed phenomena lacking identity.

[parikalpita rūpa]/ Imputed form. Forms seen in imagination, e.g. horse, elephant, house, etc., seen in a dream, and seeing all surroundings filled with skeletons in concentration meditation ([samādhi]).

[parikalpita kleṡa]/ Imputed delusions. Deluded views and such that disturb the peace of mind as a result of wrong conceptual labelling of the meaning of reality imposed by a mind tainted with a wrong philosophy.

[parikalpita avidyā]/ Imputed ignorance. Lack of understanding of the mode of reality of phenomena conjoined with deluded views of a wrong philosophy.

[parikalpita bala]/ Power of imputation. Lack of attachment towards all outer and inner phenomena; having seen all phenomena as being empty and lacking self nature through wisdom combined with concentration ([samādhi]).

A monastery established in the Wood-Tiger year (1794) located to the south-west of the Potala palace in Lhasa Tagtra Rinpoche was the chief Lama of this monastery. Two masters of this lineage have been regents of Tibet.

Seven abandonments of the truth of origin. The seven things abandoned by a person having seen the truth of origin of all sufferings within this desire realm. These are:
1. མ་རིག་པ། [avidyā]/ ignorance
2. འདོད་ཆགས། [rāga]/ desire-attachment
3. ཁོང་ཁྲོ། [pratigha]/ hatred-anger
4. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ pride
5. ཐེ་ཚོམ། [vicikitsā]/ doubt
6. ལོག་ལྟ། [mithyādṛṣṭi]/ wrong views
7. ལྟ་བ་མཆོག་ཛིན། [dṛṣṭiparāmarṡa]/ views holding wrong moral disciplines as superior.

Literally 'all-shaking'. This refers to the central energy channel. It is called this because the central energy channel is responsible for generating the essential drop, bliss within energy, and bliss from wind-energy.

[saṁkleṡa]/ Thoroughly afflicted phenomena The six primary delusions (see ༼རཏཟ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽) and twenty near-delusions (see ༼ཉེ་ཉོན་ཉི་ཤུ༽) motivated by cause or intent that motivates.

[saṁkleṡa vaiyadānika]/ Thoroughly afflicted and purified phenomena. The ever-afflictive and the ever-wholesome side of phenomena The truth of suffering and origin are the ever-afflictive and the truth of cessation and path are the ever-wholesome side.

[samkleṡa satya]/ The thoroughly afflicted phenomena This refers to the truth of origin of suffering.

The fourteen faculties of the ever-afflicted phenomena 1-6. མིག་གི་དབང་པོ་ནས་ཡིད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ་བར་དྲུབ། eye faculty to mental faculty.
7. ཕོའི་དབང་པོ [puruṣendriya]/ faculty of maleness
8. མོའི་དབང་པོ། [strīndriya]/ faculty of femaleness
9. སྲོག་གི་དབང་པོ། [jīviendriya]/ faculty of life-force
10. བདེ་བའི་དབང་པོ། [sukhendriya]/ faculty of joy
11. སྡུག་བསྔལ་གྱི་དབང་པོ། [duḥkhendriya]/ faculty of suffering
12. ཡིད་བདེའི་དབང་པོ། [sauamasyendriya]/ faculty of mental pleasure
13. ཡིད་མི་བདེའི་དབང་པོ། [daurmanasyendriya]/ faculty of mental displeasure
14. བཏང་སྙོམས་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། [upekṣendriya]/ faculty of neutrality.

The fifty three divisions of ever-afflicted phenomena: 1-5. ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ། [paсca skandha]/ five aggregates (see ༼ཕུང་པོ་ཨཱིང༽) 6-11. དབང་པོ་དྲུག [ṣaḍ indriya]/ six sense faculties (see ༼དབང་པོ་དྲུག༽) 12-17. རྣམ་ཤེས་དྲུག [ṣaḍ vijсana]/ six consciousnesses (see ༼རྣམ་ཤེས་ཙོགས་བརྒྱད༽, 1-6)18-23. ཡུལ་དྲུབ། སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག [ṣaḍ saṃvṛta]/ six sources of perception (see ༼བསྐྱེད་མཆེད་དྲུག༽) 24-29.རེག་པ་དྲུག [ṣaḍ sparṡa]/ six contacts (see ༼རེག་པ་དྲུག༽) 30-35. ཚོར་བ་དྲུག [ṣaḍ vedanā]/ six feelings (see ༼ཙོར་བ་དྲུག༽) 36-41. འབྱུང་བ་དྲུག [ṣaḍ bhūta]/ six elements (༼འབྱུང་བ་དྲུག༽) 42-53. རྟེན་འབྲེལ་བཅུ་གཉིས། [dvadaṡanga pratītyasamutpāda]/ twelve links of interdependent origination (see ༼རྟེན་འབྲེལ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས༽).

A. Complete abandonment or thorough release. B. The
primary vein (༼རཏཟ༽) of the heart. С A mendicant, a recluse. D. The state of liberation ([nirvāṇa]).

The universal principle.
A. Mind or consciousness.
B. Emptiness.
С. The god, Brahma
D. In ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན༽ doctrine it refers to the basic mind, the [tathāgata] essence or Buddha nature which is the origin of all phenomena within [saṁsara] and beyond, or the basis or source of all misconceptions and liberation. E. A tantric text in Nyingma secret mantrayana. Its full name is: ༼བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ཀུན་བྱེད་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལྟ་བ་ནམ་མཁའ་ལྟར་མཏཧའ་བདུས་མེད་པའི་རྒྱུད་ལེའུ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་རཏཟ་བཞི་པ༽. ([sarva dharma mahaṡanti bodhicittakulayarāja]) Translated by Szri Sengha and Vairocana.

The truth of origin of suffering. All those karma and delusions that become causes for the origination of the impure world and its inhabitants including the human body.

[catvāri saṁvṛttisatya guṇa]/ The four features of the truth of the origin of suffering.
1. རྒྱུ། [hetu]/ cause
2. ཀུན་འབྱུང་། [samudaya]/ origin of all
3. རབ་སྐྱེས། [prabhava]/ production
4. རྐྱེན། [pratyayaḥ]/ condition.

[aṣṭa samudaya satyaguṇa]/ The eight features of the truth of origin.
1. འདོད་ཆགས་དང་བྲལ་བའི་རྣམ་པ། turning away from desire-attachment
2. མི་གནས་པའི་རྣམ་པ། non-abidance
3. ཞི་བའི་རྣམ་པ། peacefulness
4. འདོད་ཆགས་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། lack of desire-attachment
5. ཞེ་སྡང་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། lack of hatred-anger
6. གཏི་མུག་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། lack of closed-mindedness
7. ཉོན་མོངས་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། lack of delusion
8. སེམས་ཅན་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། lack of sentient beings.

[tri saṁyojana]/ The three constant fetters; three ever-binding factors. These refer to the three types of delusions that are abandoned upon reaching the Path of Seeing (third of the five paths).
1. འཟིག་ལྟ་ཀུན་བཏགས། [satkayadṛṣṭi]/ the intellectually acquired view of the transitory collection (of I or mine) that obstructs a person from achieving liberation
2. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་དང་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་མཆོག་འཛིན། [ṡīlavrata parāmarṡa]/ the view that holds wrong moral disciplines and practices as superior and that obstructs a person by way of taking a wrong path as the right path
3. ཐེ་ཚོམས་ཉོན་མོངས་ཅན། [kliṣṭa vicikitsā]/ doubt that obstructs a person by generating a wavering attitude towards the (right) path.

[nava saṁyojana]/ The nine constant fetters; nine ever-binding factors. These are the ever-binding:
1. རྗེས་སུ་ཆགས་པ། [rāga]/ attachment
2. ཁོང་ཁྲོ་བ། [krodha]/ anger
3. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ egotistic pride
4. མ་རིག་པ [avidya]/ ignorance
5. ལྟ་བ། [dṛṣṭi]/ wrong view
6. མཆོག་འཛིན། [parāmarsza dṛṣṭi]/ view of superiority
7. ཐེ་ཚོམ། [vicikitsā]/doubt
8. ཕྲག་དོག [irṣyā]/jealousy
9. སེར་སྣ། [mātsarya]/ miserliness.

The obscuring conventional phenomena. One of the three conventional truths. For instance, an illusion, a mirage, a cataract (༼མི་ཡོར༽), etc., that cannot perform their respective functions properly.

[saṁvṛti ṡaraṇa]/ The conventional refuge; the conventional object of worship, e.g. an image of Buddha [ṡakyamuni].

The two conventional existences; the two types of relative existence.
1. ཡང་དག་ཀུན་རྫོབ། [saṃyag saṃvṛti]/ correct conventional truth, e.g. a pillar
2. ལོག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ། [mithya saṃvṛti]/ incorrect conventional truth, e.g. a mirror image.

[saṁvrti pratijсāna]/ A. Wisdom that has gained mastery over the five sciences of learning (see ༼རིག་པའི་གནས་ཨཱིང༽). B. Wisdom understanding conventional phenomena; the discriminative awareness that understands things on the conventional level of truth, e.g. a wisdom understanding the illusory nature of phenomena.

[saṁvṛti satya]/ The conventional truth; the relative truth; generally referring to phenomena other than emptiness.

[saṁvṛti bodhicitta]/ The conventional bodhicitta; the conventional mind of enlightenment. This includes the wishing bodhicitta (see ༼སྨོན་པ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽) and the committed bodhicitta (see ༼འཇུག་པ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽).

The three types of conventional truths. These are:
1. ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཀྱི་ཀུན་རྫོབ། conventional nature of the conventional truth.
2. ཡང་དག་པ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ། incorrect conventional truth and
3. ཡང་དག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ། correct conventional truth. Or:
1. བཏགས་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ། [upacāra saṃvṛti]/ the imputed conventional existence
2. ཤེས་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ། the known conventional existence
3. བརྫོད་པའི་ཀུན་ རྫོབ།the expressed conventional existence.

[ālayavijсana]/ The foundational consciousness; mind basis of all; one of the eight types of consciousnesses (see ༼རྣམ་ཤེས་ཙོགས་བརྒྱད༽) asserted by the Mind Only school of Buddhist philosophy; believed to be primary and the store-house of all mental imprints.

The point at the heart level where all energy channels are collected.

[samantabhadra pūjāmegha]/ A cloud of Samantabhadra's offerings; in the [s_utra] tradition this refers to the panoply of offerings filling all of space and formed by Bodhisattva's holding one material of offering from which emanates many duplicates, each emanating further duplicates; in the tantra tradition this refers to an offering of non-duality of bliss and emptiness.

In the Nyingma tradition this refers to the doctnne of ༼ཛོག་པ་ཆེན་པོ༽.

[samutthāna]/ Motivation; a primary consciousness directed towards a goal. There are two types of motivation.
1. རྒྱུའི་ཀུན་ སློང་། causal motivation
2. དུས་ཀྱི་ཀུན་སློང་། actual motivation at the time of action.

Kongtrul Yonten Gyatso (1813-1899). Also knows as Garwang Lodoe Thaye, was born in the Water-Bird year of the fourteenth sexagenerary at Dokham. He compiled The Jewel Treasure (༼རིན་ཆེན་གཏེར་མཛོད༽), The Instruction Treasure (༼གདམས་ངག་མཛོད༽) and The Secret Transmission Treasure (༼བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་སྔགས་མཛོད༽), and discovered The Treasure of Knowledge (༼ཤེས་བྱ་མཛོད༽) and The Uncommon Secret Treasure (༼ཐུན་མིན་གསང་བའི་མཛོད༽). These are known as the Five Treasures. He composed texts on medicine, poetry and others, comprising almost a hundred volumes in all.

[nāga]/ A kind of being regarded as belonging to the animal class; believed to abide in subterranean realms, having control over rain, ponds, rivers and soil productivity. Some are helpers while others can bring retribution if disturbed. Often in Buddhist art and in written accounts, they are portrayed as being half man and half snake. Generally serpents and snakes are recognised as nagas.

[nāgārjuna]/ The great [nāgārjuna], founder of the Madhyamaka school of philosophy and of the lineage of the profound teachings of emptiness (see ༼ཟབ་མོ་ལྟ་བརྒྱུད༽). His works include The Six Treatises (see ༼རིགས་ཚོགས་དྲུག༽), Letter to a King (༼བཤེས་སྤྲིང༽), and Jewel Garland (༼རིན་ཆེན་ཕྲེང་བ༽).

The seven spiritual sons of [nāgārjuna].
1. ཤྭཀྱ་མི་ཏྲ། [ṡākyamitra]
2. ཀླུའི་བྱང་ཆུབ། [nāgabodhi]
3. འཕགས་པ་ལྷ། [āryadeva]
4. མ་ཏང་ཀི། [mataṅga]
5. སངས་རྒྱས་བསྐྱངས། [buddhapalita]
6. ལེགས་ལྡན་འབྱེད། [bhāvaviveka]
7. སློབ་དཔོན་དཔའ་བོ། [aṡvaghoṡa].

[aṣṭa mahā nāgarāja]/ The eight [nāga] kings. There are two ways of listing these. A. I. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མཐའ་ཡས། [nāgarāja Ananta]

2. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་འཇོག་པོ། [nāgarāja Takṣaka]
3. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྟོབས་རྒྱུ། [nāgarāja Karkoṭaka]
4. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རིགས་ལྡན། [nāgarāja Kulika]
5. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པ་ནོར་རྒྱས། [nāgarāja vāsuki]
6. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་དུང་སྐྱོང་། [nāgarāja Saṅkhapāla]
7. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་པད་མ། [nāgarāja Padma]
8. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཝ་རུ་ཎ། [nāgarāja Varuṇa] B. 1-7. as listed in A and
8. ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་པད་མ་ཆེན་པོ། [nāgarāja Mahāpadma].

A. Malignant or harmful nagas. B. Lord of the earth. There are two types of these, known as [nāgas] or ༼གཉན་༽. These are spirits belonging to the category of animals or hungry ghost.

A treasure doctrine of the Nyingma tradition, mind-revelation of Rigzin Jigme Lingpa (1729-1798).

The seven treasure texts. The treatises composed by Longchen Rabjampa (see ༼ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས༽), a fourteenth century master of the Nyingma tradition. These are:
1. གྲུབ་མཐའ་མཛོད། The Treasure of Philosophy
2. ཐེག་ཆེན་མཛོད། The Greater Vehicle Treasure
3. ཡིད་བཞིན་མཛོད། The Wish Granting Treasure
4. མན་ངག་མཛོད། The Treasure of Transmission
5. ཆོས་དབྱིངས་མཛོད། The Treasure of Reality
6. གནས་ལུགས་མཛོད། The Treasure of Nature
7. ཚིག་དོན་མཛོད། The Treasure of Words and Meanings.

The great master Longchen Rabjampa (see ༼ཀུན་མཧཡེན་ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས༽).

The Centrists. A transmission of Atiyoga practice within ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན་༽ doctrine, the lineage of which comes from Longde Dorje Zampa, [ācārya ṡri Simha] the great translator,
Vairocana and others. This doctrine professes that within the self-arisen primordial wisdom, i.e. the subjective ever wholesome wisdom, all appearances of objective phenomena dissolve into their own mode of appearance. Since both subjective wisdom and the objective phenomena do not exist as being subject and object, therefore, without applying analysis as to whether they are existent or not, all phenomena are by nature established in their primordial state of liberation and unlimited sphere of reality.

[tapas]/ Asceticism; austere practices.

The three lay masters of Sakya tradition.
1. Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158)
2. Sonam Tzemo (1142-1182)
3. Jetsun Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1158).

The power of the white seed. The strong determination to collect merit and eliminate obstacles in order to develop an enlightened attitude; one of the five powers (see ༼སྟོབས་ལྔ༽); the wish to be able to develop the enlightened attitude in one's future lifetimes, generated at the time of death.

White karma; wholesome karma. The process of activity whereby happiness and fortunate consequences follow as the result of previously committed virtuous actions. Synonymous with all virtuous actions.

[catvāri ṡukladharma]/ The four white actions; the four wholesome actions. The four virtuous actions producing white karmic results which prevent the degeneration of bodhicitta, the enlightened motive of a Bodhisattva, namely:
1. སྲོག་གམ་ཐན་བཞད་གད་ཀྱི་ཕྱིར་ཡང་ཤེས་བཞིན་དུ་རྫུན་མི་སྨྲ་བ། abandoning consciously telling lies at the cost of one's life or even for a joke
2. སེམས་ཅན་ལ་གཡོ་སྒྱུ་མེད་པར་བསམ་པ་དྲང་པོར་གནས་པ། being unbiased in helping all sentient beings without having ulteriour thoughts
3. སེམས་ཅན་ཀུན་ལ་སྟོན་པའི་འདུ་ཤེས་སྐྱེད་ཅིང་དོན་གནས་ཀྱི་བསྔགས་པ་བརྗོད་པ། recognizing all Bodhisattvas as teachers and praising them as they deserve throughout the four directions 4. གདུལ་བྱ་རྣམས་ཉི་ཚེ་བའི་ཐེག་པར་མི་འདོར་བར་རྫོགས་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་འཛིན་དུ་འཇུག་པ། inspiring all sentient beings to strive for the attainment of supreme enlightenment.

The gods and goddesses of the white side. This includes all divinities that align with the virtuous and righteous factions.

[dhana]/ Spiritual material. Offerings made to the objects of refuge, in a temple, to a monastic community or to an individual lama. It can also means offerings misused by a monk or nun or else monks and nuns spoiled by too many offerings.

[maṇḍala]/ A. Round shaped, e.g. the full moon. B. A complete feature of something, e.g. of face. С In (antra, this constitutes the complete celestial mansion or abode of a principal deity surrounded by his or her retinue, representing the paths and fruits of that particular cycle of practices. Often mandates may be either painted on a scroll, carved on wood or drawn with coloured sand.

The supramundane victorious [maṇḍala] . Also called ༼དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་རྒྱལ་མཆོག་གི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན༽. Roughly translated as meditation on the supramandane deity, one of the three stages of meditation on the generation stage practice of (antra, in which one visualizes and places all deities of a particular cycle of practice in their respective place of the [maṇḍala] by imagining them as having emanated from the essential drop of the principal deity in union with his or her partner.

[buddha vacana]/ Teachings or words of Buddha. Either originally spoken by Buddha himself, recorded in any of the three collections (༼ལུང་གི་སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ༽) or the insight and realizations (༼རྟོགས་པའི་ཆོས༽) within Buddha's mental continuum.

Kagyud Tradition. One of the four Tibetan Buddhist traditions holding the commissioned lineage of Buddha Vajradhara. In Tibet, this transmission was divided into two schools, the Shangpa Kagyud started by Mahasiddha Kyungpo Nyaljor (978-1079) and the Dakpo Kagyud by Lhodrak Marpa (1012-1099). The Dakpo Kagyud tradition was further divided into four sub-schools known as the four major schools of the Kagyud tradition (see ༼བཀ་བརྒྱུད་ཆེ་བཞི༽) and its sub-school. Phagdu Kagyud developed into eight sub-schools known as Digung, Taglung, Drugpa, Yasang, Trophu, Shugseb, Yelpa and Martsang.

The four major schools of the Kagyud tradition.
1. འབའ་རོམ། Barong Kagyud established by Barompa Darma Wangchuk
2. ཕག་གྲུ Phagdru Kagyud established by Phagdru Dorjee Gyalpo (1110-1170)
3. ཀརྨ་ཚང་། Karma Kagyud established by Karma Duesum Khyenpa (1110-1193)
4. ཚལ་པ། Tsalpa Kagyud established by Tsalpa Tsondru Dakpa, a disciple of Ongom Tsultrim Nyingpo.

Kangyur; the collection of Buddha's teachings translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan, generally consisting of 108 volumes, but the number varies according to different editions.

Kachen; the title or academic degree awarded at Tashi Lhunpo monastery, probably equivalent to the Geshe Degree of other monastic institutions.

[ājсakara]/ Attendant; member of a retinue; minister.

A. The collection of Buddhist canons, the teachings of Buddha and their commentaries by Indian master-scholars; the former consists of 108 volumes and the latter 225, varying slightly according to the edition. B. The collection of sacred scriptures.

The Annals; the five prophetic texts. The five texts left as wills by Guru Padmasambhava as discovered by Ogyan Lingpa from Samye and Yeldag in the Wood-Bird year (1285) of the fifth sexagenerary. These are texts concerning:
1. རྒྱལ་པོ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the king (༼རྒྱལ་པོ་བཀའ་ཐང༽)
2. བཙུན་མོ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the queen (༼བཙུན་མོ་བཀའ་ཐང༽)
3. བློན་པོ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the ministers (༼བློང་པོ་བཀའ་ཐང༽)
4. ལོ་པཎ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the scholars and translators (༼ལོ་པན་བཀའ་ཐང༽)
5. ལྷ་འདྲེ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the gods and spirits (༼ལྷ་འདྲེ་བཀའ་ཐང༽).

[tri parigrahaka gurū]/ He possessing the three kindnesses. According to the [sūtra] tradition, this refers to a spiritual master from whom one has received vows, teachings and oral tansmission, and according to tantra, this refers to a spiritual master from whom one has received initiation, tantric teachings and oral transmissions.

Kadampa tradition. A tradition of Tibetan Buddhism founded by [atiṡa]. Dromtonpa, Potowa and Chekawa are some of the great masters belonging to this tradition.

The three spiritual brothers of the Kadampa tradition.
1. ཕུ་ཆུང་པ་གཞོན་ནུ་རྒྱལ་མཚན། Puchungwa Zhonu Gyaltsen
2. པོ་ཏོ་བ་རིན་ཆེན་གསལ། Potowa Rinchen Sel
3. སྤྱན་སྔ་བ་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་འབར། Chengwa Tsultrim Bar.

The Kadampa tradition accepting the three doctrine and four deities (see ༼བཀའ་གདམས་ལྷ་ཆོས་བདུན༽) passed down from Dromtonpa to Je Tsong Khapa.

The Kadampa's teachings. These constitute the basic view or philosophy as transmitted by the founder of the Kadampa tradition, [atiṡa], to Chen-ngawa on the Four Noble Truths, the transmission of teachings on dependent arising as transmitted by Phuchungba, and the teachings on the two truths (conventional and ultimate) as transmitted by Naljorpa.

The father and son transmission of Kadampa doctrine. The secret transmission of the Kadampa tradition, rooted in Atisha as received by Dromtonpa Gyalwe Jungne, is known as the father-transmission (pha-chos): that received by Ngog Loden

Sherab and Khuton Tsondm is known as the son-transmission (bu-chos).

The ten innermost jewels of the Kadampa tradition. A. གཏད་པ་བཞི། The four entrustments:
1. བློ་ཕུགས་ཆོས་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to the dharma as the simplest way of thought
2. ཆོས་ཕུགས་སྤྲང་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to poverty as the simplest way of practising dharma
3. སྤྲང་ཕུགས་ཤི་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to death as the extreme consequence of poverty
4. ཤི་ཕུགས་གྲོག་པོ་སྐམ་པོ་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to an empty cave as the simplest place to die.
B. རྡོ་རྗེ་གསུམ། The three diamond hard resolutions:
1. ཐེབས་མེད་རྡོ་རྗེ། the resolution to reject objections
from parents, etc. to one's practising in seclusion
2. ཁྲོལ་མེད་རྡོ་རྗེ། the resolution to face embarrassment
3. ཡེ་ཤེས་རྡོ་རྗེ་དང་འགྲོགས་པ། the resolution to abide by promised practices.
С བུད་སྙེགས་ཐོབ་གསུམ། The three-expulsion, finding and attaining:
1. མི་གྲལ་ནས་བུད། self expulsion from human society
2. ཁྱི་གྲལ་སྙེགས། finding the company of dogs
3. ལྷ་གྲལ་ཐོབ། attaining heavenly status.

The Kadampa palace, name of two chambers at Radreng and Tashi Lhunpo.

Kadampas of the instruction lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Chen-ngawa to Jayulwa, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with the Heart [sūtra] of Dependent Origination and oral transmission of the masters.

The fundamental texts of Kadampa tradition. Entering the Two Truths བདེན་གཉིས་ལ་འཇུག་པ and Instruction on Middle View དབུ་མའི་མན་ངག composed by [atiṡa], primarily concerning the middle way teaching; Lamp of Essential Moral Conduct སྤྱོད་བསྡུས་སྒྲོན་མེ། and Essential Conduct སྤྱོད་བསྡུས། primarily concerning activity or behavior; and Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment བྱང་ཆུབ་ལམ་སྒྲོན། concerning both.

The six texts of Kadampa tradition. Treatises which formed the fundamental basis of practice of the past Kadampa masters. These are: Life Stories of Buddha སྐྱེས་རབས། and Specific Teachings ཆེད་དུ་བརྗོད་པའི་ཚོམས། for inspiring faith and devotion; Bodhisattva Grounds བྱང་ས། and Ornament of Collection of [sūtras] མདོ་སྡོ་རྒྱན། for producing meditative concentration; and Guide to Bodhisattva's Way of Life སྤྱོད་འཇུག and Compendium of Precepts བསླབ་བཏུས། for developing wholesome behavior.

Kadampas of the textual lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Geshe Potowa to Sharawa, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with the major texts of the Kadampa tradition (see ༼བཀའ་གདམས་གཞུང་དྲུག༽).

Kadampas of the path lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Gonpowa to Neuzur, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with miscellaneous texts of the Kadampa tradition.

The four deities of the Kadampa tradition; the four divinities
of the Kadampas.
1. ཐུབ་པ། Buddha [ṡākyamuni]
2. སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས། [avalokiteṡvara]
3. ་སྒྲོལ་མ། [Та_га_]
4. མི་གཡོ་བ། [acalā].

The four deities and three texts of the Kadampa tradition. 1-4. (see ༼བཀའ་གདམས་ལྷ་བཞི༽). 5-7. (see ༼སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ༽).

The New Kadampa. The lineage of teachings directly originating from Tsong Khapa, based on the examples of the life and deeds of past Kadampa masters inclusive of the middle way view and secret mantrayana paths. This refers to the Gelug tradition.

The Three Buddhist Councils. The first council was held during the same summer of the Buddha's passing into [parinirvāṇa] at [rājagṛha] sponsored by King [ajātaṡatru], in which [ānanda] recited the collection of [sūtra] teachings and [upāli] recited the collection of Abhidharma teachings. The second council was held 110 years after Buddha's pan[nirvāṇa] at [vaishālī] sponsored by King [ashoka]. At that time, monks, especially from Magadha, who had transgressed their vows were expelled and thus the code of monastic discipline was revised. The third council was held at Pataliputra 137 years after Buddha's passing into [parinirvāṇa] during the reign of King [kaniṣka]. The purpose of this council was to create harmony amongst the different schools of philosophy.

The five major texts. The five subjects of Buddhist philosophy studied in the Geshe Degree curriculum in the great monastic universities of Tibet and India.
1. ཕར་ཕྱིན། [prajсapāramitā]/ Perfection of Wisdom
2. དབུ་མ། [madhyamaka]/ Middle Way
3. ཚད་མ [pramāṇa]/ Valid Cognition
4. མཛད། [abhidharma]/ Treasure of Knowledge
5. འདུལ་བ། [vinaya]/ Monastic Discipline.

A. The four great disciples of Marpa:
1. རྔོག་ཆོས་སྐུ་རྡོ་རྗེ། Ngog Choku Dorje
2. མཚུར་སྟོན་དཔང་གི་རྡོ་རྗེ། Tsurton Wangi Dorje
3. མེས་སྟོན་ཆེན་པོ། Meton Chenpo
4. མི་ལ་རས་པ། Milarepa. B. The four commissioned lineages:
1. སྒྱུ་ལུས་དང་འཕོ་བའི་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of illusory body and consciousness transference
2. རྨི་ལམ་གྱི་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of dreams
3. འོད་གསལ་གྱི་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of clear light mind
4. གཏུམ་མོའི་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of psychic heat.

Kazhipa. A Geshe Degree conferred on someone who has merely studied and fulfilled the requirements of an examination after completing his study on the Perfection of Wisdom (༼ཕར་ཕྱིན༽), the Middle Way View (༼དབུ་མ༽), the Monastic Discipline (༼འདུལ་བ༽) and the Treasure of Knowledge (༼མཛོད༽).

Oral transmission; prophesy; prediction.

[pravasravaṇodaka cittotpāda]/ Fountain-water-like Bodhimind. The bodhicitta or motive of enlightenment associated with the power of retention (see ༼གཟུངས༽/ [dharani]) and confidence possessed by the Bodhisattva on the three pure grounds, i.e. the 8th, 9th and 10th grounds.

[aṣṭa man'galacihna]/The auspicious signs; the eight auspicious emblems.
1. གདུགས། [chattra]/ an umbrella
2. དསེར་ཉ། [suvarṇamatsya]/ a pair of golden fish
3. བུམ་པ། [kalaṡa]/ a treasure vase
4. པད་མ། [padma]/ a lotus
5. དུང་དཀར [ṡaṅkha]/ a white conchshell with whorls turning to the right
6. དཔལ་བེའུ། [ṡrīvatsa]/ an endless knot
7. རྒྱལ་མཚན། [dhvaja]/ a banner of victory
8. འཁོར་ལོ། [dharmacakra]/ a wheel of doctrine.

[aṣṭa maṅgala dravya]/ The eight lucky articles; the eight auspicious substances.
1. མེ་ལོང་། [ādarṡa]/ a looking-glass/ mirror
2. བྷི་ཝང་། [gorocanā]/ medicinal concretion from the brains of elephants
3. ཞོ། [dadhi]/ curd
4. རྩྭདུར་བ། [dūrvā]/ fine green grass
5. ཤིགན་ཏོག་བིལ་བ། [bilva]/ [ṡrīphala]/ a wood-apple
6. དུང་དཀར་གཡས་འཁྱིལ། [dakṣiṇāvartaṡaṅkha]/ a right-whorled conchshell
7. ལི་ཁྲི། [sindhūra]/ vermillion
8. ཡུངས་དཀར། [sarṣapa]/ white mustard seed.

Human thighbone trumpet; femur trumpet. This is used as a ritual implement in certain tantric practices of exorcism to remind one of death and impermanence.

[ṛṣi Akṣapāda]/ Rishi Akshapada. Founder of the non-Buddhist school of philosophy called Nyaya (see ༼རིག་པ་ཅན་པ༽).

[steyasaṁvāsika]/ Living a lie. The lifestyle of living like a monk without having received monk vows; or without changing one's heart, even though one has externally taken the vows.

[Lalanā]/ The left energy channel. The left channel in our body which is white in colour and stands adjacent to the central channel. It runs from the level of The eyebrows to the point between the navel. The specific details vary according to the lineage of the practice concerned.

[pratyaya]/ Conditions. Conditions or circumstances which are a necessary prerequisite for a cause to produce an effect.

[tri pratyayāḥ]/ The three types of conditions.
1. གཡོ་བ་མེད་པའི་རྐྱེན། [nrīha pratyaya]/ unchanging condition
2. མི་རྟག་པའི་རྐྱེན། [anitya pratiyaya]/ impermanent condition
3. ནུས་པའི་རྐྱེན། [samartha pratyaya]/ effective condition.

[catvāri pratyayāḥ]/ The four conditions; the four conditions for a cognition.
1. རྒྱུ་རྐྱེན། [hetu pratyaya]/ causal condition
2. དམིགས་རྐྱེན། [ālambana pratyaya]/ objective condition
3. བདག་རྐྱེན། [adhipati pratyaya]/ fundamental condition
4. དེ་མ་ཐག་རྐྱེན། [samanantara pratyaya]/ immediate condition.

[parokṣa]/ Hidden phenomenon; obscure phenomenon. A phenomenon that cannot initially be cognized by a direct perception but can only be understood by an inference generated in dependence upon a correct reason, e.g.
impermanence of a vase.

[parokṣa dharma]/ The secret transmission. Oral transmission of certain doctrines handed down by Lamas only to ripe and deserving disciples.

[Ekakṣaṇa]/ Momentary. An impermanent thing—the definition of impermanence.

[kṣaṇikaprayoga]/ The momentary training; the training of a single-instant; the yoga of the last moment before enlightenment. The seventh of the eight topics (see ༼དངོས་པོ་བརྒྱད༽), exclusive to the path of [ārya Bodhisattva].

[catvāri kṣaṇika prayoga dharmāḥ]/ The four topics that
characterize the momentary training.
1. རྣམ་པར་སྨིན་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་སྦྱོར་པ། [vipāka kṣaṇika prayoga]/ the fruitional or matured momentary training
2. རྣམ་པར་མ་སྨིན་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་སྦྱོར་བ། [avipāka kṣaṇika prayoga]/ non-fruitional or immature momentary training
3. མཚན་ཉིད་མེད་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་སྦྱོར་བ། [alakṣaṇa kṣaṇika prayoga]/ momentary training lacking characteristics
4. གཉིས་སུ་མེད་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་སྦྱོར་བ། [advaya kṣaṇika prayoga]/ non-dual momentary training.

He who sees the three times; the gods. Metaphorically used for the gods who see the three times (past, present and future) through clairvoyance.

[sabhāga hetu]/ Congruent cause; equal-state cause. A cause that subsequently produces something of similar type to itself; one of the six types of causes (see ༼རྒྱུ་དྲུག༽).

སྐལ་བ་དྲུག ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ་དྲུག
[ṣaḍ saṃpanna bhāga]/ The six fortunate possessions; six excellent riches. Excellent:
1. དབངཕྱུག [īṡvara saṃpanna bhāga]/ power and wealth
2. གཟུགས། [rūpa saṃpanna bhāga]/ physical form
3. དཔལ། [dhānya saṃpanna bhāga]/ glory
4. གྲགས་པ། [kīrtī saṃpanna bhāga]/ fame or reputation
5. ཡེ་ཤེས། [jсāna saṃpanna bhāga]/ wisdom
6. བརྩོན་འགྲུས། [vīrya saṃpanna bhāga]/ enthusiastic perseverance.

[kāya niyata]/ Certainty of body; certainty of physical form. The feature of a Buddha's Complete Enjoyment Body ([sambhogakāya]), who is adorned with the 32 major marks (see ༼མཙན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་རྩ་གཉིས༽) and 80 minor marks (see ༼དཔེ་བྱེད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་བཅུ༽).

[paсca kāya]/ The five bodies of a Buddha. A. The five bodies
of a Buddha. 1-3. (see ༼སྐུ་གསུམ༽)
4. ངོ་བོ་ཉེད་སྐུ [svabhāvakāya]/ Nature Truth Body
5. མི་འབྱུར་རྡོ་རྗེའི་སྐུ [avikāra vajrakāya]/ Immutable Varja Body. B. In some Nyingma tantra these are listed as: 1-3. (see ༼སྐུ་གསུམ༽)
4. མི་འགྱུར་རྡོ་རྗེའི་སྐུ [avikāra vajrakāya]/ Immutable Vajra Body
5. མངོན་པར་བྱང་ཆུབ་པའི་སྐ [abhisaṃbodhikāya]/ Fully Enlightened Body.

[dvi kāya]/ The two bodies of a Buddha.
1. གཟུགས་སྐུ [rūpakāya]/ Form Body
2. ཆོས་སྐུ [dharmakāya]/ Truth Body.

Thangka painting; scroll painting. Traditional Tibetan Buddhist art of painting Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, deities and various mystical representations upon a canvas.

The union of body and mind. The unity of the illusory body and the clear light mind of a yogi.

A. Dead body. B. Relics. С A stupa containing relics or remains of a holy being.

Incarnate lineage. The lineage of successive incarnate lamas or a single incarnation who is such a succession. 

[kāya ṛddhi pratiharya]/ Physical miraculous activity. One of the three miraculous activities of a Buddha (see ༼ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་རྣམ་གསུམ༽) by which sentient beings are tamed and lead to the righteous path.

[catvāri kāya]/ The four bodies of a Buddha.
1. ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྐུ
[svabhāvakāya]/ Nature Truth Body
2. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཆོས་སྐུ [jсānakāya]/ Wisdom Truth Body
3. ལོངས་སྐུ [saṃbhogakāya]/ Complete Enjoyment Body
4. སྤུལ་སྐུ [nirmāṇakāya]/ Emanation Body.

The three bodies of a Buddha.
1. ཆོས་སྐུ། [dharmakāya]/ Truth Body
2. ལོངས་སྐུ། [saṃbhogakāya]/ Complete Enjoyment Body
3. སྤྲུལ་སྐུ། [nirmāṇakāya]/Emanation Body.

Taking the three bodies of a Buddha as paths. The tantric practice of taking death as the dharmakaya, the intermediate state of rebirth as the sambhogakaya and the rebirth as the nirmanakaya of a Buddha in one's meditation practice.

[abhyākhyāna]/ Depreciation; underestimation. The assertion of the existence of something that does not exist conventionally, or to under rate somebody's qualities below deserving limits. For instance, asserting the non-existence of the law of causality.

[pāṇḍava]/ The Pandavas.
1. གཡུལ་ངོར་བརྟན་པ། [yudhiṣṭhira]
2. འཇིགས་ལྡེ། [bhīmasena]
3. རིགས་མེད། Nakula
4. སྲིད་སྒྲུབ། Arjuna
5. ལྷ་བཅས། Sahadeva.

[tri ṡaraṇa]/ The three objects of refuge; the three protectors-Buddha Dharma and [saṅgha].

[ṡaraṇa dāna]/ The generosity of giving protection; the way of giving protection to somebody afraid of or in a crucial situation. One of the three types of giving (see ༼སྦྱིན་པ་རྣམ་གསུམ༽).

[tri ṡaraṇagrāhaka upāsaka]/ a lay person ordained by refuge precepts. A Buddhist layman who has taken formal refuge or vow of precepts to accept the Three Jewels as the ultimate object of refuge for one's life-time. One of the four nominally ordained lay persons (see ༼དགེ་བསྙེན་བཏགས་པ་བ་བཞི༽).

The [avalokiteṡvara] of Kyidrong. According to a common belief among Tibetans, the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo once emanated himself in the form of a Gelong and came to Nepal, where he fell a sandal tree in which he is said to have found four self-born images of Avalokiteshvara. The Kyidrong Phagpa is one of them.

[catvāri paryaṅka]/ The four cross-legged positions. 1-3. three vajra cross-legged positions (see ༼ནེ༵ཏ༽)
4. བདེ་སྟེང་གི་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་། cross-legged position of non-dual bliss and void.

[tri paryaṅka]/ The three vajra cross-legged positions of the energy channels, wind and drops རྩ་རླུང་ཐིག་ལེའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་གསུམ། Syn. with ༼རྡོ་རྗེ་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་གསུམ༽.

[prajā]/ Sentient being; living being. Lit: nine-fold births refering to all beings for they take rebirth from the desire realm within the three realms; the form realm within the three realms; and from the formless realm within the three realms.

[āyatana]/ Sources of perception; the senses and their respective objects.

[dvādaṡa āyatanāni]/ Twelve sources of perception. A. 1-6. Six outer sources of perception (see ༼ཡུལ་དྲུག༽) B. 7-12. Six inner sources of perception (see ༼དབང་པོ་དྲུག༽).

[ṣaḍ āyatana pratītyasamutpāda]/ The interdependent link of six sources of perception; the link of six cognitive faculties. The fifth link in the twelve linked chain of interdependent origination; the period of time when the six sense powers of a foetus first emerge although they are still unable to distinguish objects of sense.

[catvāro yonayaḥ]/ The four types of birth. The four types of sentient beings differentiated according to the way they are born.
1. མངལ་སྐྱེས། [jārāyu jāḥ]/ those born from a womb
2. སྒོང་སྐྱེས། [aṇḍa jāḥ]/ those born from an egg
3. དྲོད་གཤེར་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ། [saṁsveda jāḥ]/ those born from heat and moisture
4. རྫུས་སྐྱེས། [upapādukā jāḥ]/those born miraculously.

[Jāti]/ The birth-state; birth. One of the four states of existences of a being (see ༼སྲིད་པ་བཞི༽) in genial; for human beings, the very moment of conception in the mother's womb.

[utpattiniḥ svabhāvatā]/ One of the three lackings of identity. Because all phenomena are generated, or come into being in reliance upon causes and conditions, not only does a multicoloured rope lack a snake's existence, but also, it's inherent existence as a rope, as it is the product of many threads wound together. Therefore, it lacks inherent existence.

[Janma nirmaṇakāya]/ The Emanation Body of a Buddha by birth. The way a Buddha takes an emanated form of a god, animal, bridge and living beings in order to tame sentient beings.

The ultimate teachings lacking birth. One of the five teachings (see ༼གསུང་ལྔ༽) of a Buddha according to Nyingma tradition. This refers to the inexpressible reality itself which forms the basis or root of all meanings. Consequently, it is also called the ultimate teaching of the unborn truth body (༼ཆོས་སྐུ་སྐྱེ་མེད་དོན་གྱི་གསུང༽).

[ajāta mahāsukha]/ The unborn great bliss. This refers to the state of liberation or state beyond suffering.

[upapattibhava]/ The state of birth or existence. One of the four states of existence, e.g. the consciousness that has just connected to the conception taken place in the womb.

A non-Buddhist by birth. Those who hold the wrong view that phenomena exist truly by way of their own accord.

The three types of persons (see ༼སཀཡས་བུ་ཆུང་ངུ།་སྤྱེས་བུའ་བྲིང་ཨནད་སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོ༽).

[adhama puruṣa]/ Person of small scope. A practitioner who merely seeks a higher state of rebirth impelled by fear of the lower rebirths.

[viṡeṣakādhama puruṣa]/ The superior person of small scope. A practitioner who has generated disgust of the expenence of this life and has produced an uncontrived or natural interest in a better future life through contemplating the difficulty and significance of finding a human rebirth endowed with leisure (see ༼དལ་བ་བརྒྱད༽) and endowments (see ༼འབྱོར་བ་བཅུ༽), and impermanence.

[adhama puruṣa mārga]/ The paths of a person of small scope. The intent or wish for, primarily, seeking a higher rebirth within cyclic existence ([saṁsara]) for the sake of oneself alone.

[uttama puruṣa]/ Person of great scope. A practitioner with great spirit who voluntarily seeks to place all sentient beings throughout the expanse of space in the state of complete enlightenment (Buddhahood), and who therefore is able to work extensively for the sake of others.

[uttama puruṣa mārga]/ The paths of a person of great scope. All paths of the greater vehicle ([mahāyāna]) that are conjoined by resolute intent (lhag-bsam), the sixth of the seven-fold causes and result (see ༼རྒྱུ་འབྲས་མན་ངག་བདུན༽) transmission.

[anta puruṣa]/ The person of small scope (same as skyes-bu chung-ngu).

[madhyama puruṣa]/ Person of middling scope. A practitioner who wishes himself or herself to be free of the sufferings of cyclic existence and seeks to achieve the state of liberation.

[madhyama puruṣa mārga]/ The paths of a person of middling scope. All those paths that are conjoined with a wish primarily to achieve the state of liberation for one's own sake by being disgusted with the marvels of cyclic existence ([saṁsara]).

[catvāri yampuruṣa]/ Four categories of a person (on the paths).
1. རྒྱུན་ཞུགས། [ṡrotāpanna]/ Stream-winner
2. ཕྱིར་འོང་། [sakṛdāgāmin]/ Once-returner
3. ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་། [anāgāmin]/ Never-returner
4. དགྲ་བཅོམ། [arhat]/ Foe-destroyer.

The stages of paths of the three types of persons and the texts that explain these paths.

[pauruṣeya phala]/ Fruit produced by a person. The commonly shared environment and the general conditions of life in this universe as experienced by an individual being, who is dependent upon them.

[Jātaka]/ Life stories ([jātakas]); rebirth stories. Accounts of Bodhisattva practices that Buddha encountered in his previous lives; a geniune examplary teaching.

[kheda]/ Attitude of disgust. A subdued state of mind which is disgusted with the uncontrolled cycle of birth, sickness and death that ultimately desires liberation, thus transforming into renunciation.

[doṣa and guṇa]/ Faults and good qualities; merits and demerits.

Kyopa Jigten Gonpo (1143-1217). The founder and one of the foremost masters of the Drikung Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.

Class monitor in a monastic university.

A regular class in a monastery where students recite the texts by heart at an assembly after they have memorized them.

[keṡoṇḍuka]/ A false appearance of falling hair. An example of what a person with a cataract seems to see with distorted non-conceptual sensory perception.

Full-length prostration.

The small aeon. According to the Abhidharma tradition, a small aeon refers to the extent of time it takes for the human life-span to increase from ten years of age up to a maximum of eighty-thousand at a rate of only one year every century, as well as to decrease down to a minimum often years of human life span at the same rate, i.e. one year every century. This comes to billions of human years.

[mahākalpa]/ The great aeon. According to Abhidharma tradition, every cycle of eighty small aeons comprises one great aeon. This comes to trillions of human years. A great aeon consists of eighty intermediate aeons divided into twenty aeons of formation, persistence, dissolution and vacuity.

[asaṃkyeya kalpa]/ An incalculable aeon. One sixtieth of a great aeon, i.e. the sixty digit number of years in calculation. Thrice this limit of calculation becomes the three great countless aeons (༼སྐལ་ཆེན་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ༽).

Obstructions. Obstructions caused either by an object, time or nature that do not allow, the visual perception of something.

The three-fold obstructions.
1. དུས་ཀྱི་བསྐལ་དོན། obstruction by time, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to a duration of time
2. ཡུལ་གྱི་བསྐལ་དོན། obstruction by object, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to distant location of the object of perception
3. རང་བཞིན་ནམ་ངོ་བོའི་བསྐལ་དོན། obstruction by nature or identity, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to the inherent subtlety.

[kalpa]/ An aeon; world age.

The two aeons.
1. སྒྲོན་བསྐལ། The aeon of light (༼སྒྲོན་བསྐལ༽), referring to that period when the doctrine of Buddha flourishes.
2. མུན་བསྐལ། The aeon of darkness (༼མུན་བསྐལ༽), referring to that period when the doctrine of Buddha does not flourish.

The two-fold aeon. Following the further degeneration of the three-fold aeon, it is believed that people will observe only two of the ten virtuous activities; this period is known as the two-fold aeon and is equivalent to eight hundred and sixty-four thousand human years.

[antara kalpa]/ The intermediate aeon. According to the Abidharma tradition, two small aeons make an intermediate aeon. This comes to billions of human years.

The aeons that falls within eighteen intermediate periods. This comprises the three aeons known as the aeon of starvation, the aeon of sickness and the aeon of weapons.

[kṛtayuga]/ The perfect aeon; the excellent aeon. According to the Abhidharma tradition, it is explained that after the origination of human beings in this universe for a long period the system of private ownership did not exist and the people were perfectly pure in their moral conduct committing no non-virtues, i.e. they upheld all of the ten virtuous activities. This period is known as the perfected aeon and is said to be equivalent to one million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand human years.

The earliest aeon. This refers to the fortunate aeon (bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan) during which human beings lived to the age of ten thousand years, and were nourished by natural oil from the ground and unharvested crops such as rice seedlings.

[tretā yuga]/ The three-fold aeon. Following the degeneration of the perfected aeon, it is said that people will observe only three of the ten virtuous activities; this period is known as the three-fold aeon. This period is equivalent to one million two hundred and ninety-six thousand human years.

The four periods of an aeon: 1. the fortunate (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན༽) 2. the three-fold (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་གསུམ་ལྡན༽) 3. the two-fold (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་གཉིས་ལྡན༽)
4. The corrupt age (see ༼རྩོད་ཨིདམ་གྱི་དུས༽).

[utpattikiama]/ The generation stage practice. The tantric practice of transforming appearance, sound and wisdom respectively into a deity, mantra and wisdom of that particular meditalional deity in order to purify the four types of birth along with their latencies.

The subtle generation stage practice. Meditation on the implements of a deity, i.e. the subtle vajra meditative concentration.

The gross generation stage practice. Tantric meditation on the face and arms of a deity.

A limit of calculation. The fifty-fifth fraction of the sixtieth limit of counting according to the Abhidharma tradition.

Complementary fire-[pūja]. A commitment of performing the rite of fire-[pūja] at the conclusion of a retreat on a particular deity in order to purify the omissions and commissions one may have made in the course of meditation on that deity.

Opponent: another view point. Proponents of a philosophical position other than one's own or other than those held by the author of a philosophical treatise, who introduces his opponent's views by the phrase ༼འཁ་ཆིག༽་, then proceeds to refute them.

An oral will. An oral testament given, especially at the time of death, describing how one's affairs are to be handled.

The four surpassing concentrations on colors. One of the eight surpassing concentrations, in which a yogi visualizes the four colors blue, yellow, white and red as radiant and luminous through the power of meditation and thus gains control of magical hallucinations.

Welcoming the day through reciting words of auspiciousness. This refers to the custom of greeting everybody with the words,«Good luck and happy New Year. May you be prosperous forever,» thereby offering and accepting bits of chang, and phye-mar, i.e. sweet ground roasted barley.

[avadya]/ Misdeeds. All wrong doings, non-virtues and negative activities prone to produce pain and suffering as their consequences.

The two types of misdeeds; two kinds of non-virtues.
1. བཅས་པའི་ཁ་ན་མ་ཐོ་བ། [pratikṣepaṇa sāvadya]/ proscribed misdeed
2. རང་བཞིན་གྱི་ཁ་ན་མ་ཐོ་བ། natural misdeed.

[avadyāvaraṇa]/ The obscuration from misdeeds. The ten non-virtues and other wrong doings. These are also called karmic obscurations (las-kyi sgrib-pa).

The four great rivers coming from the four directions of Mt. Kailash.
1. གངྒ The Ganges from the opening of a rock like an elephant to the east;
2. སིནྡྷུ the Sindhu from the opemng of a rock like a peacock to the south;
3. པཀྵུ། the Pakshu from the
opening of a rock like a horse to the west, which is also known as the Yarlung river, and
4. སི་ཏཱ། Sita from the opening of a rock like a lion to the north.

[saptāṅga saṁbhukta]/ The seven features of divine embrace; the seven features of Buddhas in [sambhogakāya] form.
1. ལོངས་སྤྱོད་རྫོགས་པའི་ཡན་ལག [saṁbhogāṅga]/ complete enjoyment
2. ཁ་སྦྱོར་གྱི་ཡན་ལག [saṁbhuktāṅga]/ kissing
3. བདེ་བ་ཆེན་པོའི་ཡན་ལག [mahāsukhāṅga]/ great bliss
4. རང་བཞིན་མེད་པའི་ཡན་ལག [abhāvaṅga]/ non-inherent existence
5. སྙིང་རྗེས་ཡོངས་སུ་གང་པའི་ཡན་ལག [saṁpūrṇakaruṇāṅga]/ completely overwhelmed by compassion
6. རྒྱུན་མི་ཆད་པའི་ཡན་ལག [anācchedāṅga]/ uninterrupted contuinity
7. འགོག་པ་མེད་པའི་ཡན་ལག [anirodhāṅga]/ non-cessation.

[Lapanā]/ Flattery. One of the five means of wrong livelihood (see ༼ལོག་འཙོ་ཨཱིང༽), getting someone to give you something by flattering him or her.

Monastic house. A smaller community within a monastic univeristy in which monks from one geographical area live.

[dhātu]/ A. A locality, region, domain or realm. B. A family or caste. С Elements or nature. D. Cause or seed. E. Spheres, faculty or senses.

The white and red constituents; semen and blood.

[paсca dhātu]/ The five elements. A. Generally the:
1. ས། [bhū]/
2. ཆུ། [jala]/ water
3. མེ། [tejas]/ fire
4. རླུང་། [anila]/ wind
5. ནམ་མཁའ [ākāṡa]/ space. B. In medical tantras and astrology these are identified as:
1. ཤིང་། [vṛkṣa]/ wood
2. མེ། [tejas]/ fire
3. ས། [bhū]/ earth
4. ལྕག [loha]/ iron
5. ཆུ [jala]/water.

The natural qualities of the five elements. The earth element has five qualities—sound, touch, taste, form and smell; the water element has four—sound, touch, taste and form; the fire element has three qualities—sound, touch and taste; the wind element has two qualities—sound and touch; and the space element has only one quality—being capable of producing sound.

[aṣṭadaṡa dhātu]/ The eighteen spheres of perception. 1-6. དམིགས་པ་ཡུལ་གྱི་ཁམས་དྲུག the six objects as the bases
1. གཟུགས།
2. སྒྲ [ṡabda]/sound
3. དྲི། [gandha]/ smell
4. རུ། [rasa]/ taste
5. རེག་བྱ། [spraṣtavya]/ tangible object
6. ཆོས། [dharma]/ phenomena 7-12. རྟེན་དབང་པོའི་ཁམས་དྲུ the six sense powers as the reliance (see ༼དབང་པོ་དྲུག༽) 13-18. བརྟེན་པ་རྣམ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཁམས་དྲུག the six consciousnesses that rely upon senses (see ༼རྣམ་ཤེས་ཙོགས་བརྒྱད༽, 1 -6).

The six elements." 1-5. (see ༼ཁམས་ལྔ༽)
6. རྣམ་ཤེས vijnana/ consciousness.

Human beings possessing six elements. According to Vajrayana teachings the rebirth of human beings is superior for tantric practices due to the fact that human being possesses the six elements (see ༼ཁམས་དྲུག༽).

[catvāri dhātu]/The four elements (see ༼ཁམས་ལྔ༽, 1 -4).

[traidhātu]/ The three realms.
1. འདོད་ཁམས། [kāma dhātu]/ the desire realm
2. གཟུགས་ཁམས། [rūpa dhātu]/ the form realm
3. གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས། [arūpa dhatu]/ the formless realm.

[traidhātu nava bhūmi]/ The three realms and nine levels.
1. འདོད་ཁམས། [kāma dhātu]/ desire realm
2. བསམ་གཏན་དང་པོ། [prathama dhyāna]/ first concentration
3. བསམ་གཏན་གཏན་གཉིས་པ། [dvītiyadhyāna]/ second concentration
4. བསམ་གཏན་གསུམ་པ། [tritīyadhyāna]/ third concentration
5. བསམ་གཏན་བཞི་པ། [caturthadhyāna]/ fourth concentration
6. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས། [ākāṡāntya]/ infinite space
7. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས། [vijсānāntya]/ infinite consciousness
8. ཅི་ཡང་མེད [ākiṁcanya]/ nothingness
9. སྲིད་རྩེ [bhavāgra]/peak of cyclic existence.

[pratijсābhikṣu]/ A nominal [bhikṣu]; an insincere monk. A person who claims to be a monk without having received monastic vows or by having lost the vows through transgressing any of the root vows.

Semen and menstrual blood; semen and egg. Male and female substances.

The three principal disciples of [atiṡa] the Great. They are ཁུ་སྟོན་བརྩོན་འགྲུས་གཡུང་དྲུང་། Khuton Tsondru Yung Drung, རྔོག་ལེགས་པའི་ཤེས་རབ། Ngog Legpe Sherab, and འབྲོམ་སྟོན་རྒྱལ་བའི་འབྱུང་གནས། Dromton Gyalwe Jungne.

[catvāri bhāra]/The four burdens.
1. ཕུང་པོའི་ཁུར། [skandha bhāra]/ burden of aggregate
2. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་ཁུར། [virya bhāra]/ burden of effort
3. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ཁུར [kleṡa bhara]/ burden of delusions
4. དམ་བཅའི་ཁུར། [pratijсa bhāra]/ burden of pledges.

[stambha]/ Conceit; pride; arrogance; haughtiness.

The three chapters of total comprehension. This refers to the first three durations of the ten sets of five hundred years being the life-span of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]'s doctrine. These three are known as དགྲ་བཅོམ་པའི་ལེའུ། the chapter of Arhats, ཕྱིར་མེ་འོང་པའི་ལེའུ། the chapter of Never-returners and རྒྱུན་དུ་ཞུགས་པའི་ལེའུ། the chapter of Stream-winners.

Cruel-minded; nasty; conniving.

[vaira]/ Grudge. Stubbornly holding a grudge and seeking to take revenge.

The surrounding mountains. According to Abhidharma this refers to the iron mountains surrounding the outskirts of the four cardinal directions. The outer circumference of this is said to be three crores six lakhs twenty-six thousand and twenty five (3,602,625) yojanas.

[vaiṡṇava]/ [viṣṇu] worshippers. A propounder of non-Buddhist tenets who follow [viṣṇu], asserting a permanent and partless

[catvāri dhātu]/ The four elements (see ༼ཁམས་ལྔ༽, 1 -4).

[traidhātu]/ The three realms.
1. འདོད་ཁམས། [kāma dhātu]/ the desire realm
2. གཟུགས་ཁམས། [rūpa dhatu]/ the form realm
3. གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས། [arūpa dhātu]/ the formless realm.

[traidhātu nava bhūmi]/ The three realms and nine levels.
1. འདོད་ཁམས། [kāma dhātu]/ desire realm
2. བསམ་གཏན་དང་པོ། [prathama dhy_ana]/ first concentration
3. བསམ་གཏན་གཉིས་པ། [dvītiyadhyāna]/ second concentration
4. བསམ་གཏན་གསུམ་པ། [tritīyadhyāna]/ third concentration
5. བསམ་གཏན་བཞི་པ། [caturthadhyāna]/ fourth concentration
6. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས། [ākāṡāntya]/ infinite space
7. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས། [vijсanāntya]/ infinite consciousness
8. ཅི་ཡང་མེད། [ākiṁcanya]/ nothingness
9. སྲིད་རྩེ། [bhavāgra]/ peak of cyclic existence.

[pratijсābhikṣu]/ A nominal [bhikṣu]; an insincere monk. A person who claims to be a monk without having received monastic vows or by having lost the vows through transgressing any of the root vows.

Semen and menstrual blood; semen and egg. Male and female substances.

The three principal disciples of [atiṡa] the Great. They are ཁུ་སྟོན་བརྩོན་འགུས་གཡུང་དྲུང་།
Khuton Tsondru Yung Drung, རྔོག་ལེགས་པའི་ཤེས་རབ། Ngog Legpe Sherab, and འབྲོམ་སྟོན་རྒྱལ་བའི་འབྱུང་གནས། Dromton Gyalwe Jungne.

[catvāri bhāra]/ The four burdens.
1. ཕུང་པོའི་ཁུར། [skandha bhāra]/ burden of aggregate
2. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་ཁུར། [virya bhāra]/ burden of effort
3. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ཁུར། [kleṡa bhāra]/ burden of delusions
4.  དམ་བཅའི་ཁུར། [pratijсā bhāra]/ burden of pledges.

ཁེངས་པ། ཁེངས་དྲེགས།
[stambha]/ Conceit; pride; arrogance; haughtiness.

The three chapters of total comprehension. This refers to the first three durations of the ten sets of five hundred years being the life-span of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]'s doctrine. These three are known as དགྲ་བཅོམ་པའི་ལེའུ། the chapter of Arhats, ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་པའི་ལེའུ། the chapter of Never-returners and རྒྱུན་དུ་ཞུགས་པའི་ལེའུ། the chapter of Stream-winners.

Cruel-minded; nasty; conniving.

[vaira]/ Grudge. Stubbornly holding a grudge and seeking to take revenge.

The surrounding mountains. According to Abhidharma this refers to the iron mountains surrounding the outskirts of the four cardinal directions. The outer circumference of this is said to be three crores six lakhs twenty-six thousand and twenty five (3,602,625) yojanas.

[vaiṡṇava]/ [viṣṇu] worshippers. A propounder of non-Buddhist tenets who follow [viṣṇu], asserting a permanent and partless self. The practice of vase-like meditation and meditation on the syllable OM is asserted as their path of liberation.

The ten emanations of [viṣṇu].
1. ཉ། [matsya]/ a fish
2. རུས་སྦལ། [kacchapa]/ a tortoise
3. ཕག་རྒོད། [vārāha]/ a wild pig
4. མིའི་སེང་གེ། [narasiṁha]/ human-lion
5. རཱ་མ་ཎ། [rāmā candra]/ the God Rama
6. མིའུ་ཐུང་། [vāmana]/a dwarf
7. ནག་པོ། [kṛṣṇa]/the God Krishna
8. པར་ཤུ་རཱ་མ། [ṛṣī parkurama]/ the Saint Parku
9. ཤཱ་ཀྱ་ཐུབ་པ། [ṡākyamuni]/ Buddha [ṡākyamuni]
10. ཀ་རྐི། [kṛkici]/ the son of a Brahmin.

[vyāpti]/ Pervasion. A logical relationship e.g., if "X" is pervasive with "Y," then all instances of "X" are necessarily "Y," but all "Y" are not necessarily "X."
[aṣṭa vyāptidvāra]/ Eight types of pervasion. A logical relationship, in which the eight requirements of congruency for two things are mutually inclusive. ཡིན་ཁྱབ་གཉིས།1.if it is "X" it is "Y" 2. if it is "Y" it is "X" མིན་ཁྱབ་གཉིས། 3. if it is not "X" it is not "Y" 4. if it is not "Y" it is not "X" ཡོད་ཁྱབ་གཉིས། 5. if there is "X" there is "Y" 6. if there is "Y" there is "X" མེད་ཁྱབ་གཉིས།
7. if there is no "X" then there is no "Y" 8. if there is no "Y" then there is no "X".

[saṁskāra dhuḥkhatā]/ Pervasive suffering. The most subtle suffering inherent in the very nature of the five contaminated aggregates which, like a magnet, attract suffering directly or indirectly.

[mūla vyāpti]/ Four positive pervasions.
1. རྗེས་ཁྱབ། subsequent pervasion (see ༼རྗེས་ཁྱབ༽)
2. སྡོགཁྱབ། counter pervasion (see ༼ལྡོག་ཁྱབ༽)
3. འགལཁྱབ། contrary pervasion ('gal-khyab)
4. ཐུར་ཁྱབ། downward pervasion (see ༼ཐུར་ཁྱབ༽).

[spharaṇālaṃbana]/ Pervasive object. One of the four meditative objects (see ༼རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་དམིགས་པ་བཞི༽) of a yogi practising mental quiescence meditation (zhi-gnas) in which the suchness that pervades all existents is taken as the object of developing samatha.

[catvāri spharaṇālaṃbana]/ Four objects of pervasion. The pervasive objects of mental quiescence are:
1. རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་དང་བཅས་པའི་གཟུགས་བརྙན། [savikalpa]/ conceptual pervasive object
2. རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་མེད་པའི་གཟུགས་བརྙན། [nirvikalpa]/ nonceptual pervasive object
3. དངོས་པོའི་མཐའ། [vastvanta]/ extreme of existence
4. དགོས་པ་ཡོངས་སུ་འགྲུབ་པའི་དམིགས་པ། [kṛtyānuṣṭhāna]/ perfectly established purpose.

The pervasive wind energy. One of the five principal winds (see ༼རཏཟ་བའི་རླུང་ལྔ༽) located at the heart, it spreads liquids such as blood throughout the body, and is responsible for the movements of the body and limbs.

Disturbing the householder's faith; an act of placing bad impressions about the [saṅgha] community in the eyes of householders.

Six ornaments of a throne; six adornments of a throne. A.
1. བྱ་ཁྱུང་། an eagle
2. ཀླུ་གདེངས་ཀ་ཅན། a water-spirit ([nāga]) with multiple hoods behind the head
3. ཆུ་སྲིན། a crocodile-like sea monster ([makara]) with a criss-cross ornmental pattern on its body
4. མཛེས་པའི་བུ་ཆུང་། a fine looking youth wearing tree leaves as garments
5. རི་དྭགས་ཤ་རལ་ཅན། a large unicorn-like animal having a mane of flesh and a single horn
6. གླང་པོ་ཆེ་རྒྱན་ལྡན། an elephant adorned with ornaments and holding a vase in its trunk B.
1. སེང་གེ [siṃha]/ a lion
2. གླང་ཆེན། [hastin]/ an elephant
3. རྟ་མཆོག [aṡva]/ a supreme horse
4. རྨ་བྱ། [mayūra]/ a peacock
5. ཤང་ཤང་། [garuḍa]/ a [garuḍa] bird
6. གྱད་ཀྱི་མི། [vīra puruṣa]/ a strong man.

Discourse; teaching; explanation; transmission.

Lineage of a teaching. A transmission of the lineage of a teaching in which a scriptural text is explained word by word from written commentaries and oral tradition.

Oral transmission. A discourse in which a textual transmission is given by the recitation of a text, often with a brief explanation.

The eight great transmissions; the eight great teachings. A.ཕྱག་ཆེན་ཁྲིད་ཆེན་བརྒྱད། The eight great transmissions on the Great Seal ([mahāmudrā]):
1. བླ་མ་སྐུ་གསུམ་གྱི་ཁྲིད། teaching on guru devotion and the three bodies of a Buddha
2. བྱམས་སྙིང་རྗེའི་ཁྲིད། teaching on love and compassion
3. རྒྱུ་འབྲས་རྟེན་འབྲེལ་གྱི་ཁྲིད། teaching on causality and dependent origination
4. ལྔ་ལྡན་བདུད་རྩི་ཐིགས་པའི་ཁྲིད། the drop of nectar-like five-fold instructions on the Great Seal
5. ལྷན་ཅིག་སྐྱེས་སྦྱོར་གྱི་ཁྲིད། teaching on simultaneous brith and unification
6. ནཱ་རོ་ཆོས་དྲུག་གི་ཁྲིད། teaching on the six yogas of Naropa (see ༼ན་རོ་ཆོས་དྲུག༽)
7. ཆོས་བརྒྱད་མགོ་སྙོམས་ཀྱི་ཁྲིད། teaching on subduing the eight worldly concerns (see

'jig-rten chos-brgyad)
8. གསང་སྤྱོད་ལྡོག་སྒོམ་གྱི་ཁྲིད། teaching on the reversed method of meditation on secret mantra doctrine. B. ལམ་རིམ་ཁྲིད་ཆེན་བརྒྱད། The eight great texts on the Graded Path (lam-rim):
1. ལམ་རིམ་ཆན་མོ། the extensive text
2. ལམ་རིམ་འབྲིང་། the midddling text and
3. ལམ་རིམ་ཆུ་ངུ་། the short texts by Tsong Khapa
4. ལམ་རིམ་གསེར་ཞུན་མ། Refined Gold by the Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso (1543-1588)
5. ལམ་རིམ་འཇམ་དཔལ་ཞལ་ལུང་། Instruction from [manjuṡri] by the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682)
6. ལམ་རིམ་བདེ་ལམ། Convenient Path by the first Panchen Lama, Lobsang Choegyan (1570-1662)
7. ལམ་རིམ་མྱུར་ལམ། Qmck Path by the Second Panchen Lama, Lobsang Yeshi (1663-1737)
8. ལམ་རིམ་ལེགས་གསུང་ཉིང་ཁུ། Essence of Element Sayings by Dakpo Ngawang Dakpa.

[hasta]/ Cubit.
1. The length measuring from the elbow to the main joints of the little finger with the hand in a fist or the length of measurement from the elbow to the tip of middle finger. The former is called the short cubit and the latter the full-length cubit.
2. According to Vinaya, dividing one's body into seven equal proportions, a cubit equals the length covered within two parts of the whole.

Taking a bath. One of the three requirements before a disciple is prepared to enter the [maṇḍala] during an initiation. A disciple visualizes taking a bath from the water of the ritual vase. This is symbolically done by sipping, rinsing and spitting water just before entenng the hall of mitiation. The other two requirements are making prostration and offering a [maṇḍala] to the master.

Taking a three-fold bath. A practice of [kriyā] tantra.ཕྱིའི་ཁྲུས་ཡན་ལག་ལྔ་ཁྲུས། Taking the outer bath by washing the five limbs of the body, ནང་གི་ཁྲུས་རྩ་ལྟུང་དག་པར་བྱེད་པ། taking the inner bath by purifying the root downfalls and གསང་བའི་ཁྲུས་མཚན་རྟོག་དག་པར་བྱེད་པ། taking the secret bath by casting away all negative conceptual thoughts and imaginations.

[anapatrāpya]/ Inconsideration; indifference to blame. Lack of concern for the consequences of actions done to others or the lack of any sense of embarassment.

[apatrāpyaadhana]/ The wealth of sense of concern. One of the seven \vealths of the [āryas] (see ༼འཕགས་ནོར་བདུན༽). Avoiding committing wrong doings because of sense of embarrassment in regard to others. In other words, one tries to protect the wholesome deeds and avoid committing wrong-doings. This is analogous to the precious minister.

[bhṛkuti]/ Wrinkles of wrathfulness. A sign of wrath on the nose or brow of a tantric meditational deity.

Khrophu Kagyud Tradition. A lineage of the Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism coming from Phagmo Drupa's disciple Rinpoche Gyaltsab and his younger brother Kunden Repa, through Khrophu Lotsawa, Jampa Pel and others.

[krodha]/ Wrath; aggressiveness.

Ten wrathful deities; the ten protectors.
1. གཤིན་རྗེ་གཤེད། [yamāntaka]
2. གཞན་གྱིས་མི་ཐུབ་པ། [aparājita]
3. རྟ་མགྲིན། [hayagrīva]
4. བདུད་རྩི་འཁྱིལ་བ། [amṛtakuṇḍalin]
5. མི་གཡོ་བ། [acala]
6. འདོད་རྒྱལ། [takkirāja]/ [kāmarāja]
7. དབྱུག་རྔོན་ཅན། [nīladaṇda]
8. སྟོབས་པོ་ཆེ། [mahābala]
9. གཙུག་ཏོར་འཁོར་བསྒྱུར། [uṣṇīṣacakravartin]
10. གནོད་མཇེས་རྒྱལ་པོ། [ṡumbharāja]. According to Guhyasamaja these are the ten wrathful deities of the four directions, four intermediate directions, zenith and nadir.

Eleven wrathful deities. 1-10. (see ༼ཁྲོ་བོ་བཅུ༽)
11. རྡོ་རྗེ་ས་འོག [vajrapātāla].

The eight terrifying laughs of a wrathful deity. སྡིགས་པའི་གད་མོ་ཧ་ཧ། Ha Ha as the threatening; དགྱེས་པའི་གད་མོ་ཧེ་ཧེ། He He as the pleasing; སྒེག་པའི་གད་མོ་ཧི་ཧི། Hi Hi as the elegant; and ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པའི་གད་མོ་ཧོ་ཧོ། Ho Ho as the outshining laugh.

The manner of being in a crowded assembly. One of the manners of visualizing the merit field (tshogs-zhing) in which one visualizes the principal deity in the center surrounded by other masters and disciples forming a circle of a crowded assembly.

[upādhyāya]/ An abbot or abbess. The head of a monastery or the principal master from whom monastic vows are received.

[upādhyāya paramparā]/ The abbot lineage. A. The ordination
lineage of monastic vows. B. The lineage of abbots of a monastery, also called «abbot lineage» (༼མཁན་རབས༽).

A. The master and his disciple. B. The Abbot and Assistant Abbot. According to the Vinaya tradition a spiritual master who fulfills the three qualities of being: 1. pure in the observance of moral discipline as the foundation of all qualities 2. learned in the ritual and rites explained in the Vinayapitaka scriptures 3. extremely compassionate towards the sick and friendless.

Six characteristics of the abbot and assistant abbots in general.
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། purity of moral discipline
2. འདུལ་བའི་ཆོ་ག་ཤེས་པ། knowledge of monastic code
3. ནད་པར་སྙིང་བརྩེ་བ། kindness towards sick people
4. ནང་འཁོར་དག་པ། purity of close disciples
5. ཆོས་དང་ཟང་ཟིང་གིས་ཕན་འདོགས་པ། benefiting others with dharma teachings and giving material aid
6. དུས་སུ་འདོམས་པ། knowledge of the proper time to give teachings.

A universal meditative concentration free of being biased or sectarian in nature.

[ḍākinī]/ sky-goer; sky-walker. Female celestial beings capable of flying through space, residing in a pure land or within cyclic existence. In tantras dakinis are the class of female deities embodying the wisdom aspect of a practitioner who has attained the uncommon siddhi. A goddess born in the pure land of a Buddha is also known as Dakini.

[paсca ḍākinī]/ The five families of dakinis.
1. ཤར་རྡོ་རྗེ་མཁའ་འག
[vajra ḍākinī] to the east
2. ལྷོ་རིན་ཆེན་མཁའ་འགྲོ Ratna [ḍākini] to the south
3. ནུབ་པད་མ་མཁའ་འགྲོ [padma ḍākinī] to the west
4. བྱང་ལས་ཀྱི་མཁའ་འགྲོ [karma ḍākinī] to the north
5. དབུས་སངས་རྒྱས་མཁའ་འགྲོ Buddha [ḍākini] in the centre.

The Heart Drop Doctrine of [ḍākini]. A secret Nyingma transmission of Guru Padmasambhava given to Khado Yeshe Tsogyal that was later discovered by Padma Ledrel Tsal from a treasure (i.e. Terma).

[khasarpaṇa]/ A. A practitioner who utilizes the sky as the realm of existence. B. A [ḍākinī].

[khasarpaṇa siddhi]/ The Siddhi of Khechari field. One who has either attained the eight worldly siddhis (see ༼འཇིག་རྟེན་པའི་དབང་ཕྱུག་བརྒྱད༽), one of the eight common siddhis (see ༼ཐུན་མོང་གི་དངོས་གྲུབ་བརྒྱད༽), or has the capability to travel into the celestial Khechari fields such as the land of six gods of the desire realm (see ༼འདོད་ལྷ་རིགས་དྲུག༽).

The three cycles of [khasarpaṇa ḍākinī] teachings of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.
1. ནཱ་རོ་མཁའ་སྤྱོད། Naro Khacho
2. སྡྲི་མཁའ་སྤྱོད། Indra Khacho
3. མཻ་ཏྲཨཱི་མཁའ་སྤྱོད། Metri Khacho.

The Lesser [khasarpaṇa]. Those practitioners who utilize space or fly in the sky of the form realm, six gods of the desire realm (see ༼འདོད་ལྷ་རིགས་དྲུག༽), human world or otherwise being uncertain in terms of their destination.

The Greater [khasarpaṇa] Those practitioners who possess the following eight qualities:
1. རྡུལ་ཕྲ་རབ་ཀྱི་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་དང་། who can transform their body into a size as tiny as dust particles
2. ལུས་ཡང་བ་ཉིད་དང་། who has a light body
3. འཇིག་རྟེན་གསུམ་པོ་མཐའ་དག་ཁྱབ་པར་བྱེད་པ་ཉིད་དང་། who can fly throughout the three realms of existence (see ༼ཁམས་གསུམ༽)
4. སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཡོན་ཏན་འཐོབ་པ་དང་། who are capable of attaining the qualities of a Buddha
5. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་སྣང་བ་གསལ་བ་དང་། whose primordial wisdom is penetrative
6. བརྟན་པ་དང་། whose primordial body is stable
7. སྐྱེ་བོ་ཐམས་ཅད་བདག་ཉིད་ཀྱི་དབང་དུ་གྱུར་པ་དང་། who has the power of control over all creatures
8. འདོད་དགུར་སྒྱུར་བ་བཅས་ཡོན་ཏན་བརྒྱད་དང་ལྡན་པའི་མཁའ་སྤྱོད། who fulfills all wishes.

[khasarpaṇa kṣetra]/ The [ḍakinī] Land.

The lord of the sky, [garuḍa] bird.

[khasarpaṇa] goddess.

The hungry ghosts travelling in the sky, e.g. the malignant spirits and dwarves (Vrang) of the human world.

[paṇḍitālaṁbana]/ The object of the wise ones. One of the four objects of calm-abiding ([ṡamatha]) meditation (see ༼རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་དམིགས་པ་བཞི༽). One who has the wisdom to judge his or her objects of meditation with respect to the aggregates, the spheres, the sources of perception, the links of dependent
arising, and those that are and are not suitable to be taken as the object for developing calm abiding meditation.

[pасса paṇḍitālaṁbana]/ The five qualities of a master-scholar.
1. མང་དུ་ཐོས་པ། extensive hearing & study
2. དོན་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over meaning
3. ཡི་གེ་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over diction
4. ངེས་པའི་ཚིག་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over definite words
5. སྔོན་དང་ཕྱི་མའི་མཐའ་དགོངས་པ་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over interpretation of the previous and latter contexts.

The three activities of a master-scholar.
1. འཆད་པ། preaching
2. རྩོད་པ། debating
3. རྩོམ་པ། wnting.

Learned, pure, wise. A person who is knowledgeable in the sciences of learning, is morally pure with respect to the three gates of activity and unsullied by negativities, and has the pure spirit to benefit others.

[jсāna]/ Knowledge; wisdom; understanding; insight.

Two kinds of knowledge.
1. ཇི་ལྟ་བ་ཁྱེན་པ། [yathāvajjсāna]/ knowledge of all conventional phenomena
2. ཇི་སྙེད་པ་མཁྱེན་པ། [yāvajjсāna]/ knowledge of all ultimate phenomen.

Three kinds of knowledge.
1. གཞི་ཤེས། [vastujсāna]/ the omniscient mind
2. ལམ་ཤེས། [mārgajсāna]/ the knowledge of paths
3. རྣམ་མཁྱེན། [sarvajсana]/the knowledge of bases.

The five knowledges. Same as the five wisdoms (see ༼ཡེ་ཤེས་ཨཱིང༽).

The thirty topics that characterize the three knowledges explained in the Ornament of Clear Realization ([abhisamayālaṇkāra]). These constitute the ten topics that characterize the omniscient mind (see ༼རྣམ་མཁྱེན་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ༽), the eleven topics that characterize the knowledge of the paths (see ༼ལམ་ཤེས་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ་བཅིག༽) and the nine topics that characterize the knowledge of the bases (see ༼གཞི་ཤེས་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་དགུ༽).

Meditation on the union of the three knowledges/wisdoms. Condensed, abbreviated meditation on the three wisdoms i.e. basic wisdom, path wisdom and omniscient wisdom.

The Khon lineage. The patriarchal lineage of the hierarchies of the Sakya tradition. It is said that a celestial being known by the name Yapang Kye (g.ya'-spang-skyes) tamed Kyareng Tragme (skya-rengs khrag-med), a demon, and accepted his wife Yadrag Silema (g.ya'-'brag si-le-ma) to his court as his bride who gave birth to a son. This being the result of combat between a demon and a celestial being the descendants of this lineage came to be known as Khon, the «combat lineage». The present lineage holder is His Holiness Sakya Trizin,. who is based at Rajpur, India.

The confession ceremony for pacifying disputes. One of the ceremonies of the monastic community held at irregular intervals whenever there is a need to hold such an assembly to pacify a major dispute between [saṅgha] communities.

The six qualities of the wheel of a universal monarch. These are:
1. མྱུར་དུ་འགྲོ་བ། speedy
2. གཞན་དུ་འགྲོ་བ། migrant
3. མ་རྒྱལ་བ་ལས་རྒྱལ་བར་བྱེད་པ། victorious over those uncaptured
4. རྒྱལ་བ་རྣལ་དུ་འགོད་པ། controls those already captured
5. མཐོ་བ་ལ་འཕར་བ། eliminates those above
6. དམའ་བ་ལ་འབབ་པ། debases those beneath.

The seven near precious articles of a universal monarch. These are:
1. རལ་གྲི་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། precious sword
2. པགས་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། precious skin
3. ཁྱིམ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། precious householder
4. ཚལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། precious garden
5. གོས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། precious garment
6. ལྷམ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། precious shoes
7. མལ་ཆ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། precious bedding.

[paсca cakravartin]/ The five universal monarchs. These are:
1. ང་ལས་ནུ། [māndhatṛ]
2. མཛེསཔ། [cāru]
3. ཉེ་མཛེས་པ། [upacāru]
4. མཛེས་ལྡན། [cārumanta]
5. ཉེ་མཛེས་ལྡན། [upacārumanta].

Certainty of disciples. A feature of a sambhogakaya Buddha who only teaches to a circle of [ārya] Bodhisattva disciples.

[paсca bhadrapariṣadyā]/ The five ascetics. The group of five disciples who were the direct recipients of Buddha's First Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine at Varanasi.
1. ཀུན་ཤེས་ཀཽཎཌི་ནྱ། [ajсanata Kauṇḍinya]
2. རྟ་ཐུལ། [aṡvajit]
3. རླངས་པ། [vāṣpa]
4. མིང་ཆེན། [mahānāma]
5. བཟང་ལྡན། [bhadnka].

[catvāri pariṣadyāḥ]/ The four types of followers of Buddha [ṡākyamuni].
1. ཁྱིམ་པ་ཕོ་མོ་གཉིས། male and female householders
2. རབ་བྱུང་ཕོ་མོ་གཉིས། novice monks and nuns
3. དགེ་སློང་ཕ་མ་གཉིས། fully ordained monks and nuns
4. དགེ་བསྙེན་ཕ་མ་གཉིས། ordained layman and laywomen.

[sampanna pariṣadḸ]a/ The perfect retinue. One of the five excellences (see ༼ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ་ལྔ༽); the fact that a Buddha is being encircled by Bodhisattvas who have attained the spiritual grounds and the knowledge bearers (tantrikas).

[saṁsāra]/ Cyclic existence ([saṁsāra]). The vicious beginningless cycle of rebirth, fraught with sufferings of birth, sic jiess, aging and death, arising from ignorance as contrast to the state of peace, liberation.

The practice of [saṁsāra]. The practice of forbearance and willingly accepting the pains and sufferings within cyclic existence.

A. The household of [saṁsāra], family life. B. the queen's palace.

The painting of the wheel of life traditionally depicted on the wall of the portico of a monastery.

The enemy of [saṁsāra]. A. The wisdom realizing selflessness.

B. The state of liberation.

The ocean of [saṁsāra]. The immeasurable and unlimited suffering that seems to have no beginning and no end of its own.

The continuity of [saṁsāra]. The continuity of this aggregate propelled by karma and delusion that knows no beginning.

[saṁsāra dvāra]/ The door of [saṁsāra]. Karma and delusion.

[saṁsāra bandhana]/ The bindings of [saṁsāra]. The karma and delusion that binds us within [saṁsāra] life.

[saṁsāra duḥkhatā]/ The sufferings within [saṁsāra]. The sufferings of birth, old age, sickness, death and of hunger, thirst and the like.

The leader of [saṁsāra]. The truth of origin of suffering; the karma and delusion that spearheads every experience within samsaric life.

[saṁsāra mula]/ The root of [saṁsāra]. The six root delusions that bind us to [saṁsāra]; desire-attachment, hatred-anger, pride, ignorance, deluded views or philosophy, and doubt.

[saṁsāra mārga]/ The paths of [saṁsāra]. A. The twelve links of interdependent origination (see ༼རྟེནའབྲེལ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས༽). B. The non-virtuous activities.

The three paths within cyclic existence; the circle of three paths.
1. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ལམ། [kleṡa mārga]/ the path of delusions that give rise to accumulation of karmas
2. ལས་ཀྱི་ལམ། [karma marga]/ the path of karma that give rise to sufferings
3. སྡུག་བསྔལ་གྱི་ལམ། [duḥkhatā mārga]/ the path of suffering that give rise to continuous generation of karmas and delusions.

[paсca cakra]/ The five channel wheel. 1-4. (see ༼འཁོར་ལོ་བཞི༽)
5. གསང་གནས་སུ་བདེ་སྐྱོང་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of sustaining bliss at the secret organ.

[catvāri mahācakra]/ The four great wheels.
1. མཐུན་པར་གྱུར་བའི་ཡུལ་ན་གན་པ། living in a harmonious environment
2. སྐྱེས་བུ་དམ་པ་ལ་བརྟེན་པ། relying upon a holy or spiritual person
3. སྨོན་ལམ་བཏབ་པ། making prayers
4. བསོད་ནམས་བསགས་པ། having accumulated merits. This is also called the four wheels of the god and men (lha-dang mi-rnams-kyi 'khor-lo bzhi).

The great wheel of four-fold blessings according to the completion stage practice of tantra.
1. ལུས་བྱིན་རླབས། blessings of body
2. ངག་བྱིན་རླབས། blessings of speech
3. ཡིད་བྱིན་རླབས། blessings of mind
4. དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་བྱིན་རླབས། blessings of the suchness.

The three-fold wheels.
1. ཀློག་པ་ཐོས་བསམ་གྱི་འཁར་ལོ། the wheel of study through reading, listening and contemplation
2. སྤོང་བ་བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of abandonment through concentration
3. བྱ་བ་ལས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheeel of service through activities.

[catvāri cakra]/ The four channel wheels
1. སྙིང་ཁར་ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ།
3the wheel of great bliss at the crown
2. མགྲིན་པར་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ། wheel of enjoyment at the throat
3. ལྟེ་བརསྤྲུལ་པའི་འཁོར་ལི། the wheel of phenomena the heart
4. གཙུག་ཏོར་དུ་བདོ་ཆེན་གྱི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of emanation at the navel.

The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine (see འཁོར་ལོ་གསུམ།).

Tri cakra/ A. The three-fold wheels (see ༼་འཁོར་ལོ་རྣམ་གསུམ༽). B. The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine, (see འཁོར་ལོ་དང་པོ།).

[prathama dharmacakra]/ The first turning of the wheel of doctrine. The first teaching at Dear Park, Sarnath, in which Buddha [ṡākyamuni] expounded the Four Noble Truths and set forth the basis of the Hinayana philosophy that phenomena have a truly eixstent nature.

[madhya dharmacakra]/ The second turning of the wheel of doctrine. The teaching at Vulture Peak (Grdhrakuta) in which Buddha [ṡākyamuni] taught the Perfection of Wisdom [sūtra]s, the teaching which is the basis of the Middle View philosophy, introducing the doctrine that all phenomena lack a truly eixstent nature.

[antya dharmacakra]/ The third turning of the wheel of doctrine. The teaching at [vaishāli] in which Buddha [ṡākyamuni] taught the [sūtra] of Clear Discrimination, the teaching laying the basis of the Mind-Only School and introducing the doctrine that imputed phenomena lack a truly existent nature, but dependent and thoroughly established phenomena are truly existent.

[cakravartin]/The universal monarch. The monarchs wielding wheels in their hands. These monarchs appear only during the time when the human life span stretches between infinite to eighty thousand years.

The three wheels. A. མཚོན་ཆ་མདའ་གྲི་མདུང་གསུམ། The arrow, sword and spear B. The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine (see ༼འཁོར་ལོ་གསུམ༽) С བྱེད་པ་པོ་དསང་། བྱ་བའི་ལས། བྱ་བའི་ཡུལ་གསུམ། The three circles of an activity, e.g. the agent, the activity and the goal D. ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ། The body, speech and mind.

The purity of the three circles. The Bodhisattva's practice at the seventh Bodhisattva ground of sealing all the three-agent, activity and goal—as lacking inherent existence in nature.

The lack of conceptual imagination of the three circles. The wisdom that is free of any conceptual recognition of the three—agent, activity and goal—as having any inherent identity of their own, and knows these as being empty or free of inherent existence.

The three modes of yoga; the yogic practice of the triple
1. སྣང་བ་སྐུའི་འཁྱེར་སོ། the yoga of taking all appearances as
the body of a Buddha
2. སྒྲ་གྲགས་གསུང་གི་འཁྱེར་སོ། the yoga of taking all sounds as the speech of a Buddha
3. དྲན་རྟོག་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་འཁྱེར་སོ། the yoga of taking all thoughts as the mind of a Buddha.

A compiled treatise. A treatise that is a compilation of fragments on a particular topic from all [sūtra]s, e.g., the Ornament of Discourses ([mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra]/ mdo-sde-rgyan) or the Compendium of Precepts ([ṡikṣasamucchaya]/ bslab-btus).

The cause or condition of deceptive cognition. A. The ultimate cause of deceptive knowledge, e.g. mistaking all- that is selfless or non-inherently existent as having self or inherently existence. B. The temporary cause of deceptive perception, e.g. misjudging things through defective vision.

The four causes of deceptive perception or knowledge.
1. འཁྲུལ་རྒྱུ་གནས་ལ་ཡོད་པ། deception caused by the venue, e.g. seeing trees as running while one is journeying in a boat
2. འཁྲུལ་རྒྱུ་རྟེན་ལ་ཡོད་པ། deception caused by sense faculty, e.g. seeing falling hairs by a person with cataract
3. འཁྲུལ་རྒྱུ་ཡུལ་ལ་ཡོད་པ། deception cause by the object, e.g. seeing a wheel of sparks from swinging a flaming fire-brand or torch in a circle
4. འཁྲུལ་རྒྱུ་དེ་མ་ཐག་རྐྱེན་ལ་ཡོད་པ། deception caused by immediate conditions, e.g. seeing the surroundings like a ball of fire when a person is in outrageous anger or wrath.

False appearance; deceptive appearance. The mode of appearance of seeing things as different from their actual mode of abidance.

One who has released all deceptions. A person who has realized emptiness through releasing all misconceptions.

[bhrānta jсāna]/ A. Misconception; misunderstanding. Wrong ideas and ways of judging things because of one's misunderstanding or recognition. B. Deceptive cognition. An awareness that is deceived with respect to the object that appears to it (snang-yul), synonymous with apparent direct perception (see ༼མངོན་སུམ་ལྟར་སྣང༽).

Resolution by the majority. One of the seven ways of pacifying quarrels and arguments (see ༼རྩོད་པ་ཞི་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བདུན༽) within the [saṅgha] community according to the Vinaya rules. If any dispute could not be resolved through the eight appellate procedures (see ༼མངོན་སུམ་བརྒྱད་ཀྱིས་ཞི་བ༽), it is then decided by throwing tooth sticks, and whichever of the sides gets the majority of the sticks is considered the winner.

[pudgala]/ A. person. Any person, man or creature imputed upon any of the five aggregates. Lit: ups and downs, meaning such beings have both merits and demerits occasionally growing (gang-ba) or waning (zag-pa/ 'jig-pa).

[dvi pudgalātmagrāha]/ Two kinds of grasping at the self of a person.
1. གང་ཟག་གི་བདག་འཛིན་ལྷན་སྐྱེས། [sahaja pudgalātmagrāha]/ innate grasping at the self of a person
2. གང་ཟག་གི་བདག་འཛིན་ཀུན་དཏགས། [parikalpita pudgalātmagrāha]/ intellectual grasping at the self of a person.

The basis of imputation of a person. The five aggregates comprising form, feeling, recognition, perception and consciousness.

[pudgalāṡayābhiprāya]/ Determining the interest of a person. A type of interpretative teaching of Buddha, e.g. the teaching, highlighting the importance of the practice of generosity as the best, in which Buddha's basic intention is to teach the equal importance of the practice of six perfections.

Individual preparation. A ritual and rite for the [saṅgha] community preparing for their three months rainy season retreat.

The human whispered lineage. The lineage of the three inner yogas according to the Nyingma tradition—Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga transmissions passed to successive disciples stemming from [ācarya] Padmasambhava and the great scholar, Vimalamitra.

[pudgala nairātmya]/ Selflessness of person. In its highest sense it is the lack of inherent existence of person. According to the [vaibhāṣika], [sautrāntikas], [cittamātrins] and [svātrantikas] selflessness of person is either the non-existence of a permanent, single, independent person or the non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person. According to [prāsaṅgika] the selflessness of person is either non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person or nonexistence of an inherently existent person.

[sūkṣama pudgalanairātmya]/ Subtle selflessness of person. According to [vaibhāṣika]s, Sautrantikas, [cittamātrin]s and Svatantrikas it is the non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person, and according to Prasahgika it is the non-inherently existent person.

[sthūla pudgalanairātmya]/ Coarse selflessness of person. According to the [vaibhāṣika], [sautrāntikas], [cittamātrins] and [svātrantikas] the coarse selflessness of person is the nonexistence of a permanent, single, independent person, and according to [prāsaṅgika] it is the non-existence of self-sufficient substantially existent person.

[pudgalātmagrāha]/ Grasping at the self of person. The misconception of the self of person as being truly existent. The perverted conception of a person being inherently existent.

Twenty-three impersonal, non-associated compositional factors; phenomena that are neither form or consciousness nor a person.
1. ཐོབ་པ། [prāpta]/ attainment
2. འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [asaṃjсāsamāpatti]/ meditative absorption without discrimiantion
3. འགོག་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [nirodhasamāpatti]/ meditative absorption of cessation
4. འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་པ་བ། [asaṃjсatā]/ one without discrinative awareness
5. སྲོག [prāṇa]/ life-force
6. རིགས་མཐུན་པ། [nikāyasabhāga]/ similar category
7. སྐྱེ་བ། [jāti]/ birth
8. རྒ་བ་། [jarā]/ aging
9. གནས་པ། [sthiti]/sustenance
10. མི་རྟག་པ། [anitya]/impermanence
11. མིང་གི་ཆོགས། [nāmakāya]/ collection of names
12. ཚིག་གི་ཚོགས། [padakāya]/ collection of words
13. ཡི་གེའི་ཚོགས། [vyaсjanakāya]/ collection of letters
14. སོ་སོ་སྐྱེ་བོ་ཉིད། [pṛthagjanatā]/ state of being an ordinary person
15. འཇུག་པ། [pravṛtti]/ engagement
16. སོ་སོར་གནས་པ། [pratiniyama]/ distinct existence
17. རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga
18. [j_ava]/ rapidity
19. གོ་རིམ། [anukrama]/order/system
20. དུས། [kāl]a/time
21. གནས། [deṡa]/ place
22. གྲངས། [saṁkhyā]/ number
23. ཚོགས་པ། [bheda]/ group.

[catvāri pudgala]/ Four types of persons; four categories of persons.
1. མུན་པ་ནས་མུན་པར་འགྲོ་བ། person moving from darkness to darkness
2. མུན་པ་ནས་སྣག་པར་འགྲོ་བ། person moving from darkness to light
3. སྣང་བ་ནས་སྣང་བར་འགྲོ་བ། person moving from light to light
4. སྣང་བ་ནས་མུན་པར་འགྲོ་བ། person moving from light to darkness.

Mt. Kailash. Also called the holy mountain (gangs rin-po-che) located in the district of Purang in Ngari region of western Tibet, and is venerated by Bonpos, Hindus and Buddhists alike. It is located ai a height of 6656 meters above sea к Д and is the source of the river Ganges. After every cycle of twelve years in the Horse year, a grand ceremony of special pilgrimage takes place.

The wooden stick used for beating the wooden gong used in a monastery to call the community for a congregation. Also called ༼གཎཌཱི་ཐེའུ༽.

[gaṇḍī]/ Wooden gong. A long gong of wood, beaten as a bell to call the congregation of monks and nuns to bi-monthly ceremony, work, mourn at the demise of a fellow monk, and for other emergency matters.

[nava nātakabalā]/The nine features of dance.
1. སྒེག་པ། [lāsya]/ charming
2. དཔའ་བ། [vīra]/ heroic
3. མི་སྡུག་པ། [aṡubha]/ ugly
4. དྲག་ཤུལ། [ūgra]/ aggressive
5. བཞད་གད། [hasita]/ smiling 6. krodha/ wrathful
7. སྙིང་རྗེ། [kāruṇika]/ compassionate
8. རྔམས་པ། [adbhūta]/ frightening
9. ཞི་བ། [ṡanti]/ peaceful.

Dancing, drawing and chanting. The three-fold trainings of the monks—performing monastic dance, learning how to draw or build a [maṇḍala] and chanting of prayers.

The path of significant purification. According to Nyingma tradition, this is the third ground of a Yogi referring to the third level of the Path of Preparation (second of the five paths), where all manifest delusions obstructing the actualization of the clear light mind on the Path of Seeing (third of the five paths) are dispelled.

The eight manifestations of Guru Rinpoche.
1. གུ་རུ་ཤཱཀྱ་སེངྒེ། Guru [ṡākya] Senge
2. གུ་རུ་པདྨ་སཾབྷ། Guru Padmasambhava
3. གུ་རུ་ཉི་མ་འོད་ཟེར། Guru Nyiman Odzer
4. གུ་རུ་སེངྒེ་སྒྲ་སྒྲོག Guru Senge Dradog
5. གུ་རུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་གྲོ་ལོད། Guru Dorje Drolo
6. གུ་རུ་མཚོ་སྐྱེས་རྡོ་རྗེ། Guru Tsokye Dorje
7. གུ་རུ་པདྨ་རྒྱལ་པོ། Guru Padma Gyalpo
8. གུ་རུ་བློ་ལྡན་མཆོག་སྲེད། Guru Loden Chokse.

Guru Padmasambhava. An Indian pandit of the eighth century, and an incarnation of Buddha, who introduced the tantric form of Buddhism into Tibet and is revered by ail traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, especially the Nyingma tradition.

[samnāhapratipatti]/ Achievement through armour. A Bodhisattva's practice of carrying out all the six perfections within the practice of each perfection. Synonymous with «Bodhisattva wisdom» (byang-sems kyi mkhyen-pa).

[saṁnāha vīrya]/ Armour-like effort. One of the three types of efforts or enthusiastic perseverence (see ༼བརཏཟོན་འགྲུས་རྣམ་གསུམ༽) with which a practitioner would happily endure suffering in order to help liberate others from suffering.

The six goddesses of putting on the armour. These are
1. རྡོ་རྗེ་ཕག་མོ། [vajravarāhī]
2. གཤིན་རྗེ་མ། [yāminī]
3. རྨོངས་བྱེད་མ། [mohinī]
4. སྐྱོང་བྱེད་མ། [saṃcālinī]
5. སྐྲག་བྱེད་མ། [Saṃtrāsinī]
6. ཙཎཌི་ཀ། [caṇḍikā].

[gomi Upāsaka]. A layman who in addition to observing the eight precepts of the one day vows (see ༼བསྙེན་གནས་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད༽) receives permission to shave his head and wear robes if he so chooses.

[paсcordhoa bhāgīya kles'a]/ Five fetters with respect to the higher realm.
1. གཟུགས་ཀྱི་འདོད་ཆགས། [rūpa rāga]/ longing desire of the form realm
2. གཟུགས་མེད་པའི་འདོད་ཆགས། [arūpa rāga]/ longing desire of the formless realm
3. རྒོད་པ། [āuddhatya]/ mental agitation
4. ང་རྒྱལ། [manas]/ egoistic pride
5. རྨོངས་པ། [avidyā]/ deluded ignorance.

The five constant fetters of the higher realms (see ༼གོང་མའི་ཆ་མཐུན་ལྔ༽).

The four pure meditative absorptions of the higher (form and formless) realm.
1. གནས་པ་ཆ་མཐུན། aid to existence
2. ཉམས་པ་ཆ་མཐུན། aid to degeneration
3. ཁྱད་པར་ཆ་མཐུན། aid to regeneration
4. ངེས་འབྱེད་ཆ་མཐུན། aid to definitive discrimination.

The five pure states of gods in the higher realm (the form and formless realms). Synonymous with the five pure states (see ༼གནས་གཙང་ལྔ༽).

The meditative absorption of the higher realm, i.e. the meditative absorptions of the form and formless realms.

The lord of the higher realm. This may mean: A. Brahma, the lord of the form realm B. The sensory faculties within the higher realms.

The hard-fleshy foetus. The fourth of the five stages of foetus development of a human being in the womb of a mother during its fourth week when the foetus is just able to resist pressure.

[nīlāmbaradhara]/ The one with blue robes. This may mean: A. Sky B. [vajrapāni] С. Saturday (Saturn) D. [mahābala] (stobs-bzang) the brother of [viṣṇu] (khyab-'jug).

[sudarṡana]/ The excellent experience. The sixth state of the fourth level of concentration. The gods in this state enjoy ecstatic bliss of body and mind and see the supreme dharma (chos-kyi mchog). One of the five pure states of gods.

Upward-moving wind energy. One of the five energy winds (see ༼རཏཟ་བའི་རླུང་ལྔ༽) that controls swallowing, speaking and breathing, and seated in the centre of the chest.

A. Ordinary person B. Inferior one С. Lethargic.

The eighteen major texts. Eighteen major texts of Buddhist studies in the Sakya monastic universities.
1. སོ་སོར་ཐར་པའི་མདོ། Individual Liberation [sūtra] ([pratimokṣa sūtra])
2. འདུལ་བ་མདོ་རྩ་བ། Root Discipline [sūtra] ([vinaya sūtra])
3. མངོན་རྟོགས་རྒྱན། Ornament of Clear Realisation ([abhisamayālaṃkāra])
4. མདོ་སྡེ་རྒྱན། Ornament of Discourses ([mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra])
5. རྒྱུད་བླ་མ། Sublime Continuum ([uttaratantra])
6. དབུས་མཐའ་རྣམ་འབྱད། Clear Distinction Between the Middle and Extremes ([madhyāntavibhāga])
7. ཆོས་དང་ཆོས་ཉིད་རྣམ་འབྱེད། Clear Distinction Between Phenomena and their Reality ([dharmādharmatāvibhāga])
8. སྤྱོད་འཇུག Guide to Boddhisattva's Way of Life ([bodhicāryāvatāra])
9. དབུ་མ་རྩ་བཤེས་རབ། Root Wisdom ([mūla madhyamaka kārikā])
10. བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ། Four Hundred Stanzas ([catuḥṡataka])
11. དབུ་མ་འཇུག་པ། Entering the

Middle Way ([madhyamakāvatāra])
12. མངོན་པ་ཀུན་བཧུས། Compendium of Knowledge ([abhidharmasamuccaya])
13. མངོན་པ་མཛོད། Treasure of Knowledge ([abhidharmakoṡa])
14. ཚད་མ་ཀུན་བཏུས། Compendium of Valid Cognition ([pramāṇasamuccaya])
15. ཚད་མ་རྣམ་འགྲེལ། Commentary on Valid Cogntion ([pramāṇavarttika])
16. ཚད་མ་རྣམ་ངེས། Discernment of Valid Cognition ([pramāṇaviniszcaya])
17. ཚད་མ་རིགས་གཏེར། Treasure of Valid Cognition ([pramāṇayuktinidhi])
18. སྡོམ་གསུམ་རབ་དབྱེ། Distinction Between the Three Vows ([trisaṃvarapravedha]).

Sakya Lama Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1216). A great master of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, said to have taken many previous births as Indian and Tibetan Mahasiddhas. He composed many works including commentaries to the Cakrasamvara tantra, Hevajra and so forth.

The six causes of defamation.
1. རྒྱན་པོ་འགྱེད་པ། gambling
2. འདུས་པ་ལ་བལྟ་བ། witnessing public fair
3. ལེ་ལོ། laziness
4. ཆང་འཐུང་བ། taking intoxicants
5. སྡིག་གྲོགས་བསྟེན་པ། associating with non-virtuous friends
6. ནཚན་མོ་གྲོང་དུ་འགྲོ་བ། wandering about at night.

Inference by notion. An inferential cognition based on popular convention. For instance, the idea infering that «that with rabbit» can be called «moon». One of the three inferential cognitions (see ༼རྗེས་དཔག་གསུམ༽).

Valid notion. Something that needs no explanation for it is obvious to all.

The exclusion by notion. A term used in Buddhist logic studies. Any expression or assertion that is absolutely contradictory to common notion, e.g. to call a vase a moon or to state that a human skull is a clean substance.

[aṣṭa ṡītanaraka]/ Eight cold hells.
1. ཆུ་བུར་ཅན། [arbudaḥ]/ blistering
2. ཆུ་བུར་རྡོལ། [nirarbudaḥ]/ broken blister
3. སོ་ཐམ། [aṭaṭaḥ]/ chattering teeth
4. ཨ་ཆུ་ཟེར་བ། [huhuvaḥ]/ «a-chu» sneezing
5. ཀྱེ་ཧུད་ཟེར་བ། [hahavaḥ]/ «kye-hud» crying
6. ཨུུད་པལ་ལྟར་གས་པ། [utpalaḥ]/ utpala-liке splits (on petals)
7. པད་མ་ལྟར་གས་པ། [padmaḥ]/ lotus-like spilts (on petals)
8. པད་མ་ལྟར་ཆེན་པོ་་གསཔ། [mahāpadmaḥ]/ big lotus-like splits (on petals).

[saṁkhyā]/ The Enumerators. Propounders of non-buddhist tenets also called Kapilas, who assert that all objects of knowledge can be enumerated into twenty-five categories of phenomena (see ༼ཤེ་བྱ་ཉེར་ལྔ༽). They also assert that the Fundamental Principle which is partless, permanent and the agent of all actions, pervades all phenomena. There are two main schools of Samkhyas—the theistic and the non-theistic.

A curved knife. A curved knife with a vajra handle on the lateral face. A ritual implement held by a tantric deity.

[siddhānta]/ Tenets; pholosophical theory. The study of philosophical positions and principles of the classical Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools of thought.

The two schools of philosophy.
1. ནང་པའི་གྲུབ་མཐའ་སྨྲ་བ། school of Buddhist philosophy and
2. ཕྱི་རོལ་པའི་གྲུབ་མཐའ་སྨྲ་བ། school of non-Buddhist philosophy.

The four schools of philosophy; the four classical schools of Buddhist philosophy.
1. བྱེ་བྲག་སྨྲ་བ། [vaibhāṣika]
2. མདོ་སྡེ་པ། [sautrāntika]
2. སེམས་ཙམ་པ། [cittamātra]
4. དབུ་མ་པ། [mādhyamika].

The set of actualized results. Birth, aging and death are the set of actualized results in the twelve links of interdependent origination.

Indivisible substances of simultaneous existence. Two separate substances that exist and are produced simultaneously; therefore their origination, sustenance and disintegration takes place at the same time. These two are both substances, and the appearance of one necessitates the appearance of the other, e.g. vase and its colour.

Substances of simultaneous existence. The simultaneity of different, reversed entities—the production, sustenance and disintegration of which takes place at the same time, and are necessarily substances.

The conduct of a [mahāsiddha]. One of the four ways of utilizing tantric realizations. An adept having actualized the feat of utilizing the sky through tantric practices, complements this with practices of the six perfections
according to tantra, and finally gains a state of three-fold vajra conduct of body, speech and mind of a deity.

A lord of actualization; [mahāsiddha]. One who has attained supreme realizations of either or both the [sūtra] and tantra traditions.

[kumbhāṇḍa]/ A monstorous demigod somewhat like a vampire in western mythology; a kind of spirit.

Entering a corpse. The practice of entering a corpse. An exalted tantric practice through which a yogi having gained control of his energy winds and mind purposely abandons his body and transfers his consciousness into another serviceable corpse. This enables him to maintain his life even after the break up of his original body in order to fulfil the purpose of other sentient beings. The great yogi Dharma Dhode, the son of Lama Marpa, is said to have demonstrated this practice.

The four great releases or liberations. A transmission of ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན༽ practice in which four ways of releasing Rigpa (intutive mind) into dharmakaya are explained. These are:
1. ཡེ་གྲོལ། Primordial release
2. རང་གྲོལ། self-release
3. གཅེར་གྲོལ། bare release
4. མཐའ་གྲོལ། limitless release.

The six continents. According to [kālacakra] tantra these are:
1. ཟླ་བའི་གླིང་། moon continent
2. འོད་དཀར་གྱི་གླིང་། white light continent
3. ཀུ་ཤའི་གླིང་། kusha grass continent
4. མིའམ་ཅིའི་གླིང་། probable human continent
5. ཁྲུང་ཁྲུང་གི་གླིང་། crane continent
6. དྲག་པོའི་གླིང་། agitated continent. These are also called the six
domains of riches because although the mountains, oceans and continents within the cool ranges do not get light from the sun and the moon, human beings survive by rays of light emanated from their bodies and enjoy as much wealth as the gods do.

The seven continents. 1-6. (see ༼གླིང་དྲུག༽)
7. འཛམ་གླིང་ཆེན་པོ། [jambu dvī]pa/ the world we live in.

[aṣṭa kṣudradvīpāh]/ The eight sub-continents. 1-2. ལུས་དང་ལུས་འཕགས། Deha and Videha around the east. 3-4. རྔ་ཡབ་དང་རྔ་ཡབ་གཞན། [cāmara] and Apara [cāmara] around the south 5-6. གཡོ་ལྡན་དང་ལམ་མཆོག་འགྲོ [ṡāthā and Uttaramantriṇa]/ around the west 7-8. སྒྲ་མི་སྙན་དང་སྒྲ་མི་སྙན་གྱི་ཟླ། Kurava and Kaurava around the nonh.

The four continents.
1. ཤར་ལུས་འཕགས་པོ། [pūrvavideha] to the east
2. ལྷོ་འཛམ་བུ་གླིང་། [Jambudvīpa] to the south
3. ནུབ་བ་ལང་སྤྱོད། [avaragodāniya] to the west
4. བྱང་སྒྲ་མི་སྙན། [uttarakuru] to the north.

The seven principles of sounds and chanting
1. དྲུག་སྐྱེས་རྨ་བྱའི་སྐད་ལྟར་སྒྲོག drag-skyes like the sound of a peacock
2. དྲང་སྲོང་བ་གླང་སྐད་ཀྱིས་རྩོམ། drang-srong like the sound of a mendicant
3. ས་འཛིན་སྐྱེས་ནི་ར་ཡི་སྐད། sa-'dzin-skyes like the sound of a goat
4. བར་མ་ཁྲུང་ཁྲུང་སྒྲ་སྒྲོག་བཞིན། bar-ma like the sound of a crane
5. ལྡ་ལྡན་མེ་ཏོག་ལྡན་དུས་སུ། ཁུ་བྱུག་སྐད་སྙན་སྒྲོག་ལྟ་བུ། lnga-ldan like the sound of a kucoo during the spring
6. བློ་གསལ་རྟ་སྐད་ལྟ་བུར་འཚེར། «blo-gsal» like the sound of a horse
7. འཁོར་ཉན་གླང་པོའི་སྒྲ་ལྟ་བུ། «khor-nyan» like the sound of an elephent.

[gītopamā cittotpāda]/ The song-like bodhicitta. The Bodhisattva motive of enlightenment associated with primordial cognition possessed by the Bodhisattva on the tenth stage, surpassing the practice of primordial wisdom.

Scapegoat. A clay or dough effigy of a person consecrated and sent away as ransom to appease harmful spirits which causes sickness or interference.

The introductory teachings. One of the twelve scriptual categories (see ༼གསུང་རབ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས༽); teachings given by Buddha to specific people. For instance, the [sūtra] that prescribes the act of stealing as a proscribed misdeed because of the behaviour of Nor-can, the son of a potter.

Adventitious defilement; incidental stains. Usually refers to all obscurations that temporarily obscure the pristine mind.

Nature truth body that is pure from adventitious stains. For instance, the noble truth of cessation within Buddha's mental continuum.

[pratisedha]/ A negative phenomenon. An object which is realized through the explicit elimination of an object of negation. For instance, a non-vase thing.

[pratiṣedhya]/ An object of negation. An object of refutation, or that which is to be disproved in a logical argument.

The two objects of refutation.
1. ལམ་གྱི་དགག་བྱ། [mārga pratiṣedhya]/ refutation on the path of practice
2. རིགས་པའི་གགག་བྱ། [yukti pratiṣedhya]/ refutation through logical analysis.

[pratiṣedhya dharma]/ The object of refutation; antithesis. That which is to be refuted in a logical argument, the opposite of the subject and the predicate taken together in a logical syllogism.

[catvāri pratiṣedhyāntā]/ The four extremes to be refuted.
1. ཡོད་པའི་མཐའ [astyanta]/ extreme of existence
2. མེད་པའི་མཐའ། [nāstyanta]/ extreme of non-existence
3. གཉིས་ཀའི་མཐའ། [ubhyānta]/ extreme of being both
4. གཉིས་ཀ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་མཐའ། [advyānta]/ extreme of being neither.

[pratiṣedhyātman]/ The self to be refuted. The self to be refuted, the direct opposite of the selflessness to be explicitly negated when one realizes the true selflessness.

The two kinds of self to be refuted.
1. གང་ཟག་གི་བདག [pudgalātman]/ self of a person
2. ཆོས་ཀྱི་བདག [dharmātman]/ self of a phenomenon.

[pratiṣedhyārthasāmānya]/ Meaning generality or generic image of an object to be refuted.

[pravāraṇā]/ The ceremony of lifting the restrictions. Lifting restrictions particularly laid down for individual monks
during the three month rainy season retreat; the last day of the rainy season retreat.

The basis of negation. For instance, the vase being the basis of negation upon which the conception of that vase being a permanent phenomena is refuted or expelled.

Refutation, establishment and responding to an assertion. A traditional scholarly means of refuting the stand of others, through establishing one's own position and responding to the criticism of one's own position. A systematic debate in the study of Buddhist logic should fulfill these three essential factors.

[tuṣita]/ A. The Heaven of Joy. The Tusita Buddha field; the pure land where the future Buddha, Maitreya would give teachings, also called the joyous field of virtue and mental happiness (dga'-ldan yid-dga' chos-'dzin); one of the six heavens of the gods of desire realm. It is also known to be the heaven for Bodhisattvas obstructed by a single birth from attaining Buddhahood. B. The Ganden monastery founded by JeTsong Khapain

The [mahāmudrā] of the Gelug tradition. A transmission of developing calm abiding and penetrative insight meditation by taking one's mind as the object of meditation in the Gelug tradition as a means to finding the right view through meditation.

The holder of Ganden throne; the successor to the throne of Je Tsong Khapa

Immeasurable joy. One of the four immeasurables (see ༼ཙད་མེད་བཞི༽). A meditation on joy in which one takes immeasurable sentient beings as one's object of meditation and wishes them never to be separated from a genuine Happiness free of suffering.

The four joys. The joys experienced through the flow of melting regenerative fluid in stages from crown to secret organ in the highest tantric practices.
1. དགའ་བ། [muditā]/joy
2. མཆོག་དགའ། [pramuditā]/ great joy
3. ཁྱད་དགའ [viṡeṣa muditā]/ exalted joy
4. ལྷན་སྐྱེས་ཀྱི་དགའ་བ། [sahaja muditā]/ innate joy.

[pntīsaṁbodhyaṅga]/ The perfect joy as a limb to enlightenment. One of the seven limbs of enlightenment (see ༼བྱང་ཆུབ་ཡན་ལག་བདུན༽), the contentment and benefit that is physically and mentally received by the joy of reaching the first Bodhisattva ground.

The miraculous cathedral of four-fold joy. Another name of the Lhasa cathedral. The name was given due to jubiliance shown by man, gods, nagas and spirits at the beginning of the building of the Lhasa cathedral.

A monk disciplinarian. The monk in charge of enforcing the monastic rules and regulations.

[upāsaka]/ Ordained lay person. A layman or laywoman who has taken any or all of the five precepts—not killing, not lying, not indulging in sexual misconduct, not stealing and not taking intoxicants.

The three fully fledged lay persons.
1. ཡོངས་རྫོགས་དགེ་བསྙེན། а full
fledged ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death while remaining as a householder e.g. Marpa, the great translator.
2. ཚངས་སྤྱོད་དགེ་བ་སྙེན། a full fledged ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death and leading a life of celibacy e.g. Candragomin.
3. གོ་མི་དགེ་བསྙེན། a full fledged ordained lay person observing all the eight vows of a one day vow holder (see ༼བསྙེན་གནས་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད༽) until death and who wears robes.

The four nominal ordained lay persons.
1. སྐྱབས་འགྲོ་ཙམ་གྱི་དགེ་བསྙེན། a lay person ordained merely through seeking refuge in the three jewels
2. སྣ་གཅིག་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person observing only one of the four root vows
3. སྣ་གཉིས་ཙམ་བསྲུང་བའི་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person observing only two of the four root vows
4. སྣ་གསུམ་ཙམ་བསྲུང་བའི་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person observing three of the four root vows.

The six kinds of ordained lay persons (upasaka).
1. སྐྱབས་འགྲོའི་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person (merely) by having taken refuge in the three jewel
2. སྣ་གཅིག་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person observing only one of the five vows
3. སྣ་དགའི་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person observing only two of the five vows
4. ཕལ་ཆེན་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person observing three of the five vows
5. ཡོངས་རྫོགས་དགེ་བསྙེན། a full-fledged ordained lay person observing all the five vows
5. ཚངས་སྤྱོད་དགེ་བསྙེན། an ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death, and leading a life of celibacy.

Emptiness of virtue and non-virtue. The lack of inherent existence of both virtue and non-virtue in their ultimate sense.

[saṅgha]/ The holy community; the supreme assembly; the [saṅgha] One of the three objects of refuge conventionally represented by the community of monks and nuns (above three or four) devoted to study and practice of the teachings of Buddha, and ultimately, the [saṅgha] comprises those on and above the path of seeing ([āryas]).

The debate courtyard or the main assembly hall of a monastic community.

Creating a schism in the [saṅgha] community. Causing disunity in the monastic community with at least four people on each side. Such an act constitutes one of the five heinous crimes (see ༼མཙམས་མེད་ལྔ༽).

The three schisms within a monastic community.
1. འཁོར་ལོའི་དབྱེན། schism by a defection, i.e., by way of diverting devotion to a non-Buddhist teacher and precepts during the presence of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] himself or his hierarchies
2. བླས་ཀྱི་དབྱེན། schism by behavior
3. འཁྲུགས་ལོང་གི་དབྱེན། schism by dispute.

[viṃṡatiḥ saṇgha]/ The twenty [saṅgha] members. The twenty
exemplary [saṅgha] members comprising 1-5. རྒྱུན་ཞུགས་ལྔ་། the five stream-winners 6-8. ཕྱིར་འོང་གསུམ། the three once-returners 9-18. ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་བཅུ། the ten never-returners
19. དགྲ་བཅོམ་ཞུགས་པ། the enterers into Arhatship
20. བསེ་རུ་ལྟ་བུའི་རང་སངས་རྒྱས། the rhinoceros-like solitary realizer (see ༼བསེ་རུ་ལྟ་བུའི་རང་སངས་རྒྱས༽).

A [saṅgha] of different orders. The [saṅgha] members belonging to different schools within the same tradition.

The five Mahasanghika schools.
1. ཤར་གྱི་རི་བོའི་སྡེ་པ། [purvaṡaila]
2. ནུབ་ཀྱི་རི་བོའི་སྡེ། [aparaṡaila]
3. གངས་ཀྱི་རི་བོའི་སྡེ། Himavata
4. འཇིག་རྟེན་ལས་འདས་པར་སྨྲ་བའི་སྡེ།
5. རྟག་པར་སྨྲ་བའི་སྡེ། [prajсāpativādin].

The two honourable classes of [saṅgha].
1. རབ་བྱུང་དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་སྡེ། the ordained monks
2. གོས་དཀར་ལྕང་ལོ་ཅན་གྱི་སྡེ། the tantrikas bearing matted hair knots on their head, as were honoured by King Tri Ralpa Chen, who spread two silken scarves bound to his head and let a member of each class of [saṅgha] be seated on these scarve cushions as a mark of his respect and devotion to them.

The honoured [saṅgha], referring to the community of monks and nuns who hold moral disciplines as laid down in the Vinaya teachings.

The four-fold [saṅgha] members. A group of four fully ordained monks already on the paths of attainments or a gathering of four fully ordained monks in their ordinary state having received their Biksu ordination by means of four-fold requests.

The three [saṅgha] members.
1. སོ་སོ་སྐྱེ་བོའི་དགེ་འདུན། the ordinary fully ordained [saṅgha] member—a group of four or more ordinary [saṅgha] members who have all received their full ordination of a Biksu by means of four-fold requests
2. སློབ་པའི་དགེ་འདུན། [saṅgha] member on the path of a trainee—any [saṅgha] member who is on or above the stream-winner's path, up to the path leading to Arhatship
3. མི་སློབ་པའི་དགེ་འདུན། [saṅgha] member on the path of no-more learning—a person who has already attained the state of an [ārhat].

The five prayers of Gelug tradition.
1. བཟང་སྤྱོད་སྨོན་ལམ། Prayer of Good Deeds
2. བྱམས་སྨོན། Prayer of Buddha Maitreya
3. ཐོག་འཐའ་མ། Prayer of Beginning and the End
4. བདེ་སྨོན Prayer of the Blissful Fields
5. སྤྱོད་འཇུག་སྨོན་ལམ། Prayer of the Deeds of a Bodhisattva.

[daṡakuṡalāni]/ The ten virtues.
1. སྲོག་གཅོད་སྤོང་བ། [prāṇatighātād virati]/ abandoning the act of killing
2. མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ་སྤོང་བ། [adattādānād virati]/ abandoning the act of stealing
3. ལོག་གཡེམ་སྤོང་བ། [kāmamithyācārād virati]/ abandoning the act of indulging in sexual misconduct
4. རྫུན་སྤོང་བ། [mṛṣāvādat prativirati]/ abandoning the act of telling a lie
5. ཕྲ་མ་སྤོང་བ། [pāiṡunyāt prativirati]/ abandoning the act of slandering
6. ཚིག་རྩུབ་སྤོང་བ།
[pāruṣyāt prativirati]/ abandoning the act of using harsh words
7. ངག་འཁྱལ་སྤོང་བ། [saṁbhinna pralāpat prativirati]/ abandoning the act of indulging in idle gossip
8. བརྣབ་སེམས་སྤོང་བ། [abhidhyāyāḥ prativirati]/ abandoning the act of being coveteous
9. གནོད་སེམས་སྤོང་བ། [vyāpādāt prativirati]/ abandoning the act of harming others
10. ལོག་སྟ་སྤོང་བ། [mithyādṛṣṭeḥ prativirati]/ abandoning upholding wrong views or philosophies.

[Eka daṡa kuṡala`ni]/ Eleven virtuous mental factors.
1. དད་པ། [ṡraddhā]/ faith
2. ངོ་ཚ་ཤེས་པ། [hrī]/sense of shame
3. ཁྲེལ་ཡོད་པ། [apaltavyam]/ sense of dread of blame
4. འདོད་ཆགས་མེད་པ། [alobha]/ lack of desire
5. ཞེ་སྡང་མེད་པ། [adveṣa]/ lack of hatred
6. གཏི་མུག་མེད་པ། [amoha]/ lack of stupidity
7. བརྩོན་འགྲུས། [vīrya]/ virtuous effort
8. བག་ཡོད། [apramāda]/ conscientiousness
9. ཤིན་སྦྱངས། [praṡrabdhi]/ suppleness
10. བཏང་སྙོམས། [upekṣā]/ equanimity 11 རྣམ་པར་མི་འཚེ་བ། [ahiṁsa]/ not harming others.

[dvadaṡa kuṡalāvi]/ The twelve virtues.
1. ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་ཀྱི་དགེ་བ། [svabhāvakuṡala]/ natural virtue
2. འབྲེལ་བའི་དགེ་བ། [saṁbandhakuṡala]/ associate virtue
3. རྗེས་སུ་འབྲེལ་བའི་དགེ་བ། [anubandhakuṡala]/ concordant virtue
4. ཀུན་སློང་གི་དགེ་བ། [samutṭhānakuṡala]/ motivated virtue
5. དོན་དམ་གྱི་དགེ་བ། [paramārthakuṡala]/ ultimate virtue
6. སྐྱེ་བས་ཐོབ་པའི་དགེ་བ། upapattipratilambhikakusala/. virtue aquired by birth
7. སྦྱོར་བའི་དགེ་བ། [prayogakuṡala]/ virtue acquired through learning
8. ཕན་འདོགས་པའི་དགེ་བ། [upakārikuṡala]/ beneficial virtue
9. ཡོང་སུ་འཛིན་པའི་དགེ་བ། [parigrāhakakuṡala]/ fully acquired virtue
10. གཉེན་པོའི་དགེ་བ། [pratipakṣakuṡala]/ antidotal virtue
11. ཉེ་བར་ཞི་བའི་དགེ་བ། [upaṡamakuṡala]/ fully pacified virtue
12. རྒྱུ་མཐུན་གྱི་དགེ་བ། [niṣyandakuṡala]/ virtue congruent to its cause.

The two virtuous suchnesses; the two wholesome realities.

གང་ཟག་གི་བདག་མེད། [pudgalanairātmya]/ selflessness of a person
2. ཆོས་ཀྱི་བདག་མེད། [dharmanairātmya]/ selflessness of a phenomenon.

The three root virtues.
1. འདོད་ཆགས་མེད་པའི་དགེ་བའི་རྟ་བ། [alobha]/ root virtue devoid of desire
2. ཞེ་སྡང་མེད་པའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ། [adveṣa]/ root virtue devoid of hatred
3. གཏི་མུག་མེད་པའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ། [amoha]/ root virtue devoid of mental stupidity.

The two mental virtues; the two virtuous minds.
1. སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་དགེ་བ། virtuous mind by birth
2. སྦྱོར་བྱུང་གི་དགེ་བ། virtuous mind by training.

[kalyāṇamitra]/ Spiritual master; spiritual friend; religious teacher; a Guru.

[daṡa kalyāṇamitra guṇā]/ The ten qualities of a spiritual master; the ten requisites of a [mahāyānist] teacher. l. ལྷག་པ་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་བསླབ་པས་དུལ་བ། being humble due to his higher training of morality
2. ལྷག་པ་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་བསླབ་པས་ཞི་བ། being calm due to his higher training of concentration
3. ལྷག་པ་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་བསླབ་པས་ཉེ་པར་ཞི་བ། being pacified due to his higher training of wisdom
4. ལུང་གི་ཡོན་ཏན་གྱིས་ཕྱུག་པ། being rich in oral transmission
5. སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་རྟོགས་པ། having realized emptiness
6. སློབ་མ་ལས་ཡོན་ཏན་ལྷག་པ། being more learned than his students
7. སྨྲ་མཁས་པ། being skillful in preaching
8. བརྩེ་བ་དང་ལྡན་པ། being compassionate
9. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་དང་ལྡན་པ། being hard working
10. སྐྱོ་ངལ་སྤོང་པ། having no regrets or lamentation.

Nine attitudes of relying on a Guru/ spiritual master.
1. བུ་མཛངས་པ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། attitude like that of a wise son
2. རྡོ་རྗེ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། vajra-like attitude
3. ས་གཞི་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། attitude like the foundational ground
4. ཁོར་ཡུག་གི་རི་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། attitude like the surrounding mountain
5. བྲན་གཡོག་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། attitude like that of a servant
6. ཐེག་པ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། attitude like that of a staircase
7. སྒོ་ཁྱི་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། attitude like that of a watch-dog
8. ཕྱག་དར་ལྟ་བུའི་སེནས། attitude like that of a broom
9. གྲོགས་བཟང་པོ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས། attitude like that of a good friend.

The eleven virtuous levels of thought (see ༼དགེ་བ་བཅུ་གཅིག༽). These eleven levels of thought accompany a perfect virtuous state of mind.

[ṡramaṇa]/ A practitioner of virtue. A general name for any person ordained as a novice monk or nun, or a fully ordained monk or nun or the whole [saṅgha], who have vowed to attain the state of liberation by means of observing the precepts of the individual liberation vows (pratimoksa) in his or her endeavour to eliminate delusions and pacify sufferings within [saṁsara].

The four precepts of a monk; the four principles of a monk.
1. གཤེ་ཡང་སླར་མི་གཤེ་བ། [ākruṣṭena na pratyākroṣtitavyam]/ not to scold another although being scolded
2. ཁྲོས་ཀྱང་སླར་མི་ཁྲོ་བ། [roṣitena na pratiroṣitavyam]/ not to become angry when incited to anger
3. བརྡེགས་ཀྱང་སླར་མི་རྡེག་པ། [tādite na prativāḍitavyam]/ not to hit another in return when being hit
4. མཚང་བྲུས་ཀྱང་སླར་མཚང་མི་འབྲུ་བ།
[bhaṇḍitena na pratibhaṇditavyam]/ not to reveal another's faults when he does so.

The four fruits of a trainee. རྒྱུན་དུ་ཞུགས་པའི་འབྲས་བུ། the fruit of a Stream-winner
2. ཕྱིར་འོང་བའི་འབྲས་བུ། the fruit of a Once-returner
3. ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་བའི་འབྲས་བུ། the fruit of a Never-returner
4. དགྲ་བཅོམ་པའི་འབྲས་བུ། the fruit of an Arhat.

The fruit of a trainee. The path of thorough liberation which is compositional and the truth of cassation that is a non-compositional attainment.

[mūla kuṡala]/ The root of virtue. Any wholesome act or practice such as of giving and honouring that results in happiness and benefit.

[ṡramaṇera]/ A novice monk. A monk observing thirty-six precepts according to the pratimoksa vows (dge-tsul-gyi blang-'das so-drug).

[daṡa ṡramaṇera prahātavya dharmā]/ The ten precepts of a novice monk; the ten limbs of abandonment for a novice.
1. སྲོག་གཅོད་སྤོང་བ། [prāṇātighātād virati]/ to avoid taking life
2. མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ་སྤོང་བ། [adattādānād virati]/ to avoid stealing
3. མི་གཙང་སྤྱོད་སྤོང་བ། [kāmamithyācārād virati]/ to avoid engaging in sexual misconduct
4. རྫུན་སྤོང་བ། [mṛṣāvādat virati]/ to avoid telling lies
5. མྱོས་གྱུར་སྤོང་བ། [madyapāna virati]/ to avoid taking intoxicants

6. གར་སོགས་སྤོང་བ། [nāṭaka virati]/ to avoid dancing, etc.
7. འཕྲེང་སོགས་སྤོང་བ། [mālāya virati]/ to avoid wearing garlands, etc.
8. མལ་སྟན་ཆེ་མཐོ་སྤོང་བ། [ucchaṡayana mahāṡayana virati]/ to avoid using high and luxurious beds and seats
9. དུས་མིན་ཁ་ཟས་སྤོང་བ། [vikāta bhojana virati]/ to avoid taking untimely food
10. གསེར་དངུལ་ལེན་པ་སྤོང་བ། [jātarūparajata virati]/ to avoid accepting gold
and silver.

The thirty-six precepts of a novice monk.
1. མི་གསོད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid killing a human being 2. to དུད་འགྲོ་དང་བཅས་པ་བརྡོག་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid harming living beings
3. དུད་འགྲོ་དང་བཅས་པ་སྤྱོད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid using water containing living creatures
4. དུད་འགྲོ་གསོད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid killing animals
5. མ་བྱིན་པ་ལེན་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid stealing
6. མི་གཙང་སྤྱོད་སྤོང་བ། to avoid indulging in sexual misconduct
7. རྫུན་སྨྲ་བ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid telling lies (about superhuman attainment)
8. གཞི་མེད་སྐུར་འདེབས་སྤོང་བ། to avoid accusing a [bhikṣu] or novice groundlessly of a defeat (pham-pa)
9. བག་ཙམ་གྱི་སྐུར་འདེབས་སྤོང་བ། to avoid deprecating a [bhikṣu] or novice by insinuation
10. དགེ་འདུན་འབྱེན་འབྱེད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid creating schism in the [saṅgha] community
11. དེ་རྗེས་ཕྱོགས་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid following such a faction
12. ཁྱིམ་པ་བསུན་འབྱིན་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid disturbing the householders' faith
13. ཤེས་བཞིན་གྱི་རྫུན་སྤོང་བ། to avoid knowingly telling a lie
14. ཤེས་ངོར་བྱེད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid making false accusations as a favour to a friend
15. འཕྱ་བ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid despising a Sarigha steward
16. ཟས་ཅུང་གི་ཕྱིར་སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid accusing a monk of teaching Dharma for material gain
17. ལྷག་མའི་སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid accusing a [bhikṣu] groundlessly of commiting a remaindertransgression
18. བསླབ་པ་མི་སྤོང་བ། to avoid not listening to the advice of an elder
19. འབྲས་ཆེན་འགེབས་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid accepting food that is more than one's share
20. ཆང་འཐུང་བ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid taking liquor
21. གླུ་སོགས་སྤོང་བ། to avoid singing
22. གར་སོགས་སྤོང་བ། to avoid dancing etc.
23. རོལ་མོ་བྱེད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid playing musical instruments
24. རྒྱན་སོགས་སྤོང་བ། to avoid wearing ornaments
25. དྲི་དང་ཁ་དོག་འཆང་བ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid using colourful costumes
26. སྤོས་ཉུག་བྱེད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid using aromatic scents
27. ཕྲེང་བ་སོགས་སྤོང་བ། to avoid wearing garlands, etc,
28. ཁྲི་སྟན་ཆེ་མཐོ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid using luxurious seats and beds
29. དེར་འདུག་པའམ་ཉལ་བ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid sleeping or sitting upon luxurious seats and beds
30. ཁྲི་གང་ལྷག་གི་ཁྲི་སྟན་སྤྱོད་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid using high thrones or beds more than a cubit in height 31. དེར་འདུག་པའམ་ཉལ་བ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid sleeping or sitting upon high thrones or beds more than a cubit in height
32. ཕྱི་དྲིའི་ཁ་ཟས་སྤོང་བ། to avoid eating food after noon
33. གསེར་དངུལ་ལེན་པ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid accepting and keeping gold and the like
34. ཁྱིམ་པའི་རྟགས་འཆང་བ་སྤོང་བ། to avoid maintaining a layman's way of life
35. རབ་བྱུང་གི་སྟགས་བླངས་པ་མི་སྤོང་བ། abandoning a monk's way of life
36. མཁན་པོར་གསོལ་བ་བཏབ་པ་ལས་མ་ཉམས་པ། to avoid refusing service to one's abbot and teachers.

The collection of virtues. The collection of merits (bsod-nams kyi tshogs) and the collection of insights (ye-shes kyi tshogs).

[bhikṣu]/ A fully ordained monk. A monk observing two hundred and fifty-three vows according to the Mulasarvastivadin tradition according to Tibetan monastic discipline.

[paсca bhikṣu]/ The five types of fully ordained monks (gelong/ [bhikṣu]).
1. སློང་བའི་དགེ་སློང་། [bhikṣuta iti bhikṣu]/ an alm
seeking [bhikṣu]
2. མིང་གི་དགེ་སློང་། [saṁjсabhikṣu]/ a [bhikṣu] in name
3. ཁས་འཆེ་བའི་དགེ་སློང་། [pratijna bhikṣu]/ a nominal [bhikṣu]
4. གསོལ་བཞིའི་ལས་ཀྱི་དགེ་སློང་། [jсāpati caturtha karmaṇo pasampanno bhikṣu]/ a [bhikṣu] by four-fold request
5. ཉོན་མོངས་དང་བྲལ་བའི་དགེ་སློང་། [bhinnakleṡatvad bhikṣu]/ a [bhikṣu] who is free of delusions.

The precepts of a fully ordained monk. The five classes of vows to be observed—the class of defeats, remainders, abandoning downfalls, propelling downfalls and faults, comprising all the two hundred and fifty-three precepts.

The precepts of a fully ordained nun. The three hundred and sixty-four vows classed as eight defeats, twenty remainders, thirty-three abandoning downfalls, one hundred and eighty propelling downfalls, eleven individual confessions and one hundred and twelve faults.

[ṡikṣamānā]/ A probationary novice nun. One of the seven types of individual liberation vow holders, who is a novice nun on two years probation before being ordained as a [bhikṣunī], observing the six root dharmas (see ༼རྩ་བའི་ཆོས་དྲུག༽) and the six auxiliary dharmas (see ༼རྗེས་མཐུན་གྱི་ཆོས་དྲུག༽) in addition to her novice vows.

The mind treasure teachings. Those cycle of teachings revealed spontaneously from within by a highly realized master and recorded in writing. This kind of teaching is particularly renowned in the Nyignma tradition of teaching Buddhism.

[abhiprāya]/ A. Thought, idea or view point. B. Honorific for mind. С The essential point. D. Permission.

[catvāro bhiprāyā]/ The four interpretative [sūtras] primarily stressing the basic intention of Buddha
1. མཉམ་པ་ཉིད་ལ་དགོངས་པ། [samatābhiprāya]/ determining the samenesses
2. དོན་གཞན་ལ་དགོངས་པ། [arthāntarābhiprāya]/ determining some other meaning
3. དུས་གཞན་ལ་དགོངས་པ། [kālāntarābhiprāya]/ determining some other time
4. གང་ཟག་གི་བསམ་པ་ལ་དགོངས་པ། [pudgalāntārabhiprāya]/ determining the interest of a particular person.

The teaching through symbolic gestures. One of the five ways of imparting teaching (see ༼གསུང་ལྔ༽) by a sambhogakaya Buddha who transmits teachings to his circle of disciples through physical gestures and the meaning is understood by the disciples, A special lineage of transmission as asserted by the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.

Complete fulfillment of the thought. One of the four objects of pervasion (see ༼ཁྱབ་པའི་དམིགས་པ་བཞི༽). The experience of self-transformation from this impure body to a pure body as a result of repeated training of complete attention and familiarity with the chosen object of calm-abiding (zhi-gnas) and pene ative insight (lhag-mthong) meditation.

Monastery; monstic univerity; a hermitage.

A. recluse. B. hermit. С. Gonpawa, a master of the Kadampa tradition.

[arhat dṛṣṭiprāpti]/ Foe-destroyer by correct view; the intelligent Foe-destroyer.

[arhat ṡraddhādhimukta]/ Foe-destroyer by devotion; faith; the less-intelligent Foe-destroyer.

The seven Arhats. The seven early Indian masters who were responsible for the compilation of the seven treatises on knowledge (see ༼མངོན་པ་སྡེ་བདུན༽). They were:
1. ཀཏྱའི་བུ། [kātyāyana]
2. དབྱིག་བཤེས། [vasumitra]
3. བྲམ་ཟེ་ལྷ་སྐྱིད། [brahmiṇ Devotsava]
4. ཤཱ་རིའི་བུ། [ṡāriputra]
5. མོའུ་གལ་གྱི་བུ། [maudgalyāyana]
6. གསུས་པོ་ཆེ [mahākauṣṭhila]
7. གང་པོ། [pūrṇa].

The two types of Arhats. A. In regard to their degree of abandonments:
1. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱིས་རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བ། onе who is liberated by means of the wisdom path
2. གཉིས་ཀའི་ཆ་ལས་རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བ། one who is liberated by means of both the wisdom and method paths. B. In regard to their status:
1. ཉན་ཐོས་དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ། [ṡravaka arhat]/ the hearer Arhat
2. རང་རྒྱལ་དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ། [pratyekbuddha arhat]/ the solitary-realizer Arhat.

Six types of Foe-destroyers.
1. ཡོངས་སུ་ཉམས་པའི་ཆོས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer liable to degeneration
2. འཆི་བར་སེམས་པའི་ཆོས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer wishing to die
3. རྗེས་སུ་སྲུང་བའི་ཆོས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer protecting his state of realization
4. གནས་པ་ལ་མི་བསྐྱོད་པའི་ཆོས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer immutably abiding in his state of realization
5. རྟོགས་པའི་འོས་སི་གྱུར་བའི་ཆོས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer destined to generation of realization
6. མི་འཁྲུགས་པའི་ཆོས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer never liable to transformation.

The three types of Arhats.
1. ཉན་ཐོས་དགྲ་བཅོམ། [ṡravaka arhat]/ the hearer Arhat
2. རང་རྒྱལ་དགྲ་བ་ཅོམ། [pratyekabuddha arhat]/ the solitary-realizer Arhat
3. སངས་རྒྱས་དགྲ་བཅོམ། [buddha arhat]/ the Buddha Arhat.

The state of a Foe-destroyer; Arhatship. The state of liberation or the 5th path of no-more learning, attained by Arhats after perfecting training of the 4th path. According to Lower Vehicle it is the culmination of four stages of perfection—the Stream-winner, Once-returner, Never-returner and Arhatship, and according to the Higher Vehicle, it is either the state of liberation or the state of omniscience.

The last aggregate of an Arhat. The aggregate of an Arhat who has attained [nirvāṇa] with remainder (see ༼ལྷག་བཅས་མྱང་འདས༽) as asserted by the schools of Buddhist philosophy of and below [svātantrika Mādhyamika].

[arhatphala]/ The fruit of an Arhat. One of the four fruits of a trainee (see ༼དགེ་སྦྱོང་གི་འབྲས་བུ་བཞི༽). One who has released himself or herself of all the abandonments of the three realms to be eliminated on the path of meditation, and thereby has overcome all the foes of the four devils (maras) (see ༼བདུད་བཞི༽).

[arhatphalaniṣraya]/ Abider in the fruit of an Arhat. One of the eight persons of enterer and abider amongst the Twenty Sarigha members. A person belonging to the lower vehicle who has eliminated all the nine delusions to be abandoned on the peak level (srid-rtse) of existence.

Enterer in the path of an Arhat. One of the eight persons of enterer and abider amongst the Twenty [saṅgha] members. One who is engaged in the act or process of eliminating all the delusions covering the first concentration stage up to the peak level of existence.

[vighna]/ Expelling the interfering forces. A rite performed at the beginning of a [maṇḍala] ritual and initiation, when all those forces interfering with the performance of a [maṇḍala] ritual and initiation are given sacrificial cakes (gtor-ma) and sent away from the place by way of emanating wrathful deities through generating divine pride.

[alātacakra]/ A fire-wheel. A circle of fire formed by swinging a flaming fire-brand or torch in a circle thereby creating the illusion of a flaming wheel.

Pleasing services. The offering of services such as washing dishes, shoe-shining and the like by an individual monk to the [saṅgha] community of which he is a member, for having committed a breach of any of the thirteen remainders (lhag-ma).

The monk who does the invocation rite of a dharma protector in a monastery.

The four classes of guests; the four classes of guests of offering.
1. དཀོན་མཆོག་སྲི་ཞུའི་མགྲོན། the Three Jewels as the guest of honor
2. མགོན་པོ་ཡོན་ཏན་གྱི་མགྲོ། the lords of protectors as the guest of qualities
3. འགྲོ་དྲུག་སྙིང་རྗེའི་མགྲོན། the six classes of beings as guests for compassion
4. གདོན་གེགས་ལམ་ཆགས་ཀྱི་མགྲོན། the spirits and malignant forces as guests of karmic retribution.

[virūddhavyāpti]/ Contrary pervasions. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is not the predicate in the given logical syllogism. One of the four positive pervasions (see ༼ཁྱབ་པ་རྣལ་མ་བཞི༽). This pervasion is also called correct contrary pervasion fgal-khyab rnal-ma).

[viparyaya vir_uddhavyāpti]/ Wrong contrary pervasion. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is not that which is not the predicate, Synonymous with subsequent pervasion (see ༼རྗེས་ཁྱབ༽).

Two types of contradictions. A, By means of their reverse identity there are two:
1. ལྷན་ཅིག་མི་གནས་འགལ། [ekatrāsthita virūddha]/ contradiction not abiding simultaneously, e.g. hot and cold
2. ཕན་ཚུན་སྤང་འགལ། [anyānyaparihāra virūddha]/ contradictions canceling each other, e.g. is and isn't. B. By means of their manner of contradiction there are two:
1. དངོས་འགལ། [bhāva virūddha]/ direct contradiction, e.g. permanent and impermanent
2. བརྒྱུད་འགལ། [avedhavirūddha]/ indirect contradiction, e.g. pillar and vase.

[virūddha vipakṣa]/ Contradictory dissimilar factor. An opposite factor of the predicate in a logical syllogism.

Four types of contradictions, (see ༼འགལ་བ་གཉིས༽ A, 1-2 and B, 1-2).

Three types of contradictions. 1-2 (see འགལ་བ་བཞི A. 1-2 )
3. ཚད་མའི་ནོད་འགལ། contradiction by valid cognition.

A personal god or inhuman force. A god or inhuman force believed to be the personal protector of an individual inseparable from oneself like the shadow of one's body.

[paсca devā]/ Five personal gods or inhuman forces. I.ཡུལ་ལྷ། [deṡa deva]/ the local god
2. ཕོ་ལྷ། [puruṣa deva]/ the male god of a man
3. མོ་ལྷ། [strī deva]/ the female god of a woman
4. དགྲ་ལྷ། [ṡatru deva]/ the enemy combating god
5. སྲོག་ལྷ། [prāṇa deva]/ the life-force god.

[nirodha satya]/ The noble truth of cessation. The total pacification of all karmas and delusions through application of the path within oneself.

[dvadaṡa nirodha satya]/ The twelve types of truth of cessation.

1. མཚན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་འགོག་པ། [lakṣaṇa nirodha]/ characterised cessation

2. ཟབ་པའི་འགོག་པ། [gambhīra nirodha]/ profound cessation
3. དརྡའི་འགོག་པ། [sāṃketa nirodha]/ symbolic cessation
4. དོན་དམ་པའི་འགོག་པ། [parārtha nirodha]/ ultimate cessation
5. ཡོངས་སུ་མ་རྫོག་པའི་འགོག་པ། [aparipūrṇa nirodha]/ unperfected cessation
6. ཡོངས་སུ་རྫོགས་པའི་འགོག་པ། paripurna nirodha/ perfected cessation
7. རྒྱན་བཅས་འགོག་པ། [sālaṅkāra nirodha]/ adorned cessation
8. རྒྱན་མེད་འགོག་པ། [anālaṇkāra nirodha]/ unadorned cessation
9. ལྷག་བཅས་འགོག་པ། [avaṡeṣa nirodha]/ residual cessation
10. ལྷག་མེད་འགོག་པ། [nirvaṡeṣa nirodha]/ non-residual cessation
11. ཁྱད་པར་དུ་འཕགས་པའི་འགོག་པ། [viṡeṣṭa nirodha]/ exalted cessation
12. རྣམ་གྲངས་པའི་འགོག་པ། [prayāya nirodha]/ nominal cessation.

[catvāri nirodhaḥ satya guṇā]/ Four attributes of the noble truth of cessation.
1. འགོག་པ། [nirodha]/ cessation
2. ཞི་བ། [ṡānta]/ peace
3. གྱ་ནོམ་པ། [praṇīta]/ excellence
4. ངོས་འབྱུང་། [niḥsaraṇam]/ renunciation.

[ṣaḍaṡa nirodha satyākāra]/ The sixteen aspects of the noble truth of cessation. These are the aspects of internal emptiness and so on of the sixteen emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽).

[sapta nirodha satya prahātavya]/ Seven abandonments of the path of cessation. These concern the objects of elimination having actualized the truth of cessation within this desire realm, which are:
1. མ་རིག་པ། [avidyā]/ ignorance
2. འདོད་ཆགས། [rāga]/ desire-attachment
3. ཁོང་ཁྲོ། [pratigha]/ hatred-anger
4. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ ego/ pride
5. ཐེ་ཚོམ། [vicikitsā]/ doubt
6. ལོག་ལྟ [mithyā ḍṛṣṭi]/ wrong views holding wrong philosophy as right.

[nirodhasamāpatti]/ The meditative absorption in cessation. A state of meditation achieved in reliance upon the meditative absorption at the peak level of cyclic existence (srid-rtse), in which a yogi can remain for many aeons through stopping all gross feelings and perceptions. Synonymous with the emancipation of cessation ('gog-pa'i rnam-par thar-ba).

The unchangeable path. According to Nyingma teachings it
refers to the first ground attained on the level of the first yogic stage.

[vipariṇāmaduḥkhatā]/ The suffering of change. The fact that all happiness in cyclic existence changes to dissatisfaction and suffering. One of the three types of suffering (see ༼སྡུག་བསྔལ་གསུམ༽).

The four great feasts. The feast offered in Cut-ritual (gcod) practices.
1. དཀར་འགྱེད། the white feast
2. དམར་འགྱེད། the red feast
3. ཁྲ་འགྱེད། the multi-colored feast
4. ནག་འགྱེད། the black feast.

[kaukṛtya]/ Regret; contrition. A secondary mind necessary for confession of negativities. One of the four changeable mental factors (see ༼གཞན་འགྱུར་བཞི༽).

Actualizing causes. Craving, grasping and becoming are the actualizing causes in the twelve links of interdependent origination, for these are responsible for activating, at death, the seeds of karmic instinct implanted in one's mind which determine one's next rebirth.

[gati]/ Migrators; sentient beings. Generally classified into two categories: 1. the unfortunate beings (ngan-'gro) 2. the fortunate beings (bde-'gro).

The six types of beings; the six types of migrators.
1. ལྷ [deva]/ gods
2. མི། [manuṣya]/ human beings
3. ལྷ་མ་ཡིན། [asura]/
4. དམྱལ་བ། [naraka]/ hell beings
5. ཡི་དྭགས། [preta]/ hungry ghosts
6. དུད་འགྲོ། [tiryak]/ animals.

Coarse mental agitation. In the practice of single-pointed concentration, losing one's focal object after having held it for any penod of time is recognized as coarse mental agitation.

Subtle mental agitation. In the meditation to develop single-pointed concentration, when one part of the mind wanders to an object of attraction, and away from the focal object of meditation (even if not completely lost).

The seven codes of translation. The convention of translation followed by the Tibetan translators.
1. ཚིག་འབྲུ་མི་འཁྲུག་པ་ཚེག་གི་རྒྱ། there must be a corresponding number of words per sentence
2. ཚིག་རྐང་མི་འཁྲུག་པ་ཤད་ཀྱི་རྒྱ། the number of full stops must correspond to the number of sentences
3. ཚིག་དོན་མི་འཁྲུག་པ་ལེའུ་རྒྱ། the number of chapters must correspond to the number of subjects
4. ཤོ་ལོ་ཀ་མི་འཁྲུག་པ་བམ་པོའི་རྒྱ། each volume must contain a set of verses
5. བམ་པོ་མི་འཁྲུག་པ་བམ་པོའི་གྲངས་ཀྱི་རྒྱ། there must be a constitent number of volumes within a set
6. མཐའ་མི་འཆོལ་བ་སྣེ་ཐིག་གི་རྒྱ། there must be clear, consistent margins
7. གླེག་བམ་མི་འཁྲུག་པ་གདོང་ཡིག་གི་རྒྱ། there must be an identifying title on each volume.

[vaipulyatantra]/ The lineage of extensive deeds. The lineage of teachings and practice coming from Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu mainly emphasizing the method aspect of Buddha's teachings.

[aṣṭa mada]/ Eight types of Haughtinesses. Eight types of conceited delight.
1. རིགས་བཟང་བས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by family or lineage
2. གཟུགས་ཀྱིས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by physical qualities
3. ལང་ཚོས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by youthful feature
4. ནད་མེད་པས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by being free of sickness
5. ནོར་གྱིས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by being wealthy
6. དབང་ཡོད་པས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by being powerful
7. བཟོ་རིག་ཤེས་པས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by being knowledgeable in arts and sciences
8. མང་དུ་ཐོས་པས་རྒྱགས་པ། conceited delight by being a scholar.

[kroṡa]/ Five hundred armspans. A measurement of length equal to 500 fathoms or armspans; the distance of about 1 kilometer, the reach of hearing or five hundred bows' length.

[cārvāka]/ The Hedonists. A proponent of non-Buddhist tenets who assert the non-existence of past and future lives and that the mind arises adventitiously from the body as light is kindled from the lamp.

The ornamented Foe-destroyer. A Hearer of lower intellectual capacity who is mainly concerned with the practice of mental quiescence meditation, who, when he attains the state of Arhatship is free both from the obscurtions to liberation and obscurations to meditative absorption, and also attains the six extra-sensory perceptions or clairvoyances.

The six ornaments and two excellences. The eight great Indian masters.
1. སླུ་སྒྲུབ། [nāgārjuna]
2. འཕགས་པ་ལྷ། [āryadeva]
3. ཐོགས་མེད། [asaṅga]
4. དབྱིག་གཉེན། [vasubandhu]
5. ཕྱོགས་གླང་། [dignāga]
6. ཆོས་གྲགས། [dharmakīrti]
7. ཡོན་ཏན་འོད། [guṇaprabha] 8 ཤཱཀྱ་འོད། [ṡākyaprabha].

The six adornments and implements.
1. རུས་པའི དབུ་རྒྱན། human skull crown
2. མགུལ་རྒྱན། necklace
3. སྙན་རྒྱན། ear-ring
4. གདུ་བུ། bracelets and anklets
5. སེ་རེལ་ཁ jewel sash worn across shoulder (se-ral-kha)
6. འོག་པག jewel net sash worn as a girdle or lower garment.

[anālaṇkārarhat]/ The unornamented Foe-destroyer. A hearer of higher level intellectual capacity who is mainly concerned with the practice of special insight meditation and, who, on attaining the state of Arhatship does not attain extra-sensory perceptions or clairvoyances.

The four ornaments; the four adorments.
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་རྒྱན ornament of moral discipline
2. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་རྒྱན། ornament of meditative concentration
3. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་རྒྱན། ornament of wisdom
4. གཟུངས་ཀྱི་རྒྱན ornament of retentive power.

The four great kings. The gods or evil spirits included in the category of the first level of gods in the desire realm
1. གནོད་སྦྱིན་ལག་ན་བབཞོང་ཐོགས། [karoṭapāṇayodeva] གནོད་སྦྱིན་ལག་ན་ཕྲེང་ཐོགས། Maladhara
3. རྟག་མྱོས། [sadāmāda]
4. སྡེ་དཔོན་ཆེན་པོ། [pratihāra]. Or the four directional protectors
1. ཡུལ་འཁོར་སྲུང་། [dhṛtarāṣṭra] in the east
2. འཕགས་སྐྱེས་པོ། [virūḍhaka] in the south
3. སྤྱན་མི་བཟང་། [virūpākṣa] in the west
4. རྣམ་ཐོས་སྲས། [vaiṡravaṇa] in the north.

The ten prophetic dreams of [kṛkirājā]; the ten apocalyptic
dreams of King Krki. The dreams that correspond to various negative occurences in Buddha's teachings after his passing away.
1. གླང་པོ་ཆེ་ལུས་སྐར་ཁུང་ནས་ཐོན་ཀྱང་མཇུག་མ་དེ་ལ་ཐོགས་པ། an elephant's body is outside but his tail is caught in the window
2. གླང་པོ་ཆེ་ཕལ་པས་སྤོས་ཀྱི་གླང་པོ་ཆེ་སྐྲོད་པ། an ordinary elephant is driving away a superior elephant
3. མི་གཙང་འི་གོས་པའི་སྤྲེའུ་ཞིག་གིས་སྤྲེའུ་གཞན་ལ་མི་གཙང་བ་བསྐུད་པ། a monkey covered with excrement is spreading it on other monkeys
4. སྒྲེའུ་གཅིག་གིས་སྤྲེའུ་ཚོགས་ལ་དབང་བསྐུར་བ། a monkey is giving initiation to a group of monkeys
5.  ཙན་དན་སྦྲུལ་གྱི་སྙིང་པོ་དང་ཤིང་ཕལ་པ་མགོ་་སྙོམས་པ། the sandal-wood tree is counted equal with other trees
6.  ཕྱེ་བྲེ་གང་དང་མུ་ཏིག་བྲེ་གང་བརྗེ་བ། a bowl of pearl is exchanged for a bowl of barley flour
7. བཙུག་ལག་ཁང་གི་ཉེ་འཁོར་ན་ཡོད་པའི་མེ་ཏོག་དང་འབྲས་བུ་རྐུན་པོས་འཁྱེར་བ། thieves steal the flowers and fruits from around the temple
8. གཙང་ཞིང་ཡིད་དུ་འོང་བའི་ཁྲོན་པས་སྐོམ་པའི་མིས་རྗེས་སུལ་སྙེགས་ཀྱང་ཆུ་འཐུང་མི་ནུས་པ། man dying of thirst finds clear water in a well but is unable to drink it
9.  སྐྱེ་བོ་མང་པོ་སྡེ་རིས་སུ་བཅད་ནས་རྩོད་པ། gathered in many groups are quarreling with each other
10. རས་ཡུག་གཅིག་མི་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ཀྱིས་བགོས་པས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ཆ་ཚང་བ་རེ་ཐོབ་ཅིང་རྩ་བའི་རས་ཡུག་མ་ཉམས་པ། piece of cloth is shared among eighteen people yet each receives the whole cloth and the original remains intact.

The king-like Bodhimind. The bodhicitta associated with the five extra-sensory perceptions possessed by a Bodhisattva on the three pure levels of the path—the eighth, ninth and tenth grounds.

[rājagṛha]/ A holy Buddhist place to the east of Bodhgaya. It is believed to be the place where Raja Bimbisara's palace stood during Buddha's time. Buddha taught many [sūtra]s here, and the first Buddhist Council was also held here.

[paсcā jinā]/ The five families of Buddha.
1. རྣམ་པར་སྣང་མཛད། Vairocana, white
2. མི་བསྐྱོད་པ། [akṡobhya], blue
3. རིན་ཆེན་འབྱུང་གནས། [ratnasaṃbhava] yellow
4. འོད་དཔག་མེད། [amitābha], red
5. དོན་ཡོད་གྲུབ་པ། [amoghasiddhi], green. When Buddha རྒྱལ་བ་རྡོ་རྗེ་འཆང་། [vajradhāra], deep blue in colour, is added on top of this list, it becomes the six Buddha families.

Eight great festivals connected with Buddha [ṡākyamuni].
1. ལྷ་ལས་བབས་པ། His descent from Tusita heaven
2. ལྷུམས་སུ་ཞུགས་པ། His entenng of mother's womb
3. སྐུ་བལྟམས་པ། His birth
4. རབ་ཏུང་བྱུང་བ། His renunciation of worldly life and becoming a monk 5 སངས་རྒྱས་པ། His attainment of complete enlightenment
6. ཆོས་འཁོར་བསྐོར་བ། His turning the wheel of doctrine
7. ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་བསྟན་པ། His performance of miracles
8. མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་བ། His passing into [parinirvāṇa].

The seven precious royal emblems.
1. འཁོར་ལོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [cakra ratna]/ precious wheel for power and authority
2. ནོར་བུ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [maṇi ratna]/ precious jewel for marvelous property
3. བཙུན་མོ་ རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [strī ratna]/ precious queen, as the queen
4. བློན་པོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [mantrī ratna]/ precious mimster as the minister of state
5. གླང་པོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [hastin ratna]/ precious elephant for power and courage

6. རྟ་མཆོག་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [aṡva ratna]/ precious horse for strength and
7. དམག་དཔོན་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [senāpati ratna]/ precious military commander as the military force of a Universal Monarch.

The maturing Buddha nature; the transformational Buddha nature. The Buddha nature enlightened and developed through
sincere practice, that ultimately transforms into the form body of a Buddhi

[hetupratyaya]/ Causes and conditions; causal condition.

[hetu ṡaraṇa]/ Causal refuge. The Buddhi Dharma and Sarigha in those who have already developed them. Buddhists accept them as their examplary objects of refuge.

The two types of causes. A. By nature:
1. ཉེར་ལེན་གྱི་རྒྱུ། [upādana]
hetu]/ the fundamental cause
2. ལྷན་ཅིག་བྱེད་རྐྱེན། [saha bhū hetu]/ imultaneously arisen cause. B. By way of giving rise to results:
1. དངོས་རྒྱུ། [bhāva hetu]/ direct cause
2. བརྒྱུད་རྒྱུ། [saṁbandha hetu]/ indirect cause.

[niṣyandaphala]/ The results corresponding to its cause. The fruits of a karmic action experienced or ripened with its nature corresponding to its cause. This has two:
1. བྱས་པ་རྒྱུ་མཐུན་གྱི་འབྲས་བུ། the fruits corresponding to its actions, e.g. the fact that a person who may have been a sinner in the past life has the natural urge to do similar actions in this life.
2. མྱོང་བ་རྒྱུ་མཐུན་གྱི་འབྲས་བུ། the fruits corresponding to its experience, e.g. the fact that a person who practices generosity in this life would become rich in his future life.

[ṣaḍ hetavaḥ]/ The six types of causes; the six causes.
1. བྱེད་རྒྱུ། [kāraṇa hetu]/ acting cause
2. ལྷན་ཅིག་འབྱུང་བའི་རྒྱུ། [sahabhū hetu]/ simultaneously arising cause; innately born cause
3. སྐལ་མཉམ་གྱི་རྒྱུ། [sabhāga hetu]/ equal-state cause
4. མཚུངས་ལྡན་གྱི་རྒྱུ། [saṁprayukta hetu]/ concomitant cause
5. ཀུན་འགྲོའི་རྒྱུ། [sarvatraga hetu]/ ommpresent cause
6. རྣམ་སྨིན་གྱི་རྒྱུ། [vipāka hetu]/ ripening cause.

The adamantine cause. The primordial reality abiding within the mental continuum of sentient beings which is qualified by three basic features: 1. unchangeable 2. self-awarness 3. the great and supremse bliss.

The seven-fold cause and effect precepts. A. lineage of meditation for cultivating the mind of eniightenment.
1. མར་ཤེས། recognizing all sentient beings as one's mother
2. དྲིན་དྲན། being mindful of their kindness
3. དྲིན་གཟོ། repaying their kindness
4. ཡིད་འོང་གི་བྱམས་པ། heart-warming love
5. སྙིང་རྗེ། compassion
6. ལྷག་བསམ། resolute intention
7. བུང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས། mind of eniightenment

Presumption or correct belief that is based on reason. One of the five types of presumptions resulting from some reason that is either incorrect or, if correct, not understood.

The causal form. Forms that retain the entity of elements. These comprise earth or soil, water or liquid, fire or warmth, and wind.

[tantra]/ A. Tantra; classification of Buddha's teachings concerning the speedier method of attalning Buddhahood. B. Mental continuum; mind stream.

The four ways of explaining a tantric text.
1. དོན་ཁོག་ཁྱུང་གིས་ནམ་མཁའི་དབྱིངས་འཇལ་ལྟར་ཕུབ། presenting the summary of the text in the manner of a garuda bird floating in the sky
2. དཀྱུས་ཀྱི་ས་སྟག་མོ་ནགས་ལ་མཆོང་བ་ལྟར་བཅད།
explaining the body of text in the manner of a lion leaping in the forest
3. ཚིག་གི་དོན་རུས་སྦལ་དལ་གྱིས་འགྲོ་བ་ལྟར་བཤད། explaining the meaning of the words literally in the manner of a tortoise's gait
4. མན་ངག་གི་དོན་མུ་ཏིག་བསྟར་ལ་བརྒྱུས་པ་བཞིན་བསྡུ་བ།
passing the transmission in the manner of pearls woven on the string.

Two classes of tantri
1. ཕ་རྒྱུད། father tantra
2. མ་རྒྱུད། mother tantra.

The upper and lower tantric college of Gelug tradition. Tsong Khapa's disciple Jetsun Sherab Senge established Ihe lower tantric college in 1433, and the upper tantric college instituted by his disciple Neying Jetsun Kunga Dhondup in 1474 in Lhasi

[ṣaḍ tantrapiṭakā]/ The six classes of tantra.
1. བྱ་རྒྱུད། [kriyā tantra]/ action tantra
2. སྤྱོད་རྒྱུད། [cārya tantra]/ performance tantra
3. རྣལ་འབྱོར་རྒྱུད། [yoga tantra]
4. ཕ་རྒྱུད། [pitā tantra]/ father tantra
5. མ་རྒྱུད། [mātā tantra]/mother tantra
6. གཉིས་མེད་རྒྱུད། [advaya tantra]/ non-dual tantn The first are known as the three outer classes of tantra and the latter three as the three inner classes of tantra.

[sapta tantra piṭakā]/ The seven classes of tantri According to [atiṡa]'s Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment these are:
1. བྱ་བའི་རྒྱུད། [kriyā tantra]/ action tantra
2. སྤྱོད་པའི་རྒྱུད། [cārya tantra]/ performance tantra
3. རྟོག་པའི་རྒྱུད། [savitarka tantra]/ conceptual tantra
4. གཉིས་ཀའི་རྒྱུད། [ūbhya tantra]/ dual tantra
5. རྣལ་འབྱོར་རྒྱུད། yoga tantra
6. རྣལ་འབྱོར་ཆེན་པོའི་རྒྱུད། [mahāyoga tantra]/ great yoga tantra
7. རྣལ་འབྱོར་བླ་ན་མེད་པའི་རྒྱུདl [anuttarayoga tantra]/ highest yoga tantra.

[catvāri tantra piṭakā]/ The four classes of tantn
1. བྱ་བའི་རྒྱུད། [kriyā tantra]/ action tantra
2. སྤྱོད་པའི་རྒྱུད། [cārya tantra]/ performance tantra
3. རྣལ་འབྱོར་རྒྱུད། yoga tantra
4. རྣལ་འབྱོར་བླ་ན་མེད་པའི་རྒྱུད། [anuttarayoga tantra]/ highest yoga tantra.

The three types of lineages.
1. གདུང་རྒྱུད། family lineage
2. སྐུ་རྒྱུད། reincarnation lineage
3. སློབ་རྒྱུད། disciple lineage.

The three integerations; the three principles. A. རྒྱུན་ཆགས་གསུམ། The three regular principles of practice at a teaching session:
1. ཕྱག་འཚལ་བ། making prostration
2. མདོ་འདོན་པ། reciting a [sūtra]
3. བསྔོ་བ་བྱེད་པ། making dedication. B. ས་སྐྱ་པའི་ལམ་འབྲས་ལྟར་རྒྱུད་གསུམ་སྐྱོང་ཚུལ། The integration of the actual path and fruit practice according to Sakya tradition, being the secret mantra vajrayana practice drawn into three principles:
1. ཀུན་གཞི་རྒྱུ་རྒྱུད་ལ་འཁོར་འདས་དབྱེར་མེད་ཀྱི་ལྟ་བ་སྐྱོང་བ། maintaining the view of the inseparability of [saṁsara] and [nirvāṇa] within the fundamental mental continuum (kun-gzhi rgyu-rgyud) as the causal principle.
2. ལུས་ཐབས་རྒྱུད་ལ་དབང་བཞི་དང་འབྲེལ་བའི་ལམ་བསྒོམ་པ། meditating on the paths connected to the fourfold initiations་upon one's body as the method principle.
3. མཐར་ཐུག་འབྲས་བུའི་རྒྱུད་ལ་སྐུ་ལྔ་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལྔའི་ཡོན་ཏན་འཆར་བ། artaining the qualities of the five bodies and five primordial wisdoms at the end as the resultant principle.

Continual fixation. The second of the nine stages of mental fixation or placement (see ༼སེམས་གནས་དགུ༽) in the practice of mental quiescence meditation; the stage at which one increases one's attention on the object of meditation.

The seven regular confession practices. 1. f སྡིག་པ་བཤགས་པ། [pāpadeṡanā]/ confession of non-virtues
2. རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ། [anumoda]/ rejoicing in virtues
3. དོན་དམ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། [paramārthacittopāda]/ generating the ultimate mind of enlightenment
4. སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ། [ṡaraṇa]/ taking refuge
5. སྨོན་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། [praṇidhrcittopāda]/ generating the aspiring mind of enlightenment
6. འཇུག་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། [prasthānacittopāda]/ generating the engaging mind of enlightenment
7. བསྔེ་བ། [pariṇāma]/ dedicating the virtues.

The causal principle. The reality of mind that abides unchangeable like space withrn the minds of sentient beings and Buddhas. According to [sūtra]s this refers to the Tathagata essence—the naturally abiding buddha nature. In the lower tantras this is known by various names like the suchness of self (bdag-gi de kho-na nyid), the mind of eniightenment and the mind of Samantabhadra (kun-tu bzang-po'i sems). According to the highest yoga tantra this principle is known as the union of [E-VAṃ] (e-vam zung-'jug).

[hetuyāna]/ Causal vehicle. The common vehicle known as the perfection vehicle, the slower path of practice for the attainment of Buddhahood.

[ṣaḍ pratītyasamutpāda]/ The six causal interdependent principles. The elements of the outer natural phenomena— earth, water, fire, wind, space and time.

The causal initiations. Those stages of initiations that are given to prepare a disciple to become a ripe receptacle, otherwise known as the initiation to ripen a disciple who is not yet ripe.

The four guardian goddesses. In the secret mantra [maṇḍala]s the four gates or entrances of the [maṇḍala]:
1. ལྕགས་སྐྱུ་མ། [aṅkuṡī]
2. ཞགས་པ་མ། [pāṡī]
3. ལྕགས་སྒྲོག་མ། [sṛṅkhalā]
4. དྲིལ་བུ་མ། [gaṇṭā].

The three gates of activity. ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ། Body, speech and mind.

The nine levels of delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. སྒོམ་སྤང་ཆེ་འབྲིང་ཆུང་གསུམ་རེ་རེར་ཆེ་འབྲིང་ཆུང་གསུམ་རེ་རྩིས་པའི་སྐོར་དགུ། The great, middling and small levels of delusiors of each of the great, middle and small delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.

The ten delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. According to Abhidharmakosa there are four of the desire realm, three of the form realm, and three of the formless realm.

The sixteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. This follows the tradition of Abhidharma-samuccaya (see ༼སྒོམ་སྤང་ཉོན་མོངས་བཅུ་དྲུག༽).

[bhāvanāheyavṛttigrāhyakalpa]/ Conceptual apprehension of objects of cultivation to be eliminated on the path of meditation.

[ṣoḍaṡa bhāvanāneyakleṡā]/ The sixteen delusions (which are obscurations to liberation) to be abandoned on the path of meditation. འདོད་པའི་སས་བསྡུས་་ཀྱི་དྲུག [ṣaḍ kāmadhātu kleṡā]/ Six of the desire realm:
1. འདོད་ཆགས། [rāga]/ desire-attachment
2. ཁོང་ཁྲོ། [krodha]/ anger
3. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ pride
4. མ་རིག་པ། [avidyā]/ ignorance
5. འཇིག་ལྟ། [satkāyadṛṣṭi]/ view of the transitory collection
6. མཐར་ལྟ། [antagrāhadṛṣṭi]/ extreme view. གཟུགས་ཀྱི་སས་བསྡུས་ཀྱི་ལྔ་། [paсca rū_padhatu kleṡā]/ Five of the form realm: འདོད་ཆག [rāga]/ desire-attachment
2. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/pride
3. མ་རིག་པ། [avidyā]/ignorance
4. འཇིག་ལྟ། [satkāyadṛṣṭi]/ view of the transitory collection
5. མཐར་ལྟ། [antagrāha dṛṣṭi]/ extreme view. གཟུགས་མེད་སས་བསྡུས་ཀྱི་ལྔ། [paсca arūpadhātu kleṡā]/ Five of the formless realm:
1. འདོད་ཆགས། [rāga]/ desire-attachment
1. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ pride
3. མ་རིག་པ། [avidyā]/ ignorance
4. འཇིག་ལྟ། [satkāyadṛṣṭi]/ view of the transitory collection
5. མཐར་ལྟ། [antagrāhadṛṣṭi]/ extreme view.

[bhāvanāneyaprajсāptigrāhakalpa]/ Conceptual apprehension of imputed existence to be abandoned on the path of meditanon,
[bhāvanāneyanirvṭttigrāhyakalpa]/ Conceptual apprehension of objects of elimination to be abandoned on the path of meditation.

[bhāvanāheyadravyagrāhakakalpa]/ Conceptual apprehension of substantial existence to be abandoned on the path of meditation.

The four hundred and fourteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. This list includes all delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation within the three realms and nine levels (see ༼ཁམས་གསུམ་ས་དགུ༽). These are འདོད་པའི་སྒོམ་སྤང་ལྔ་བཅུ་རྩ་བཞི། the fifty-four of the desire realm, གཟུགས་ཁམས་ཀྱི་སྒོམ་སྤང་བརྒྱ་དང་བརྒྱ་ཅུ། hundred and eighty of the form realm, གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས་ཀྱི་སྒོམ་སྤང་བརྒྱ་དང་བརྒྱད་ཅུ། one hundred and eighty of the formless realm.

Six functions of the path of meditation; six benefits of the path of meditation.
1. སེམས་ཀུན་ཏུ་ཞི་བ། peacerul mind
2. ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་འདུད་པ། self-disciplined and humble
3. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ཚོགས་ལས་རྒྱལ་བ། victory over defilements
4. ཕྱི་ནང་གི་གནོད་པས་བརྫིབ་མེད་པ། no occasion for attack from internal and external evils
5.  བྱང་ཆུབ་མྱུར་དུ་སྒྲུབ་པ། ability to achieve eniightenment
6. རང་གང་དུ་གནས་པའི་ས་ཕྱོགས་དེ་ཉིད་ཀྱང་མཆོད་པའི་རྟེན་ཉིད་དུ་འགྱུར་བ། the worthiness of being worshipped wherever one abides.

The eight marks of irreversibility on the path of meditation.
1. སྐྱེ་བ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of production
2. འགག་པ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of stopping
3. དེ་བཞིད་ཉིད་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of reality
4. ཤེས་པ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of objects of knowledge
5.  སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of knowledge 6. profundity of practice
7. གཉིས་མེད་ལ་ཟབ་པ། prorundity of non-duality
8. ཐབས མཁས་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of skillful means.

[bhāvanāmarga mūrdhaprayoga]/ The peak training on the path of meditation. A path of practice within the continuum of a Bodhisattva on the path of meditation which is a direct antidote to the seed of eliminations to be abandoned on the path of meditaiton

[dvadaṡa māyopamā]/ The twelve examples of illusory nature; the twelve similes to prove lack of true existence of a conjurer's display.
1. སྒྱུ་མ [māya]/ an illusion
2. ཆུ་ཟླ། [udakacandra]/ a reflection of the moon in the water
3. མིག་ཡོར། [pratibhāsa]/ hallucination
4. སྨིག་རྒྱུ། [marīci]/ a mirage
5. རྨི་ལམ། [svapna]/ a dream
6. སྒྲ་བརྙན། [pratiṡabda]/ an echo
7. དྲི་ཟའི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། [gandharvanagara]/ the city of smell-eaters
8. མིག་འཕྲུལ། [indrajāla]/ a magic play
9. འཇའ་ཚོན། [indracāpa]/ a rainbow
10. གློག [vidyut]/ a bolt of lightening
11. ཆུ་བུར། [budbud]/ a water bubble
12. མེ་ལོང་ནང་གི་གཟུགས་བརྙན། [pratibimba]/ a reflection m a mirror.

The sixty-four arts. The thirty skills of arts and crafts (see ༼བཟོ་རིག་གི་སྒྱུ་རྩལ་སུམ་ཅུ༽), the eighteen arts of music (see ༼རོལ་མོའི་སྒྱུ་རྩལ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽), the seven principles of songs and chanting (see ༼གླུ་དབྱནས་ཀྱི་ངེས་པ་བདུན༽), and the nine features of dance (see ༼གར་གྱི་ཉམས་དགུ༽), all rooted in the ancient Indian culture.

Two types of illusory body.
1. ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཀྱི་སྒྱུ་ལུས་ཀྱི་སྐུ། [saṁvṛti māyākaya]/ the conventional illusory body
2. དོན་དམ་པའི་སྒྱུ་ལུས་ཀྱི་སྐུ། [pammārtha māyākāya]/ the ultimate illusory body.

The seven types of illusory body. The seven different illusory bodies:
1. དཔེའི་སྒྱུ་མ། exemplary illusory body
2. སྣང་བ་སྒྱུ་མ། appearance illusory body
3. མི་ལམ་རྒྱུ་མ། dream illusory body
4. བར་དོ་རྒྱུ་མ། illusory body of the intermediate state of rebirth
5. འོ་གསལ་སྒྱུ་མ། clear light illusory body
6. སྤྲུལ་པ་སྒྱུ་མ། emanation illusory body
7. ཡེ་ཤེས་སྒྱུ་མ། wisdom illusory body.

The eleven types of sound.
1. ཡིད་དུ་འོང་བའི་སྒྲ། pleasant
2.  ཡིད་དུ་མི་འོང་བའི་སྒྲ། unpleasant
3. གཉིས་ཀ་མིན་པ། neither pleasant nor unpleasant
4. ཟིན་པའི་སྒྲ། conjoined sound
5. མ་ཟིན་པའི་སྒྲ། unconjoined sound
6. མ་ཟིན་པའི་སྒྲ། neither conjoined nor unconjoined
7. འཇིག་རྟེན་གྱི་གྲགས་པ། popular sound
8. གྲུབ་པས་བསྟན་པ། philosophical expression
9. ཀུན་བརྟགས་པ། imputed sound
10. འཕགས་པའི་ཐ་སྙད་བཏགསཔ། utterances pronced by [ārya]s
11. འཕགས་པ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ཐ་སྙད་བཏགས་པ། utterances pronounced by non-[āryas].

The delightful sound-like Bodhimind. The mind of enlightenment associated with the gaiety of dharma possessed by the Bodhisattva on the tenth level.

The suchness of sound. An action tantra meditation practice. A practitioner concentrates and analyses the sound of a mantra into its subtler and subtler forms and finally places his or her mind within the non-conceptual level of experiencing the suchness of sound at its final stage. This helps a meditator to produce the wisdom of penetrative insight meditation ([vipaṡyanā]).

Logical sound. An expression or statement that fits the popular convention, e.g. the statement, «sound is permanent».

Illogical sound. An expression or statement that does not fit the popular convention, e.g. the statement, 'sound is impermanent'.

The conceptual cognition of sound generality (see ༼སྒྲ་སྤྱི༽) and meaning generality (see ༼དོན་སྤྱི༽). For instance, the idea of conceptual cognition of a vase in the mind of a person learned in conventions.

Sound generality. Generic image based oniy on hearsay about an object, e.g. the image of a sound in one's mind having heared the expression, 'vase'.

[sabda pramāṇa]/ Valid cognition based on verbal indication. It is the sound generality based entirely on hearsay and not on previous direct apprehension of the object such as through sense consciousness,*etc. It is permanent and is the appearing object to a conceptual mind that apprehends the object.

Concentration on sound. One of the four types of recitation of mantra in meditation (see ༼བཟླས་བརྗོད་ཡན་ལག་བཞི༽). The practice of reciting the mantra according to performance tantra. This involves concentrating on the mantric syllables visualized upon a moon disk as self-resounding.

[sabda deva]/ The sound deity. One of the six types of deities in action tantra. This involves meditation on the mantric syllables visualized in the [maṇḍala] as self-resounding and emitting and drawing rays of light.

Suchness abiding upon sound. A practice of meditation on the suchness of concentration according to action tantra. This involves meditation on all the mantric syllables visualized as encircling the moon disk at one's heart along with the moon disk itself as producing sound similar to one's ritual bell, and thus maintaining concentration upon it. A basis for developing caim abiding meditation.

The five types of obscurations. According to some traditions these are:
1. འདོད་ཆགས། [kāmacchanda]/ desire-attachment
2. རྨུགས་པ། [styāna]/ mental sloth
3. གཉིད་དང་འགྱོད་པ། [nindrā kaukrtya]/ sleep and regret
4. གཡེང་བ། [vikṣepa]/ mental distraction
5. ཐེ་ཚོམམ། [vicikitsā]/ doubt.

The two obstructions; two obscurations.
1. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [klesavaraṇa]/ delusive obscuration to liberation
2. ཤེས་བྱའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [jnanavaraṇa]/ obstructions to omniscience.

The two types of Bodhicitta completely free from obscurations.
1. Bodhicitta like a flowing river (see ༼ཆུ་བོའི་རྒྱུན་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽)
2. Cloud-like Bodhicitta (see ༼སྤྲིན་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽).

The four types of obscurations. A. ལམ་གྱི་དགག་བྱ་སྒྲིབ་པ་བཞི། The
four obscurations of the paths:
1. འདོད་ཆེན་གྱི་སྒྲིབ་པ། obscurations of the desirous ones
2. མུ་སྟེགས་པའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། obscurations of the hedonists ([tīrthikas])
3. ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་དམན་སྒྲིབ། obscurations of the hearers ([ṡravakas])
4. རང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་དམན་སྒྲིབ། obscurations of the solitary realizers ([pratekyabuddhas]). B.
1. ཉོན་སྒྲིབ། [kleṡāvaraṇa]/ delusive obscurations
2. ཤེས་སྒྲིབ། [jсānāvaraṇa]/ obscurations to omniscience
3. ཆགས་སྒྲིབ། [sarāgāvaraṇa]/ obscurations of attachment
4. ཐོག་སྒྲིབ། [sapratigāvaraṇa]/ impeding obscurations. C.
1. ལས་ཀྱི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [karmakāvaraṇa]/ karmic obscurations
2. ཉོན་མངས་པའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [kleṡāvaraṇa]/ delusive obscurations
3. ཤེས་བྱའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [jсānāvaraṇa]/ obscurations to omniscience
4. སྙོམས་འཇུག་གི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [samāpattyāvaraṇa]/ obscurations to meditative absorption.

The three obscurations. A. 1-2. (see ༼སྒྲིབ་པ་གཉིས༽)
3. ལས་ཀྱི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [karmakāvaraṇa]/ karmic obscuration. B.
1. ཆགས་པའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [sarāgāvaraṇa]/ obscuration to attachment
2. ཐོགས་པའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [sapratigāvaraṇa]/ impeding obscuration
3. དམན་པའི་སྒྲིབ་པ། [hīnāvaraṇa]/ obscuration to the lower.

The nine obstructing stains. 1-3. དུག་གསུམ་གྱི་བག་ལ་ཉལ་བ་གསུམ། the three poisonous delusions in their latent state
4. དེ་དག་གི་ཀུན་ནས ལྡང་བ་དྲུག the six secondary delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽) arising from the three root delusions
5. མ་རིག་བག་ཆགས་ཀྱི་ས། the instinctive level of ignorance
6. ཐེག་དམན་གྱི་མཐོང་སྤང་། the abandonments on the path of seeing of the lesser vehicle
7. ཐེག་དམན་གྱི་སྒོམ་སྤང་། the abandonments on the path of meditation of the lesser vehicle
8. མ་དག་ས་བདུན་གྱི་སྤང་བྱ། the abandonments on the seven impure levels of Bodhisattvas
9. དག་པ་ས་གསུམ་གྱི་སྤང་བྱ། the abandonments on the three pure levels of Bodhisattvas.

The practice lineage. The lineage of reclusive lamas and their disciples who mainly do intensive meditation in isolated places and seldom give public teachings or compose texts.

ffirming perception; assertive perception. All direct perceptions affirming their objects of knowledge as they are as a whole without being specific with respect to different aspects of their object, e.g. the direct perception with regard to a vase.

[sādhana]/ The method of accomplishment ([sādhana]). The text of practice aimed at the actualization of reality through meditation. It involves an entire system of visualization, recitation, rituals and meditation concerning a deity or the cycle of deities.

Things of the same production and reverse identity. For instance, the idea or thought that the sound of a bell and flute are same with respect to their being produced from solid things.

A. Positive phenomenon. A phenomenon that can be understood without having to understand what is opposite to it or, in general, without recourse to conception, e.g. a vase. B. Practice; accomplishment; achievement; attainment; realization.

The eight Kagyad deities. The eight deities of the Nyingma tradition primarily of the generation stage practice of tantra. These are:
1. འཇམ་དཔལ་སྐུ། 'jam-dpal sku
2. པདྨ་གསུང་། pad-ma gsung
3. ཡང་དག་ཐུགས། yang-dag thugs
4. བདུད་རྩི་ཡོན་ཏན། bdud-rtsi yon-tan
5. ཕུར་པ་ཕྲིན་ལས། phur-pa phrin-las
6. མ་མོ་བོད་གཏོང་། ma-mo bod-gtong
7. དམོད་པ་དྲག་སྔགས། dmod-po drag-sngags
8. འཇིག་རྟེན་མཆོད་བསྟོད། 'jig-rten mchod-bstod. The first five are transworldly deities and the latter three worldly deities.

The five paths of meditation of achievement, with respect to its:
1. སྒོམ་ལམ་གྱི་ངོ་བོ། nature2.འབྲས་བུའི་ཁྱད་པར། fruits
3. བྱེད་ལས་ཀྱི་ཁྱད་པར། function
4. གནས་སྐབས་ཀྱི་ཁྱད་པར། temporary features
5. མཐར་ཐུག་གི་ཁྱད་པར། ultimate features.

The three great accomplishments; the three great objectives of a Bodhisattvi
1. སེམས་དཔའ་ཆེན་བོ། [mahāsattva]/ great being
2. སྤོང་བ་ཆེན་པོ། [mahāprāhaṇa]/ great abandonment
3. རྟོགས་པ་ཆེན་བོ། [mahādhigama]/ great insight.

The offering of practice. The practice of offering one's own Dharma practices and collection of virtues as an object of offering. The best offering one can make to those worthy of making offerings.

@ibe activity of practice. One of the four ways of utilizing realizations (see ༼སྤྱོད་པའི་སྒོ་བཞི༽) according to action tantra in which one transforms articles of offering, body and resources into gods of desire realms and Vidyadharas or [ḍākinīs] of the same rank.

The symbolic [maṇḍala]. A [maṇḍala] arranged on an altar made of gold or metal bases or otherwise upon which the fivefold heaps of precious stones or grains are created and visualized as the five Buddha families. Such a [maṇḍala] primarily syrabolizes the deities as objects of worship.

The eleven objects of accomplishment; the eleven objects of the Bodhisattva paths.
1. བླང་བྱ་དགེ་བ། virtuous objects to be cultivated
2. དོལ་བྱ་མི་དགེ་བ། non-virtuous objects to be abandoned
3. ལུང་མ་བསྟན། unspecified objects which are neither
4. འཇིག་རྟེན་པ། worldly objects
5. འཇིག་རྟེན་ལས་འདས་པ། transworldly objects
6. ཟག་བཅས། contaminated objects
7. ཟག་མེད། uncontaminated objects
8. འདུས་བྱས། composite objects
9. འདུས་མ་བྱས། non-composite
10. ཐུན་མོང་བའི་ཡོན་ཏན། common qualities
11. ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན། uncommon qualities.

[samāropa]/ Overestimation; exaggeration; superimposition; hypostatization. Exaggerating the meaning or significance of the mode of abidance of a phenomenon without any basis; taking something as existing in a certain way when it does not actually exist in that way.

The four types of lamps. The paths that allow direct perception of the eniightened body of the inseparable reality and awareness at the actual stage of ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན༽ meditation following the leap-over system (thod-rgal). These are:
1. རྒྱང་ཞགས་ཆུ་ཡི་སྒྲོན་མ། the distant water lamp
2. རིག་པ་དབྱིངས་ཀྱི་སྒྲོན་མ། the lamp of reality of awareness
3. ཐིག་ལེ་སྟོང་པའི་སྒྲོན་མ། the lamp of emptiness of drop
4. ཤེས་རབ་རང་བྱུང་གི་སྒྲོན་མ། the lamp of self-born wisdom.

The Torma ritual of the eigth. A religious ceremony of the four-faced [mahākāla] held on the 8th of the 3rd Tibetan month. The ceremony involves offering of sacrificial cakes through invocation rites and rituals to [mahākāla] and all other dharma protectors.

The six lineages or transmissions. The six lineages of transmissions according to the Oral (bka'-ma) and Treasure (gter-ma) lineages in Nyingma tradition. These are:
1. རྒྱལ་བ་དགོངས་པའི་བརྒྱུད་པ། Buddhals intention lineage
2. རིག་འཛིན་བརྡའི་ བརྒྱུད་པ། [vidyādhāra]'s symbolic lineage
3. གང་ཟག་སྙན་ཁུང་གི་བརྒྱུད་པ། disciple's whispered lineage
4. བཀའ་བབ་ལུང་བསྟན་གྱི་བརྒྱུད་པ། the commissioned prophetic lineage
5. སྨོན་ལམ་དབང་བསྐུར་གྱི་བརྒྱུད་པ། the lineage of prayers and empowerment
6. མཁའ་འགྲོ་གཏད་རྒྱའི་བརྒྱུད་པ། the lineage protected by [ḍākinīs]. The first three lineages are common to both the Oral and Treasure transmissions whereas the latter three are unique to the revealers of treasure teachings.

The five types of lineages. The five lineages of Buddhism according to the way it spread in India.
1. འདུལ་བའི་བརྒྱུད་པ། the vinaya lineage
2. གསང་སྔགས་ཀྱི་བརྒྱུད་པ། the secret mantra lineage
3. རྒྱ་ཆེན་སྤྱོད་བརྒྱུད། the extensive Dractice lineage
4. ཟབ་མོ་ལྟ་བརྒྱུད། the profound view lineage
5. སྙིང་པོ་དོན་བརྒྱུད། the essential meaning lineage.

The three types of lineages. A. According to the graded path teaching tradition of [sūtra]yani these are:
1. ཟབ་མོ་ལྟ་བརྒྱུད། the profound view lineage
2. རྒྱ་ཆེན་སྤྱོད་བརྒྱུད། the extensive practice lineage
3. ཉམས་ལེན་བྱིན་རླབས་ཀྱི་བརྒྱུད། the blessed practice lineage. B. According to the secret mantra teaching tradition of the Nyingma school, these are:
1. རིང་བརྒྱུད་བཀའ་མ། the distant oral lineage
2. ཉེ་བརྒྱུད་གཏེར་མ། the close treasure lineage
3. ཟབ་མོ་དག་སྣང་གི་བརྒྱུད་པ། the profound pure vision lineage.

Interpretive [sūtras] for the purpose of encouragement. For instance, the [sūtra]s in which Buddha taught those of weak aptitude that, 'enlightenment can be achieved through striving hard in the accumulation of two types of merits'.

The ten heinous crimes. An enemy of the Buddha Dharma who has committed ten serious non-virtues and is therefore an object to be captured and killed.
1. སངས་རྒྱས་བསྟན་པ་ཤིག་པ། destroying the Buddha's teaching
2. དཀོན་མཆོག་དབུ་འཕང་སྨད་པ། disparaging the three jewels of refuge
3. དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་འདུ་སྐོར་འཕྲོག་པ། appropriating the wealth of the Sarigha community
4. ཐེག་ཆེན་ལ་སྨོད་པ། disparaging the [mahāyāna]
5. བླ་མའི་སྐུ་ལ་བསྡོ་བ། threatening the body of a guru
6. རྡོ་རྗེ་སྤུན་གྲོགས་སུན་འབྱིན་པ། causing disunity amongst vajra friends
7. སྒྲབ་པ་ལ་བར་དུ་གཅོད་པ། hindering the practice of Dharma
8. དམ་ཚིག་སྡོམ་པ་དང་བྲལ་བ། dropping the spiritual pledges
9. བརྩེ་བ་སྙིང་རྗེ་གཏན་ནས་མེད་པ། lacking compassion
10. ལས་འབྲས་ལ་ལོག་པར་ལྟ་བ། holding wrong views or philosophy.

The obscured unspecified phenomena. The delusive unspecified phenomena. The delusions within the form and formless realms that are obstructions to attaining [ārya] paths, and hence hinder actualization of uncontaminated paths, and are not non-virtues because these do not give rise to suffering or misery, therefore these become unspecified phenomena. For example, the innately born self or ego.

Accomplishment ceremony. A grand tantric ceremony involving the creation of a [maṇḍala], offering of services, and performance of the ritual and rites of generating oneself into a deity, generating the deity in front and into the vase, etc.

[sādhya]/ The thesis; that which is to be established. The subject and the predicate in a correct logical syllogism taken together as that which is to be proved.

[sādhyadharma]/ Predicate. That which is to be proved in relation to the subject in a given logical syllogism, e.g. 'impermanence' as the predicate when the given syllogism is, 'Take sound, it is impermanent because it is a functional thing'.

I; self; me. Mahayatia philosophical systems do not assert the existence of an independent, self-existent, unchanging self, because if such a self were to exist, a person would be unchanging and would be unable to purify himself of fettering passions etc, and attain Buddhahood. What is accepted is a relative, impermanent, changeable, conscious-entity self, which is the continuation of one's former life, to this and future lives and is also the basis for the ripening of karmi

[sapta māna]/ The seven kinds of pride; the seven prides.
1. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ pride, a feeling of arrogance or superiority; one of the six root delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽).
2. ཆེ་བའི་ང་རྒྱལ། [mahāmāna]/ exalted pride, the feeling of superiority amongst the equals.
3. ང་རྒྱལ་ལས་ཀྱང་ང་རྒྱལ། [mānātimāna]/
exaggerated pride, a puffed-up feeling that you are higher than the extremely high
4. ངའོ་སྙམ་པའི་ང་རྒྱལ། [asmimātia]/ egotistic pride, a feeling that you are the oniy one who can do some specific thing correctly; more philosophically, the pride that mistakeniy appropriates any of the five aggregates as the 'I་.
5. མངོན་པའི་ང་རྒྱལ། [abhimāna]/ presumptuous pride, a feeling that you have realized something, or that you know something, when actually you do not.
6. ཅུང་ཟད་སྙམ་པའི་ང་རྒྱལ། [ūnamāna]/ modest pride, a feeling that though you may be equal with your friends you are a ་little better than them.
7. ལོག་པའི་ང་རྒྱལ། [mithyāmāna]/ perverted pride, a feeling of pride in your unwholesome habits and qualities.

The divine pride and vision. A basic requirement of tantric practices in which one tries to counteract one's ordinariness by generating divine pride of being the deity of the respective practice, and visualizing both oneself and the surroundings as the celestial mansion or abode.

The mere 'I་; the conventionally existent 'I' representing the person at a relative level.

The eight sound sources.
1. ཁོ་ག་པ། uvular
2. མགྲིན་པ། guttural
3. རྐན། palatal
4. ལྕེ tongue
5. སྣ། nasal
6. སོ། dental 7 སྤྱི་བོ། alveolar
8. མཆུ། labial.

[durgati dukha]/ The sufferings of the unfortunate beings. The miseries and suffering encountered by the three types of beings in the lower realms. The suffering from heat and cold for hell beings, the suffering of hunger and thirst for hungry ghosts, and the suffering of becoming a beast of burden and exploitation for animals.

Black magic. The art of casting spells and curses on others.

The ten states of bad rebirth. 1-8. states of the eight hot and cold hells (see ༼ཚ་དམྱལ་བརྒྱད་ཨནད་གྲང་དམྱལ་བརྒད༽)
9. ཡི་དྭགས། hungry ghost state
10. དུད་འགྲོ animalstate.

[ahaṁkāra]/ Ego-grasping; self-grasping; self-preoccupation. The concept of taking the mere 'I' upon oneself as the truly existent 'I' or 'self.

The extreme of ascetic practice; the extreme practice of self-mortification by depriving the body of the means of living. One of the extremes of living to be avoided by monks.

The three cycles of relaxation. The three famous texts of practice composed by Longchen Rabjampa, a Nyingma master of the fourteenth century.
1. སེམས་ཉིད་ངལ་གསོ། Relaxation of the Suchness of Mind, relaxation through meditation on the suchness of mind
2. སྒྱུ་མ་ངལ་གསོ། Relaxation ofthe Illusions, relaxation through pacifying lllusory appearances
3. བསམ་གཏན་ངལ་གསོ། Relaxation of [samādhi], relaxation through meditation on concentrations.ངེས་དོན་གྱུ་མདོ།
[nītārtha sūtra]/ Definitive teachings. Those teachings of Buddha acceptable as they are which do not require interpretation, or those that concern mainly teachings on ultimate truth.

The definitive vajra and bell. The bliss and void.

The subtle life-sustaining energy wind (srog-'dzin phra-ba).

The three indispensable faculties; the three necessary faculties.
1. སྲོག་གི་དབང་པོ། faculty of life-force
2. ཡིད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། faculty of mind
3. བཏང་སྙོམས་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། faculty of indifferent feeling.

The five certainties; the five definite features ofa Sambhogakaya Buddhi
1. གནས་ངེས་པ། certainty of place; that they always reside in the richiy adorned Buddha-field called 'Heaven-below-non'
2. སྐུ་ངེས་པ། certainty of body; they are always adorned with thirty-two major and eighty minor marks (see ༼མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་བཅུ་རྟ་གཉིས་། and ་དཔེ་བྱེད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་བཅུ༽)
3. དུས་ངེས་པ། certainty of time; that they will live for as long as [saṁsāra] is not emptied of sentient beings
4. ཆོས་ངེས་པ། certainty of teachings; that they always teach the greater vehicle doctrine
5. འགོར་ངེས་པ། certainty of disciples; that they always teach to a circle of [ārya] Bodhisattva disciples.

[niṡcāravāyu]/ The definitely running wind energy. The wind energy for the cognitive faculty of touch. One of the five secondary energy winds (see ༼ཡན་ལག་གི་རླུང་ལྔ༽).

[niryāṇa]/ Renunciation; wish to be liberated. A thought of definite release from cyclic existence wishing freedom from the cycle of unending sufferings within sanisara. A prime necessity for carrying out a pure Dharma practice.

The definitely occuring achievement The path existing at the last three pure levels of the Bodhisattva grounds.

The eight definitely occuring achievements; definitely occuring achievement to:
1. ཆེད་དུ་བྱ་བ་གསུམ་དུ་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། the three great objectives
2. མཉམ་པ་ཉིད་དུ་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། the sameness'es
3. སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་དོན་དུ་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། attain the purpose of all sentient beings
4. འབད་མེད་ལྷུན་གྲུབ་ཏུ་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། effortless achievement
5. མཐའ་ལས་འདས་པར་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། the state beyond extremes
6. ཐོབ་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་དུ་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། the actuality of achievement
7. རྣམ་མཁྱེན་དུ་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། omniscient knowledge
8. ལམ་གྱི་ཡུལ་ཅན་གྱི་ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བ། objects of the path.

Fictitious renunciation. Temporarily produced sense of renouncing worldly life that does not last.

[catvāri nirvedhabhāgīya]/ The four levels of the path of preparation.
1. དྲོད། [uṣman]/ heat level
2. རྩེ་མོ། [mūrdha]/ peak level
3. བཟོད་པ། [kṣānti]/ patience
4. ཆོས་མཆོག [lankikāgradharma]/supreme Dharma.

[nirvedhāṅga]/ Level of the path of preparation. One of the seventy topics of the perfection of wisdom training; the path of preparation at the level of aspirational Bodhicitta.

[niḥṡreyasa hetu]/ The cause of definite goodness. The wisdom paths: primarily the wisdom understanding selflessness as cause for attainment of either liberation or full enlightenment.

[svabhāva]/ A. The natural feature; natural identity. B. The mode of abidance of phenomena.

The natural virtue. The eleven virtuous secondary mental factors (see ༼དགེ་བ་བཅུ་གཅིག༽).

The natural non-virtue. The six root delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽) and the near delusions (see ༼ཉེ་ཉོན་ཉི་ཤུ༽) that are mental factors responsible for producing all negative behaviours.

[svabhāvatāvyākṛta]/ The natural unspecified phenomena. Those classes of phenomena that are neither virtuous nor non-virtuous by their nature. For instance, the elements, aggregates and sources of perception.

[svabhāvakāya]/ The two types of nature truth body. The two bodies of a Buddha being totally pure of two stains:
1. རང་བཞི་རྣམ་དག་གི་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྐུ། the natural truth body
2. གློ་བུར་རྣམ་དག་གི་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྐུ། the truth body free of adventitious defilements. In other words, these are the emptiness of a Buddha's mind and the truth of cessation within the continuum of a Buddha.

The five features of a nature truth body. These are:
1. འདུས་མ་བྱས་པ། non-compositional
2. དབྱེར་མེད་པ། inseparable
3. མཐའ་གཉིས་སྤང་པ། free of two extremes
4. སྒྲིབ་པ་གསུམ་ལས་གྲོལ་བ། free of three obscurations
5. རང་བཞིན་གྱིས་འོད་གསའ་བ། luminous by nature.

The five qualities of nature truth body. These are:
1. གཞལ་དུ་མེད་པ། incognizable
2. གྲངས་མེད་པ། infinite
3. བསམ་དུ་མེད་པ། inconceivable
4. མཉམ་པ་མེད་པ། incomparable
5. དྲི་མས་དག་པ། pure of stains.

[svabhāva s'ūnyatā]/ The emptiness of own nature. The lack of inherent identity of the reality of form and sound etc.

The three identityless phenomena; the three identilylessnesses.
1. མཚན་ཉིད་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་མེད་པ། [lakṣaṇa niḥsvabhāvatā]/ identitylessness of characteristics
2. སྐྱེ་བ་ངོ་བོ་ ཉིད་མེད་པ། [utpatti niḥsvabhāvatā]/ identitylessness of production
3. དོན་དམ་པ་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་མེད་པ། [paramārtha niḥsvabhāvatā]/ identitylessness of ultimate phenomena.

The three natural existents.
1. ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད།
[parikalpita svabhāva]// imputed phenomena
2. གཞན་གྱི་དབང་གི་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད། [paratantra svabhāva]/ dependent phenomena
3. ཡོངས་སུ་གྲུབ་པའི་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད། [pariniṣpanna svabhāva]/ thoroughly established phenomena; ultimate phenomena.

The five-fold marvels of this world's treasure holders. These are the five supreme worlds of this continent:
1. དབུས་སུ་རྒྱ་གར་རྡོ་རྗེ་གདན་ཤཱཀྱ་ཐུབ་པའི་ཞིང་། Bodhgaya of India in the centre, the land of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]
2. ཤར་དུ་རྒྱ་ནག་རི་བོ་རྩེ་ལྔ་འཇམ་དཔའ་དབྱངས་ཀྱི་ཞིང་། Mt. Waute of China in the east, the land of Maсjuṡrī
3. ལྷོ་ན་རི་བོ་པོ་ཏ་ལ་སྤྱན་རས་དཟིགས་ཀྱི་ཞིང་། Mt. Potala in the south, the land of [ārya Avalokiteṡvara]
4. ནུབ་ན་ཨོ་རྒྱན་མཁའ་འགྲོའི་གླིང་པད་མ་འབྱུང་གནས་ཀྱ་ཞིང་། Ogyan [ḍākinī] land in the west, the land of Padmasambhava
5. བྱང་ན་ཤམ་བྷ་ལ་ཆོས་རྒྱལ་རིགས་ལྡན་གྱི་ཞིང་། Shambhala in the north, the land of [dharmarāja] Kulikas.

The real fundamental cause. That cause which is responsible for producing its own substantial continuity as its result. For instance, a log of wood becomes the fundamental cause for producing coals from its burning.

The eight spiritual feats; the eight types of higher attainments.
1. རལ་གྲི། invisibily from a sword
2. རིལ་བུ། pills
3. མིག་སྨན། eye-lotion
4. རྐང་མགྱོགས། swift footedness
5. བཅུད་ལེན། elixir/extracting the essence
6. མཁའ་སྤྱོད། walking in space
7. མི་སྣང་བ། invisibility
8. ས་འོག walking underground. When the list concerns nine feats the feat of subduing and benefitting other is added.

Two types of attainments; two actual attainments.
1. མཆོག་གི་དངོས་གྲུབ། supreme higher attainments
2. ཐུན་མོང་གི་དངོས་ གྲུབ། common higher attainments.

Two types of direct contradictions.
1. ཕན་ཚུན་སྤངས་འགལ། direct contradiction cancelling each other, e.g. is and is not
2. ལྷན་ཅིག་མི་གནས་འགལ། contradiction not abiding simultaneously, e.g. hot and cold.

[sājсātkāraṇa]/ Direct cause; actual cause. A cause which generates its result directly, i.e. in the immediate next moment, e.g. fire as the cause of smoke.

[vastubalānumāna]/ Inferential cognition based en evidence.

[vastu]/Thing; impermanence; functional phenomenon.

[aṣṭa padārtha]/ The eight topics of the Ornament of Clear Realization ([abhisamayālaṃkāra]).
1. རྣམ་མཁྱེན། [sarvajсāna]/ the omniscient mind
2. ལམ་ཤེས། [mārgajсāna]/ the knowledge of the paths
3. གཞི་ཤེས། [vastujсāna]/ the knowledge of the basis
4. རྣམ་རྫོགས་སྦྱོར་པ། [sarvākārābhisaṁbodha]/ the complete training of all aspects
5. རྩེ་མོའི་སྦྱོར་བ། [mūrdhaprayoga]/ the peak training
6. མཐར་གྱིས་སྦྱོར་བ། [anupūrvaprayoga]/ the serial training
7. སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་པ། ]kṣaṇikaprayoga]/ the momentary training
8. འབྲས་བུ་ཆོས་སྐ [phalam dharmakāya]/ the resultant truth body.

[bhāva ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of things; the emptiness of the five aggregates. One of the four summarising types of emptiness added to the sixteen to make up twenty types of emptiness (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་ཉི་ཤུ༽).

[abhāva ṡūnyata]/ The emptiness of non-things; the emptiness of impermanent phenomena, e.g. emptiness of nirvana. One of the eighteen emptinesses.

[abhāva svabhāva ṡūnyata]/ The emptiness of reality of that which lacks true existence. One of the sixteen emptinesses.

[mūla nāma]/ A real name. Any term or name initially given by an arbitrary designator to denominate a thing unmistakenly, e.g. the terṁvase'.

Proponents of true existence. School of Buddhist and non-Buddhist philosophy asserting the truly existent nature of phenomena.

The object of the extreme of existence. One of the four objects of pervasion (see ༼ཁྱབ་པའི་དམིགས་པ་བཞི༽). The assertion or acceptance of a limit of existence either of conventional reality or ultimate reality. For instance, the statement that ali phenomena are included in the four noble truths and not otherwise. Or to say that all phenomena lack inherent existence and if not there is no other way of their existence.

[abhāva svabhāva pūrva prayoga]/ The serial training in the entitylessness of phenomena. The Bodhisattva path from the [mahāyāna] path of accumulation upto the moment preceding the last instant of the path of meditation.

The six constituents of a womb-born human of this world.
1. རུས་པ། [asṭhi]/ bone 2 རྐང་། [majjā]// marrow and
3. ཁུ་བ། [ ṡukra]/ regenerative fluid obtained from father
4. ཤ [māṁsa]/ flesh
5. ལྤགས་པ། [tvak]/skin
6. ཁྲག [rudhira]/blood obtained from mother. According to some other systems these are
1. ས། [pṛthivī]/ earth
2. ཆུ། [aba]/ water
3. མེ། [teja]/ fire
4. རླུང་། [vāyu]/ wind
5. རྩ། [nāḍī]/ energy-channels
6. ཐིག་ལེ། [ ṡukra]// essential drops.

The five stages of growth in the womb; the five stages of foetal development in the womb.
1. མེར་མེར་པོ། the oral-shaped foetus
2. ལྟར་ལྟར་པོ། the viscous foetus
3. གོར་གོར་པོ། the soft fleshy foetus
4. འཁྲང་འགྱུར། the hard fleshy foetus
5. འབུར་པོ་ལྔ་། the five protuberances—the two legs, two arms and head.

[pratyakṣa]/ Manifest phenomena. Obvious phenomena that can be cognized directly by sensory perception.

The ten factors. The ten directly present factors for conducting a ceremony of full ordination.
1. སྟོན་པ་མངོན་འབྱུརl accepting the teacher
2. སངས་རྒྱས་མངོན་འབྱུར། accepting the Buddha
3. ཆོས་མངོན་འགྱུར། accepting the Dharma
4. མཁན་པོ་མངོན་འགྱུར། accepting the abbot
5. སློབ་དཔོན་མངོན་འགྱུར། accepting the assistant abbot
6. བསྙེན་པར་རྫོགས་པ་འདོད་པ་མངོན་འགྱུར། wishing to receive ordination
7. ཡོ་བྱད་མངོན་འགྱུར། the presence of monk's articles
8. ཡོངས་སུ་དག་པ་མངོན་འགྱུར། the performance of the ordination ceremony
9. གསོལ་བ་མངོན་འགྱུར། requesting the ceremony
10. ལས་མངོན་འགྱུར། activity (of monks).

Higher status; superior rebirth. The attainment of a more fortunate rebirth such as a fully endowed human being's or a god's. One of the two basic human alms for making progress on the spiritual paths to Buddhahood.

Longing faith. Aspirational faith longing to attain one's desired spiritual goal.

A. The two abhidharmas:
1. དོན་དམ་པའི་ཆོས་མངོན་པ| [paramārtha abhidharma]/ the ultimate abhidharma, e.g. the uncontaminated wisdom understanding emptiness
2. བརྡར་བཏགས་པའི་ཆོས་མངོན་པ། [saṁketikābhidharma]/ the nominal abhidharma, e.g. the contaminated wisdom understanding emptiness and the Abhidharma texts. B. The two Abhidharma texts:
1. མངོན་པ་ཀུན་བཏུས། Compendium of Knowledge ([abhidharmasamuccaya]) by [ārya] Asaṅga
2. མངོན་པ་མཛོད། Treasure of Knowledge ([abhidharmakoṡa]) by [ācārya Vasubandhu].

The seven treatises on phenomenology. The seven principal treatises of the [mūlasarvāsti-vādin] school of philosophy. These are:
1. ཀཧྱའི་བུས་མཛད་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལ་འཇུག་པ། Entering the Wisdom by Katyayana
2. དབྱིག་གཉེན་གྱིས་མཛད་པའི་རབ་ཏུ་བྱེད་པ། Thorough Discernment by Vasumitra
3. བྲམ་ཟེ་ལྷ་སྐྱིད་ཀྱིས་མཛད་པའི་རྣམ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས། Collection of Consciousnesses by Brahmin Devotsava
4. ཤཱ་རིའི་བུས་མཛད་པའི་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས། Dharma Aggregates by [ṡariputra]

མོའུ་འགལ་གྱི་བུས་མཛད་པའི་གདགས་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས། Treatise on Imputation by [mandgalyāyana]
6. གསུས་པོ་ཆེས་མཛད་པའི་འགྲོ་བའི་རྣམ་གྲངས། Enumeration of Migrators by [mahākauṣṭhila]
7. གང་པོས་མཛད་པའི་ཁམས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས། Collection of Spheres by [pūrṇa].

[abhidharma piṭaka]/ The basket of teaching on knowledge ([abhidharmapiṭaka]). That category of Buddha's teachings which reveals malnly the instruction on higher training of wisdom.

Formative existence. An epithet of the intermediate state of rebirth.

[Ṣaḍ abhijсā]/ The six extra-sensory perceptions; the six clairvoyances; the six extraordinary knowledges.
1. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་མངོན་ཤེས། [ṛddhi vidhi jсāna]/ knowledge of miracles
2. ལྷའི་མིག་གི་མངོན་ཤེས། [divyaṁ cakṣu]/ knowledge of the divine eye
3. ལྷའི་རྣ་བའི་མངོན་ཤེས། [divyaṃ ṡrotra jсānam]/ knowlege of the divine ear
4. གཞན་སེམས་ཤེས་པའི་མངོན་ཤེས། [paracitta jсānam]/ knowledge of other's thoughts
5. སྔོན་ གནས་རྗེས་དྲན་གྱི་མངོན་ཤེས། [pūrva nivāsānusmṛti jсānam]/ knowledge of recollecting past lives
6. ཟག་པ་ཟད་པའི་མངོན་ཤེས། [āṡrava kṣaya jсānam]/ knowledge of the extinction of contamination.

The teachings through enlightened energy or blessings. One of the five teachings (see ༼གསུང་ལྔ༽) of a Buddha. According to the Nyingma tradition this refers to the simultaneous and natural establishment of all sounds within their source of
reality that knows no cessation, also called the blessed teachings from intuitive awareness.

A. The five modes of enlightenment; a generation stage practice of visualizing a deity.
1. ཟླ་བ་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། enlightenment from moon
2. ཉི་མ་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། enlightenment from sun
3. ས་བོན་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། enlightenment from the seed syllable
4. ཕྱག་མཚན་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། enlightenment from the deity's implements
5. སྐུ་རྫོགས་པ་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། enlightenment from the entire entity of the body. B. The process of generating oneself into a My enlightened deity:
1. ཟླ་བ་མེ་ལོང་ཡེཤེས་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། visualizing the moon as the mirror-like wisdom of a Buddha
2. ཉི་མ་མཉམ་ཉིད་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་བ། visualizing the sun as the wisdom of sameness of a Buddha
3. ས་བོན་དང་ཕྱག་མཚན་སོར་རྟོགས་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། visualizing the seed syllable and implements of a deity as the wisdom of individual discrimination
4. ཐམས་ཅད་འདྲེས་པ་བྱ་གྲུབ་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། visualizing the combination of all (moon, sun, seed syllable and implements) as the wisdom of accomplishments
5. སྐུ་རྫོགས་པ་ཆོས་དབྱིངས་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལས་བྱང་ཆུབ་པ། visualizing the full-fledged body of a Buddha as the wisdom of reality.

The four direct perceptions.
1. [indriya pratyakṣa]/ sensory direct perception
2. [citta pratyakṣa]// mental direct perception
3. [svasaṁveda pratyakṣa]/ direct perception of self-awareness yogi pratyaksa// yogic direct perception.

[pratyakṣa bhrānta hetu]/ Deceptive direct perception. A direct perception that is affected by a deceptive cause.

[paricchinna pratyakṣa]/ Subsequent direct perception. A direct perception following the original or the first instance of direct cognition.

[pratyakṣābhāsa]/ Apparent direct perceptions. A direct perception that is mistaken with respect to its appearing object (snang-yul), e.g. the inferential understanding cognizing sound as impermanent.

Seven apparent direct perceptions.
1. འཕྲུལ་བའི་་རྟོག་པ། the distorted thought
2. ཀུན་རྫོབ་པའི་རྟོག་པ། the conventional thought
3. རྗེས་དཔག་གི་རྟོག་པ། the inferential thought
4. རྗེས་དཔག་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་རྟོག་པ། the thought resulting from inferential cognition
5. དྲན་པའི་རྟོག་པ། the recollecting thought
6. མངོན་འདོད་ཀྱི་རྟོག་པ། the speculative thought
7. རྟོག་མེད་ལོག་པ། non-conceptual wrong perception.

[talinira pratyakṣābhāsa]/Blurred apparent direct perception.

Absent-minded direct perception; inattentive direct perception.

The ten phases of five hundred years each. This refers to five thousand years being the life span of Buddha ṡakyamuni's teachings divided into ten phases of five hundred years each. These are:
1. དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ་དང་། the Arhat period
2. ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་བ། the period of the Never-returner
3. རྒྱུན་ཞུགས་ཀྱི་འབྲས་བུ་ཐོབ་པ་སྟེ་ཡེ་ཤེས་ཁོང་དུ་ཆུད་པའི་ལེའུ་གསུམ། the period the Stream-winners — all known as the three phases of realization.
4. ལྷག་མཐོང་དང་། the wisdom period
5. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། the period of meditative concentration
6. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཏེ་སྒྲུབ་པའི་ལེའུ་གསུམ། the period of moral discipline known as the three phases of three trainings.
7. མངོན་པ་དང་། the period of the knowledge
8. མདོ་སྡེ། the period of discourses
9. འདུལ་བ་སྟེ་ལུང་གི་ལེའུ་གསུམ། the period of monastic discipline known as the three periods of oral transmission
10. ལྟ་སྤྱོད་རྣལ་མ་མེད་པར་རབ་བྱུང་གི་རྟགས་ཙམ་འཛིན་པའི་ལེའུ། the period of corrupt moral discipline in which only a corrupt view, corrupt philosophy and corrupt monastic discipline shall survive.

The five-fold transmission on [mahāmudrā]. A lineage of transmission of the Mahāmudrā practice for beginners, as formulated by the great Kagyud master Drigung Kyopa Jigten Gonpo (1143-1217).
1. བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་སྒོམ་པ། meditation on bodhicitta
2. རང་ལུས་ལྷར་སྒོམ་པ། meditation on one's body as that of a deity
3. བླ་མ་ལྷར་སྒོམ་པ། meditation on guru devotion
4. མི་རྟོག་པའི་ལྟ་བ་སྒོམ་པ། meditation on the non-conceptual view
5. བསྔོ་སྨོན་གྱིས་རྒྱས་འདེབས་པ། dedication at the end.

The Early Spread; the Early Propagation. The early spread of Buddhism in Tibet beginning from 7th century and its propagation during the reign of the three religious kings of Tibet until the eclipse of Buddha's teaching during the reign of King Lang Darma.

Mantra; words of power; incantation; mind-protector. Formulae of words chanted as powers; very often this word 'sngags' is used as a synonym for tantra.

The four distinguishing features of Tantra.
1. མ་རྨོངས་པའི་ཁྱད་པར། clear and unconfusing
2. ཐབས་མང་བའི་ཁྱད་པར། manifold methods
3. དཀའ་བ་མེད་པའི་ཁྱད་པར། easier to practice
4. དབང་པོ་རྣོ་བའི་་ཁྱད་པར། requires sharp intellect.

[mantrayāna]/ The [mantrayāna]. The secret mantra vehicle meant for persons of highly sharp faculty who aspire to taking the results as a path and simultancous actualization of both the causes and results of one's practice.

The four states of нantric experience.
1. གཉིད་སད་པའི་གནས་སྐབས། awaking state
2. རྨི་ལམ་གྱི་གནས་སྐབས། dream state
3. གཉིད་མཐུག་གི་གནས་སྐབས། state of deep sleep
4. བཞི་པའི་གནས་སྐབས། the fourth state (old-aged stage).

The three classes of mantra, three types of mantra incantation:
1. གསང་སྔགས། secret mantra symbolizing the union of both method and wisdom paths
2. རིག་སྔགས། wisdom mantra symbolizing the method aspect of the paths
གཟུངས་སྔགས། retention ([dhāraṇi]) mantra symbolizing the wisdom aspect of the paths.

[mantra saṁvara]/ The tantric vows (see ༼རྟ་ལྟུང་བཅོ་བརྱག་ཨནད་ཉེས་བྱེད་ཞི་ཅུ་ཞེ་དྲུག༽).

The seven limb practices of the tantric tradition.
1. ཕྱག་འཚལ་བ། prostration
2. མཆོད་པ། offering
3. བཤགས་པ། confession
4. རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་། rejoicing
5. སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ། taking refuge
6. བྱང་ཆུབ་མཆོག་ཏུ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། generation of the mind of enlightenment
7. བསྔོ་པའི་ཡན་ལག dedication.

Tantric graduate. A geshe who has also earned a tantric degree from any of the two tantric colleges in the Gelug system of monastic education.

[pūrvanivāsa]/ The prior existence. The period of existence between the second moment of connecting to one's new life in the womb and death.

[pariṇāma bhāvanā mārga]/ The path of meditation on dedication. The [mahāyāna] path of meditation which transforms 'root of virtues' of self and others for the attainment of complete enlightenment.

The twelve paths of meditation on dedication.
1. དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་ཡོངས་སུ་བསྔོ་བའི་བསྔོ་བ། thorough dedication of the roots of virtue
2. དམིགས་མེད་རྣམ་པ་ཅན་གྱི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication free from the apprehension of a truly existent nature
3. ཕྱིན་ཅི་མ་ ལོག་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ཅན་གྱི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication marked by the absence of wrong views
4. དོན་དམ་པར་ངོ་བོ་་ཉི་ད་ཀྱིས་དབེན་པའི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication devoid of an ultimate truly existent nature
5. སངས་རྒྱས་དང་བསོད་ནམས་རང་བཞིན་དྲན་པའི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication recollecting the Buddha, merits and the ultimate nature
6. ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པའི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication that is skillful in means
7. མཚན་མ་མེད་པའི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication without signs
8. སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་སྣང་ཞིང་དགྱེས་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བའི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication enjoined or permitted by the Buddhas
9. ཁམས་གསུམ་དུ་མ་གཏོགས་པའི་བསྔོ་བ། dedication beyond the three realms
10. བསོད་ནམས་ཆེན་པོ་འབྱུང་བའི་བསྔོ་བ་ཆུང་ངུ་། lesser dedication giving rise to great merits
11. བསོད་ནམས་ཆེན་པོ་འབྱུང་བའི་བསྔོ་བ་འབྲིང་། middling dedication giving rise to great merits
12. བསོད་ནམས་ཆེན་པོ་འབྱུང་བའི་བསྔོ་བ་ཆེན་པོ། great dedication giving rise to great merits.

Hand drum. A small drum usually identified with the ones held in the hands of a god or goddess as their implement.

[ākiṁcanyāyatana]/ The domain of nothingness. One of the four means of emanation within the formless realm; the domain of concentration within the formless realm where a person remains fixed to the idea that there exists nothing other than consciousness because of not seeing anything, and thus remains fully absorbed in it as one's object of meditation.

Slightly hidden phenomena, slightly obscure phenomena, e.g. impermanence.

[viḍambanā]/ To blame; reproach; scoff at. Also refers to a sense of competetiveness.

Neither being one nor many. A logical way of analyzing the mode of existence of phenomena that cannot be beyond being one or many.

[digambara]/ Jain; Lit: the Naked Ones. Proponents of non-Buddhist tenets who assert that all objects of knowledge are included in nine categories:
1. སྲོག [prāṇa]/ life-force
2. ཟག་པ། [āstrava]/ contamination
3. སྡོམ་པ། [saṁvara]/ vows
4. ངེས་པར་རྒ་བ། [avaṡyajara]/ old-agedness
5. འཆིང་པ། [bandhana]// bindings (delusions)
6. ལས། karma
7. སྡིག་པ། [akalyāṇa]/ non-virtue
8. བསོད་ནམས། [puṇya]/ merits
9. ཐར་པ། [mokṣa]/ liberation. They believe that liberation can be attained through resorting io practices of asceticism such as going naked, not speaking and so forth.

Cutting-off ritual. The practice primarily common to the ༼ཞི་བྱེད༽ tradition of Tibetan Buddhism formed by Phadampa Sangye. The term is derived from the nature of the instructions on which this practice is based; that love, compassion and bodhicitta sever selfishness; the view of emptiness severs the root of cyclic existence (saṁsāra); and the common practices sever the four demonic forces (see གཅོད་ལུགས་ཀྱི་བདུད་བཞི།).

The four demonic forces of the cutting-off ritual.
1. ཐོགས་བཅས། obstructive forces
2. ཐོགས་མེད། non-obstructive forces
3. དགའ་སྤྲོད། joyous forces
4. སྙེམས་བྱེད། haughty forces.

Subsequent cognition; re-cognition. An awareness which is not a new correct perception or conception, but apprehends what has already been apprehended in its stream of cognition, e.g. the second moment of visual perception of a vase.

[pratikṣepana sāvadya]/ Proscribed non-virtue; declared misdeed; misdeed by decree. For instance, actions such as eating after noon, drinking intoxicants, etc., that are declared to be non-virtuous for monks and nuns by Buddha, although these do not constitute non-virtue by nature.

The misdeed by nature and proscription (see ༼བཅས་པའི་ཁ་ན་མ་ཐོ་བ་ཨནད་རང་བཞིན་གྱི་ཁ་ན་མ་ཐོ་བ༽).

[rasāyana]/ The art of elixir, extracting the essence. An austure practice by which a practitioner temporarily avoids eating gross food and sustains himself by regularly consuming consecrated pills and engaging in meditation.

The prayer festival on the 15th. The celebration of Buddha's defeat of the six non-Buddhist teachers (see ༼མུ་སྟེགས་ཀྱི་སྟོན་པ་དྲུག༽) on the 15th of the first Tibetan month. Tsong Khapa marked this event as the Great Prayer Festival.

[bhagavat]/ The Victorious Conqueror, Supramundane Victor; Buddhas.
[kṛtrima]/ Artificial; contrived. A temporary artificial state of mind generated or created within an enthusiastic virtuous state of mind.

[akṛtrima karuṇā]// Natural compassion; uncontrived compassion; spontaneous compassion.

A. Iron house or fort. B. A wrathful tantric propitiation ritual of throwing sacrificial cake with nine or sixteen edges invoking [yamarāja Chagkhar].

Part and partless; divisible and indivisible.

[saṁbhāgiya vicikitsā]// Evenly balanced doubt. An indecisive wavering evenly balanced between correct and incorrect conclusions; one of the three types of doubt (see ༼ཐེ་ཙོམ་གསུམ༽).

Parts and that consisting of parts; palr and one of the pairs.

Aeon of formation. The twenty intermediate aeons covering the period of time since the formation of the outer world until the birth of one inhabitant in the realm of the hell

The five types of freedom from attachment. The five different aspects of being free of attachment.
1. ཕྱོགས་གཅིག་ལ་ཆགས་བྲལ་བ། freedom from being attached to one aspect
2. མཐའ་དག་ལ་ཆགས་བྲལ་བ། freedom from being attached to all
3. རྟོགས་པའི་ཆགས་བྲལ་བ། freedom from being attached to realizations
4. གནོན་པའི་ཆགས་བྲལ་བ| freedom from attachment of having subdued
5. ལེགས་པར་སྟོན་པའི་ཆགས་བྲལ་བ། freedom from being attached to elegant teachings.

A leftover portion of food, squeezed between the fingers and offered to hungry ghosts; an after-meal rule of giving the remainders to spirits that Buddha has prescribed for monks and nuns.

[uccheda dṛṣṭi]/ View of nihilism; nihilism. For instance, asserting the non-existence of the cause and effect, former and future lives, severence or exhanstion of existence at death, etc.

[ucchedaṡūnyatā]/ Nihilistic emptiness. The emptiness upon realization of which rejects the existence of its base.

[ucchedāntā]/ The extreme of nihilism. A kind of belief that something validiy exitent is non-existent.

A. The four torrents.
1. སྲིད་པའི་ཆུ་བོ། [saṁsāra]/ torrent of cyclic existence
2. སྲེད་པའི་ཆུ་བོ། [tṛṣ]/ torrent of craving
3. མ་རིད་པའི་ཆུ་བོ། [avidvā]/ torrent of ignorance
4. ལྟ་བའི་ཆུ་བོ། [dṛṣṭi]// torrent of wrong view.
B. The four big rivers.
1. གངྒཱ་། Ganges
2. པཀྵཱ། Indus/Sindhu
3. སིཏཱ Brahmaputra/Pakshu
4. སིནརྡུ། Yamuna.

Bodhimind like a flowing river. The mind of enlightenment primarily in accord with the path within the mental continuum of a Buddha in his physical form.

The five types of water initiations.
1. དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་གྱི་ཕྱིའི་འཇུག་སྒོའི་བུམ་པ། vase initiation concerning the rites outside the maṇḍala
2. དཀྱི་ལ་འཁོར་གཉིས་པར་ལྷ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་བུམ་པ། vase initiation of ali the concerned deities within the maṇḍala
3. གསུམ་པར་ཉན་རང་གི་བུམ་པ། vase initiation of the hearers and solitary realizers
4. བཞི་པར་བྱང་སེམས་ཀྱི་བུམ་པ། vase initiation of the Bodhisattvas
5. ལྔ་པར་སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བུམ་པ། victorious vase initiation of the Buddha.

Eight qualities of good water; a water possessing the eight sublime qualities.
1. བསིལ་བ། [ ṡīta]/ cool
2. ཡང་བ། [lagu]/ light// refreshing
3. ཞིམ་པ། [svāduka]/ sweet/ tasty
4. འཇམ་པ། [komala]/ smooth
5. དྭངས་པ། [prasanna]/ clear
6. དྲི་ང་བ་མེད་པ། [nirāmagandha]/ free of bad odour
7. འཐུང་ན་མགྲིན་པ་ལ་བདེ་བ། [kanṭhasukha]/ soothing to throat to drink
8. འཐུང་ན་ལྟོ་བ་ལ་བདེ་བ། [udarasukha]/ harmless to stomach to drink.

Seven types of water resources.
1. ཆར་ཆུ། rain water
2. གངས་ཆུ། snow water
3. ཆུ་ཀླུང་གི་ཆུ། river water 4 ཆུ་མིག་གི་ཆུ། pond water
5. ཁྲོན་པའི་ཆུ། well water
6. བ་ཚྭ་ཅན་གྱི་ཆུ། salty water
7. ཤིང་གི་རྩ་ཆུ། water from the roots of trees.

[mahāmāna]/ Pride of superiority. The feeling that one, in general, is equal to all, in general, yet, is superior in one particular respect.

The seven qualities of greatness; the seven superior features.
1. རིགས་བཟང་བ། good family
2. གཟུགས་བཟང་བ། good physical features
3. གཉེན་འཁོར་གཡོག་འཛོམས་པ། big circle of kith and kin or attendants
4. འབྱོར་པ་ཆེ་བ། wealthy
5. དབང་ཐང་ཆེ་བ། powerful
6. ཤེས་རབ་ཆེ་བ། great wisdom
7. ལུས་སྟོབས་དང་ལྡན་པ། strong body.

[udānavarga]/ Impersonal utterances of Buddha's teachings; the class of impersonal teachings. Those categories of Buddha's teachings uttered not for specific disciples but in , general without being requested for the purpose of flourishing of the Buddha Dharma.

The five greatnesses; the five great qualities of space.
1. གཟུགས་མེད་པ། formless
2. ཐོགས་པ་མེད་པ། unobstructive
3. རྟག་པ། permanent
4. མི་འགྱུར་བ། unchangeable
5. མི་འཕོ་བ། untransforming.

[mahā ṡūnyatā]/ The great emptiness; the emptiness of that which is great. Lack of true and independent existence of the ten directions. One of the sixteen emptinesses.

The seven greatnesses; the seven features of a true Mahāyānist.
1. དམིགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ། great objective
2. སྒྲུབ་པ་ཆེན་པོ། great practice
3. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཆེན་པོ། great wisdom
4. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཆེན་པོ། great effort
5. ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པ་ཆེན་པོ། great skill in means
6. ཡང་དག་སྒྲུབ་པ་ཆེན་པོ། great perfect accomplishment
7. ཕྲིན་ལས་ཆེན་པོ། great enlightened activity.

The three stages of generating a deity. The practice of meditation by means of visualizing a deity's seed syllable on a lotus, sun or other cushions, from which there arises the implements and the mantric syllable; the complete transformation of which then enables a person to generate the concerned deity complete with all features.

The day of great miracles. The celebration of Buddha's taming of devьs and spirits from the first to fifteenth of the first Tibetan month. Je Tsong Khapa instituted the Great Prayer Festival during this period.

[catvāri prātihārya]/ The four miraculous ways; the four meditative concentrations according to yoga tantra.
1. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ། miracles of concentration
2. བྱིན་གྱིས་བླབས་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ། miracles of blessings
3. དབང་བསྐུར་བའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ། miracles of empowerment
4. མཆོད་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ། miracles of offering rites.

The three miraculous ways of a Buddha.
1. སྐུ་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ། miracles of body
2. དསུང་ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྗོད་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ། miracles of speech
3. ཐུགས་རྗེས་སུ་བསྟན་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ། miracles of mind.

Dharma. A. Teachings of Buddha. B. A phenomenon.

The four legs of Dharma. The division of periods in view of the life span of Buddha's teachings, which are:
1. རྫོགས་ལྡན། the perfected aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན༽)
2. གསུམ་ལྡན། the threefold aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་གསུམ་ལྡན༽)
3. གཉིས་ལྡན། the twofold aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་གཉིས་ལྡན༽)
4. རྩོད་ལྡན། the quarrelsome aeon (see ༼རྩོད་ལྡན་གྱི་དུས༽).

[dharmāyatana rūpa]/ The form of the source of mental faculty. The objects for generating the perception of mental faculty, e.g. fine particles and the physical body of a dream state.

The five types of forms of the spheres of phenomena.
1. བསྡུས་པ་ལས་གྱུར་བའི་གཟུགས། compounded form
2. མངོན་པར་སྐབས་ཡོད་པའི་དཟུགས། ocoasionaliy manifesting form
3. ཡང་དག་པར་བླངས་པ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་གཟུགས། form arising from vows and precepts
4. ཀུན་བཏགས་པའི་གཟུགས། imputed form
5. དབང་འབྱོར་བའི་གཟུགས། conjured form.

[dharma dhātu]/ The faculty of dharma. One of the eighteen spheres (see ༼ཁམས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽), feeling, recognition, perception, non-revelatory form and all non-compositional factors, i.e. non-functional phenomena.

[aṣṭa dharma dhātu asaṁskṛta]/ The eight non-compositional factors of the dharma constituents.
1. དགེ་བའི་དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད། [kuṡala tattva]// the virtuous reality
2. མི་དགེ་བའི་དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད། [akuṡala tattva]/ the non-virtuous reality
3. ལུང་མ་བསྟན་གྱི་དེ་ བཞིན་ཉིད། [avyākṛtya tattva]/ the unspecified reality
4. ནམ་མཁའ། [akāṡa]/space
5. སོ་སོར་བརྟགས་འགོག [pratisamkhyā nirodha]/ the analytical cessation
6. སོ་སོར་བརྟགས་མིན་གྱི་འགོག་པ། [apratisamkhyā nirodha]/ the non-analytical cessation
7. མི་གཡོ་བའི་འགོག་པ། [acala nirodha]/ the immutable cessation
8. འདུ་ཤེས་དང་ཚོར་བ་འགོག་པ། [saṁjсā vedanā nirodha]/ the cessation of perception and feeling.

[dharma nairātmya]/ Selflessness of phenomena. In its highest sense it is the lack of inherent existence of phenomena other than persons. There are two types—the gross and subtle selflessness of phenomena.

Grasping at the self of phenomena. The misconception of phenomena as having true existence. It has two kinds: 1. innate grasping at the self of phenomena 2. intellectual grasping at the self of phenomena.

The four seals of Dharma (see ༼ལྟ་བ་བཀར་བཏགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི༽).

[dharmadhātu jсāna]/ The primordial wisdom cognizing the reality of phenomena. The lack of inherent nature or the emptiness of the five aggregates.

[dharma ratna]/ The Dharma Jewel; the doctrine. The true cessation and path within the mental continuum of an [ārya]; conventionally it is represented by the scriptures and books on the teachings of Buddha.

[dharmakāya]/ The Truth Body; dharmakāya. The foundation of all qualities, the source of the four kāyas; the impersonal Buddha. It has two kinds—the natural truth body and the wisdom truth body of a Buddha.

[catvāri dharmakāya dharmāḥ]/ The four topics or features of the Truth Body. One of the seventy topics of the perfection of wisdom teachings which are the four aspects of [dharmakāya] or a Buddha's being:
1. ངོ་བོཨོ་ཉིད་སྐུ [svabhāvakāya]/ nature truth body
2. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཆོས་སྐུ [jсānakāya]/ wisdom truth body
3. ལོངས་སྐུ། [saṁbhogakāya]/ complete enjoyment body
4. སྤྲུལ་སྐུ [nirmāṇakāya]/ emanation body.

The sixteen faculties of dharma spheres. According to the Compendium of Knowledge ([abhidharmasamuccaya]) these are: 1-5. ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་པའི་གཟུགས་ལྔ་། the five types of forms of the spheres of phenomena (see ༼ཆོས་ཀྱོ་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་པའི་གཟུགས་ཨིང༽)
6. ཚོར་བ། the aggregate of feeling
7. འདུ་ཤེས། the aggregate of recognition
8. འདུ་བྱེད། the aggregate of perception 9-16. འདུས་མ་བྱས་བརྒྱད། the eight types of non-compositional factors (see ༼འདུས་མ་བྱས་བརྒྱད༽).

The seven faculties of dharma spheres. According to the Treasure of Knowledge ([abhidharmakoṡa]) these are:
1. ཚོར་བའི་ཕུང་པོ། the aggregate of feeling
2. འདུ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། the aggregate of recognition
3. འདུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། the aggregate of perception
4. རྣམ་པར་རིག་བྱེད་མིན་པའི་གཟུགས། non-revelatory form 5-7. འདུས་མ་བྱས་གསུམ། the three non-compositional factors (see ༼འདུས་མ་བྱས་གསུམ༽).

The three kinds of Dharma robes.
1. ཆོས་གོས། བླ་གོས། 'chogo'—the yellow upper robe which can be worn by all monks and nuns
2. སྣམ་སྦྱར། 'namja'—yellow upper robe worn only by fully ordained monks
3. མཐང་གོས། 'thango'— monks'and nuns' lower robe.

[dharmarāja Aṡoka]/ The Indian king [aṡoka], 3rd century B.C., who came into contact with Buddhist teachings after repenting the widespread slaughter and misery he had caused in numerous wars. In the later part of his life, he became a devout Buddhist and propagated Buddha's teaching far and I wide.

The equal taste of eight worldly concerns (see ༼འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད༽). The fact that one has freed oneself of these concerns and thus makes and does not effect one's way of life.

[paсca dharmāḥ]/ Five phenomena; five features.
1. མིང་། [nāma]/name
2. མཚན་མ། [nimitta]/marks
3. རྣམ་རྟོག [vikalpa]/ conceptualization
4. དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད། [tathatā]/ reality
5. མི་རྟོག་ཡེ་ཤེས། [akalpanā jсāna]/non-conceptual wisdom.

[abhidharma]/ The knowledge. The set of teachings and treatises concerning the training of higher wisdom and the study of metaphysics and cosmology.

[dharmin]/ Subject. Subject of the proposition in a dialectical syllogism standing for a subject on which the thesis is established, e.g. 'sound' is the subject when the thesis 'sound is impermanent' is to be proved in a correct logical syllogism.

The statement expressing the subject. A statement in which the subject of concern for both the speaker and listener is presented as the basis of discussion, e.g. the statement, 'sound is a thing'. Here 'sound' is shown as the basis of a (functional) thing but does not exclude other qualities of sound such as its being impermanent and an object of knowledge.

A statement expressing quality. A statement in which the subject of concern for both the speaker and listener is presented as the quality of discussion, e.g. the statement, 'impermanence of sound'. This statement not only distinguishes impermanence of sound from the impermanence of others, such as a vase or pillar, but also excludes discussing the qualities of other phenomena within the topic of discussion.

[dharmatā]/ Intrinsic nature; suchness; empty nature.

The reasoning of common sense. One of the four types of reasoning (see ༼རིགས་པ་བཞི༽). Well-known common notions that are naturally accepted as true, e.g. rivers always flow downward and fire blazes upward.

[sarvadharma ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of all phenomena. The lack of true existence of outer and inner phenomena, i.e. the fact that these being impermanent, miserable, empty and lack self-identity are non-inherent in nature.

Humans possessing seven features. The qualities of human beings living in this world during the first aeon.
1. བརྫུས་ཏེ་སྐྱེ་བ། they were born miraculously
2. ཚེ་ལོ་དཔག་མེད་ཐུབ་པ། enjoyed an immeasurable life-span
3. དབང་པོ་ཀུན་ཚང་བ། possessed perfect sense faculties
4. རང་ལུས་འོད་ཀྱིས་ཁྱབ་པ། had self-illuminated body
5. མཚན་བཟང་རྗེས་མཐུན་གྱིས་བརྒྱན་པ། possessed similitudes of the major and minor marks of a Buddha
6. ཟས་རགས་པ་ལ་མ་བརྟེན་པར་དགའ་བའི་ཟས་ཀྱིས་འཚ་བ། lived on the food of joy without eating gross food
7. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱིས་ནམ་མཁའ་ལ་འཕུར་བ། miraculously flew in the sky.

[dharma smṛtyūpasthāna]/ Close contemplation of phenomena. The meditation on the emptiness and selflessness of the thoroughly purified and negative aspects of phenomena.

[daṡa dharmacaryaḥ]/ The ten spiritual trainings; the ten monastic trainings.
1. ཡི་གེ་འབྲི་བ། [lekhanā]/ writing
2. མཆོད་པ་འབུལ་བ། [pūjanā]/ worshipping
3. སྦྱིན་པ་གཏོང་བ། [dānam]/ generosity
4. ཆོས་ཉན་པ| [ ṡravaṇam]/ hearing Dharma
5. འཛིན་པ། [udgrahaṇam]/ memorizing
6. ཀློག་པ། [vācanam]/ reading
7. འཆད་པ། [prakāṡana]/ preaching
8. ཁ་ཏོན་དུ་བྱ་བ། [svādhyāyanam]/ recitation
9. ཆོས་ཀྱི་དོན་སེམས་པ། [dharmārtha cintanā]/ contemplation on Dharma
10. ཆོས་ཀྱི་ དོན་སྒོམ་པ། [dharmārtha bhāvana]/ meditation on Dharma.

[dharma skandha]/ A heap of doctrine. One heap of Buddha's doctrine constitute a set of teachings which contains the complete instructions to counteract one of the eighty-four thousand delusions.

[caturasīti sahastraṇi dharma skandhāḥ]/ The eighty-four thousand heaps of doctrine. The entire teachings of Buddha incorporated into four groups of antidotes against four thousand delusions.
1. འདོད་ཆགས་ཀྱི་གཉེན་པོར་ཉིས་ཁྲི་ཆིག་སྟོང་། twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to desire-attachment
2. ཞེ་སྡང་གི་གཉིན་པོར་ཉིས་ཁྲི་ཆིག་སྟོང་། twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to hatred-anger
3. གཏི་མུག་གི་གཉེན་པོར་ཉིས་ཁྲི་ཆིག་སྟོང་། twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to closed-mindedness
4. དུག་གསུམ་ཐུན་མོང་བའི་གཉེན་པོར་ཉིས་ཁྲི་ཆིག་སྟོང་། twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to all the three root delusions in equal proportions.

[dharmadhātu]. The sphere of reality.

Retention of Dharma. The power of memorization and retention of an unlimited number of words, phrases and mystic formulae (mantra) for an infinite period of time having only heard them once.

The three higher supreme initiations. The latter three initiations of the highest anuttarayogatantra that ripen a disciple's mental continuum having entered into the maṇḍala.
1. གསང་དབང་། secret initiation
2. ཤེས་རབ་ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་དབང་། wisdom initiation
3. ཚིག་དབང་། word initiation.

[catvāri uttama dharmāḥ]/ The four supreme qualities.
1. རྒྱན་གྱི་མཆོག་ཐོས་པ། study as the supreme ornament
2. བདེ་བའི་མཆོག་སེམས་བསྐྱེད། generadng the mind of enlightenment as the supreme happiness
3. ནོར་གྱི་མཆོག་སྦྱིན་པ། generosity as the supreme wealth
4. གྲོགས་ཀྱི་མཆོག་མི་བསླུ་བ། sincerity as the supreme friend.

[aṣṭa stūpāḥ]/ The eight types of stūpas.
1. བདེ་གཤེགས་མཆོད་རྟེན། [tathāgata stūpa]
2. བྱང་ཆུབ་མཆོད་རྟེན། [bodhi stūpa]
3. ཆོས་འཁོར་མཆོད་རྟེན། [dharmacakra stūpa]
4. ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་མཆོད་རྟེན། [prātihārya stūpa]/ miracle [stūpa]
5. ལྷ་བབ་མཆོད་རྟེན། [stūpa] of descent from [tuṣita] field
6. དབྱེན་ཟླུམ་མཆོད་རྟེན། [stūpa] for pacifying a schism among the sangha community
7. རྣམ་རྒྱལ་མཆོད་རྟེན། [vijayāni stūpa]/ victory [stūpa]
8. མྱང་འདས་མཆོད་རྟེན། [parinirvāṇa stūpa].

[pūjā]/ A. Worship service. B. Offerings to the gods and divinities. C. The material and immaterial medium of offerings.

The eight-fold offerings.
1. མཆོད་ཡོན། water for the mouth
2. ཞབས་བསིལ། water for the feet
3. མེ་ཏོག flower
4. བདུག་སྤོས། incense
5. མར་མེ། lamp
6. དྲི་ཆབ། scented water
7. ཞལ་ཟས། food
8. རོལ་མོ། music.

Two types of offerings. Offerings made to the object of refuge has two: A.
1. ཟང་ཟིང་གི་མཆོད་པ། offering of material goods
2. སྒྲུབ་པའི་མཆོད་པ། offering of practice; or B.
1. དངོས་འབྱོར་གྱི་མཆོད་པ། offerings actually arranged
2. ཡིད་ཀྱིས་སྤྲུལ་པའི་མཆོད་པ། offerings made in the imagination.

[catvāri pūjāḥ]/ Four types of offerings. A.
1. ཕྱིའི་མཆོད་པ། outer offering
2. ནང་གི་མཆོད་པ། inner offering
3. གསང་བའི་མཆོད་པ། secret offering
4. དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་མཆོད་པ། offering of suchness. B. The four religious festivals of offerings instituted during the reign of King Mune Tsanpo:
1. ལྷ་སར་འདུལ་བའི་མཆོད་པ། offering of [vinayapiṭaka] at Lhasa
2. ཁྲ་འབྲུག་ལ་མངོན་པའི་མཆོད་པ། offering ceremony of [abhidharmapiṭaka] at Tradrug 3-4. བསམ་ཡས་ལ་མདོ་སྡེ་དང་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་མཆོད་པ། offering ceremony of [sūtrapiṭaka] and enlightenment at Samye.

The offering articles; the objects of offering to be made to the three objects of refuge.

[daṡa pūjā dravyāḥ]/ The ten objects of offering; ten kinds of offering. The set often different offerings made to deities.
1. མེ་ཏོག [puṣpa]/ flowers
2. ཕྲེང་བ། [mālā]/garlands
3. བདུག་སྤོས། [dhūpa]/ incense
4. བྱུག་པ། [vilepanam]/ scent
5. ཕྱེ་མ། [cūṃa]/food
6. ན་བཟའ། [vastra]/cloth
7. རྒྱན། [alam]/ornament
8. གདུགས། [chattram]/ umbrella
9. རྒྱལ་མཚན། [maṇgala dhvaja]/ victory banner
10. བ་དན། [patākā]/ flags.

A concealed non-virtue; concealment of non-virtues deliberately in an attempt to show one's purity.

[alpa mṛtyu]/ The small death. The death that occurs within the life of an intermediate state being (bar-do) at the completion of each week.

Coarse interferences from the lord of death. This refers to the death incurred through force of karma and delusion.

Subtle interferences from the lord of death. This is the severence of the life-force (srog) within the continuum of an ārya.

[tri cyutihetu]/ The three causes of transmigration; the three causes of death.
1. ཚེ་ཟད་པ། [āyukṣaya]/ exhaustion of life-span
2. བསོད་ནམས་ཟད་པ། [puṇyakṣaya]/ exhaustion of merits
3. ལས་ཟད་པ། [karmakṣaya]/ exhaustion of karma.

The five signs of imminent death for a god.
1. ལུས་ཀྱི་འོད་དང་བཀྲག་གདངས་ཉམས་པ། they lose lustre and brightness of their body
2. སྟན་ལ་སྡོད་པར་མི་འདོདི་པ། they dislike to sit on their cushions
3. མེ་ཏོག་གི་ཕྲེང་བ་རྙིང་པ། their garlands fade away
4. གོས་རྙིང་ཞིང་དྲི་མ་ཆགས་པ། their robes are worn out and smell bad
5. ལུས་ལ་རྔུལ་ཆུ་འབྱུང་བ། their body is covered with sweat.

The clear light of death; the subtle mind that manifests at death following the experience of the stages of dissolution of the elements and the gross minds of a person.

The three types of death-experience; the three levels of thought at death.
1. དགེ་བའིཨི་འཆི་སེམས། virtuous state of mind
2. མི་དགེ་བའི་འཆི་སེམས། non-virtuous state of mind
3. ལུང་མ་བསྟན་པའི་འཆི་སེམས། indifferent state of mind.

The death state. The state existing during the last n death or during the period of experiencing the clear death.

[bandhana muktātman]/ The self that binds and from must be free. The truly existent self, misconceived real self; the cause of uncontrolled rebirth in cyclic freedom from which is the attainment of liberation.

[yāvat]/ All that exists; all conventional things; refering to all phenomena other than emptiness.

[yathā]/ A thing as it is; thatness; refering to the ultimate truth—emptiness which is other than the conventional aspect of all phenomena.

[yathā yāvat]/ All that exists; innumerable; infinite; without exception.

The Jonang school. A school of Tibetan Buddhism akin to the Kagyud tradition instituted by Tāranatha and his followers. During the 11th century the view of Other Emptiness (gzhan-stong) was asserted by Yomo Mikyod Dorjee, and a monastic institution for the study and preservation of this philosophy was established at Jonang by Kunpang Thugje Tsondru, and later Dolpo Sherab Gyaltsen became a propounder of this philosophy.

[atiṡa dīpaṇkara ṡrī Jсāna] (982-1054). The celebrated Buddhist Pandit from Bengal, who came to Tibet in 1042 and lived there for a number of years. He was one of the principal figures during the revival of Buddhism in Tibet in the 11th century. He passed away in Nyethang near Lhasa. His Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment ([bodhipathapradīpa]) was the source of the 'lamriṁ tradition in Tibet

The venerable Mikyo Dorje image. An image of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] believed to be similar to him in his eighth year of age that was brought to Tibet during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo by his Nepalis wife, Bhrikuti. In the past it was housed at Ramoche temple.

The venerable [ṡākyamuni] image. An image of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] believed to be similar to himself in his twelfth year of age that was brought to Tibet during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo by his Chinese wife, Kongjo, as her dowry. Presently it is housed at Lhasa Tsuglag Khang.

Ralnbow body. A yogic way of dying whereby one's body transforms into rays of light without leaving any trace of his physical body.

The winter debate session at Jangphu monastery courtyard situated to the south-west of Lhasa in which monks of each of the three largest Gelug universities of Central Tibet gather.

[aṣṭau lokikadharmāḥ]// The eight worldly concerns; the eight concerns for an ordinary person to be happy and unhappy about,
1. སྙེད་པ་དང་། [lābha]/galn
2. མ་རྙེད་པ། [alābha]/loss
3. བསྙན་པ་དང་། [yaṡa]/ reputation
4. མི་སྙན་པ། [ayaṡa]/ infamy
5. བསྟེད་པ་དང་། [praṡaṁsa]/ praise
6. སྨད་པ། [nindā]/degradation
7. བདེ་བ་དང་། [sukham]/ pleasure
8. མི་བདེ་བ། [duḥkham]// misery.

The worldly and transworldly protectors of Dharma. The Dharma protectors who have and have not attained the level of an ārya possessing direct insight into emptiness.

[sapta loka]/ The seven worlds; the seven realms of existence. A. 1-6. འགྲོ་བ་རིགས་དྲུག་གི་འཇིག་རྟེན། [ṣaḍ jagati]/ the realm of six migrators (see ༼འགྲོ་བ་རིགས་དྲུག༽)
7. བར་དོའི་འཇིག་རྟེན། [antarabhāva loka]/ the realm of the intermediate siate of rebirth. B. 1-3. ངན་སོང་གི་གནས་གསུམ། [tri durgati avasthā]/ the realm of three lower beings (hell, animal and hungry ghosts) 4-5. འདོད་པའི་ལྷ་མི་གཉིས་ཀྱི་འཇིག་རྟེན། [manuṣya deva loka]/ the realm of gods and human beings of the desire realm 6-7. གཟུགས་གཟུགས་མེད་ཀྱི་ལྷའི་འཇིག་རྟེན། [rūpa arūpa dhātu loka]/ the realm of gods of the form and formless realms.

The eight mundane powers. These are similar to the eight
qualities of the great Vajrayoginī.
1. གཟུགས་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཕྲ་བ། extremely subtle body
2. ཡང་བ། light body
3. ཤིན་ཏུ་ཆེ་བ། huge body
4. གར་ཡང་ཕྱིན་པ། enjoying freedom of movement
5.  གསལ་བར་འོས་པ། luminous body
6. དབང་པོ་ཉིད། completely luminous
7. དབང་བསྒྱུར་པ་ཉིད། conquering others or magnetic
8. གང་དུ་འདོད་པར་གནས་པ། enjoying freedom of residence.

[aṣṭa laukika mārgaḥ]/ The eight worldly paths; the eight mundane paths.
1-4. བསམ་གཏན་བཞི། [catvāri dhyānāḥ]/ the four types of meditative concentrtion (see ༼བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི༽).
5-8. གཟུགས་མེད་བཞི། [catvāri arūpa samāpattayaḥ]/ the four types of formless meditative absorptions (see ༼གཟུགས་མེད་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི༽).

[nava lokottara mārgāḥ]/ The nine types of transworldly paths. ལམ་བདེན་གྱི་ངོ་བོར་གྱུར་པའི་འཕགས་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་ལམI
1-4. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི། the four states of absorption of the form realm (see ༼བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི༽)
5-8. གཟུགས་མེད་ཀྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི། the four states of absorption of the formless realm (see ༼གཞུགས་མེད་ཀྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི༽)
9. འགོག་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག the absorption of cessation (༼འགོག་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག༽) that retains the nature of the truth of the paths within the mental continuum of an [ārya].

[satkāyadṛṣṭi]/ The view of the transitory collection; the wrong view of apprehending the collection of the five aggregates (see ༼ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ༽) as the "I" or 'mine', and hence the basis of all misconceptions or ego graspings.

[viṁṡat satkāyadṛṣṭi]/ The twenty views of the transitory collection.
1. གཟུགས་བདག་ཏུ་ལྟ་བ། view of grasping at form as being the self
2. གཟུགས་བདག་གིར་ལྟ་བ། view of grasping at form as being mine
3. གཟུགས་ལ་བདག་རང་བཞིན་གྱིས་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། view of grasping at form as possessing the self
4. བདག་ལ་གཟུགས་རང་བཞིན་གྱིས་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། view of grasping at form as abiding within the self. དེ་བཞིན་ཚོར་བ། འདུ་ཤེས། འདུ་བྱེད། རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པའི་ཕུང་པོ་ལའང་དེ་བཞིན་ལྟ་བ་བཞི་བཞི་སྟེ་ཉི་ཤུའོ། Similarly for sound, smell, taste and touch—grasping them as the self, as being mine, as possessing the self and as abiding within the self, makes twenty.

[dvi sahaja satkāyadṛṣṭi]// The two innate graspings of the view of transitory collection; the ignorance of grasping at 'I' and 'I possessor' within the minds of all sentient beings.
1. ངར་ཛིན་གྱི་བདག་འཛིན་དང་། [ahaṁkāra]/ grasping at self
2. ང་ཡིར་འཛིན་པའི་བདག་འཛིན། [mamakāra]/ grasping at mine.

[tri nāṡa]/ The three types of destruction.
1. མཚོན་ཆའི་འཛིག་པ། destruction by weapons
2. ནད་རིམས་ཀྱི་འཛིག་པ། destruction by sickness
3. མུ་གེའི་འཇིག་པ། destruction by famine. Or
1. མའི་འཇིག་པ། destruction by fire
2. ཆུའི་འཇིག་པ། destruction by water
3. རླུང་གི་འཇིག་པ། destruction by wind.

The three peak immune states of existence. The second, third and fourth concentration states that are immune to the cosmic destruction caused by fire, water and wind elements.

The eight fears.
1. ང་རྒྱལ་སེང་གེའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like a lion, analogous to pride
2. གཏི་མུག་གླང་པའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like an elephant, analogous to ignorance
3. ཞེ་སྡང་མེའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like a fire, analogous to hatred
4. ཕྲག་དོག་སྦྲུལ་གྱི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like a snake, analogous to jealousy
5. ལྟ་ངན་རྐུན་པོའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like a thief, analogous to wrong view
6. སེར་སྣ་ལྕགས་སྒྲོགས་ཀྱི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like one chalned with irons, analogous to miserliness
7. འདོད་ཆགས་ཆུ་བོའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like a raging river, analogous to desire
8. ཐེ་ཚོམ་ཤ་ཟའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear which is like a cannibal, analogous to doubt.

The five fears; the five types of fears encountered by Bodhisattvas on the path of accumulation and the path of preparation.
1. འཚོ་བ་མེད་པའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear of not finding livelihood
2. མི་བསྔགས་པའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear of not being praised
3. འཁོར་གྱི་འཇིགས་པ། fear of not finding followers
4. འཆི་བའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear of death
5. ངན་འགྲོའི་འཇིགས་པ། fear of falling into lower rebirth.

Craving for freedom from fear; yearning for freedom from fear and disgust, e.g. the fear of parting from this body at death.

Mipham Jamyang Nyamgyal Gyatso (1846-1912). A great scholar of the Nyingma tradition. He is well known for his learnedness and mastery of all the ten sciences of learning (see ༼རིག་གནས་བཅུ༽). His treatises on Buddhist philosophy have been adapted as the syllabus of study in many Nyingma colleges.

The three entrances; the threefold commitments.
1. བསྟན་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་སྒོ་སྐྱབས་འགྲོ། taking refuge in the three jewels is the entrance into Buddhism
2. ཐར་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་སྒོ་ངེས་བྱུང་། renunciation is the entrance to the state of liberation ([nirvāṇa])
3. ཐེག་ཆེན་དུ་འཇུག་པའི་སྒོ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད། generation of the mind of enlightenment is the entrance to the greater vehicle path ([mahāyāna]).

[prasthāna bhāvanā]/ Formal meditation; stabilized meditation. A practice of meditation in which a meditator single-pointedly fixes his or her mind on an object without examining the aspects of the object analytically.

[prasthāna pratipatti]/ Achievement through engagement; achievement through training. A Bodhisattva path which is mainly concerned with the training of enthusiastic perseverance applied either in the causal or resultant practices of the greater vehicle within the Peak Training (see ༼རྩེ་མོའི་སྦྱོར་བ༽).

Nine achievements through engagement; nine achievements
through training. Achievement through engagement in:
1. བསམ་གཏན་དཟུགས་མེད་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the meditative concentration and absorption within the formless realm
2. ཕར་ཕྱིན་དྲུག་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the six perfections
3. མཐོང་ལམ་དང་སྒོམ་ལམ་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the path of seeing and meditation
4. ཚད་མེད་བཞི་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་ཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the four immeasurables
5. བདེན་གྲུབ་ཀྱི་དམིགས་པ་མེད་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the absence of the apprehension of true existence
6. འཁོར་དསུམ་རྣམ་པར་དག་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the threefold purity
7. ཆེད་དུ་བྱ་བ་གསུམ་ལ་འཇུག་བའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the threefold goals
8. མངོན་ཤེས་དྲུག་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the six extra sensory perceptions
9. རྣམ་མཁྱེན་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། the omniscient mind.

The threefold practices of entering, abidance and awakening. A special feature of meditation without signs according to action tantra.
1. ཕུང་སོགས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་རྣམ་པར་དཔྱད་དེ་སྐྱེ་མེད་དུ་རྟོགས་པ་ནི་འཇུག་པ། entering into realizing all phenomena as lacking inherent production by way of applying analysis
2. མི་རྟོག་པའི་ངོ་བོ་མངོན་དུ་གྱུར་པ་ནི་གནས་པ། abiding within non-conceptual realization of reality
3. དེ་ལས་མ་རྟོགས་པའི་འགྲོ་བ་རྣམས་ལ་སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོ་ལྷག་པར་འཇུག་པ་ནི་ལྡང་བ། awakening with the special meditation on great compassion for those without such a realization.

[prasthāna cittotpāda]/ The committed Bodhicitta; the venturing mind of enlightenment. The mind of enlightenment that is committed in the Bodhisattvas' practices as opposed to being , commited only in spirit.

The activity of entering into practice. One of the four ways of utьizing realizations (see ༼སྤྱོད་པའི་སྒོ་བཞི༽) according to action tantra, in which one attempts to transform oneself into a proper receptacle of initiations by means of observing the precepts connected to the respective deity after having received the initiation of that deity.

Definition; nature; meaning. An explanation of a point which gives a partial explanalion of the object defined.

Tsong Khapa (1357-1419). The founder of the Gelug order of Tibetan Buddhism known for his revival of the Kadampa tradition. He also elucidated the most subtle meanings of [sūtra] and tantra in innumerable discourses and his collected works comprise 18 volumes. His teachings and those of his two maln disciples Gyaltsab-Je and Khedrub-Je remain in the heart of the Gelug tradition.

The five foremost masters of the Sakya tradition.
1. ས་ཆེན་ཀུན་དགའ་སྙིང་པོ། Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158)
2. རྗེ་བཙུན་བསོད་ནམས་རྩེ་མོ། Sonam Tzemo (1142-1182)
3. རྗེ་བཙུན་གྲགས་པ་རྒྱལ་མཚན། Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1216)
4. ས་སྐྱ་པཎྜཨི་ཏ་ཀུན་དགའ་རྒྱལ་མཚན། Sakya [paṇḍita] Kunga Gyaltsen (1112-1251)
5. འགྲོ་མགོན་ཆོས་རྒྱལ་འཕགས་པ། Dragon Choegyal Phagpa (1235-1280).

Khedrub Je's five visions of his master Je Tsong Khapa.
1. གླང་པོ་ཆེ་དཀར་པོ་ཞིག་ལ་ཆིབས་པ། riding on a white elephant
2. ནོར་བུ་མུ་ཏིག་སོགས་ཀྱིས་སྤྲས་པའི་ཁྲི་གཅིག་གི་སྟེང་དུ་བཞུགས་པ། seated on a throne adorned with jewels and so forth
3. སེངག་གེ་ཀར་པོ་ཞིག་ལ་ཆིབས་པ། riding on a white snow lion
4. སྟག་འཇིགས་སུ་རུང་བ་ཞིག་ལ་ཆིབས་པ། riding on a terrifying tiger
5. སྤྲིན་དཀར་པའི་ཕུང་པོ་གཅིག་གི་དབུས་སུ་བྱོན་བ། resting amidst a huge mass of white clouds.

The four great deeds of Je Tsong Khapa.
1. དགའ་ལྡན་གྱི་ད་ཀྱིལ་འཁོར་བསྒྲུབ་མཆོད། the construction of a [maṇḍala] and making grand offerings at Ganden monastery
2. རྫིང་ཕྱིའི་བྱམས་པ་ཞིག་གསོས། renovation of Maitreya's statue in Zinochi
3. ལྷ་སར་ཆོ་འཕལ་སྨོན་ལམ། the great prayer festival at Lhasa
4. གཉལ་གྱི་ལུང་རྭ་ཆེན་མོ། the great religious ceremony of Nyah.

Subsequent pervasion; second logical mark. The pervasion in a correct logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is necessarily that predicate. There are two types of this pervasion called the རྗེས་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ། positive and རྗེས་ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག reversed subsequent pervasions.

[anurūpa dharma]/ Similitudes; approximate features. A quality or feature to be included in a particular category while not being exactly synonymous with that category, e.g. the qualities of an [ārya] Bodhisattva on the last moment of the tenth level which are similar to those of a Buddha.

Subsequent given name. A way of giving a name to anything or any person after its existence for reasons of similarity or relationship or otherwise, e.g., to call a puppy a tiger or sunrays the sun.

The concluding rite or ceremony. The concluding rite following a ceremony of accomplishment of a rite of a maṇḍala. This can be of various forms such as: performing a fire ritual of peace; increaбng activity to please the deity and to redress any omission or duplication of a ritual; worshiping and making offering to the maṇḍala and giving sacrificial cakes to the directional protectors of the maṇḍala; making prostration and apology to the maṇḍala, bidding the wisdom being (see ༼ཡེ་ཤེས་པ༽) to their abode and dissolving the pledge being (see ༼དམ་ཙིག་པ༽) into oneself and dismantling the sand powdered maṇḍala; and simply dedicating the virtues and chanting verses of auspiciousness.

The experience of emptiness like an illusion at the post-meditation stage. The experience of all that is seen, heard about or recollected like that of an ьlusory feat after arising from meditative equipoise on emptiness at an actual session.

[paсca anusmṛtayaḥ]/ The five recollections. A set of five Kadampa precepts.
1. སྐྱབས་གནས་བླ་མ་དྲན་པ། recollecting one's spiritual master as the object of refuge
2.  ལུས་ལྷའི་རང་བཞིན་དྲན་པ། recollecting one's body as being a divine body
3. ངག་བཟླས་བརྗོད་ཀྱི་རང་བཞིན་དྲན་པ། recollecting one's speech as being mantra
4. འགྲོ་བ་ཐམ་ཅད་ཕ་མར་ཤེས་པ། recollecting all sentient beings as one's mother
5. སེམས་ཀྱི་གནས་ལུགས་སྟོང་པར་ཤེས་པ། recollecting the reality of mind as being empty.

[anumāna]/ Inferential cognition; inferential understanding. A direct conceptual understanding of an obscure phenomenon, generated in reliance upon a correct reason, e.g. the cognition of the impermanence of a vase. There are two types of inferential cognition:
1. རང་དོན་རྗེས་དཔག [svārthānumāna]/ inference for self
2. གཞན་དོན་རྗེས་དཔག [parārthānumāna]/ inference for others; or
1. རྗེས་དཔག་ཡང་དག the correct inference
2. རྗེས་དཔག་ལྟར་སྣང་། the imperfect inference.

[anumāna paricchinna jсāna]/ Subsequent inferential cognition. A non-new understanding of an obscure phenomenon that is the continuity of understanding, or the continuing subsequent understanding originally generated by a previous inferential cognition, e.g. the second instant of inference understanding impermanence.

[anumāna pramāṇa]/ Valid inferential cognition. The fresh, new inferential understanding of an obscure phenomenon, e.g. the first moment of inferential cognition of the impermanence of a vase generated by reason of its being a product.

Three types of inferential cognition.
1. དངོས་སྟོབས་རྗེས་དཔག inference through cogent evidence
2. གྲགས་པའི་རྗེས་དཔག inference through popular convention
3. ཡིད་ཆེས་རྗེས་དཔག inference through conviction in valid scriptures.

Gradual dissolution. A generation stage practice of tantra in which a practitioner meditates on the gradual dissolution of the maṇḍala into clear light and finally into oneself.

[anujсā vacana]/ The approved teachings; authorized teachings. The introductory words that occur at the beginning of a sūtra such as, 'Thus I have heard, once the Blessed One was dwelling...' which were spoken by [ānanda] and others. These words were spoken because of an injunction by lord ṡakyamuni Buddha to introduce the actual body of the sūtra in this way after or subsequent to his passing into [parinirvāṇa].

[paсca anusmṛtayaḥ]/ The five recollections; the five points of constant recollection according to the Kadampa tradition (see ༼རྗེས་དྲན་ལྔ༽).

[daṡānusmṛtayaḥ]/ The ten recollections. 1-6. (see ༼རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ་དྲུག༽)
7. དབུགས་ཕྱི་ནང་རྒྱུ་བ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། the moment of breath
8. སྐྱེ་བ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། birth
9. འཆི་བ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། death
10. ལུས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། forms of the body.

[ṣaḍ anusmṛtayaḥ]/ The six types of recollection. The six things нo be constantly remembered by ali Buddhists. Recollection of:
1. བླ་མ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། [guru-anusmṛti]/ the spiritual master
2. སངས་རྒྱས་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། [buddhānusmṛti]/ the Buddha
3. ཆོས་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། [dharmānusmṛtм]/ the Dharma
4. དགེ་འདུན་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། [saṅghānusmṛti]/ the [saṅgha]
5. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། 
[ ṡīlānusmiṛti]/ moral-discipline
6. གཏོང་བ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ། [tyāgānusmṛti]/giving.

The two types of paths of meditation on admiration. A.
1. ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པས་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ། admiring the roots of virtue by skillful means
2. དམིགས་པས་དགེ་པའི་རྩ་བ་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ། admiring the roots of virtue by the non-apprehended view. B.
1. ཀུན་རྫོབ་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ་སྒོམ་ལམ། the conventional path of meditation on admiration
2. དོན་དམ་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ་སྒོམ་ལམ། the ultimate path of meditation on admiration.

[tri parivartana]/ The three transformations; the three alterations. The three tranformations a new monk or nun is supposed to undertake at their ordination.
1. རྟགས་དང་ཆ་ལུགས་བརྗེ་བ། [veṣa parivartana]/ changing their way of life
2. བསམ་པ་བརྗེ་བ། [āṡāya parivartana]/ changing their thought
3. མིང་བརྗེ་བ། [nāma parivartana]/ changing their name.

[muṣitasmṛtitā]/ Forgetfulness. Technically it is a secondary mental factor responsible for the slackening of attention to virtuous objects and causing distraction; one of the five hindrances to mental quiescence meditation (see ༼ངཡེས་པ་ལྔ༽).

[abhidhāna ṡabda]/ Expressive sound. Synonymous with sound that reveals meaning to sentient beings, e.g. the expression 'impermanence'.

[anabhilāpya]/inexpressible; incommunicable; e.g. emptiness.

[anabhilāpyatman]/ An inexpressible self; a self that is neither substantially one with nor different from the five aggregates, neither permanent nor imprmanent as propounded by the [vaiputrīya], a sub-school of [vaibhāṣika] and many other non-buddhisн philosophers.

The literal teachings of expression. One of the five teachings (see ༼གསུང་ལྔ༽) of a Buddha according to the Nyingma tradition. The way a [nirmaṇakāya] Buddha teaches various disciples, the meaning simultaneously being understood by each according to their own language.

[ṡrāvaka]/ A Hearer. Originally, those disciples of Buddha who actually listen to Buddha's teachings and also propagate these to others. Their goal is to achieve nirvana for themselves. The four noble truths and the twelve links of independent origination are their primary fields of study and practice.

[srāvaka yogi pratyakṣa]/ The yogic direct perception of a Hearer. The knowledge and wisdom of a Srāvaka trainee on the Hearers' path of seeing and meditation cognizing the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths (see ༼མི་ནག་སོགས་བཅུ་དནིག༽).

The path-wisdom which understands the Hearer path. The Bodhisattva wisdom that understands the impermanence or emptiness of any or ali of the four noble truths.

[sapta ṡrāvakabhūmayaḥ]/ The seven Hearer levels; the seven stages of a Hearer.
1. རིགས་ཀྱི་ས། [gotra bhūmi]/ the level of family
2. བརྒྱད་པའི་ས། [aṣṭamaka bhūmi]/ the level of the eighth
3. མཐོང་བའི་ས། [darṡana bhūmi]// the level of seeing
4. སྲབ་པའི་ས། [tanū bhūmi]/ the level of narrow
5. འདོད་ཆགས་དང་བྲལ་བའི་ས། [vigata rāga bhūmi]/ the level free of desire
6. བྱས་པ་རྟོགས་པའི་ས། [kṛtāvi samaya bhūmiḥ]/ the level of actualizing deeds
7. དཀར་པོ་རྣམ་པར་མཐོང་བའི་ས། [ṡukla vidarṡanā bhūmi]/ the level of seeing white dharma.

The ten close [ṡrāvaka] disciples of Buddha [ṡākyamuni].
1. ཤཱ་རའི་བུ། [ṡariputra]
2. མོའུ་འགལ་གྱི་བུ། [maudgalyāyana]
3. འོད་སྲུང་ཆེན་པོ། [mahākaṡyapa]
4. ཀུན་དགའ་བོ། [ānandai]
5. སྒྲ་གཅན་འཛིན། [rāhula]
6. ཀ་ཏྱའི་བུ། [kātyāyana]
7. མ་འགགས་པ། [aniruddha]
8. གང་པོ། [pūrṇa]
9. རབ་འབྱོར། [subhūti]
10. ཉེ་བར་འཁོར། [upāli].

[aṣṭadaṡa ṡrāvaka nikāyāḥ]/ The eighteen schools of Hearers. The eighteen schools branched from the four main schools of Hearers (see ༼ཉན་ཐོས་རྩ་བའི་སྡེ་པ་བཞི༽). 1-7. ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོད་སྨྲའི་སྡེཔ་བདུན། seven schools of [mūlasarvāstivādin] tradition (see ༼གཞི་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོད་པར་སྨྲ་བལི་སྡེ་བདུན༽) 8-12. ཕལ་ཆེན་སྡེ་པ་ལྔ་། five schools of [mahāsāṁghika] tradition (see ༼དགེ་འདུན་ཕལ་ཆེན་གྱི་སྡེ་པ་ལྔ༽) 13-15. གནས་བརྟན་པའི་སྡེ་པ་གསུམ། three schools of [sthavira] tradition (see ༼གནས་བརྟན་སྡེ་པ༽) 16-18. མང་པོས་བཀུར་བའི་སྡེ་པ་གསུམ། three schools of [sammitīya] tradition (see ༼མང་བཀུར་སྡེ་པ་གསུམ༽).

[catvāri mūla ṡrāvaka nikāyāḥ]/ The four main schools of Hearers.
1. ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོད་པར་སྨྲ་བའི་སྡེ། [mūlasarvāstivādin] tradition
2. ཕལ་ཆེན་པའི་སྡེ། [mahāsāṁghika] tradition
3. གནས་བརྟེན་བའི་སྡེ། [sthavira] tradition
4. མང་པོས་བཀུར་བའི་སྡེ། [sammitīya] tradition.

ཉན་ཐོས་ལ་ཡོད་པ་དང་རྗེས་སུ་མཐུན་པའི་རྣམ་མཁྱེན་གྱི་རྣམ་པ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་བདུན། ཉན་ཐོས་དང་ཐུན་མོང་བའི་རྣམ་པ་སོ་བདུན།
The thirty-seven features of the omniscient mind common to Hearers and Solitary Realizers. 1-4. དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ་བཞི། [catvāri smṛtyūpasthānāḥ]/ the four close contemplations (see ༼དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ་བཞི༽). 5-8. ཡང་དག་པར་སྤོང་བ་བཞི། [catvāri samyak prahāṇāḥ]/ the four perfect abandonments (see ༼ཡང་དག་སྤོང་བ་བཞི༽). 9-12. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ་བཞི། [catvāri ṛddhipādāḥ]/ the four limbs of miracles (see ༼རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ་བཞི༽). 13-17. དབང་པོ་ལྔ། [paсcendriyāṇi]/ the five faculties (see ༼དབང་པོ་ལྔ༽). 18-22. སྟོབས་ལྔ་། [paсca balāni]/ the five powers (see ༼སྟོབས་ལྔ༽). 23-29. བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་ཡན་ལག་བདུན། [sapta bodhyaṅgani]/ the seven limbs of enlightenment (see ༼བྱང་ཆུབ་ཡན་ལག་བདུན༽). 30-37. འཕགས་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད། [aṣṭāryāṅga mārga]/ the eight noble paths (see ༼འཕགས་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད༽).

Spiritual songs. Songs of spiritual transformation revealing a meditator's experience and insight.

The eight features of dance.
1. སྒེག་པ། charming
2. དྲག་ཤུལ། aggressive
3. དཔའ་བ། heroic
4. སྙིང་རྗེ། compassionate
5. མི་སྡུག་བ། ugly
6. བཞད་པ། smiling
7. རྨད་པ། magnificent
8. འཇིགས་རུང་། frightening.

Blurred experience. Unclear yet multi-faceted appearances.

Experiences and insights; spiritual realization gained through proper meditation practices.

The three degenerations. A. That of:
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཉམས་པ། [ṡĩla vipanna]/ moral discipline
2. ལྟ་བ་ཉམས་པ། [ḍṛṣṭi vipanna]/ view
3. ཆོ་ག་ཉམས་པ། [ācāra vipanna]/ rites. B. The three degenerations of monks' and nuns' precepts, i.e. from:
1. ཁྱིམ་པའི་རྟགས་སྤོང་བ་ལས་ཉམས་པ། giving up the householder's way of life
2. རབ་བྱུང་གི་རྟགས་འཆང་བ་ལས་ཉམས་པ། accepting the tradition of a monk or nun
3. མན་པོར་གསོལ་བ་བཏབ་པ་ལས་ཉམས་པ། having requested the abbot for ordination.

The lineage of blessed practices. According to the Lam-rim tradition of Je Tsong Khapa this lineage originates from Buddha [ṡākyamuni] to [maсjuṡrī] to [ṡāntideva] and so on. In tantric tradition, particularly of the Kagyud tradition this lineage begins from Buddha [vajradhāra] to Tilopa, Naropa, Dombhipa, [atiṡa] and so on.

The yoga of sleep. A practice of yoga in sleep state usually carried out during the middle phase of dawn by laying down in the manner of a lion's resting position. In the secret [mantrayāna] practice it means going to bed and sleeping within the recognition of the clear light of emptiness.

[ādityopaniacittotpāda]/ The sun-like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of power possessed by Bodhisattvas on the ninth level.

The kinsman of the sun. An epithet of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] derived from a legend concerning his ancestry.


The fourteen divisions of daylight.
1. སྐྱ་རེངས་ཤར་བ། first light
2. ཉི་མ་མ་མ་ཤར་ཙམ། just before sun rise
3. ཉི་མ་ཤར་བ། the first glimpse of the sun
4. ཉི་མའི་བརྒྱད་ཆ་ཙམ་ཤར་བ། one eighth of the sun risen
5. ཉི་མའི་བཞི་ཆ་ཙམ་ཤར་བ། one fourth of the sun risen
6. སྔ་དྲོའི་དུས། morning
7. གུང་ཚིག་གོང་ཙམ། late morning
8. གུང་ཚིག noon
9. ཕྱི་དྲོའི་དུས། late afternoon
10. ཉི་མའི་བཞི་ཆ་ཙམ་ལུས་པ། one fourth of the sun remaining
11. ཉི་མའི་བརྒྱད་ཆ་ཅམ་ལུས་པ། one eighth of the sun remaining
12. ཉི་མ་མ་ནུབ་ཙམ། last glimpse of the sun
13. ཉི་མ་ནུབ་པ། sunset
14. ཉི་མ་ནུབ་ནས་སྐར་མ་མ་ཤར་ཙམ་གྱི་དུས། sunset to first starlight.

[pratyekanaraka]/ The occasional hells. The hells surrounding the hot and cold hell realms that experience happiness and suffering during day and night alternatively.

Six sessions throughout the day and night.
1. སྔ་དྲོ། morning
2. ཉིན་གུང་། afternoon
3.  ཕྱི་དྲོ། twilight
4. སྲོད། late evening
5.  ནམ་གུང་། midnight
6. ཐོ་རངས། pre-dawn.

Connecting to rebirth. The instant that consciousness
collapses into the parent's mixture of sperm and blood in the womb of a mother during rebirth. The instant of conception in the womb.

The sixteen neighbouring hells. The four hell states on each of the four directions of the hell without respite are known as the sixteen neighbouring hell states. These are namely:
1. མེ་མ་མུར། [kukūlam]/ the fiery embers
2. རོ་མྱགས་ཀྱི་འདམ། [kuṇapam]/ the swamp of filth
3. སྤུ་གྲུའི་ཐུང་། [kṣuradhāra]/ the razor-filled path
4. རལ་གྲིའི་ཚལ། [asidhāra]/ the forest of sword-leaves .

The close lineage of treasure teachings. The great [ācārya] Padmasambhava and other accomplished masters have left many holy religious texts hidden under rocks and mountains with their prophesied instructions of trie time, and the persons who would collect them and spread those teachings far and wide in future. This lineage exclusive to the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism is known as the close lineage treasure teaching.

[dvadaṡa upakleṡaḥ]/ The twenty secondary afflictions; the twenty approximate delusions. The twenty delusions that arises in dependence upon the six root delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽).
1. ཁྲོ་བ། [krodha]/ anger
2. འཁོན་འཛིན། [upanāha]/ malice
3. འཆབ་པ། [mrakṣa]/ concealment
4. འཚིག་པ། [pradāsa]/ outrage
5. ཕྲག་དོག [īrṣyā]/ jealousy
6. སེར་སྣ། [mātsaryam]/ miserliness
7. སྒྱུ། [māyā]/ ceceit
8. གཡོ། [ṡāṭhyam]/ dishonesty
9. རྒྱགས་པ། [mada]/ haughtiness
10. རྣམ་པར་འཚེ་བ། [vihiṃsa]/ harmful intent
11. ངོ་ཚ་མེད་པ། [āhrīkyam]/ non-embarrassment
12. ཁྲིལ་མེད་པ། [anapatrāpyam]/ non-consideration
13. མ་དད་པ། [āṡraddhyam]/ lack of faith
14. ལེ་ལ། [kausīdyam]/ laziness
15. བག་མེད། [pramāda]/ non-conscientiousness
16. བརྗེད་ངས། [muṣitasmṛtitā]/ forgetfulness
17. ཤེས་བཞིན་མ་ཡིན་པ། [asamprajanyam]/ non-introspection
18. བྱིང་བ། [nimagṇa]/dullness 19 རྒོད་པ། [auddhatyam]/ agitation
20. རྣམ་གཡེང་། [vikṣepa]/ mental wandering.

[upādānam]/ The four compulsive acquisitions; the four negative acquirements by the force of delusions in a person. The hundred and eight delusions are included in these four.
1. འདོད་པ་ཉི་བར་ལེན་པ། that of desire
2. ལྷ་བ་ཉེ་བར་ལེན་པ། that of view
3. བདག་ཏུ་ལྟ་བ་ཉེ་བར་ལེན་པ། that of the view of self
4. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་དང་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་མཆོག་འཛིན། that of holding wrong moral conduct as superior.

The five secondary heinous non-virtues; the five approximate heinous crimes; the five secondary crimes of immediate retribution.
1. མ་དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ་སུན་ཕྱུང་བ། disrobing an ordained female Foe-destroyer
2. བྱང་སེམས་དུ་ངེས་ནས་གསོད་པ། killing a Bodhisattva knowlingly
3. སློབ་པ་གསོད་པ། killing a trainee
4. དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་འདུ་སྒོ་འཕྲོག་པ། misappropriation of [saḥngha]@ property
5. མཆོད་རྟེན་བཤིགས་པ། destroying a [stūpa].

The seven semi-precious possessions.
1. ཁང་བཟང་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [harmya]/ precious mansion
2. མལ་ཆ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [ṡayana]/ precious bedding
3. ལྷམ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [pulā]/ precious shoes
4. རལ་གྲི་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [khadga]/ precious sword
5. གོས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [cīvara]/ precious clothing
6. པགས་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [carman]/ precious skin
7. ཚལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། [vana]/ precious forest.

[aṣṭopaputrāḥ]/ The eight close disciples of Buddha [ṡākyamuni].
1. འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས། [maсjuṡrī]
2. ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ། [vajrapāṇi]
3. སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས། [avalokiteṡvara]
4. ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ། [kṣitigarbha]
5. སྒྲིབ་པ་རྣམ་སེལ། [sarvanirvaraṇa Viskambhin]
6. ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ། [ākāṡagarbha]
7. བྱམས་པ། [maitreya]
8. ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པ། [samantabhadra].

[sāmantaka]/ The preparatory stage. A preparatory virtuous state of concentration within the sphere of the form and formless realm that directly generates an actual state of meditative concentration of either the form or formless absorption. There are eight types of preparatory meditative concentrations.

The substantial cause. That cause which gives rise to the result that abides in its own substantial continuity or subsequent similar type, e.g. the clay from which a pot is made is the main substantial constituent of it.

[paсca doṣāḥ]/ Five faults; five hinderances to menial quiescence meditation.
1. ལེ་ལོ། [kausīdyam]/ laziness
2. གདམས་ངག་བརྗེད་པ། [upadeṡa saṁpramoṣa]/ forgetting instructions
3. བྱིང་རྒོད། dullness and agitation
4. མངོན་པར་འདུ་མི་བྱེད་པ། [abhisaṁskāra pratipakṣa]/ non-application of antidotes
5. མངོན་པར་འདུ་བྱེད་པ། [anābhisaṁskāra pratipakṣa]/ over-application of antidotes.

The forty-six faults; the fourty-six secondary transgressions of Bodhisattva vows. སྦྱིན་པ་དང་འགལ་བ་བདུན་ནི། Seven associated with the perfection of giving
1. དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ལ་སྒོ་གསུམ་གྱིས་མི་མཆོད་པ། not making offerings to the Three Jewels every day by means of body, speech and mind
2.  འདོད་པའི་སེམས་ཀྱིས་གཏམ་བརྗོད་པ་སོགས་དེའི་རྗེས་སུ་འཇུག་པ། indulging in worldly pleasures such as in talking by means of attachment
3. བསླབ་པ་རྒན་པ་རྣམས་དང་ཡོན་ཏན་ཅན་ལ་གུས་པར་མི་བྱེད་པ། being disrespectful to the senior trainees and those who are knowledgeables
4. ཆོས་སོགས་ཀྱི་ཆིག་དོན་དྲིས་པ་ལ་ནི་དེའི་ལན་མི་འདེབས་པ། not giving answers to those who ask questions relating to Dharma
5. དད་པས་མགྲོན་དུ་བོས་པ་ན་མི་རུང་བ་མེད་བཞིན་བདག་གིར་མི་བྱེད་པ| declining an invitation without good reason extended in good faith
6. གསེར་ལ་སོགས་པ་ཕུལ་ཡང་ཞིན་པ་མེད་པ་ལེན་པར་གསུངས་པ་ལས་ལེན་པར་མི་བྱེད་པ། rfusing to accept offerings of gold and the like when it is said to be permissible to accept them with a mind free of attachment
7. ཆོས་འདོད་པ་ལ་སྦྱིན་པར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not giving Dharma to those who desire it. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་དང་འགལ་བ་དགུ་ནི། Nine associated with the perfection of morality
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་འཆལ་བ་ཡལ་བར་འདོར་བ། neglecting those who have broken their moral commitments
2. ཕ་རོལ་དད་པའི་ཕྱིར་སྒོ་གསུམ་བཙུན་པར་སློབ་པར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not using one's three gates of activities to effect trainings that cause others to generate faith
3. ཁུར་ཁུར་བ་སོགས་སེམས་ཅན་གྱི་གནས་སྐབས་ཀྱི་དོན་ལ་བྱ་བ་ཆུང་ངུར་ཡང་མ་བརྩོན་པ། not making efforts to benefit others in order to help others even to the extent of carrying their luggage and the like
4. སྙིང་བརྩེར་བཅས་ན་མི་དགེ་མེད་པས་བྱ་བ་ངན་པ་ཟློག་ཕྱིར་ཚིག་རྩུབ་སོགས་ཤེས་བཞིན་མི་བྱེད་པ། refusing to do negative actions .even though it is taught that these are free of negativities when motivated by compassion
5. འཚོ་བ་ལོག་པ་དང་དུ་ལེན་པ། practicing wrong livelihood
6. སྒོ་གསུམ་འཆལ་ཞིང་རབ་ཏུ་རྒོད་པ། indulging in frivolous activites by body, speech and mind
7. དགོས་པ་མེད་པར་འཁོར་བ་ཁྱིམ་པའི་རྟེན་གཅིག་པུས་བགྲོད་པར་སེམས་པ། thinking without good reason that a Bodhisattva can attain enlightenment solely by being in the midst of samsaric household life
8. གྲགས་པ་མ་ཡིན་པ་མི་སྤོང་བ། not avoiбng a bad reputation
9. ཉོན་མོངས་དང་བཅས་ཀྱང་ཤེས་བཞིན་དུ་འཆོས་པར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not helping someone to avoid a situation when you know others do it forced by their negativities. བཟོད་པ་དང་འགལ་བ་བཞི་ནི། Four associated with the perfection of patience
1. གཤེ་བ་ལ་ལན་དུ་གཤེ་བ་ལ་སོགས་པ་བཞི། the four such as retaliating a ham with harm and so on (see ༼དགེ་སྦྱོང་གི་ཆོས་བཞི༽)
2. ཁྲོས་པ་རྣམས་ནི་ཡལ་བར་དོར་བ། neglecting to apologize those who were incited into anger by oneself
3. ཕ་རོལ་གྱི་ཤད་ཀྱིས་ཆགས་པ་སྤོང་པ། not accepting others' sincere apologies
4. གཞན་ཁྲོས་པའི་སེམས་ཀྱིས་རྗེས་སུ་འཇུག་པ། letting oneself be carried out by anger against others. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་དང་འགལ་བ་གསུམ་ནི། Three associated with the perfection of effort
1. རྙེད་བཀུར་འདོད་པའི་ཕྱིར་ཁོར་རྣམས་སྡུད་པ། gathenng a circle of followers out of desire for profit or reputation
2. ལེ་ལོ་ལ་སོགས་བའི་ཆོས་ལ་མི་སྦྱོར་བ་སེལ་བར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not trying to eliminate habits such as laziness that are obstacles to the practicing Dharma
3. གཞན་དྲངས་པ་སོགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱིར་མ་ཡིན་པར་ཆགས་པས་བྲེ་མོའི་གཏམ་ལ་བརྟེན་པ། indulging in gossips out of attachment other than in conversation to help others བསམ་གཏན་དང་འགལ་བ་གསུམ་ནི། Three associated with the perfection of concentration
1. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་དོན་མི་འཚོལ་བ། not making efforts to find the meaning of concentration
2. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྒྲིབ་པ་ལྔ་སྤོང་བར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not overcoming the five obstacles to concentration (see ༼ཉེས་པལྔ༽)
3. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་རོ་ཤིན་སྦྱངས་ཀྱི་བདེ་བ་ལ་ཡོན་ཏན་དུ་བལྟ་བ། being attached to the taste or ecstatic suppleness of the meditative concentration ཤེས་རབ་དང་འགལ་བ་བརྒྱད་ནི། Eight associated with the perfection of wisdom
1. ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་སྤོང་བར་བྱེད་པ། abandoning the Lower Vehicle
2. རང་ཚུལ་ཐེག་ཆེན་ཡོད་བཞིན་དེ་ལ་བརྩོན་པ་དགོས་པ་མེད་པར་བརྩོན་བྱ་མིན་པའི་ཕ་རོལ་གྱི་བསྟན་བཅོས་ལ་བརྩོན་པ། putting a great effort in studying the doctrine of the Lower Vehicle and other subjects even though they serve no significant purpose for one has already embarked on to the study and practice of the Greater Vehicle
3. དགོས་པའི་དབང་གིས་བརྩོན་པར་བྱེད་ཀྱང་དེ་ལ་ཡོན་ཏན་དུ་བལྟ་བར་དགའ་བ། although it is necessary to study other subjects for good reasons, but being engrossed in them with pleasure
4. ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤོང་བར་བྱེད་པ་སྟེ་དེ་ལ་མི་བརྩོན་པ། not making effort in the study and practice of the Greater Vehicle teachings and abandoning them
5. བག་མེད་ཙམ་གྱིས་བདག་ལ་བསྟོད་ཅིང་གཞན་ལ་སྨོད་པ། praising oneself and criticising others with negligence
6. ཆོས་ཀྱ་དོན་དུ་འགྲོ་བར་མི་བྱེད་པ། making no effort to study or practice Dharma
7. དེ་ལ་སྨོད་ཅིང་ཡི་གེར་མཆོག་ཏུ་བཟུང་ནས་དེ་ཙམ་ལ་ཡིད་རྟོན་པ། neglecting the study and practice of Dharma and prefering to read other non-Dharma materials
8. སེམས་ཅན་དོན་བྱེད་དང་འགལ་བ་ལ་བཅུ་གཉིས། Twelve associated with not giving assistance and care to others. གཞན་དོན་ལས་ཉམས་ཉེས་པ་བཞི། Of these there are four for not giving assistance to others, which are:
1. གཞན་གྱི་དགོས་པའི་དོན་ཅི་ཡང་རུང་བའི་གྲོགས་སུ་འགྲོ་བར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not going to the assistance of those seeking help for their purpose
2. ནད་པའི་རིམ་གྲོ་བྱ་བ་སྤོང་བ། neglecting to offer service to the sick
3. གཞན་གྱི་ལུས་སྡུག་བསྔལ་སེལ་བར་ནུས་བཞིན་མི་བྱེད་པ། not acting to dispel sufferings of others although one is capable of giving help
4. ཤེས་བཞིན་དུ་བག་མེད་པ་ལ་རིགས་པ་མི་སྟོན་པ། not helping others to overcome their bad habits knowingly. གཞན་ལ་ཕན་མི་འདོགས་པའི་ཉེས་པ་དྲུག Six faults for not benefiting others:
1. ཕན་པ་བྱེད་པ་ལ་ལན་དུ་ཕན་མི་འདོགས་པ། not returning help of those who benefit oneself
2. གཞན་གྱི་སེམས་མྱ་ངན་གྱིས་གདུང་བ་སེལ་བར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not relieving the distress of others
3. ནོར་འདོད་པ་ལ་སེར་སྣ་མེད་ཀྱང་ལེ་ལོས་སྦྱིན་པར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not giving material help to those who seek charity out of laziness even though one lack miserliness 4. རང་གི་འཁོར་རྣམས་ཀྱི་བནས་སྐབས་ཀྱི་དོན་མི་བྱེད་པ། not giving assistance to one's disciples to fulfill their temporary benefits
5. ཆོས་དང་མི་བཐུན་པ་མེད་པའི་གཞན་གྱི་བློ་དང་མཐུན་པར་མི་འཇུག་པ། not acting in accordance with the inclinations of others when these do not contradict Dharma
6. ཆོས་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་དགོས་པ་མེད་པས་ཡོན་ཏན་དང་བསྔས་པ་སྨྲ་པར་མི་བྱེད་པ། not praising the good qualities of others unless there is a special purpose of turning their mind to Dharma ངན་པ་ཚར་མི་གཅོད་པའི་ཉེས་པ་གཉིས། Two faults for not subduing an evil person.
1. ཕ་རོལ་པོའི་རྐྱེན་དང་འཚམས་པར་བྱ་བ་ཙུབ་མོས་ཚར་མི་གཅོད་པ། not subduing others with wrathful actions when it is harmonious to their evil conduct
2. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་དང་བསྡིགས་པ་ལ་སོགས་པ་མི་བྱེད་པ། not performing ་miracles and threatening actions, or so on.

The six causes of generating delusions.
1. རྟེན། basis
2. དམིགས་པ། object
3. འདུ་འཛི། public gatherings
4. བཤད་པ། speaking
5. གོམས་པ། familiarity
6. ཡིད་ལ་བྱེད་པ། mental reflection.

[kleṡāvaraṇa]/ Delusive obscurations. Obstacles to liberation primarily preventing liberation from cyclic existence. There are two types :
1. ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་ཀུན་བཏགས། [prajсāpti kleṡāvaraṇa]/ the intellectually acquired obscuration to liberation
2. ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་ལྷན་སྐྱེས། [sahaja kleṡāvaraṇa]/ innately acquired obscuration to liberation.

[kleṡa]/ Defilement; delusion; affliction. A mental state that produces turmoil and confusion thus disturbing mental peace and happiness.

The three causes of generating delusions.
1. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་བག་ལ་ཉལ་བ་མ་སྤངས་པ། non-elimination of latent delusions
2. ཉོན་མོངས་སྐྱེ་བའི་ཡུལ་ཉེ་བར་གནས་པ། ciose association with the object prone to generate delusions
3.  ཚུལ་བཞིན་མ་ཡིན་པར་ཡིད་ལ་བྱེད་པ། entertaining wrong thoughts.

[paсca kleṡāḥ]/ The five types of delusions.
1. ཀུན་སྦྱོར། constant fetters (see ༼ཀུན་སྦྱོར་གསུམ་ཨོར་དགུ༽)
2. ཕྲ་རྒྱས། subtle increase (phra-rgyas)
3. འཆིང་བ། bindings
4. ཉེ་ཉོན། near delusions
5. ཀུན་དཀྲིས། ever-binding factors (see ༼ཀུན་དཀྲིས་བཞི༽).

The three contacts of a delusive mind.
1. མ་རིག་པའི་རེག་པ། contact with ignorance
2. གནོད་སེམས་ཀྱི་རེག་པ། contact with harmful intention
3. རྗེས་སུ་ཆགས་པའི་རེག་པ། contact with attachment.

[daṡālpakleṡabhūmikāḥ]/ Ten mental attitudes of the minor delusions (see 1-10 nye-nyon nyi-shu). These are called minor because of being weaker by nature of their accompanying mental factors, weaker by nature of abandonment and weaker by nature of the primary mind which is their basis.

[ṣaḍ mahākleṡa bhūmikāḥ]/ Six mental attitudes of the major delusions.
1. མ་དད་པ། [aṡraddya]/ lack of faith
2. ལེ་ལོ། [kausīdya]/ laziness
3. གཏི་མུག [moha]/ ignorance
4. བྱིང་བ། [nimagna]/ mental cloudiness
5. རྒོད་པ། [auddhātya]/ mental agitation
6. བག་མེད་པ། [pramāda]/ unconscientiousness.

The two delusions.
1. ཉོན་མོང་ཀུན་བཏགས། intellectually acquired delusions
2. ཉོན་མོངས་ལྷན་སྐྱེས། innately born delusions.

The five delusive poisons; the five poisonous delusions.
1. འདོད་ཆགས། desire-attachment
2. ཁོང་ཁྲོ hatred-anger
3. མ་རིག་པ། ignorance
4. ང་རྒྱལ། pride 5. ཕྲག་དོག jealousy.

Object for eliminating delusions. One of the four objects of a Yogi (see ༼རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་དམིགས་པ་བཞི༽) meditating on the development of mental quiescence meditation in which a meditator either sees the lower concentration levels as grosser and the higher as subtler or takes either of the sixteen features of the four noble truths (see ༼མི་རྟག་སོགས་བཅུ་དྲུག༽) as his or her object of meditation for developing [ ṡamatha].

The six stains of delusions. The six stains or gross thoughts that arise in reliance upon delusions.
1. སྒྱུ། deception
2. གཡོ། dishonesty
3. རྒྱགས་པ། conceit
4. འཚིག་པ། outrage
5. ཁོན་འཛིན། grudge
6. རྣམ་འཚེ། harmfulness.

The ten functions of delusions.
1. རྩ་བ་བརྟན་པར་བྱེད་པ། it stabilizes the root of delusion
2. རྒྱུན་གནས་པར་བྱེད་པ། it keeps the continuity of delusion
3. ཞིང་དུ་སྒྲུབ་པར་བྱེད་པ། it establishes its own goal
4. རྒྱུ་མཐུན་པར་བྱེད་པ། it establishes results simiar to itself
5. ལས་ཀྱི་སྲིད་པ་མངོན་པར་སྒྲུབ་པར་བྱེད་པ། it establishes karmically linked existence
6. རང་གི་ཚོགས་ཡོངས་སུ་འཛིན་པར་བྱེད་པ། it treasures its own collection of delusions
7. དམིགས་པ་ལ་ཀུན་ཏུ་རྨོངས་པར་བྱེད་པ། it makes its objectives unclear
8. རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པའི་རྒྱུན་འཁྲིད་པར་བྱེད་པ། it leads to the continuity of consciousness
9. དགེ་བའི་ཕྱོགས་ལས་གཡོ་བར་བྱེད་པ། it misdirects oneself from wholesome activities
10. ཁམས་ལས་མི་འདའ་བའི་ཚུལ་གྱིས་འཆིང་བའི་དོན་དུ་ཁྱབ་པར་བྱེད་པ། it multiplies as a binding force without transcending the delusive realms.

The three paths of delusions.
1. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ལམ། path of elusions
2. ལས་ཀྱི་ལམ། karmic path
3. སྐྱེ་བའི་ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ལམ། path of rebirth.

The three delusions.
1. ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ཀུན་ནས་བསླང་པའི་ཉོན་མོངས། [kleṡasaṁkleṡa]/ delusions arising from other delusions
2. ལས་ཀྱི་ཀུན་ནས་བསླང་པའི་ཉོན་མོངས། [karmasaṁkleṡa]/ delusions arising from karma
3. སྐྱེ་པའི་ཀུན་ནས་བསླང་པའི་ཉོན་མོངས། [utpattisaṁkleṡa]/ delusions arising from birth.

[kleṡa manas]/ The deluded mind. One of the eight groups of consciousnesses (see ༼རྣམ་ཤེས་ཚོགས་བརྒྱད༽). It is recognized as an obstructive unspecified primary consciousness (sgrib lung-ma bstan) that takes the foundation or fundamental consciousness (see ༼ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་ཤེས༽) as its object and maintains ego-grasping with respect to it until the person has attained the [ārya] path.

[kleṡa vijсгna]/ The deluded consciousness; the afflicted mind. It is one of the eight types of consciousnesses (see ༼རྣམ་ཤེས་ཚོགས་བརྒྱད༽) asserted by the [cittamātrin] school of thought. The deluded mind is an obstructed and unspecified conceptual consciousness that takes the foundational consciousness as its focal object and grasps at it as being a substantially existent self, etc.

The extremely secret teachings. This name is given to the collection of mdo-sde za-ma tog, snying-po yi-ge drgug-ma, spang-skong phyag-rgya, and a golden stūpa found from a casket that fell from the sky during the reign of King Lha Thothori Nyan Tsan (5th century A.D.), the 27th officially recognized king of Tibet. This is conбdered the beginning of Buddhism in Tibet.

གཉིད་དུས་ཀྱི་འོད་གསལ། [nidrā prabhāsvara]/ The clear light of sleep; the clear light mind of sleep state. The practice of activating the subtle mind during sleep; a part of completion stage yoga of tanнra.

[ubhaya ṡūnyatā]/ Non-duality or separate simultaneous sources between the consciousness and its object. It can also mean the non-duality of bliss and void.

[ubhaya tathātā]/ The reality of non-duality; the thatness of non-duality.

[ubhayābhāsa]/ Dualistic appearance; mundane appearance. The duality of the object of apprehension and the consciousness that apprehends it.

[advaya tantra]/ The non-dual tantra. That of anuttarayoga tantra in which equal emphasis is placed on the development of the mind of clear light and the illusory body.

[advayaka kṣanikaprayoga]/ The momentary training in non-duality. The final instant of the path of meditation of a Bodhisattva's training during which he or she realizes the non-duality of the object and object-perceiver directly within a single instant of time.

[nivāsita saṅgha]/ The permanent resident monk. A monk who has been staying at the same monastery ever since his admission in that monastery.

The primordial wisdom; the naturally abiding intutive mind or awareness, also called the basic wisdom.

[catvāri pratipakṣabalani]/ The four opponent forces; the four strong antidotes.
1. རྟེན་གྱི་སྟོབས། force of reliance
2. གཉེན་པོའི་སྟོབས། force of overcoming misdeeds through antidotes
3. རྣམ་པར་སུན་འབྱིན་པའི་སྟོབས། force of repentence
4. ཉེས་པ་ལས་སླར་སྡོག་པའི་སྟོབས། force of not repeating the misdeeds.

[aṣṭa pratipakṣasaṁskārāḥ]/ The application of eight antidotes. Eight antidotes applied to eliminate the five faults to mental quiescence meditation (ṡamatha). 1-4. ལེ་ལོའི་གཉེན་པོར་དད་པོར་དད་པ། འདུན་པ། རྩོལ་བ། ཤིན་སྦྱངས། faith, aspiration, enthusiastic perseverance and ecstasy as antidotes to laziness.
5.  གདམས་ངག་བརྗེད་པའི་གཉེན་པོར་དྲན་པ། mindfulness as an antidote to forgetting the instructions (losing object of meditation)
6. བྱིང་རྒོད་ཀྱི་གཉེན་པོར་ཤེས་བཞིན། alertness as an antidote to mental dullness and agitation
7. མངོན་པར་འདུ་བྱེད་པའི་གཉེན་པོར་འདུ་བྱེད་པ། application of antidotes to counter their non-application
8. མངོན་པར་འདུ་བྱེད་པའི་གཉེན་པོར་འདུ་མི་བྱེད་པ། non-application of antidotes to counter their application.

[pratipakṣābhisandhi]/ Interpretive sūtras concerning antidotes. For instance, the [sūtra] which says, 'father and mother are to be killed', taught to king [ajātaṡatru] in order to calm his regrets temporarily and to teach him to eliminate ignorance and karma ultimately.

[pratipakṣa vastujсāna]/ The knowledge of basis eategorized as an antidote. The sixth of the nine topics that characterize the knowledge of the basis; a [mahāyāna] path that is a superior path of wisdom and method identical with the basic wisdom within the continuum of a [mahāyānist ārya]. This wisdom exists from the path of seeing to the path of no more learning.

[aṣṭa pratipakṣa kuṡalāni]/ The eight antidotal virtues. Antidotal virtue through:
1. རྣམ་པར་སུན་འབྱིན་པའི་གཉེན་པོ། overcoming negative forces
2. གཞིའི་གཉེན་པོ། counteracting one's virtuous forces
3. ཐག་སྲིང་བའི་གཉེན་པ། prolonging one's virtuous forces
4. རྣམ་པར་གནོན་པའི་གཉེན་པ། subduing the negative forces
5.  བྲལ་བའི་གཉེན་པོ། separating from negative forces
6. ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་ཀྱི་གཉེན་པོ། counteracting the obstructions to liberation
7. ཤེས་སྒྲིབ་ཀྱི་གཉེན་པོ། counteracting the obstructions to omniscience
8. སྤོང་བའི་གཉེན་པོ། elimination of negative forces.

[ṡrāvastī]/ The capital of the kingdom of Kosala, where Buddha [ṡākyamuni] passed 25 rainy seasons. It is called the place where Buddha defeated the Heterodox teachers through miracles.

The equalizing wind; the equally abiding energy wind. One of the five energy winds in the body (see ༼རྩ་བའི་རླུང་ལྔ༽) that controls the digestive process of assimilation of nutrition and separation of waste materials located at the third stage of the stomach. This wind is also called the fire-dwelling wind (me-gnas-kyi rlung).

The five samenesses; the five universal qualities of all Bodhisattvas.
1. བདག་གཞན་མཉམ་ཉིད། both self and other are equal
2. ཕན་གནོད་མཉམ་ཉིད། both self and others are equal in wishing to be benefitted and not wishing to be harmed
3. འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་མཉམ་ཉིད། both self and others are equal in having the eight worldly concerns (see ༼འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད༽)
4. སྲིད་ཞི་མཉམ་ཉིད། both the cyclic existence and the state of liberation are the same.

The ten samenesses; the ten samenesses of all phenomena as:
1. མཚན་ཉིད་མེད་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [asvabhāva samatā]/ lacking truly existent features
2. མཚན་མ་མེད་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [alakṣaṇa samatā]/ lacking truly existent signs and marks
3. མཐའ་བཞིཨི་ལས་སྐྱེ་པ་མེད་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [ajāti samatā]/
lacking production from the four extremes—self, others, both and neither both.
4. མ་སྐྱེས་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [ajātaka samatā]/ being unproduced
5. དབེན་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [ ṡūnyā samatā]/ being empty
6. གདོད་མ་ནས་རྣམ་པར་དག་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [adhiṡuddha samatā]/ being primordially pure
7. སྤྲོས་པ་མེད་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [niṣprapaсca samatā]/ lacking conceptual elaboration
8. བླང་བ་དང་དོར་བར་བྱ་བ་མིན་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [anupadeyāheya samatā]/ not being objects of cultivation and elimination
9. ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་རྨི་ལམ་དང་། མིག་གཡོར་དང་། གཟུགས་བརྙན་དང་། སྤྲུལ་པ་ལྟ་བུར་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [svapna māyā udakacandra pratibimba nirmaṇopama samatā]/ being like a dream, hallucination, moon in the water, reflection and emanation
10. དངོས་པོ་དང་དངོས་པོ་མེད་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། [bhāva-abliāva samatā]/ being a thing or non-thing. The first seven indicate the subtle selflessness of phenomena and the eighth, subtle selflessness of person, whereas the last two show emptiness pertaining to both.

[samatābhiprāya]/ Interpretative [sūtra] determining the samenesses; e.g., the sūtra. 'I shall be Buddha Maltreya at that time', in which the basic intention of Buddha was to reveal that all the Buddhas are equal in having attained the three equal states (see ༼མཉམ་པ་ཉིད་གསུམ༽).

The three samenesses; the three equal states of all Buddhas.
1. ཚོགས་བསགས་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། equal in terms of having accumulated merits
2. ཆོས་སྐུ་ཐོབ་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། equal in terms of having attained the Truth Body
3. གཞན་དོན་བྱེད་པ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད། equal in terms of working for the welfare of others.

The wisdom of meditative equipoise. A wisdom of single pointed concentration in the process of directly eliminating or having eliminated its respective object of abandonemt. In general there are two:
1. བར་ཆད་མེད་ལམ། the uninterrupted path
2. རྣམ་གྲོལ་ལམ། the path of thorough liberation.

The Ancient School; the Nyingma Tradition. A first major school of Tibetan Buddhism introduced in Tibet by Guru Padmasambhava, the great Indian [mahāyogi] who came to Tibet in the 8th century.

The nine vehicles of the Nyingma tradition.
1. ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། the Hearers' vehicle
2. རང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་ཐེག་པ། the Solitary Realizers' vehicle
3. བྱང་སེམས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། the Bodhisattvas' vehicle
4. བྱ་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། the action tantra vehicle
5. སྤྱོད་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། the performance tantra vehicle
6. ཡོ་གའི་ཐེག་པ། the yoga tantra vehicle
7. མ་ཧཱ་ཡོ་གའི་ཐེག་པ། the [mahāyoga] tantra vehicle
8. ཨ་ཏི་ཡོ་གའི་ཐེག་པ། the anuttarayoga tantra vehicle
9. ཨ་ཏི་ཡོ་གའི་ཐེག་པ། the atiyoga tantra vehicle.

The whispered lineage. A lineage of secret teachings transmitted only to the closest disciples through direct communication with their root teacher or meditational deity.

The four types of whispered lineages.
1. ཆོས་གང་ལུང་དང་བཅས་པ། having received oral transmissions of every teaching one has received
2. ལུང་མན་ངག་དང་བཅས་པ། having all oral transmissions with instructions from the teacher
3. མན་ངག་བརྒྱུད་དང་ལྡན་པ། having all instructions coming through the proper lineage
4. བརྒྱུད་པ་བྱིན་རླབས་དང་ལྡན་པ། having all lineages blessed.

[kaliyuga]/ The degenerate age; the decadent period. The period when the tradition of Buddha's teachings are no longer pure and the world situation makes it difficult to practice properly. This also refers to the period of the universe when the lifespan of human beings is declining from one hundred to ten years.

[paсca kaṣāyāḥ]/ The five dregs; the five degenerations.
1. ཚེ་སྙིགས་མ། [āyuh kaṣāya]/ degenerated life-span
2. ཉོན་མོངས་སྙིགས་མ། [kleṡa kaṣāya]/ degenerated delusions
3. སེམས་ཅན་སྙིགས་མ། [sattva kaṣāya]/ degenerated persons
4. དུས་སྙིགས་མ། [kalpa kasāya]/ degenerated time
5. ལྟ་བ་སྙིགས་མ། [dṛṣṭi kaṣāya]/ degenerated view.

The eight channels initially formed at the heart.
1. དབུ་མ། the central channel
2. རོ་མ། the right channel
3.  རྐྱང་མ། the left channel
4. ཤར་གྱི་གསུམ་སྐོར་མ། the triple circle of the east
5. ལྷོའི་འདོད་མ། the desirous one of the south
6.  ནུབ་ཀྱི་བདུད་བྲལ་མ། the one free of hindrance of the west
7. བྱང་གི་ཁྱིམ་མ། the householder of the north
8. གཏུམ་མོ། the fiery one.

The three types of compassion.
1.  སེམས་ཅན་ཙམ་ལ་དམིགས་པའི་སྙིང་རྗེ། compassion merely observing sentient beings
2. ཆོས་ལ་དམིགས་པའི་སྙིང་རྗེ། compassion observing the doctrine
3. དམིགས་མེད་ལ་དམིགས་པའི་སྙིང་རྗེ། compassion observing the lack of true existence.

[karuṇā na ṡamesthiti mārga jсāna]/ The knowledge of the path which through compassion does not abide in the extreme of peace. The path of [mahāyāna āryas] categorized as negating the extreme of peace for the sake of sentient beings. It exists from the first level of a Bodhisattva up to the state of Buddhahood.

The five essentials.
1. བུ་རམ། molasses
2. ཞུན་མར། molten butter
3. སྦྲང་རྩི། honey
4. ཏིལ་མར། sesame oil
5. ལན་ཚྭ། salt.

The three essential practices.
1. ཚེ་འདིར་ཡི་དམ་སྒོམ་པ། meditation on one's deity in this life
2. འཆི་ཁར་འཕོ་བ་སྒོམ་པ། meditation on consciousness transference at death
3. བར་དོར་བསྲེ་བ་སྒོམ་པ། practising merging with the three bodies of a Buddha in the intermediate state.

[samāpatti]/ Meditative absorption. The state of single-pointed concentration within the form and formless realm in which a person's primary mind and secondary minds are fuliy absorbed in its object of meditation.

The two types of meditative absorptions of serial advancement:
1. འགོག་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [nirodha samāpatti]/ the meditative absorption of cessation
2. འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [naivasaṁjсā na saṁjсāyatana]/ the meditative absorption without-perception.

The four types of meditative absorptions. The single-pointed meditative absorptions within the four states of the formless realm,
1. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། [ākāṡāntya samāpatti]/ meditative absorption of infinite space
2. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། [vijсānāntya samāpatti]/ meditative
absorption of infinite consciousness
3. ཅི་ཡང་མེད་པའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། [ākincanyāyatana samāpatti]/ meditative absorbtion of nothingness
4. སྲིད་རྩེའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་ ཡོད་མིན་མེད་མིན་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། [bhavāgra samāpatti]/ meditative absorption of the peб of existence, neither with perception nor without non-perception.

The nine types of meditative absorptions. 1-4. གཟུགས་ཁམས་ཀྱི་བསམ་གཏན་བཞི། བསམ་གཏན་བཞི། meditative absorptions of the four states of concentration within the form realm 5-8. གཟུགས་མེད་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི། [catvāri arūpadhātu samāpatti]/ meditative absorptions of the four states of concentration within the formless realm
9. འགོག་པའི་སྙིམས་འཇུག [nirodha samāpatti]/ meditative absorption of the cessation.

The four limbs of the approaching retreat. The ways of being in retreat.
1. བསྙིན་པ། approaching through visualizing a symbolic being
2. ཉེ་བར་བསྙེན་པ། the near achievement of a wisdom being
3. སྒྲུབ་པ། actual achievement
4. སྒྲུབ་པ་ཆེན་པོ། the great achievement.

The eight precepts of an [upāsaka]. Vows to be observed by a one day vow holder. 1 སྲོག་གཅོད་སྤོང་བ། [prāṇātighātād virati]/ not killing
2. མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ་སྤོང་བ། [ādattādānād virati]/ not stealing
3. མི་ཆངས་སྤྱོད་སྤོང་བ། [kāmamithyācārād virati]/ not indulging in sexual activity
4. བེརྫུན་སྤོང་པ། [mṛṣāvādāt virati]/ not telling a lie
5. ཆང་སྤོང་བ། [madya pānam]/ not taking intoxicants
6. གར་སོགས་སྤོང་བ། [gānā nāṭaka virati]/ not singing and dancing
7. ཕྱི་དྲོའི་ཁ་ཟས་སྤོང་བ། not taking a meal after noon
8. མལ་སྟན་ཆེ་མཐོ་སྤོང་བ། not using high and luxurious seat or bed.

The types of retreat practices; the four types of close practices.
1. ལུས་ཀྱི་བསྙེན་པ། [kāya-āsevita]/ close practice of body, by being in retreat for a definite time
2. གྲངས་ཀྱི་བསྙེན་པ། [saṁkhya-āsevita]/ close practice of numbers, through chanting a specified number of mantras
3. མཚན་མའི་བསྙེན་པ། [lakṣaṇa-āsevita]/ close practice of signs, through visualizing and dissolving oneself into the wisdom being
4. སེམས་བརྟན་གྱི་བསྙེན་པ། [cittadṛḍha-āsevita]/ close practice of conviction, by accomplishing the gross level of the generation stage practices.

[Samādhi maṇḍala]/ The concentration [maṇḍala]. The single-pointed concentration of visualizing the entire [maṇḍala].

The five faults in the development of concentration (see- ༼ཉེས་པ་ལྔ༽).

The miracles of meditative concentration. One of the four miracles according to yoga tantra meditation (see- ༼ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་བཞི༽). This involves meditation through visualizing Vairocana in the centre, [akṣobhya] to the east, Ratnasambhava to the south, [amitābha] to the west, and Amoghasiddhi to the north encircled by four Bodhisattva each of their own family.

The requirements for developing meditative concentration. The virtuous forces indispensible for achieving calm abiding meditation.

The three meditative concentrations. A. According to the generation stage practice of mahayoga tantra in the Nyingma tradition these are:
1. དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། [tathatāsamādhi]/ meditative concentration of suchness
2. རབ་ཏུ་སྣང་བའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། [prabhāsasamādhi]/ the all-apparent meditative concentration
3. རྒྱུའི་ཏེང་ངེ་འཛིན། [hetusamādhi]/ the causal concentration. B. According to the generation stage practice of yoga tantra and above, the three yogas of the generation stage in general are:
1. དང་པོ་སྦྱོར་བའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། the initial preparatory meditative concentration
2. ལས་རྒྱལ་ཆོག་གི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། the supramundane activity meditative concentration
3. དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་རྒྱལ་ཆོག་གི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། the supramundane [maṇḍala] meditative concentration.

[Samādhi sattva]/ The concentration being. The visualization of a seed syllable or implement at the heart of the wisdom being in the deity one has visualized.

The miniature fire balls. Flaming small dough balls thrown into one's mouth during the course of a Vajrayogini initiation.

The four entrustments. The first four of the ten innermost jewels of the Kadampa tradition (see- ༼བཀའ་གདམས་ཕུགས་ནོར་བཅུ༽). The four are entrusting yourself to:
1. བློ་ཕུགས་ཆོས་ལ་གཏད། the Dharma as the simplest way of thought
2. ཆོས་ཕུགས་སྤྲང་ལ་གཏད། poverty as the simplest way of practising Dharma
3. སྤྲང་ཕུགས་ཤི་ལ་གཏད། death as the extreme consequence of poverty
4. ཤི་ཕུགས་གྲོག་པོ་སྐམ་པོ་ལ་གཏད། an empty cave as the simplest place to die.

The seven successors of the Buddha (see- ༼སྟོན་པའི་གཏད་རབས་བདུན༽).

Lavish generosity. The practice of selfless and continuous giving to the needy with total openness.

The five great logical reasons. The five types of logical reasons to establish the middle way view.
1. གཅིག་དུ་བྲལ་གྱི་གཏན་ཚགས། the reasoning of either being one or many
2. རྡོ་རྗེ་གཟེགས་མའི་གཏན་ཚིགས། the reasoning called vajra prongs
3. ཡོད་མེད་སྐྱེ་འགོག་གི་གཏན་ཚིགས། the reasoning of existence and non-existence, and production and cessation
4. མུ་བཞི་སྐྱེ་འགོག་གི་གཏན་ཚིགས། the reasoning negating birth from four alternatives.

[hetuvidyā]/ The science of logic. One of the five major fields of study (see- ༼རིག་གནས་ཆེ་བ་ལྔ༽), i.e. the study of Buddhist logic.

The set of finalized discourse. One of the twelve scriptural categories (see- ༼གསུང་རབ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས༽) which explains the distinction of the individual and general category of phenomena, e.g. the set of discourse on knowledge.

[Moha]/ Closed-mindedness; ignorance. An active misconception or a negative mental state obstructing (he knowledge of reality.

[Caṇḍālī]/ Psychic fire; inner heat. The fine radiant blood cells or drops in the nature of the fire element, obtained from one's mother, which abide within the navel channel-wheel; realized practitioners ignite this element and generate sublime bliss thus using it as a means to experience enlightenment.

The ignition and emission of psychic heat. The practice of meditation of igniting psychic heat or fire at the navel 'level and the emission of a drop or drops of bodhicitta from the short 'A' syllable visualized at the crown chakra.

[Vrṣikā]/ The square cloth for wrapping the yellow robes of monks and nuns.

The treasure teachings. The extremely sublime secret texts of teachings hidden under rocks, trees, water etc., by [ācārya] Padmasambhava and others because of the lack of appropriate disciples at that time. These texts were concealed for the benefit of future disciples and contained instructions for the dakinis to guard and the appropriate discoverer to reveal these.

The treasure-like Bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of giving possessed by Bodhisattvas on the path of seeing.

Discoverer of treasure. Realized master-scholars who discover texts, images and mystic articles connected to a highly sophisticated cycle of teachings. Trhis tradition is very familiar to the Nyingma order of Tibetan buddhism.

[Tyāgānusmṛti]/ Recollection of giving. The reflection on giving and the qualities of giving.

[Bali]/ Ritual cakes; sacramental cakes. A component of an offering usually made of barley flour (༼ཙམ་པ༽) and moulded buttier, symbolizing deities and their retinues or the spirits, etc. Tormas can be of different sizes ranging from the size of one finger to one or two feet or more.

A nominal name; alias. A name which is not the actual term originally formulated to designate a specific meaning or a thing, but a later (perhaps vulgar or common) secondary term designating the same thing, e.g. 'the rabbit bearer' (༼རི་བོང་ཅན༽) refering to the moon. There are two types of nominal names:
1. འདྲ་བ་རྒྱུ་མཚན་དུ་བྱས་ནས་བཏགས་པའི་མིང་། nominal name because of similar features, e.g. calling a man a monkey
2. འབྲེལ་བ་རྒྱུ་མཚན་དུ་བྱས་ནས་བཏགས་པའི་མིང་། nominal name because of relationship, e.g. calling sunrays the sun.

The mere label of an "I"; the conventionally existent "I" or point of view of an 'I' that exists by mental labelling alone.

Designated phenomena; imputed phenomena. Phenomena that exists only in dependence upon the sound and concept that imputes them. For instance, time and person.

The three features of an imputed phenomena.
1. རང་ཉིད་མཚོན་བྱ་ཡིན་པ། being subject to definition
2. རང་གི་མཚན་གཞིའི་སྟེང་དུ་སྒྲུབ་པ། that which exists upon its own examples
3. རང་གི་མཚན་ཉིད་ལས་གཞན་པའི་ཆོས་གཞན་གྱི་མཚོན་བྱ་མི་བྱེད་པ། that which does not become a subject to be defined other than by its own definition.

The views of eternalism and nihilism. According to Prasangika Madhyamika this would be views asserting the true existence and total non-existence of phenomenon respectively.

[Nitya]/ Permanence; unconditioned phenomena which are not dependent on causes and conditions.

The extreme of eternalism. Belief that something which is not validly existent is existent, e.g. the inherent-existence of a thing.

[hetu]/ [[1]] Signs; marks. [[2]] Reasons in the study of Buddhist logic.

The first mode of reasoning; the first mark of logical reasoning. The presence of the posited reason in the subject or the pervasion of the subject by the reason in a given correct logical syllogism.

The second mode of reasoning; the second mark of logical reasoning. The pervasion of the predicate by the reason in a syllogism.

The third mode of reasoning; the third mark of logical reasoning. The non-pervasion of the negative of the predicate by the reason in a syllogism.

[Tri hetvābhāsa]/The three wrong reasons. [1] མ་གྲུབ་པའི་རྟགས། [asiddhahetu]/ unestablished reason [2] འགལ་བའི་རྟགས། [viruddhahetu]/ contradictory reason [3] མ་ངེས་པའི་རྟགས། [Anaikāntika-hetu]/ uncertain reason.

[Tri saṁyag hetavaḥ]/ The three correct reasons. [1] འབྲངས་རྟགས་ཡང་དག [kārya hetu]/ correct reason of effect [2] རང་བཞིན་གྱི་རྟགས་ཡང་དག [svabhāva hetu]/ correct reason of nature
3. མ་དམིགས་པའི་རྟགས་ཡང་དག [anupalabdhi hetu]/ correct reason of non-cognition.

The two types of correct reasons according to the disputants. [1] རང་དོན་གྱི་རྟགས་ཡང་དག correct for one's own purpose [2] གཞིན་དོན་གྱི་རྟགས་ཡང་དག correct reason for the other's purpose.

The two types of correct reasons according to the way they are applied to the predicate. [1] སྒྲུབ་རྟགས། positive reason [2] འགལ་རྟགས། negative reason.

The three types of correct reasons according to the way they are established. [1] དོན་སྒྲུབ་ཀྱི་རྟགས་ཡང་དག that which establishes meaning [2] ཐ་སྙད་སྒྲུབ་ཀྱི་རྟགས་ཡང་དག that which establishes only names.

The three types of correct reasons according to the thesis, [1]དངོས་སྟོབས་ཀྱི་རྟགས། reason based on cogent evidence [2] གྲགས་པའི་རྟགས། reasons based on renown [3] ཡིད་ཆེས་ཀྱི་རྟགས། reasons based on conviction.

The two types of correct reasons according to the way they are applied to the similar cases of the predicate. [1] མཐུན་ཕྱོགས་ལ་ཁྱབ་བྱེད་དུ་འཇུག་པའི་རྟགས། pervasive application to similar cases [2] དེ་ལ་ཆ་གཉིས་སུ་འཇུག་པའི་རྟགས། dual application to similar cases.

Signs and reasonings. Science of reasoning, one of the basic texts for logical studies in monastic universities.

[āṡraya]/ [[1]] Basis; support; that upon which something relies. [[2]] A dependent basis such as our rebirth. [[3]] Ritual objects, icons, images, offerings, deities and representations of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

The seven faculties of reliance; the seven powers that the mind depends upon in order to produce a mental perception. [1-5]དབང་པོ་གཟུགས་ཅན་པ་ལྔ་ the five physical faculties (see- ༼ཁམས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽, [[2]][1-5]) [6] ཡིད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། of consciousness
7. སྲོག་གི་དབང་པོ། the faculty of life

The two faculties of basis of sex. [1] ཕོའི་དབང་པོ the male organ [2] མོའི་དབང་པོ། the female organ.

[pratītyasamutpāda]/ Interdependent origination; dependent co-origination. The meeting or coincidence of causes and conditions for creating a thing or a situation. In general, the twelve links of interdependent origination dealing with the cycle of rebirth, and in its highest sense it is the proof of all phenomena being dependent on each other and hence lacking inherent existence.

The basis and the dependent; the reliance and the reliant; the residence and the resident.

The twelve analogies for the twelve links of dependent origination. [1]མ་རིག་པ་ནི་རྒན་མོ་ལོང་བ་དང་འདྲ། ignorace is analogous to a blind old woman [2]འདུ་བྱེད་རྫ་མཁན་ཞིག་དང་འདྲ། connecting karma is analogous to a potter moulding a pot [3] རྣམ་ཤེས་སྤྲེའུ་དང་འདྲ། consciousness is like a monkey looking out of a window [4]མིང་གཟུགས་གྲུར་གཞུག་པ་དང་འདྲ། name and form are analogous to a man rowing a boat [5] སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ཁང་གསར་རྫོགས་པར་གྲུབ་པ་དང་འདྲ། of perception is analogous to a prosperous-looking house [6]རེག་པ་ཕོ་མོ་འཁྱུད་པ་དང་འདྲ། contact is analogous to a man and woman embracing each other [7] ཚོར་བ་མིག་ལ་མདའ་བསྣུབ་པ་དང་འདྲ། feeling is analogous to an arrow piercing an eye [8]སྲེད་པ་ཆང་གིས་གཟི་བ་དང་འདྲ། craving is analogous to a drunken man [9]ལེན་པ་སྤྲེའུས་ཤིང་ཏོག་པ་དང་འདྲ། grasping is analogous to a monkey picking fruits [10] ཨུུསྲིད་པ་བུད་མེད་སྦྲུམ་མ་དང་འདྲ། existence is analogous to a pregnant woman [11] སྐྱེ་བ་ཕྲུ་གུ་བཙས་པ་དང་འདྲ། birth is analogous to the birth of a child [12]རྒ་ཤི་མི་རོ་འཁུར་བ་དང་འདྲ། aging and death is analogous to a corpse being carried to cremation.

[Dvādaṡāṅga pratītyasamutpāda]/ The twelve links of dependent origination. [1]མ་རིག་པ། [avidyā]/ ignorance [2] འདུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ལས། [saṁskāra]/ connecting karma [3] རྣམ་ཤེས།་[vijсānam]/ consciousness [4]མིང་གཟུགས། [nāma rūpam]/ name and form [5]སྐྱེ་མཆེད [āyatanam]/ sources of perception [6] རེག་པ། [sparṡa]/contact [7]ཚོར་བ [vedanā]/feeling [8]སྲེད་པ། [tṛṣṇā]/ craving [9] ལེན་པ། [upādānam]/ grasping [10] སྲིད་པ། [bhava]/ existence [11]སྐྱེ་བ [jāti]/ birth [12] རྒཤི[ jarā maraṇam]/ aging and death.

The four links of dependent origination. [1]འཕེན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡན་ལག projecting causes being ignorance, connecting karma and consciousness. [2]འཕངས་པའི་ཡན་ལག projected results being name and form, sources of perception, contact and feeling. [3]མངོན་པར་འགྲུབ་པར་བྱེད་པའི་ཡན་ལག the materializing causes being craving, grasping and existence. [4] མངོན་པར་འགྲུབ་པའི་ཡན་ལག materialized results being birth, aging and death.

[Tarkika]/ Dialectician; logician. Those who explain the hidden nature of phenomena through reasonings.

[Расса tarkavāda]/ The five schools of logic; the five schools of Hindu philosophy. [1]གྲངས་ཅན་པ།[Sāṁkhya] [2]རྒྱང་འཕེན་པ། [Lokāyata] [3]བྱེ་བྲག་པ།[Vaiṡeṣika][4]རིག་པ་ཅན་པ།[Vedāntika] [5]གཅེར་བུ་པ།[Nirgrantha]

[Aṣṭa tarkapadārtha]/ The eight topics of logicians; the eight topics of discussion in the Valid Cognition ([pramanavartika]) text. [1]མངོན་སུམ་ཡང་དག། [saṁyak pratyakṣa]/ correct direct perception [2]མངོན་སུམ་ལྟར་སྣང་། [abhāsa pratyakṣa]/ wrong direct perception [3]རྗེས་དཔག་ཡང་དག [saṁyag anumāna]/ correct inferential perception [4]རྗེས་དཔག་ལྟར་སྣང་། [abhāsa anumāna]/ wrong inferential perception [5]སྒྲུབ་ངག་ཡང་དག [saṁyag vāca]/ correct argument [6]སྒྲུབ་ངག་ལྟར་སྣང་། [abhāsa vāca]/ wrong argument [7]སུན་འབྱིན་ཡང་དག [saṁyag dūṣana]/ correct refutation [8]སུན་འབྱིན་ལྟར་སྣང་། [abhāsa dūṣana]/ wrong refutation.

[Vitarka]/ [[1]] Rough investigation. [[2]] Conceptualization or imagination. [[3]] Chapter. [[4]] Conceptual awareness.

Conceptual awareness that conforms to reality, e.g. the correct inferential cognition apprehending the impermanence of sound.

Conceptual awareness that does not conform to reality, e.g, a wrong conceptual thought apprehending a rabbit with horns.

Distorted non-conceptual awareness, e.g. the mistaken eye consciousness to which a mountain appears blue.

Utterences of realizations ([Avadānam]); parables. One of the twelve scriptural categories that explains a topic with illustrations and examples for easy comprehension.

The transmission of insights. One of the two kinds of Buddha's teachings that comprises insights and realizations gained through practice of the trainings.

The six qualities of Buddha's insight or realization from amongst the eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha. [1] འདུན་པ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating aspiration [2] བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating efforts [3]དྲན་པ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating mindfulness [4]ཤེས་རབ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating wisdom [5]ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating meditative concentration [6]རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating of thorough liberation.

The four reliances; the four correct reliances. The four principles to be followed when one embarks on a Buddhist path or teaching. [1] གང་ཟག་ལ་མི་རྟོན་ཆོས་ལ་རྟོན། relying on teachings and not on the person [2]ཚིག་ལ་མི་རྟོན་དོན་ལ་རྟོན། relying on meaning and not on the words [3]རྣམ་ཤེསƒ་མི་རྟོན་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལ་རྟོན། relying on wisdom and not on an ordinary mind [4]དྲང་དོན་ལ་མི་རྟོན་ཡེ་ཤེས་ལ་རྟོན། relying on definitive teachings and not on interpretive teachings.

[Soḍaṡa kudṛṣṭayaḥ]/ The sixteen wrong views; the view that; [1]བདག་འདས་པའི་དུས་ན་བྱུང་བར་ལྟ་བ། the self has existed in the past [2] བདག་འདས་པའི་དུས་ན་མ་བྱུང་བར་ལྟ་བ། the self id not exist in the past [3] བདག་འདས་པའི་དུས་ན་བྱུང་བ་དང་མ་བྱུང་བ་གཉིས་ཀ་ཡིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the self has both existed and not existed in the past [4]བདག་འདས་པའི་དུས་ན་བྱུང་བ་དང་མ་བྱུང་བ་གཉིས་ཀ་མ་ཡིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the self has neither existed nor not existed in the past [5]འཇིག་རྟེན་རྟག་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world is permanent [6] འཇིག་རྟེན་མི་རྟག་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world is impermanent [7]འཇིག་རྟེན་རྟག་པ་དང་མི་རྟག་པ་གཉིས་ཀ་ཡིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world is both permanent and impermanent [8]འཇིག་རྟེན་རྟག་པ་དང་མི་རྟག་པ་གཉིས་ཀ་མིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world is neither permanent nor not impermanent [9] [9] བདག་མ་འོངས་པའི་དུས་ན་འབྱུང་བར་ལྟ་བ། the self will exist in the future [10]བདག་མ་འོངས་པའི་དུས་ན་མི་འབྱུང་བར་ལྟ་བ། the self will not exist in the future [11]བདག་མ་འོངས་པའི་དུས་ན་འབྱུང་བ་དང་མི་འབྱུང་བ་གཉིས་ཀ་ཡིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the self will both exist and not exist in the future [12]བདག་མ་འོངས་པའི་དུས་ན་འབྱུང་བ་དང་མི་འབྱུང་བ་གཉིས་ཀ་མིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the self will neither exist nor not exist in the future [13]འཇིག་རྟེན་མཐའ་དང་ལྡན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world has an end [14]འཇིག་རྟེན་མཐའ་དང་མི་ལྡན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world has no end [15]འཇིག་རྟེན་མཐའ་དང་ལྡན་པ་དང་མི་ལྡན་པ་གཉིས་ཀ་ཡིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world has both an end and no end [16]འཇིག་རྟེན་མཐའ་དང་ལྡན་པ་དང་མི་ལྡན་པ་གཉིས་ཀ་མིན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the world has neither an end nor no end.

[Aṣṭaviṁsati kudṛṣṭayaḥ]/ The twenty-eight wrong views. [1]མཚན་མར་ལྟ་བ། wrong view of truly existent marks [2]བཏགས་པ་ལ་སྐུར་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view deprecating imputed phenomena [3]ཀུན་རྟོག་ལ་སྐུར་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ལྟབ། wrong view deprecating conceptualization [4]དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་ལ་སྐུར་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view deprecating suchness [5] ཡོངས་སུ་འཛིན་པའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong vjew of thorough apprehension [6]སྒྱུར་བའི་ལྟ་བ། the inconsistent wrong view [7]ཁ་ན་མ་ཐོ་བ་མེད་པའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view without moral faults [8]ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view of definite release [9]དབང་ཟ་བའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view of power [10]རབ་ཏུ་འཁྲུགས་པའི་ལྟ་བ། completely confused view [11]ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག་ཏུ་ལྟ་བ། perverted wrong view
[12]འཕེལ་བའི་ལྟ་བ། multiplying wrong view
[13]ཁས་མི་ལེན་པའི་ལྟ་བ། unaccepted wrong view
[14]ངན་གཡོའི་ལྟ་བ། deceitful wrong view
[15]བཀུར་བསྟིའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view of devotion
[16]རྨོངས་པ་བསྟན་པའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view revealing ignorance
[17]རྩ་བའི་ལྟ་བ། the fundamental wrong view 1
[18]ལྟ་བ་ལ་ལྟ་བ་མ་ཡིན་པར་བལྟ་བ། wrong view refuting the right view
[19]སྦྱོར་བ་སེལ་བའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view rejecting the cause
[20]ངེས་འབྱིན་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ལྟ་བ། view that is not an aid to liberation
[21]སྒྲིབ་པ་ལ་སོགས་པར་ལྟ་བ། wrong view of the obstructions, etc.
[22]སྡིག་པ་འཕེལ་བའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view multiplying the non-virtues
[23]འབྲས་བུ་མེད་པའི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view lacking fruits
[24]ཆད་པས་བཅད་པའི་ལྟ་བ། the nihilistic wrong view
[25]སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པའི་ལྟ་བ། the deprecating wrong view
[26]བསྙད་པ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ལྟ་བ། the inoffensive wrong view
[27]ལྟ་བ་ཆེན་པོ། the great wrong view
[28]མངོན་པའི་ང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་ལྟ་བ། wrong view of
presumptuous pride.

The eight powerful glances; the eight yogic glances. The feats
gained as signs of perfecting the first stage of anuttarayoga tantra practices. [1]ཤིང་རློན་འབྲས་བུ་མ་སྨིན་པ་ལྟ་སྟངས་བྱས་པ་ཙམ་བྱིས་ས་ལ་ལྟུང་བར་བྱེད་པ།
the power to cast down unripened fruits by a mere glance [2]མཁྲེགས་ཤིང་གྱེན་དུ་སྐྱེས་པ་ལྟ་སྟངས་བྱས་པ་ཙམ་གྱིས་ཐུར་དུ་འགུག་པར་བྱེད་པ།
the power to bend a straight tree by a mere glance
the power to collect fruits and flowers of a distant place [4]དྲེགས་རྩུབ་ལྡན་པའི་དུད་འགྲོ་སོག་ལྟ་སྟས་བྱས་པ་ཙམ་གྱིས་དབང་དུ་འདུ་བར་བྱེད་པ།
the power to control wild and fierce animals by a mere glance
the power to restore fruits that have previously been cast down by oneself, by a mere glance
[6] མཁྲེགས་ཤིང་ཐུར་དུ་བཀུག་པ་དག་ལྟ་སྟངས་བྱས་པ་ཙམ་གྱིས་སླར་གྱེན་དུ་སྦྱོར་བར་བྱེད་པ།
the power to restore trees that have previously been bent down by oneself, by a mere glance
the power to send back fruits and flowers that have previously been collected infront of onself, by a mere glance
[8]དྲེགས་རྩུབ་ལྡན་པའི་དུད་འགྲོ་བཀུམ་པ་དག་ལྟ་སྟངས་བྱས་པ་ཙམ་གྱིས་སླར་དབུགས་འབྱིན་པར་བྱེད་པ། the
power to revive wild and fierce animals that have previously been killed by oneself, by a mere glance.

[Sudarṡana]/ Beautiful; good-looking; beautiful to behold.

The four seals of Buddhist doctrine.
[1]འདུས་བྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་མི་རྟག་པ། all products are impermanent
[2]ཟག་བཅས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྡུག་བསྔལ་བ། contaminated things are miserable
[3]ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྟོང་ཞིང་བདག་མེད་པ། all phenomena are empty and selfless
[4]མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་ཞི་བ། [[nirvāṇa]] is peace.

[paсca dṛṣṭayaḥ]/ The five views. The five views of deluded wisdom. [1]འཇིག་ཚོགས་ལ་ལྟ་བ།[satkāya dṛṣṭi]/ view of the transitory collection [2]མཐར་འཛིན།[antagraha dṛṭṣi]/ extreme view
3. ལྟ་བ་མཆོག་འཛིན།[dṛṣṭi parāmarṡa]/ holding wrong views as superior [4]ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་དང་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་མཆོག་འཛིན།[ṡīlavrataparāmarṡa dṛṣṭi]/ holding bad ethics and discipline to be superior [5]ལོག་ལྟ།[mithy_a dṛṣṭi]/ perverted view.

[[1]] [1]སྒྲོ་འདོས་ཀྱི་ལྟ་བ། view of over estimation
[2]སྐུར་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ལྟ་བ། view of underestimation.
[[2]] [1]རྟག་ལྟ། view of eternalism
[2]ཆད་ལྟ། view of nihilism.

The five non-views. The five mental factors that are not views but are deluded minds. [1]འདོད་ཆགས། [rāga]/ desire - attachment
[2]ཁྲོང་ཁྲོ། [krodha]/ hatred [3]ང་རྒྱལ།[māna]/ pride [4]མ་རིག་པ། [avidyā]/ ignorance [5]ཐེ་ཚོམ།[vicikitsā]/doubt.

[āpatti]/ Downfalls; A category of monk's precepts the transgression of which becomes a downfall.

[paсcāpatti dharma]/ The five classes of downfalls.
[1]ཕམ་པ།[parājika]/ defeats
[2]ལྷག་མ།[saṁghāvaṡeṣaḥ]/ remainders
[3]ལྷུང་བྱེད[pāyattikā]/ propelling downfalls
[4]སོར་བཤགས།[pratideṡanīya]/ individual confessions

The minor partial downfalls. The breach of one of the four factors constituting a transgression of a monk's vows.

The major partial downfalls. The breach of two or more factors constituting a transgression of a monk's vows.

The four doors of downfalls.
[1]མི་ཤེས་པ། ignorance
[2]བག་མེད་པ། unconscientiousness
[3]ཉོན་མོངས་མང་བ། disrespect [4]མ་གུས་པ། excess of delusions.

The confession of moral faults; the [sūtra] of confession in reliance upon the thirty-five Buddhas.

The wheel of emanation at the navel. The sixty-four petals of energy-channels located at the level of the navel like the upturned ribs of an umbrella branched out of the central energy-channel at the heart.

The preparatory rites. A part of the initiation ritual for empowerment preparing the ground for the actuai initiation ceremony. This entails preparatory rites for appeasing goddesses of the site chosen for initiation venue, preparatory rite concerning the deities of the practice, preparatory rites for the vase and preparatory rite for the disciples.

Taglung Kagyud tradition. One of the lineages of the Kagyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism stemming from the master Taglung Thangpa Chenpo.

The thousand offerings. The set of one thousand of each of
the five-fold offerings—flower, incense, butter lamp, scented
water and food traditionally represented by torma.

[ṡūnyatā]/ Emptiness. The lack of inherent existence of phenomena; the highest view of reality in Buddhist philosophy.

[ṣoḍaṡa ṡūnyatā]/ The sixteen emptinesses.
[1]ནང་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[adhyātma ṡūnyatā]/ the internal emptiness
[2]ཕྱི་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[bahirdhā ṡūnyatā]/ the external emptiness
[3]ཕྱི་ནང་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[adhyātma bahirdhā ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of both external and internal
[4]སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[ṡūnyatā ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of emptiness
[5]ཆེན་པོ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[mahā ṡūnyatā]/the emptiness of the great
[6]དོན་དམ་པ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[paramārtha ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of the ultimate
[7]འདུས་བྱས་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[saṁskr`ta ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of the collected phenomena
[8]འདུས་མ་བྱས་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[asaṁskṛta ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of the uncollected phenomena
[9]མཐའ་ལས་འདས་པ་སྟོང་ཉིད།[atyanta ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of that beyond extremes
[10]ཐོག་མ་དང་ཐ་མ་མེད་པ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[anavarāgta ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of that without beginning or end
[11]དོར་བ་མེད་པ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[anavakāra ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of that which is not to be abandoned [12]རང་བཞིན་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[prakṛti ṡūnyatā]/ the emptines of nature
[13]ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[sarva dharma ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of all phenomena
[14]རང་གི་མཚན་ཉིད་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[svalakṣaṇa ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of self-marks
[15]མི་དམིགས་པ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[anupalambha ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of non-apprehension
[16]དངོས་པོ་མེད་པའི་ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[abhāva svabhāva ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of the lack of truly existent identity.

[Aṣṭadaṡa ṡūnyatā]/ The eighteen emptinesses. On the list of the sixteen emptinesses (see-སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག) add:
[17]དངོས་པོ་མེད་པ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[abhāva ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of the lack of a thing
[18]ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[svabhāva ṡūnyatā]/the emptiness of naturalness.

[Viṁṡati ṡūnyatā]/ The twenty emptinesses. One top of the list of the sixteen emptinesses (see-སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག) add:
[17]དངོས་པོ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[bhava ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of a thing
[18]དངོས་པོ་མེད་པ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[abhava ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of the lack of a thing
[19]རང་གི་ངོ་བོ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[svabhava ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of self-nature
[20]བཞན་གྱི་ངོ་བོ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད།[parabhava ṡūnyatā]/ the emptiness of other-nature.
These four are also separately called as the four emptinesses
(see- སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་དཞི།).

[ṡūnyatā ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of emptiness. The lack of inherent existence of emptiness itself.

The four empties; the four voids. The four empties or the sense of vacuity that arises in conjuction with the four states of subtle consciousnesses, viz. the mind of radiant white appearance, the mind of radiant red increase, the mind of black near-attainment and the clear light mind, respectively while experiencing the stages of dissolution at death. These are:
[1]སྟོང་པ།the empty
[2]ཤིན་ཏུ་སྟོང་པ། the extremely empty
[3] ཆེན་པོ་སྟོང་པ། the great empty
[4] ཐམས་ཅད་སྟོང་པ། the all empty.

[ṡūnyā kalpa]/ The empty aeons. The twenty intermediate aeons after the destruction of this universe and the formation of the next during which sentient beings are born either in the formless or form realm.

A state of vacuity. A state of expereincing an overwhelming sense of emptiness that a yogi experiences in his meditative concentration on emptiness.

The Three Thousand World Realms. According to the Abhidharma tradition, the first thousand world system refers to one thousand world realms each containing the four continents, the sub-continents, the sun, the moon and the planets. A thousand times the first thousand world realms makes the second thousand world realm, known as the Intermediate World Realm (༼སྟོང་བར་མའི་འཇིག་རྟེན་གྱི་ཁམས༽). A thousand times the second thousand world realms makes the third thousand world realms known as the Great Thousand World of the Three Thousand (༼སྟོང་སྒུམ་གྱི་སྟོང་ཆེན་པོའི་འཇིག་རྟེན་གྱི་ཁམས༽).

The Upper Vinaya lineage. The lineage of ordination that comes from the Ngari region of western Tibet. Lha Lama Yeshi Od, the Ngari King invited the Indian Pandita [Dharmapāla], his disciple [Sādhupāla], [guṇapāla] and [prajсāpāla] from whom Gyalwa Sherab of Zhang Zhung received ordination, who then passed the lineage to his disciples Paljor and Jangchub Senge. Thus this lineage came to be known as the Upper Vinaya lineage.

The Seven Successors of the Buddha.
[1] འོད་སྲུང་། [Kasyapa] [2] ཀུན་དགའ་བོ། [ānanda]
[3] ཤ་ནའི་གོས་ཅན། [ṡāṇavāsin]
[4] ཉེར་སྦས། [Upagupta]
[5] དྷི་དྷི་ཀ [Dhitika]
[6]ནག་པོ། [Kṛṣṇa]

The four great festivals of Buddha [ṡākyamuni].
[1]ལྷ་ཡུལ་ནས་བབ་པའི་དུས་ཆེན། His descent from the [tuṣita] god realm
[2] ཆོས་འཁོར་དུས་ཆེན། turning of the wheel of doctrine
[3] ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་དུས་ཆེན། His day of victory through miracles
[4]སངས་རྒྱས་པའི་དུས་ཆེན། His attainment of complete enlightenment.

[Daṡa balapāramitā]/ The ten perfections of powers.
[1]བསམ་པའི་སྟོབས།[āṡaya bala]/ the power of intention
[2]ལྷག་པའི་བསམ་པའི་སྟོབས།[adhyāṡaya bala]/ the power of resolute intention
[3]གཟུངས་ཀྱི་སྟོབས།[dhāraṇī bala]/ the power of retention
[4] ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་སྟོབས།[samādhi bala]/ the power of concentration
[5] ཡང་དག་པར་འབྱོར་བའི་་སྟོབས། [saṁyak prayoga bala]/ the power of perfect application
[6] དབང་གི་སྟོབས། the power of authority
[7]སྤོབས་པའི་སྟོབས། [pratibhana bala]/ the power of confidence
[8]སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་སྟོབས། [praṇidhāna bala]/ the power of prayers
[9]བྱམས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་དང་སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [mahāmaitrī mahākaruṇā bala]/ the power of great love and compassion
[10]དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་བྱིས་རླབས་པའི་སྟོབས།[sarva tathāgata adhiṣṭhāna bala]/the power of the blessings of all the Buddhas.

The five powers; the five forces.
[[1]] The five powers within the thirty-seven limbs of enlightenment.
[1]དད་པོའི་སྟོབས།[ṡraddha bala]/ the power of faith
[2]བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་སྟོབས།[virya bala]/ the power of enthusiastic perseverance
[3]དྲན་པོའི་སྟོབས།[smṛti bala]/ the power of mindfulness
[4]ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་སྟོབས།[samādhi bala]/ the power of concentration
[5] ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་སྟོབས།[prajсa bala]/ the power of wisdom.
[[2]] The five forces according to the seven-point mind training
[1]དཀར་པོ་ས་བོན་གྱི་སྟོབས། [ṡuklabīja bala]/ the power of the white seed
[2] འཕེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [āṡaya bala]/ the power of intention
[3]སུན་འབྱིན་པའི་སྟོབས། [dūsaṇa bala]/ the power of repulsion
[4]གོམས་པའི་སྟོབས། [abhyāsa bala]/ the power of familiarity
[5] སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་སྟོབས།[praṇidhāna bala]/ the power of prayers.

The ten powers (see- ༼དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྟོབས་བཅུ༽ or ༼བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་པའི་སྟོབས་བཅུ༽).

The six powers; the six forces. The six powers that are aids to the attainment of the nine stages of mental fixation (see- ༼སེམས་གནས་དགུ༽) in the training of mental quiescence meditation.
[1]ཐོས་པའི་ཨོསྟོབས།[ṡrūta bala]/ the power of hearing
[2]བསམ་པའི་སྟོབས།[ asaya bala]/ the power of contemplation
[3]དྲན་པའི་སྟོབས།[smṛti bala]/ the power of mindfulness
[4]ཤེརས་བཞིན་གྱི་སྟོབས།[saṁprajānya bala]/ the power of alertness
[5]བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་སྟོབས།[virya bala]/ the power of enthusiastic perseverance
[6]གོམས་པའི་སྟོབས།[abhyasa bala]/ the power of familiarity.

The eight sciences of examination.
[1] ས་གཞི་བརྟགས་པ། the examination of earth
[2] རིན་པོ་ཆེ་བརྟག་པ། the examination of jewels
[3] ལྗོན་ཤིང་བརྟག་པ། the examination of trees
[4] གོས་བརྟག་པ། the examination of cloth
[5] བུད་མེད་བརྟག་པ། the examination of women
[6] རྟ་བརྟག་པ། the examination of
horses [7]གླང་པོ་ཆེཨེ་བརྟག་པ། the the examination of elephants
[8]སྐྱེས་བུ་བརྟག་པ། the examination of men.

The Twelve Dharma Protectors; the twelve sister-protectors of Tibet who have promised to protect the Buddha Dharma, belonging to the class of mother tantra.
[1]རྡོ་རྗེ་ཀུན་གྲགས་མ། Dorje Kundakma
[2]རྡོ་རྗེ་གཡབ་མ་སྐྱོང་། Dorje Yamakyong
[3]རྡོ་རྗེ་ཀུན་བཟང་མ། Dorje Kunzangma
[4]རྡོ་རྗེ་གེགས་ཀྱི་གཙོ། Dorje Gegkyi-Tzo
[5]རྡོ་རྗེ་སྤྱན་གཅིག་མ། Dorje Chen Chigma
[6] རྡོ་རྗེ་དཔལ་གྱི་ཡུམ། Dorje Pelgyi Yum
[7]རྡོ་རྗེ་དྲག་མོ་རྒྱལ། Dorje Dragmo Gyai
[8]རྡོ་རྗེ་ཀླུ་མོ་དཀར་མོ། Dorje Lumo Karmo
[9]རྡོ་རྗེ་བོད་ཁམས་སྐྱོང་། Dorje Bodkham Kyong
[10] རྡོ་རྗེ་སྨན་གཅིག་མ། Dorje Men Chigma
[11] རྡོ་རྗེ་གཡར་མོ་སེལ། Dorje Yarmo Sil
[12] རྡོ་རྗེ་གཡུ་སྒྲོན་མ། Dorje Yudron Ma.

[Vrata]/ Ascetic practices. A term used to denote acts of penance involving religious practices; often associated with torturing one's body and exposing it to physical hardship for the attainment of spiritual goals. For a true Buddhist, these extreme practices are forbidden, however in tantric practice they are sometimes deemed necessary.

The six consciousnesses that rely upon sensory powers (see-༼ཁམས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽).

The ground of basic reliance. According to the Nyingma teachings this is the second spiritual ground attained during the first yogic stage. Since all realizations at this stage becomes the basis or foundation for achieving the path of
preparation and others, it is knows as the ground of basic reliance.

The ground of reliance for exalted progression. According to the Nyingma teachings this refers to the sixth ground attained at the level of the path of seeing, whereupon a Bodhisattva, in reliance upon directly seeing the meaning clear light, progresses higher and higher in achieving the twelve thousand spiritual qualities. Therefore, the sixth ground is known as the ground of reliance for exalted progression.

The Tangyur; the commentarial canon. The collection of i Tibetan translations of early Indian commentaries to Buddha's teachings which runs into 225 volumes with slight variations between different editions.

[ṡastra]/Treatises; commentanal works; commentarial texts.

The six types of imperfect commentanal works; the six classes of imperfect commentarial works.
[1]དོན་མེད་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས། the meaningless commentary
[2]སྡོན་ལོག་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས། the misleading commentary
[3]ངན་གཡོའི་བསྟན་བཅོས། the deceptive commentary
[4]བརྩེ་བྲལ་གྱི་བསྟན་བཅོས། the uncompassionate commentary
[5]ཐོས་པ་ལྷུར་ལེན་གྱི་བསྟན་བཅོས། that which stresses study
[6]རྩོད་པ་ལྷུར་ལེན་གྱི་བསྟན་བཅོས། that which stresses debate.

The three types of perfect commentarial works; the three classes of perfect commentaries.
[1]དོན་དང་ལྡན་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས། the meaningful commentary
that which dispells suffenngs
[3]སྒྲུབ་པ་ལྷུར་ལེན་གྱི་བསྟན་བཅོས། that which stresses practice.

[ṡāsana]/ Teaching; doctrine. Teachings spoken by Buddha himself, or recorded into writing by later disciples in the form of commentaries. Technically, Buddha's teachings can be subsumed under two categories: the transmission of oral and recorded teachings (see- ༼ལུང་གི་བསྟན་པ༽) and the transmission of insights (see- ༼རྟོགས་པའི་བསྟན་པ༽).

The Early Spread; the early period of Buddhism. The introduction of Buddhism during the Tibetan King Lha Tho-Tho-Ri Nyan-Tsen, and its steady spread until the irreligious King Lang Darma who destroyed it in the 10th century. This period of propagation of Buddhism in Tibet is known as the period of the early spread.

The Later Spread; the later period of Buddhism. The revival of Buddhism in the 12th century starting from the eastern and western part of Tibet after a setback during the reign of King Lang Darma is known as the period of the later spread in the history of Tibetan Budhism.

The protectors of the doctrine; the Buddhist protectors.

The four great praises; the four eulogies authorized by Je Tsong Khapa.
[1]སྟོན་པ་ལ་བསྟོད་པ་རྟེན་འབྲེལ་བསྟོད་པ། Praise of Dependent Origination, in praise of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]
[2]བྱམས་བསྟོད་གཉེན་གཤིན་མ། The Rapproachment, in praise of Maitreya
The praise of Ocean of Clouds, in praise of [maсjuṡri]
4. རྣམ་རྒྱལ་མ་ལ་བསྟོད་པ་ས་གསུམ་འགྲོ་བའི་རེ་བསྐོང་། Fulfilling the Wishes of Beings in the Three Realms, in praise of Vijayani.

The eulogies. The collection of writings of the Buddha, Bodhisattvas, masters and scholars in praise of any being or object of veneration.

[Vyavahāra]/ Name; terms; jargon; convention.

[[1]] A glib person, only interested in words or literal conventions.
[[2]] One who was the first to give names to things, a name abbot.

[Vyavahārasatya]/ The conventional truth. A phenomenon that is real only to an ordinary consciousness, i.e. to a consciousness other than the meditative equipoise of an exalted being ([ārya]).

A person possessing five features. According to the Vinaya
tradition these are:
[1]མི་ཡིན་པ། being a person
[2]སྨྲ་ཤེས་པ། being able to speak
[3]དོན་གོ་བ། being able to understand the meaning of a language
[4]ཤེས་པ་རང་བཞིན་དུ་གནས་པ། being in possession of a sound mind
[5]མ་ནིང་སོགས་མིན་པ། being neither an eunuch nor a hermaphrodite.

The three features of a person.
[1]མི་ཡིན་པ། being a person
[2] ཤེས་པ་རང་བཞིན་དུ་གནས་པ། having sound mind
[3] འདོད་ཁམས་པའི་ས་པ་ཡིན་པ། living in the desire realm.

[Catvāri bhedāḥ]/ The four types of differences; the four separate existences.
[1] རང་ལྔོག་ཐ་དད་པ། separate self-reversed identity
[2] ངོ་བོ་ཐ་དད་པ། separate nature
[3] རིགས་ཐ་དད་པ། separate family or class
[4] རྫས་ཐ་དད་པ། separate substantial entity.

The five fetters with respect to the last realm (also called,
ཐ་མའི་ཆ་མཐུན་གྱི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ལྔ་།); the five fetters that bind one in the desire realm.
[1-3]མཐོང་སྤང་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་གསུམ། the three constant letters to be abandoned on the path of seeing (see- ༼མཐོང་སྤང་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་གསུམ༽).
[4] འདོད་པ་ལ་འདུན་པ།[kāmacchanda]/ admiration for sensual objects
[5] གནོད་སེམས། [vyāpāda]/ malicious thought.

The ordinary death; natural death.

Compulsive attraction to ordinary appearances. The idea of oneself as an ordinary person which must be abandoned through generating divine pride in the practice of deity yoga in order to produce divine vision and pride.

[Upāya maṇḍala]/ The method [maṇḍala]. The [maṇḍala]s representing paths:
[1] རྡུལ་མཚོན་གྱི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། sand powdered [maṇḍala]
[2] རས་བྲིས་ཀྱི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། [maṇḍala] painted on cloths
[3] ཚོམ་བུའི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། heaped up [maṇḍala] (this could be just a heap of sand, grains, stones or metal erected for the purpose of representing a [maṇḍala]).

[Upāya yāna]/ The method vehicle. The tantric path is known as the method vehicle due its four special features (see- ༼གསང་སྔགས་ཀྱི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི༽) that makes it superior in comparison to the perfection vehicle.

The twelve skillful means of a Bodhisattva.
[1] སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་སྙིང་རྗེ་དང་ལྔན་པ། he is compassionate towards all beings
[2] རང་བཞིན་ཇི་ལྟ་བ་བཞིན་མཁྱེན་པ། he knows their nature as it is
[3] བླ་མེད་བྱང་ཆུབ་མངོན་དུ་བྱེད་འདོད་པ། he aspires to attain supreme enlightenment
[4] འཁོར་བ་མི་གཏོང་བ། he does not release himself from cyclic existence
[5] ཉོན་མོངས་ཅན་མ་ཡིན་པས་འཁོར་བར་འཁོར་བ། he is able to take repeated rebirths in cyclic existence because he is not under the sway of delusions
[6] འཚང་རྒྱ་འདོད་པས་བརྩོན་འགྲུས་འབར་བ། he strives hard for the attainment of Buddhahood
[7] དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་ཆུང་རྣམས་ཚད་མེད་པར་སྒྱུར་བར་བྱེད་པ། he transforms minor roots of virtue into immeasurable virtue
[8] དཀའ་ཚེགས་ཆུང་ངུས་དགེ་རྩ་ཆེན་པོ་འགྲུབ་པར་བྱེད་པ། he accumulates enormous virtue with little effort
[9] བསྟན་པ་ལ་འགྲན་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱི་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་འཇོམས་པར་བྱེད་པ། he pacifies anger in those wishing to harm Buddha's doctrine
[10] བར་མར་གནས་པ་རྣམས་བསྟན་པ་ལ་འཛུད་པར་བྱེད་པ། he turns the minds of those indifferent to the doctrine
[11] ཞུགས་པ་རྣམས་སྨིན་པར་བྱེད་པ། he matures the minds of those
engaged in the teachings
[12] སྨིན་པ་རྣམས་གྲོལ་བར་བྱེད་པ། he liberates those who are matured.

The knowledge of the basis near to the resultant mother due to skill in means.

The ten trainings in skillful means. The special qualities of a Bodhisattva on the three pure grounds—the eighth, ninth and tenth.
[1] བདུད་བཞི་ལས་རྒྱལ་བའི་་སྦྱོར་བ། victonous from the four demons (see- ༼བདུད་བཞི༽)
[2] དོམ་དམ་པར་མི་གནས་ཤིང་ཐ་སྙད་དུ་གནས་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། abides in relative state and not in ultimate
[3] གཞན་དོན་སྔོན་གྱི་སྨོན་ལམ་གྱིས་འཕེན་པར་བྱེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། projects the fulfilment of others' goals through the power of past prayers
[4] ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། uncommon trainings
[5] ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་བདེན་པར་རང་བཞིན་མེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། apprehension of the lack of truly existent or the inherent nature of all phenomena
[6] བདེན་པར་མི་དམིགས་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། lack of grasping at true existence
[7] མཚན་མ་མེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། grasping at signs of true existence
[8] སྨོན་པ་མེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། lack of truly existent aspiration
[9] ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག་བཞི་ལས་གྲོལ་བའི་རྟགས་ཀྱི་སྦྱོར་བ། has four irreversible signs
[10] རྟོགས་པ་ཚད་མེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། has immeasurable insight into realizations.

The knowledge of the basis distant from the resultant mother due to lack of skill in means.

The union of method and wisdom. The union of the mind of enlightenment and emptiness as method and wisdom respectively.

[Mūlasarvāstivāda] School. One of the eighteen Hinayana schools. They assert all phenomena as included in the five categories (see- ༼གཞི་ལྔ༽), recite [sūtra]s in Sanskrit, their abbots are necessarily those belonging to the king's lineage, their multi-patched yellow upper shawl bears a wheel or lotus symbol, their [bikṣus] bear surnames with bhadra or Hridhya, they assert the three times as substantially existent, and they propound that through meditation on the selflessness of person and the accumulation of merits for three countless aeons an individual gains full enlightenment. There are seven sub-schools of this tradition (see- ༼གཞི་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོད་པར་སྨྲ་བའི་སྡེ་པ་བདུན༽).

[Mokṣa]/ [nirvāṇa]; state of liberation. Freedom from the sufferings of cyclic existence through overcoming the obscurations to liberation (༼ཉོན་སྒྲིབ༽). A state of peace, and the primary goals of the [ṡrāvakas] and Pratyeka buddhas.

The eight types of logical pervasion.
[1] རྗེས་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ། correct subsequent pervasion (see- ༼རྗེས་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ༽)
[2] རྗེས་ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག wrong subsequent pervasion (see- ༼རྗེས་ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག༽)
[3] ཐུར་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ། correct downwards pervasion (see- ༼ཐུར་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ༽)
[4] ཐུར་ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག wrong downward pervasion (see- ༼ཐུར་ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག༽)
[5] ལྡོག་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ། correct counter pervasion (see- ༼ལྡོག་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ༽)
[6] ལྡོག་ཁྱབ་ཕཡན་ཅི་ལོག wrong counter pervasion (see- ༼ལྡོག་ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག༽)
[7] འགལ་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ། correct contrary pervasion (see- ༼ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ༽)
[8] འགལ་ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག wrong contrary pervasion (see- ༼ཁྱབ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག༽).

[prāsaṅgika] School; the consequentialists. A school of Madhyamika philosophy regarded as the highest of all Buddhist schools of philosophy representing Buddha [ṡākyamuni]'s ultimate view of reality. This school asserts not only the lack of true existence of all phenomena but also their lack of inherent or natural existence and establishes dependent origination and emptiness as mutually inclusive. [nāgārjuna] followed by [buddhapālita] and [candrakīrti] are considered the proponents of this school.

[Bindu]/ [ṡukra]/ Drop; essential drop, the seed for generating great bliss in the tantric practice of the male and female regerative fluid.

The white and red drops; the white seminal drops and red seminal drops of the father and mother respectively.

The three kinds of Buddha's teachings resulting from his
mental blessing. Teachings through:
[1] བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་བྱིན་གྱིས་བརླབ་པའི་བཀའ། the blessings of concentration
[2] སྙིང་རྗེའི་བྱིན་གྱིས་བརླབས་པའི་བཀའ། the blessings of compassion
[3] ཆོས་ཉིད་ཀྱིས་བྱིན་གྱིས་བརླབས་པའི་བཀའ། the blessings of reality.

[Citta maṇḍala]/ The Mind Mandala. The divine [maṇḍala] visualized and retained in concentration meditation.

The five types of minds of a Buddha. According to the

Nyingma tradition these are:
[1] མི་རྟོག་ཆེན་པོའི་ཐུགས། great non-conceptual mind
[2] མཉམ་པ་ཆེན་པོའི་ཐུགས། the great balanced mind
[3] འགྲོ་བ་གྲོལ་བའི་ཐུགས། the mind for liberating sentient beings
[4] མི་ཕྱེད་རྡོ་རྗེའི་ཐུགས། the indestructible adamantine mind
[5] མངོན་བྱང་གི་ཐུགས། the totally enlightened mind.

The three—heart, tongue and eye balls. Some of the highly realized masters leave their heart, tongue and eye balls untouched by fire at their cremation as a source of inspiration and devotion, symbolizing their blessings of body, speech and mind as relics for their followers.

The words of truth blessed by Buddha's mind. A type of teaching blessed by Buddha which can be heard from trees, sky, rays of lights, music, etc.

The six-session guru yoga. The practice of the generation and completion stage yogas, technically to be done in six sessions of a day—dawn, morning, afternoon, evening, early night and late night. In the Gelug tradition, it is often recognized as a text of daily commitment after having received initiation into the highest class of tantra.

The uncommon [sambhogakāya maṇḍala]. A practice of [maṇḍala] offering made to one's spiritual master visualizing him or her as being a Sambhogakaya Buddha residing within a fully adorned Buddha field surrounded by an infinite number of goddesses.

The four common transmissions.
[1]ཕྱག་ཆེན་གྱི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of [mahāmudra]
[2]ཕ་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of father tantra

[3]མ་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of mother tantra
[4] འོད་གསལ་གྱི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of clear light.

[Aṣṭa sādhārana siddhayaḥ]/ The eight common powerful attainments; the eight common feats; the eight siddhis common to both Buddhist and Hindu traditions. According to Buddhist tantra, these are believed to be the external signs of maturing the completion stage practices.
[1] རིལ་བུའི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of pills

[2]མིག་སྨན་གྱི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of eye lotion
[3] ས་འོག་གི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of travelling underground
[4] རལ་གྲིའི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of the sword
[5] ནམ་མཁར་འཕུར་པའི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of flying-in-the-sky
[6] མི་སྣང་བའི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of invisibility
[7] འཆི་བ་མེད་པའི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of immortality
[8] ནད་འཇོམས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་དངོས་གྲུབ། siddhi of healing sickness.

The three common vehicles. According to the Nyingma tradition these are:
[1] ཉམ་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཤེག་པ། the Hearer's vehicle [2] རང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་ཐེག་པ། Solitary Realizer's vehicle
[3] བྱང་སེམས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། the Bodhisattva's vehicle.

The common [nirmāṇakāya maṇḍala]. A practice of [maṇḍala] offering in which one visualizes all the excellent riches of gods and human beings, roots of virtues and resources in the form of the [maṇḍala] articles and are offered to one's own spiritual master visualizing him or her as being a [nirmāṇakāya] Buddha.

also/ དབང་ཕྱུག་བརྒྱད།
The eight common features of glory; the eight qualities or siddhis common to worldly feats.
[1] གཟུགས་ཕྲ་བའི་ཡོན་ཏན། subtle physical form
[2] གཟུགས་རགས་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན། gross physical form
[3] ཡང་བའི་ཡོན་ཏན། weighing little
[4] ཁྱབ་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན། pervasive
[5] ཡང་དག་པར་ཐོབ་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན། perfect attainments
[6] རབ་ཏུ་གལས་བའི་ཡོན་ཏན། perfect luminosity
[7] བརྟན་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན། ever-firm
[8] འདོད་རྒུ་འབྱུང་བའི་ཡོན་ཏན། fulfillment of all wishes.

The common protection wheel. The meditation and visualization of a protection wheel common to all the four classes of tantra.

The four exclusive transmissions.
[1] གཏུམ་མོའི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of psychic heat
[2] སྒྱུ་ལུས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of the illusory body
[3] འོད་གསལ་གྱི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of clear light
[4] ཕོ་བ་དང་བར་དོའི་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of consciousness transference and the intermediate state yoga.

The eight uncommon features of glory; the eight qualities or siddhis uncommon to Tathagatas.
[1] སྐྱའི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of body
[2] གསུང་གི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of speech
[3] ཐུགས་ཀྱི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of mind
[4] འཕྲུལ་ལས་གྱི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of virtuous energy.
[5] རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of miracles
[6] ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བའི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of universal appearance
[7] གནས་ཀྱི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of abode
[8] ཅི་འདོད་ཀྱི་ཡོན་ཏན། quality of wish-fulfillment.

The thirty-nine qualities exclusive to the Omniscient Mind.
[1-10]སྟོབས་བཅུ། [dasa balāni]/ the ten powers (see- ༼དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྟོབས་བཅུ༽)
[11-14] མི་འཇིགས་པ་བཞི། [catvāri vaiṡāradyāh]/the four fearlessnesses (see-
[15-18] སོ་སོར་ཡང་དག་པར་རིག་པ་བཞི། [catvа_ri pratides'anīyāḥ]the four specific perfect understandings (see- ༼སོ་སོར་ཡང་དག་རིག་པ་བཞི༽)
[19-36] ཆོས་མ་འདྲིས་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད།[aṣṭādaṡāveṇika dharmāḥ]/ the eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (see- ༼མ་འདྲེས་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽)
[37-39] རྣམ་མཁྱེན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ། the three exclusive qualities of the Omniscient Mind itself:
[1] དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པ། the aspect of suchness
[2] རང་བྱུང་གི་རྣམ་པ། the aspect of spontaneity
[3] སངས་རྒྱས་ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པ། the aspect of the fully enlightened being himself.

Intervals between meditation sessions; post-meditational periods.

The four session yoga. The meditation practiced in the four sessions of a day:
[1]ཐོ་རངས། early dawn
[2] སྔ་དྲོ། morning [З] ཉིན་གུང་། day time (afternoon)
[4] སྲོད། dusk.

Downward pervasion. The pervasion that whatever is that predicate is the reason in a logical syllogism.

Correct downward pervasion. The pervasion that whatever is the predicate is the reason in a logical syllogism. Synonymous with downward pervasion (see- ༼ཐུར་ཁྱབ༽)

Wrong downward pervasion. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the predicate is not the reason.

The downward moving wind; One of the five principal energy-winds (see- ༼རྩ་བའི་རླུང་ཨཱིང༽) that control the lower sphincter muscles, holding and discharging faeces, urine, semen and menstrual blood.

[Tri viciktsā]/ The three types of doubt.
[1] དོན་འགྱུར་གྱི་ཐེ་ཚོམ། doubt inclining towards fact/ factual doubt
[2] དོན་མི་འགྱུར་གྱི་ཐེ་ཚོམ། doubt inclining away from fact/ non-factual doubt
[3] ཆ་མཉམ་པའི་ཐེ་ཚོམ། evently balanced doubt.

[Mahāyāna]/ The Greater Vehicle. The Bodhisattva vehicle leading to full enlightenment and is superior in seven ways (see ༼ཆེན་པོ་བདུན༽) from the lower vehicles of the Hearers and Solitary Realizers. It has two types:
[1] ཕར་ཕྱིན་ཐེག་པ། the perfection vehicle
[2] སྔགས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། the secret mantrayana vehicle.

[Mahāyāna pratipatti bhāvanā mārga]/ The [mahāyāna] path of meditation of achievement. The uncontaminated [mahāyāna] path of meditation which is a cause for the attainment of the realizations of the first to the tenth level ofthe Bodhisattva's path.

[Mahāyāna bhavanā mārga karaṇa]/ The function of the
[mahāyāna] path of meditation; the benefits derived through meditation on the [mahāyāna] path of meditation.

The thirteen achievements of [mahāyāna]; the thirteen trainings of the [mahāyāna] path:
[1-4] ངེས་འབྱེད་ཆ་མཐུན་བཞི། the four levels of the path of preparation (see- ༼ངེས་འབྱེད་ཆ་མཐུན་བཞི༽)
[5] མཐོང་ལམ། path of seeing
[6] སྒོམ་ལམ། path of meditation
[7] གཉེན་པོའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement through antidotes
[8] སྤོང་པའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement through elimination
[9] དེ་དག་ཡོངས་སུ་གཏུགད་པའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement through forsaking discrimination between antidotes and abandonments
[10] ཤེས་རབ་སྙིང་བརྩེའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement through the unity of wisdom and compassion
[11] སློབ་མ་ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement for uncommon practitioners
[12] གཞན་དོན་གོ་རིམ་དུ་བྱེད་པའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement through persistently working for the welfare of others
[13] ཡེ་ཤེས་རྩོལ་བ་མི་མངའ་བའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement through effortless wisdom.

The five eyes (see- ༼སྤན་ལྔ༽) that are the cause for engaging independently in the [mahāyāna] path of achievements.

The three aims of [mahāyāna] achievements.
[1] སེམས་དཔའ་ཆེན་པོ། [mahāsattva]/ greatness of thought
[2] སྤོང་བ་ཆེན་པོ། [mahāprahāṇa]/greatness of elimination
[3] རྟོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ། [adlṅgamamahattva]/greatness of insights.

The eleven objects of observation of the [mahāyāna] achievements.
[1] དགེ་བ། [kuṡala]/ wholesome phenomena
[2] མི་དགེ་བ། [akuṡala]/ unwholesome phenomena
[3] ལུང་མ་བསྟན། [avyākṛta]/ unspecified phenomena
[4] འཇིག་རྟེན་པ། [lokika]/worldly phenomena
[5] འཇིག་རྟེན་ལས་འདས་པ། [lokottara]/transworldly phenomena
[6] ཟག་བཅས། [sāsrava]/ contaminated phenomena
[7] ཟག་མེད། [anāsrava]/ uncontaminated phenomena
[8] འདུས་བྱས། [saṁskṛta]/ conditioned phenomena
[9] འདུས་མ་བྱས། [asaṁskṛta]/ unconditioned phenomena
[10] ཐུན་མོང་བ། [sādhāraṇa]/ common qualitites
[11] ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པ། [asādhāraṇa]/ uncommon qualities.

[Mahāyāna ārya]/ A [mahāyānist] Noble Being; a [mahāyāna ārya] A practitioner of the greater vehicle on or above the path of seeing who has gained direct insight into emptiness.

[[mahāyāna]dhimukti bhavana marga]/ [mahāyāna] path of meditation of belief. The [mahāyāna] path of meditation that is believed to be the source of fulfilling the purpose of self, others and both.

The [mahāyāna] precepts or vows. An ordination of the [mahāyāna] tradition normally accepted for twenty hours during special occasions in the presence of a master or an image of the Buddha, taken by both lay and ordained Buddhists. This entails generating the mind of enlightenment and pledging to follow the footsteps of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of the past in accordance with the ritual text of this ordination. On top of not eating meat, there are eight precepts to be observed (see- ༼བསྙེན་གནས་ཡན་ལག་བཞི༽) conjoined with the motive of enlightenment.

The four wheels of the supreme vehicle; the four essential factors for a Mahayanist practitioner.
[1] མཐུན་པར་གྱུར་བའི་ཡུལ་ན་གནས་པ། living in a conducive place
[2] སྐྱེ་བོ་དམ་པ་ལ་བརྟེན་པ། relying upon a holy person
[3] སྨོན་ལམ་བཏབ་པ། making prayers
[4] བསོད་ནམས་བསགས་པ། accumulating merits.

[Daṡa mahāyāna kalyāṇamitra guṇāḥ]/ The ten qualities of a [mahāyāna] spiritual master.
[1] ལྷག་པ་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་བསློབ་པས་དུལ་བ། in his higher training of discipline he is humble
[2] ལྷག་པ་ཏིང་ངེ་འཇིན་གྱི་བསླབ་པས་ཞི་བ། his higher training of concentration he is peaceful
[3] ལྷག་པ་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་བསླབ་པས་ཉེ་བར་ཞི་བ། in his higher training of wisdom he has pacified his ego
[4] ལུང་གི་ཡོན་ཏན་གྱིས་ཕྱུག་པ། he is rich in lineages and oral teachings
[5] སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་རྟོགས་པ། has realized emptiness
[6] སློབ་མ་ལས་ཡོན་ཏན་ལྷག་པ། he has higher qualities than his disciples
[7] སྨྲ་མཁས་པ། he is skillful in teaching
[8] བརྩེ་བ་དང་ལྡན་པ། he is compassionate
[9] བརྩོན་འགྲུས་དང་ལྔན་པ། he is hard working
[10] འཁོར་བ་ལ་སྐྱོ་ངལ་བསྐྱེད་དུ་བཅུག་པ། he inspires aversion of cyclic existence.

The two vehicles.
[1] ཐེག་ཆེན། [[mahāyāna]]/ the greater vehicle
[2] ཐེག་དམན། Hinayana/ the smaller vehicle.
1. རྒྱུ་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ཐེག་པ། the causal perfection vehicle
2. འབྲས་བུ་གསང་སྔགས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། the resultant mantra vehicle.

The nine vehicles; the nine paths (see- ༼རྙིང་མའི་ཐེག་པ་རིམ་པ་དགུ༽).

[triyāna]/ The three vehicles; the three causal vehicles.
1. སྙན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ། [ṡrāvaka yāna]/ Hearer's vehicle
2. རང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་ཐེག་པ། [pratyekabuddha yāna]/ Solitary Realizer's vehicle
3. ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་ཐེག་པ། [mahāyāna]/ Greater vehicle.

[hīnayāna]/ Lower vehicle; the lesser vehicle. Path followed by [ṡrāvakas] and Pratekya Buddhas which leads to the attainment of liberation from cyclic existence.

[dvi hīnayāna arhat]/ The two Arhats of the lower vehicle.
1. ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་མི་སློབ་པ། Arhat of the Hearer vehicle
2. རང་སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མི་སློབ་པ། Arhat of the Solitary realizer's vehicle.

[aṣṭa hīnayāna bhūmayaḥ]/ The eight spiritual grounds of the lower vehicle.
1. དཀར་པོ་རྣམ་པར་མཐོན་པའི་ས། [ṡukla vidarṡanā bhūmi]/ the ground of seeing virtuous dharma
2. རིགས་ཀྱི་ས། [gotra bhūmi]/ the ground the family
3. བརྒྱད་པའི་ས། [aṣṭamaka bhūmi]/ the eighth ground
4. མཐོང་པའི་ས། [darṡana bhūmi]/ the ground of seeing
5. བསྲབས་པའི་ས། [tanū bhūmi]/ the ground of subtleness
6. འདོད་ཆགས་དང་བྲལ་བའི་ས། [vigata rāga bhūmi]/ the ground free of attachment
7. བྱས་པ་སྲུགས་པའི་ས། [kṛtāvi bhūmi]/ the ground of protecting deeds
8. བྱས་པ་རྟོགས་པའི་ས། [kṛtāvi samaya bhūmi]/ the ground of realizing deeds.

The unchangeable phenomenon; the permanent existents.

[anavarāgraṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of that which is without beginning or end. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽), the emptiness of the beginninglessness and endlessness of cyclic existence.

[ārya Asaṇga]. The brother of Vasubandhu and the founder of the [cittamātrin] school of thought. He was the pioneer of the lineage of extensive deeds (rgya-chen spyod-rgyud) and is famous for bringing the Five Wort ofMaitreya (see ༼བྱམས་ཆོས་སྡེ་ལྔ༽) from Tusita heaven. His works include the Five Treatises of Asanga (see ༼ས་སྡེ་ལྔ༽) and the Two Compendiums (see ༼སྡོམ་རྣམ་གཉིས༽).

Tangible objects; obstructive things.

[ṡruta cintā bhāvanā]/ The threefold practice of study, contemplation and meditation.

A human from a remote place. To be born as a barbarian or among men dwelling in a country far from the place of the eight conducive factors (see ༼དལ་བ་བརྒྱད༽) preventing the practice of religion.

The two extremes. A.
1. རྟག་མཐའ། [nityānta]/ extreme of eternalism
2. ཆད་མཐའ། [ucchedānta]/ extreme of nihilism.
1. སྲིད་པ་འཁོར་བའི་མཐའ། extreme of cyclic existence— [saṁsara]
2. ཞི་བ་མྱང་འདས་ཀྱི་མཐའ། extreme of peace— [nirvāṇa]
1. ཡོད་མཐའ། [astyanta]/ extreme of existence
2. མེད་མཐའ། [ananta]/ extreme of non-existence.
1. བཟང་མཐའ། extreme of good
2. ངན་མཐའ extreme of evil.

A. The four extreme beliefs in the inherent existence:
1. བདག་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ། [ātmaja]/ production from self
2. གཞན་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ [paraja]/ production from others
3. གཉིས་ཀ་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ། [ubhayaja]/ production from both
4. རྒྱུ་མེད་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ། [akāraṇaja]/ production without causes.
B. The four ends:
1. སྐྱེས་མཐའ་འཆི་བ། death as the end of birth
2. འདུས་མཐའ་བྲལ་བ། separation as the end of meeting
3. བསགས་མཐའ་འཛད་པ། exhaustion as the end of accumulation
4. མཐོ་མཐའ་སླུཨུུང་བ། downfall as the end of an elevated position.
С. The four extremes:
1. ཡོད་མཐའ། extreme of existence
2. མེད་མཐའ། extreme of non-existence
3. གཉིས་ཀའི་མཐའ། extreme of being both
4. གཉིས་མིན་གྱི་མཐའ། extreme of being neither.

[atyanta ṡūnyatā]/ That emptiness of that which is beyond extremes. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽), the emptiness of reality free of the two extremes—the extreme of existence and non-existence.

The nine meditative absorptions existing in series.
1-4. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི། [catvāri dhyāna samāpattayaḥ]/ the four types of meditative absorptions of the form realm (see ༼བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྙོམས་ཇུག་བཞི༽) 5-8. གཟུགས་མེད་ཀྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི། [catvāri arūpa samāpattayaḥ]/ the four types of meditative absorptions within the formless realms (see ༼གཟུགས་མེད་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི༽)
9. འགོག་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [nirodha samāpatti]/ the meditative absorption of cessation.

[anupūrva prayoga]/ The Serial Training. A Bodhisattva's wisdom which through serial meditation upon the 173 aspects of the three wisdoms (the basis, path and resultant wisdom) gains firm understanding of these aspects.

[tridaṡa anupūrva prayoga lakṣanāni]/ The thirteen topi charactesed by serial training. 1-6. ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུ་གི་མཐར་གྱིས་སྦྱོར་བ།
The serial training of the six perfections (see ༼ཕར་ཕྱིན་དྲག༽)
7-12. རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ་དྲུག་གི་མཐར་གྱིས་སྦྱོར་བ། the serial training of the six recollections (see ༼རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ་དྲུག༽)
13. ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་མེད་རྟོགས་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། the serial training understanding the lack of true entity.

The way in which Buddha finally attained Perfect Enlightenment. After accumulating merits for three countless aeons, he attained complete enlightenment in the celestial abode known as [akaniṣṭa], the Heaven Beneath None, in the name of Buddha Indraketudhvaja (dbang-po-tog) and displayed his attainment of enlightenment at Bodhgaya. This is the view of the Descent into Lanka [sūtra] (lankavatara).

The extreme view. An extreme view of nihilism that takes the self from the view of the transitory collection (see ༼ལྗིགས་ལྟ༽) as its object and apprehends it as being permanent or non-capable of connecting to subsequent rebirth. The function of such a view hinders the realization of the middle way path.

The ultimate elusory body. The attainment of the state of union of a no-more learner, i.e. the sambhogakaya being of a Buddha by means of severing the karma and delusion through the force of the spontaneously born wisdom of the clear light mind ('od-gsal lhan-cig skyes-pa'i ye-shes).

The three qualities of the ultimate result or fruit.
1. ངོ་བོ་ཀ་ནས་དག་པ་རིག་སྟོང་དབྱེར་མེད། the inseparability of intuitive awareness and emptiness as the primordial nature
2. རང་བཞིན་ལྷུན་གྱིས་གྲུབ་པ་གལས་སྟོང་དབྱེར་མེད། the inseparability of clarity and emptiness as the spontaneous reality
3. ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཀུན་ལ་ཁྱབ་པ་སྣང་སྟོང་དབྱེར་མེད། the inseparability of appearance and emptiness as the all pervading compassion.

The five favourable conditions. The five-fold conditions required of someone wishing to accept ordination as a monk or nun.
1. ཡུལ་མཆོག་གསུམ་དང་མཁན་སློབ་བཞུགས་པ་དང་།
the presence of the Three Jewels, abbot and masters as the object of receiving ordination and not forsaking vows already received

2. ཚིག་སྔ་མ་སྔོན་དུ་སོང་བ། having already made a personal request

3. རྟགས་སྐྲ་དང་ཁ་སྤུ་བྲེགས་ཤིང་ཡོ་བྱད་ཚང་བ། possession of all the necessary articles required of an ordained person, and having a shaved head and beard as the signs
4. བསམ་པ་རྒྱུ་དུས་ཀྱི་ཀུན་སློང་དང་ལྡན་ཞིང་ངེས་འབྱུང་གི་བསམ་པས་ཟིན་པ།
one's mind being conjoined with the thought of renunciation, as the motivation.
5. ཆོ་ག་སྦྱོར་དངོས་མཇུག་གསུམ་ཚང་བ། conducting the rituals in its entirety from the preliminary to the conclusion.

[sapta svargaguṇ_aḥ]/ The seven qualities of higher rebirth.
1. རིགས་བཟང་བ། [kulaguṇa]/ better family-lineage
2. གཟུགས་མཛེས་པ། [rūpaguṇa]/ attractive physical features
3. ཚེ་རིང་བ། [cirāyuroguṇa]/ long life
4. ནད་མེད་པ། [arogaguṇa]/ good health
5. སྐལ་བ་བཟང་བ། [saubhāgyaguṇa]/ good fortune
6. ནོར་ཕྱུག་པ། wealthy
7. ཤེས་རབ་ཆེ་བ། [prajсaguṇa]/ good wisdom.

The five paths bestowing peace in this life.
1. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས་ཀྱི་དངོས་གཞིའི་སྙིམས་འཇུག the actual meditative absorption of infinite space
2. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས་ཀྱི་དངོས་གཞིའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག the meditative absorption of infinite consciousness
3. ཅི་ཡང་མེད་ཀྱི་དངོས་གཞིའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག the actual meditative absorption of nothingness
4. སྲི་རྩེའི་དངོས་གཞིའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག the actual meditative absorption of the peak of existence
5. འགོག་པའི་རྣམ་ཐར། the actual meditative absorption of emancipation in cessation.

[dṛṣṭi prāpta]/ One who has attained the correct view; a devotee by reason.

The three constant fetters to be abandoned on the path of seeing.
1. འཇིག་ལྟ་ཀུན་བཏགས། satkaya dr.s.t.i/ intellectual view of the transitory collection
2. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་དང་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་མཆོག་འཛིན། [ṡīlavrataparamārṡa]/ holding bad ethics and discipline to be superior
3. ཐེ་ཚེམ་ཉོན་མོངས་ཅན། [kliṣṭavicikitsā]/ deluded doubt.

The nine conceptions of grasping at the objects of
engagement to be abandoned on the path of seeing. Grasping

1. ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་ལམ་འབྲས་སྤྱི་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the general

[mahāyāna] paths and fruits
2. ཐེག་ཆེན་ལམ་གྱི་ངོ་བོ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the nature of the [mahāyāna] paths
3. ཐེག་ཆེན་ལམ་གྱི་མི་མཐུན་ཕྱོགས་སེལ་བའི་ནུས་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the power to
eliminate negative forces from the [mahāyāna] paths
4. གཞན་དོན་བྱེད་པ་པོའི་ནུས་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the power of the persons who work for the welfare of others
5. གཞན་དོན་བྱ་བའི་འབྲས་བུ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the results of benefiting others
6. ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་རིགས་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the [mahāyāna] lineage
7. ཐེག་ཆེན་ལམ་གྱི་ཡུལ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the objects of the [mahāyāna] paths
8. ལམ་གྱི་འབྲས་བུ་རང་དོན་ལ་དམིགས་པ།
the personal benefit which is the result of the paths
9. གཞན་དོན་བྱ་བའི་ལས་ལ་དམིགས་ནས་བདེན་གྲུབ་ཏུ་ཞེན་པ། activities for benefiting others. The mode of grasping is conceiving those practices as being truly existent objects to be cultivated.

The nine conceptions of grasping at the imputed objects to be eliminated on the path of seeing. The grasping at:
1. འབྲས་བུ་དོན་དུ་གཉེར་བྱ་མི་ཐོབ་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། fruits wnich are
impossible to attain
2. ལམ་ལ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག་ཏུ་ཞེན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། wrong apprehension of the paths
3. དགག་སྒྲུབ་བདེན་པར་འཛིན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། truly existent negative and positive
4. ཆོས་ལྡན་མི་ལྡན་བདེན་པར་འཛིན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། truly existent phenomena with or without qualities
5. གནས་ལུགས་ཀྱི་དོན་བདེན་པར་འཛིན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། truly existent conceptions of the mode of reality
6. ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་ལམ་དང་འགལ་བ་དམན་པའི་རིགས་ཉམས་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the
degenerated lineage of the lower vehicle which contradicts the [mahāyāna] lineage
7. འབྲས་བུ་ཁྱད་པར་ཅན་ལ་དོན་གཉེར་མེད་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། persons not interested in the superior fruits
8. རྣམ་མཁྱེན་གྱི་རྒྱུ་ཤེར་ཕྱིན་གྱི་ཉམས་ལེན་མེད་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ།
persons lacking the practice of the perfection of wisdom that is a cause for producing omniscience
9. འགལ་རྐྱེན་བདུད་ལ་སོགས་པས་ཟིན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་ནས་བདེན་གྲུབ་ཏུ་ཞིན་པ། those
being seized by demons which are obstacles to one's practice. The mode of grasping is conceiving the person imputed by these nine practices as being truly existent.

The nine conceptions of grasping at the objects of elimination to be abandoned on the path of seeing. The grasping at:
1. ཉན་རང་གི་ལམ་འབྲས་རྟོགས་པ་དམན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the lesser path; results and insights of the Hearer's vehicle
2. བདག་རྐྱེན་ཡོངས་འཛིན་དམན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the lesser spiritual master who is the fundamental cause
3. གཞན་དོན་སྒྲུབ་པའི་ཐབས་དམན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the lesser means of fulfilling other's purpose
4. རང་དོན་སྒྲུབ་པའི་ཐབས་དམན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the lesser means of fulfilling one's own purpose
5. རང་གཞན་གཉིས་ཀའི་དོན་སྒྲུབ་པའི་ཐབས་དམན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the lesser means of fulfilling the purposes of both
6. སྤང་བྱ་དམན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the lesser objects of elimination
7. རྟགས་པ་དམན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། the lesser insights or realizations
8. ལམ་ཁྱད་པར་ཅན་མ་ཐོབ་པས་ཉམས་པ་ལ་དམགས་པ། the degeneration caused by the failure to attain superior paths
9. འབྲས་བུ་ཁྱད་པར་ཅན་མ་ཐོབ་པས་ཉམ་པ་ལ་མིགས་ནས་བདེན་གྲུབ་ཏུ་ཞེན་པ། the degeneration caused by the failure to attain superior fruits. The mode of grasping is conceiving those as being the truly existent objects of elimination.

The nine conceptions of grasping at the substantial objects to
be abandoned on the path of seeing Grasping at:
1. བླང་དོར་ལ་ཞེན་པ། those to be cultivated and abandoned
2. དེའི་ཀུན་སློང་ལ་ཞེན་པ། their motivation
3. དེའི་ཉེས་དམིགས་ལ་ཞེན་པ། their faults
4. དེ་དག་བདེན་པར་ཞེན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། their truly existent nature
5. དེ་དག་བདེན་མེད་དུ་ཞེན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་ པ! their lack of truly existent nature
6. བཏགས་པ་ཙམ་དུ་ཞེན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། their mere imputation
7. མི་མཐུན་ཕྱོགས་ལ་ཞེན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། their opposite aspects
8. གཉེན་པོ་ལ་ཞེན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་པ། their antidotes
9. འབྲས་བུ་རྣམ་མཁྱེན་ལས་མས་པ་ལ་ཞེན་པ་ལ་དམིགས་ནས་བདེན་གྲུབ་ཏུ་ཞེན་བ།
the degeneration from the resultant omniscient mind. The mode of grasping is by conceiving the persons engaged in those practices as being truly existent practitioners.

[darṡana bhūmi]/ The stage of seeing. One of the seven stages of a Hearer (see ༼ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ས་བདུན༽), the realization within the mental continuum of a person abiding on the level of fruit of the stream-winner, where the selflessness of person is cognized directly for the first time via a transworldly path.

[bhāvana mārga]/ The path of seeing. The third of the five paths to enlightenment, where a practioner cognizes reality directly for the first time.

[aṣṭa bhāvanā mārga dharmakṣāntayaḥ]/ The eight moments of forbearance of the path of seeing. These are the eight moments of wisdom of the path of seeing known as the uninterrupted paths (bar-chad med-lam, see mthong-lam shes-bzod skad-cig bcu-drug—the eight forbearances and subsequent forbearances connected to the four noble truths).

The eight moments of cognition of the path of seeing. These are the eight moments of wisdom of the path of seeing known as the path of thorough liberation (rnam-grol-lam, see mothong-lam shes-bzod skad-cig-ma bcu-drug—the eight cognitions and subsequent cognitions connected to the four noble truths).

The four conceptions to be abndoned on the peak training of the path of seeing. 1-2. གཟུང་རྟོག་གཉེས། two conceptual graspings at the object (see ༼གཟུང་རྟོག་གཉིས༽) 3-4. འཛིན་རྟོག་གཉིས1 two conceptual graspings at the subject (see ༼འཛིན་རྟོག་གཉིས༽).

[ṣoḍaṡa darṡanamārgakṣāḥ]/ The sixteen moments of cognition and forbearance of the path of seeing.
1. སྡུག་བསྔལ་ཆོས་བཟོད། [duḥkhe dharmakṣānti]/ forbearance with the reality of suffering
2. སྡུག་བསྔལ་ཆོས་ཤེས། [duḥkhe dharmajсānam]/ cognition of the reality of suffering
3. སྡུ|ག་བསྔལ་རྗེས་བཟོད། [duḥkhe 'nvayakṣānti]/ subsequent forbearance with suffering
4. སྡུག་བསྔལ་རྗེས་ཤེས། [duḥkhe 'nyayajсānam]/ subsequent cognition of suffering
5. ཀུན་འབྱང་ཆོས་བཟོད། [samudaye dharmakṣānti]/ forbearance with the reality of the origin of suffering
6. ཀུན་འབྱུང་ཆོས་ཤས། [samudaye dharmajсānam]/ cognition of the reality of the origin of suffering
7. ཀུན་འབྱུང་རྗེས་བཟོད། [samudaye 'nyayakṣānti]/ subsequent forbearance with the origin of suffering
8. ཀུན་འབྱུང་རྗེས་ཤས། [samudaye 'nvayajсānam]/ subsequent cognition of the origin of suffering
9. འགོག་པ་ཆོས་བཟོད། [nirodhe dharmakṣānti]/ forbearance with reality of the cessation of suffering
10. འགོག་པ་ཆོས་ཤེས། [nirodhe dharmajсānam]/ cognition of the reality of the cessation of suffering
11. འགོག་པ་རྗེས་བཟོད། [nirodhe 'nyayaakṣānti]/ subsequent forbearance with the cessation of suffering
12. འགོག་པ་རྗེས་ཤེས། [nirodhe anvayajсānam]/ subsequent cognition of the cessation suffering
13. ལམ་ཆོས་བཟོད། [mārge dharmakṣānti]/ forbearance with the reality of the path
14. ལམ་ཆོས་ཤེས། [mārge dharmajсānam]/ cognition of the reality of the path
15. ལམ་རྗེས་བཟོད། [mārge 'nyayakṣānam]/ subsequent forbearance with the path
16. ལམ་རྗེས་ཤེས། [mārge 'nvayajсānam]/ subsequent cognition of the path.

[dānaṡīla]/ An Indian pandit of the eighth century born in Kashmir. He was invited to Tibet during the reign of King Trisong Deutsan and made considerable contributions in the translation of Buddhist texts into Tibetan.

The state free from the two delusions, obstructions to liberation and omniscience; Buddhahood.

[catvāri pariṡuddhāḥ]/ The four punties; the four total purities of a Tathagata.
1. ལུས་དག་པ། pure body
2. དམིགས་པ་དག་པ། pure objectives
3. སེམས་དག་པ། pure mind
4. ཡེ་ཤེས་དག་པ། pure primordial wisdom.
1. གནས་དག་པ། pure abode
2. ལུས་དག་པ། pure body
3. ལོངས་སྦྱོད་དག་པ། pure resources
4. ཡེ་ཤེས་དག་པ། pure wisdom.

The three pure stages of Bodhisattva; the last three grounds of a Bodhisattva—the eigth, ninth and tenth, where he or she is totally free of pride.

[pariṡuddha māyakāya]/ The pure illusory body. One of the practices carried out in the completion stage practice of tantra. Meditating upon the illusory nature of the entire residence and resident [maṇḍala].

The three principles of purification, completion and ripening. A feature explained in the Nyingma tantra where each step of the generation stage practice is qualified by these three basic principles.

The way in which Buddha first generated the Bodhimind. A. According to the Hinayana tradition, Buddha [ṡākyamuni] first generated the mind of enlightenment in the presence of Buddha [ṡakya Mahāmuni] (sha-kya thub-chen). B. According to [mahāyāna] tradition, he first generated the Bodhimind while yoked to a chariot"in the hell realm; this follows the tradition of the [sūtra] called Repaying the Kindness.

The concentration of first union. One of the three concentrations of the generation stage practice. It is the first because the concentration of the principal male and female deities which become the origin or source of emanating all other deities of the [maṇḍala], take over the other two concentrations in series, and the unity of method and wisdom is inseparably maintained by this practice.

The three types of faith.
1. ཡིད་ཆེས་པའི་དད་པ། convinced faith
2. དང་བའི་དད་པ། pure faith
3. མངོན་འདོད་ཀྱི་དད་པ། longing faith.

The four types of faith.
1. ཡིད་ཆེས་པའི་དད་པ། convinced faith
2. དང་བའི་དད་པ། pure faith
3. མངོན་འདོད་ཀྱི་དད་པ། longing faith.
4. ཕྱིར་མི་ལྡོག་པའི་དད་པ། the irreversible faith.

[ṡraddha bala]/ The power of faith. One of the five powers of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see ༼བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན༽); an overwhelming faith in the three jewels free of any obstacles that oppose faith.

[ṡraddhā dhanam]/ The wealth of faith. One of the seven possessions of the noble ones (see ༼འཕགས་པའི་ནོར་བདུན༽); the convinced faith in the law of causality which helps turning one's mind towards the dharma; analogous to a precious wheel.

[ṡraddhendriya]/ Faculty of faith. One of the five faculties of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see ༼བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན༽); an overwhelming conviction in the four noble truths.

[ṡraddhā bhūmi]/ The ground of faith. The stage of a spiritual path where a practitioner is predominantly skillful in the practice of faith, efforts, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.

The six-fold supreme ways. The six fundamental ways of accomplishing the six perfections (see ༼ཕར་ཕྱིན་དྲུག༽). These are:
1. རྟེན་དམ་པ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། maintaining the mind of enlightenment as the fundamental basis
2. དངོས་པོ་དམ་པ་སྦྱིན་སོགས་ཕྱོགས་རེ་བ་མ་ཡོན་པར་གཞི་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་འཇུག་པ། engaging in all six perfections in an unbiased manner as the fundamental approach
3. ཆེད་དུ་བྱ་བ་དམ་པ་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་དོན་དུ་སྦྱོད་པ། working for the welfare of all sentient beings as the fundamental beneficiary of one's practices
4. ཐབས་དམ་པ་འཁོར་གསུམ་རྣམ་པར་མི་རྟོག་པའི་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱིས་ཟིན་པ། conjoining all one's practices with the thought of purity of the three factors (see ༼འཁོར་གསུམ་ཡོངས་སུ་དག་པའི་འཇུག་སྒྲུབ༽) through skillful wisdom as the fundamental means
5. ཡོངས་སུ་བསྔོ་བ་དམ་པ་བླ་མེད་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཏུ་བསྔོ་བ། dedicating all one's virtues to the attainment of the sublime state of enlightenment as the fundamental dedication
6. རྣམ་དག་དམ་པ་སྒྲིབ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་དངོས་གཉེན་དུ་སྤྱོད་པ། applying antidotal forces against the two types of delusions (see ༼སྒྲིབ་པ་གཉིས༽) as the fundamental purification.

The hundred supreme divinities. The one hundred deities according to Guhyasamaja meditation, visualized as the Victorious one's རྒྱལ་བའི་ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ་བ་དེ་གཤེགས་ལྔ། five aggregates as the five Tathagatas; ཁམས་བཞི་ཡུམ་བཞི། four elements as the four consorts; སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་སེམས་དཔའ་དྲུག six sources of perception as the six Bodhisattvas; ཡུལ་ལྔ་རྡོ་རྗེ་མ་ལྔ་། five objects of perception as the five Vajra Dakinis. Each of these twenty is further visualized into a class of five deities each making a cycle of one hundred deities in all.

[paсca samaya maṁsāḥ]/ The five fleshes of commitment.
1. མིའི་ཤ [manuṣya māṁsa]/ human flesh
2. གླང་པོ་ཆེའི་ཤ [hasti māṁsa]/ elephant flesh
3. བ་གླང་གི་ཤ [go māṁsa]/ ox flesh
4. ཁྱིའི་ཤ [kukkura māṁsa]/ dog flesh
5. རྟའི་ཤ [aṡva māṁsa]/ horse flesh.

[samayasattva]/ The commitment being. Generating oneself in the form of a deity according to the generation stage practice of tantra.

The threefold commitment beings. A. A type of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] images known as Dam-tshig sum-bkod, three samayas or pledges related to a Buddha's body, speech and mind (see ༼དམ་ཚིག་སེམས་དཔ།་ཡེ་ཤེས་སེམས་དཔའ་ཨནད་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་སེམས་དཔའ༽). B. The three commitments to be observed:
1. ཁྲིལ་མི་ཉལ་བ། not sleeping on an elevated bed
2. ཆང་མི་འཐུང་བ། not taking intoxicants
3. ཕྱག་རྒྱ་འདྲ་བ་མི་ཟ་བ། not consuming edible things made in the shape of the various implements of deities such as lotus, vajra, etc.

[paṭṭāṅka]/ Silk ribbons; tassels of silk threads that hang over the ears from a tantric ritual head-dress.

The eight leisures; the eight freedoms.
A. Four freedoms from the four fetters within human existence:
1. ལོག་ལྟ་ཅན་མ་ཡིན་པ། not holding wrong views
2. ཀླ་ཀློར་སྐྱེ་བ་མིན་པ། not born in a barbaric land
3. རྒྱལ་བའི་བཀའ་མེད་པའི་ཡུལ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་མིན་པ། not born in a place where Buddha has not appeared
4. གླེན་ལྷུགས་ཅན་མ་ཡིན་པ། not born as a mute or fool.
B. Four freedoms from the four fetters of non-human existence:
1. དམྱུལ་བར་སྐྱེ་བ་མིན་པ། not being a hell being
2. ཡི་དྭགས་སུ་སྐྱེ་བ་མིན་པ། not being a hungry ghost
3. དུད་འགྲོར་སྐྱེ་བ་མིན་པ། not being an animal
4. ལྷ་ཚེ་རིང་པོར་སྐྱེ་བ་མིན་པ། not being a long living god.

A fully endowed human rebirth. A human life which is characterized by the eight leisures (see ༼དལ་བ་བརྒྱད༽) and the ten endowments (see ༼སྦྱོར་བ་བཅུ༽) thus making it suitable for practising Dharma.

The three poisons; the three poisonous delusions.
1. འདོད་ཆགས། [rāga]/ desire-attachment
2. ཞེ་སྡང་། [krodha]/ hatred-anger
3. གཏི་མུག [moha]/ closed mindedness.

The eight adornments of an ascetic who dwells in a cemetery; the eight costumes of a cemetery Yogi.
1. མི་མགོའི་དབུ་རྒྱན། he is crowned with human skulls
2. མི་མགོའི་དོ་ཤལ། he wears a rosary of human heads carved in crystal
3.  གླང་ཆེན་གྱི་པགས་པའི་སྟོད་གཡོག he wears an elephant skin as an upper garment
4. ཞིང་ལྤགས་ཀྱི་གཡང་གཞི། he uses the skin of a human being who has committed heinous non-virtues as his skin
5. ཞག་གི་སོར་རིས། his forehead bears three greased lines horizontally and vertically
6. སྟག་སྤགས་ཀྱི་ཤམ་ཐབས། he wears a tiger skin as his lower garment
7. ཁྲག་གི་ཐིག་ལེ། he uses blood for the tilaka between his eyes
8. ཐལ་ཆེན་གྱི་ཚོམ་བུ། his body is covered with ashes.

[aṣṭa mahā ṡmaṡāna]/ The eight great cemeteries.
1. ཤར་དུ་གཏུ་དྲུག The Fiery One to the east
2. བྱང་དུ་ཚང་ཚིང་འཁྲིགས་པ། The Wilderness to the north
3. ནུབ་ཏུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་འབར་བ། The Vajra Fire to the west
4. ལྷོར་ཀེང་རུས་ཅན། The Skeleton Bound to the south
5. དབང་ལྡན་དུ་དྲག་ཏུ་རྒོད་པ། The Terrific Laugh to the north-east
6. མེར་བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཆལ། The Auspicious Garden to the south-east
7. བདེན་བྲལ་དུ་མུན་པ་དྲག་པོ། The Gloomy One to the south-west
8. རླུང་དུ་ཀི་ལི་ཀི་ལིའི་སྒྲ་སྒྲོག་པ། The One Pronouncing Ki-li Ki-li to the north-west.

[smṡānika]/ He who dwells in a cemetery; an ascetic dwelling in a cemetery. There are three types of such practitioners: the initial practitioner dwells in the remains of the former charnel ground, the intermediate in the temporary charnel ground and the advanced in the permanent charnel ground.

[kālacakra]/ A tantric deity belonging to the highest class of tantra. When referred to it as a tantra, it can be understood as having three levels. 1. the outer [kālacakra] comprising the universe 2. the inner [kālacakra] comprising the system of energy channels, winds and drops of the inhabitants of the universe 3. the alternative [kālacakra] comprising the residence and resident [kālacakra] [maṇḍala] and meditation on the energy-channel, winds and essential drops.

The eight precepts of a specific period (see ༼བསྙེན་གནས་ནན་ལག་བརྒྱད༽).

The four great festivals; the four holy occasions in Buddha's life.
1. དང་པོའི་ཡར་ངོ་ལ་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་དུས་ཆེན། the period when Buddha performed miracles from the 1st through 15th of the first Tibetan month
2. བཞི་པའི་བཙ་ལྔར་མངོན་པར་རྫོགས་པར་སངས་རྒྱས་པའི་དུས་ཆེན། the day when Buddha attained full enlightenment on the 15th of the fourth Tibetan month.
3. དྲུག་པའི་བཞི་ལ་ཆོས་འཁོར་བསྐོར་བསྡོར་པའི་འདུས་ཆེན། the day which Buddha turned the wheel of dotrine on the 4th of the sixth Tibetan month.
4. དགུ་པའི་ཉེར་གཉིས་ལ་ལྷ་བབས་དུས་ཆེན། the day which Buddha descended from Tusita heaven on the 22nd of the ninth Tibetan month.

The combination of three festivals. The 15th of the 4th Tibetan month celebrated as Buddha's entering into the womb of his mother for conception; complete enlightenment; and passing away into [parinirvāṇa].

The single instant of the end of time. According to Abhidharmkosa this is the period of time equivalent to one fraction of the sixty parts of a normal person's finger snap.

[kālāntarabhiprāya]/ Determining another time. Interpretive [sūtra] taught with reference to another time, e.g. the [sūtra] in which the Buddha taught, 'If you recite Sukhavati prayers you will immediately be born there', where the intention of the Buddha was that through proper practice of the precepts of the Buddha of the Blissful Realm, one may be born there in the future.

The four types of thatnesses; the four thatnesses of the Action tantra.
1. བདག་གི་དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉོད། thatness of self
2. སྔགས་ཀྱི་དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉེད། thatness of mantra
3. ལྷའི་དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད། thatness of the deity
4. བསམ་གཏན་བྱི་དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད། fatness of concentration.

[daṡatattva]/ The ten suchnesses (see ༼ནང་གི་དེ་ཉིད་བཅུ་ and ཕྱིའི་དེ་ཉིད་བཅུ@༽).

[Itivṛttika]/ Legendary teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories of Buddha's teachings reaching its audience through legends.

[samanantara pratyaya]/ Immediate condition. One of the four conditions (see ༼རྐྱེན་བཞི༽) which produce a cognition; that perception just preceding the actual understanding of an object.

[paсca tanmātrāṇi]/ The five mere existents. According to the Sanikhya school of Hindu philosophy all phenomena are included into six categories.
1. གཟུགས། [rūpa]/ form
2. སྒྲ། [ṡabda]/ sound
3. དྲི། [gaṅdha]/ smell
4. རོ། [rasa]/ taste
5. རེག་བྱ། spars'a/ object of touch.

The three suchnesses. According to The Compendium of Precepts ([abhidharma-samuccaya]), there is no difference in the suchness of all phenomena, however, due to the difference in their basis of existence there can be three suchnesses which are:
1. དགེ་བའི་དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད། suchness of virtues
2. མི་དགེ་བའི་དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད། suchness of non-virtues
3. ལུང་མ་བསྟན་གྱི་དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད། suchness of the unspecified phenomena.

The four Tathagatas.
1. རྒྱལ་བ་རིན་ཆེན་མང་། Jinaratnabahulya
2. གཟུགས་མཛེས་དམ་པ། [Jinasarūpottama]
3. སྐུ་འབྱམས་ཀླས། [Jinaru_pa-paryānta]
4. འཇིགས་བཐམས་ཅད་དང་བྲལ་བ། [Jinasarkāyavimuktasena].

[daṡa tathāgata balāni]/ The ten powers of a Buddha.
1. གནས་དང་གནས་མིན་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [sthānāsthāna jсāna balam]/ power of knowing right from wrong
2. ལས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པར་སྨིན་པ་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [karma vipāka jсana balam]/ power of knowing the consequences of actions
3. མོས་པ་སྣ་ཚོགས་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [nānādhimukti jсāna balam]/ power of knowing various mental inclinations
4. ཁམས་སྣ་ཚོགས་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [nānā dhātu jсāna balam]/ power of knowing various mental faculties
5. དབང་པོ་སྣ་ཚོགས་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [indriya varāvara jсāna balam]/ power of knowing various degrees of intelligence
6. ཐམས་ཅད་དུ་འགྲོ་བའི་ལམ་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབ། [sarvatra gāmam pratipaj jсāna balam]/ power of knowing the paths to all goals
7. ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [saṁkleṡa vyavadāna vyutthāna jсāna balam]/ power of knowing the ever-afflicted and purified phenomena
8. སྔོན་གྱི་གནས་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [pūrva nivāsānusmṛti jсāna balam]/ power of knowing past lives
9. འཆི་འཕོ་བ་དང་སྐྱེ་བ་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [cyutyutpatti jсana balam]/ power of knowing death and birth
10. ཟག་པ་ཟད་པ་མཁྱེན་པའི་སྟོབས། [āṡrava kṣaya jсāna balam]/ power of knowing the exhaustion of contaminations.

The meaning clear light. The transformation of the basic clear light mind into its final form through meditation; a completion stage practice of tantra

The two pledges concerning the Buddha Amoghasiddhi.
1. སྡོམ་པ་གསུམ་གྱི་བཅས་པ་མཐའ་དག་བསྲུང་བའི་དམ་ཚིག safeguarding all precepts of the three vows
2. མཆོད་པའི་དམ་ཚིག pledges concerning the practices of offering and worship.

Two purposes; two goals.
1. རང་དོན། the purpose of self
2. གཞན་དོན། the purpose of others.

The two types of ultimate truths.
1. རྣམ་གྲངས་པའི་དོན་དམ། the nominal ultimate truth
2. རྣམ་བྲངས་མ་ཡིན་པའི་དོན་དམ། the real ultimate truth.
1. མཐུན་པའི་དོན་དམ། the approximate ultimate truth
2. དོན་དམ་དངོས། the actual ultimate truth.
The three types of ultimate truth.
1. དོན་དོན་དམ་པ། [arthaparamārtha]/ ultimate meaning
2. ཐོབ་པ་དོན་དམ་པ། [prāptaparamārtha]/ ultimate accomplishment
3. སྒྲུབ་པ་དོན་དམ་པ། [siddhaparamārtha]/ ultimate practice.

[paramārtha satya]/ Ultimate truth. Generally referring to emptiness as opposed to the conventional phenomena.

[paramārtha ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of that which is ultimate. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the emptiness of [nirvāṇa].

[paramārtha ṡaraṇam]/ The ultimate object of refuge, i.e. the Buddha [ṡākyamuni].

The five characteristics of the ultimate truth; emptiness.
1. བརྗོད་དུ་མེད་པ། inexpressible
2. གཉིས་སུ་མེད་པ། non-dual
3. རྟོག་གེའི་ཡུལ་མིན་པ། not being an object of logicians
4. རོ་གཅིག་པ། single-taste
5. མཚན་ཉིད་མེད་པ། signiessness.

The ultimate protection wheel; meditation on the protection wheel by means of the primordial wisdom.

[arthasaptati]/ The Seventy Topics. The seventy divisions of the eight realizations or topics (see ༼དངོས་པོ་བརྒྱད༽).
1-10. རྣམ་མཁྱེན་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ། the ten topics that characterize the omniscient mind (see ༼རྣམ་མཁྱེན་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ༽)
11-21. ལམ་ཤེས་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ་གཅིག the eleven topics that characterize the knowledge of the paths (see ༼ལམ་ཤེས་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་དགུ༽) 22-30. གཞེ་ཤེས་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་དག the nine topics that characterize the knowledge of the basis (see ༼གཞི་ཤེས་མཏཧསོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་དགུ༽)
31-41. རྣམ་རྫོགས་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ་གཅིག the eleven topics that characterize the training of the complete aspects (see ༼རྣམ་རྫོགས་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ་གཅིག༽)
42-49. རྩེ་མོའི་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བརྒྱད། the eight topics that characterize the peak training (see ༼རྩེ་མོའི་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བརྒྱད༽)
50-62. མཐར་གྱིས་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ་གསུམ། the thirteen topics that characterize the serial training (see ༼མཐར་གྱིས་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཅུ་གསུམ༽)
63-66. སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཞི། the four topics that characterize the momentary training (see ༼སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཞི༽)
67-70. འབྲས་བུ་ཆོས་སྐུ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཞི། the four topics that characterize the resultant truth body (see ༼འབྲས་བུ་ཆོས་སྐུ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཞི༽).

Meaning generality; generic image. The image of an object in thought or idea, e.g. the vase as it would appear in the imagination.

[arthakriyāṡakti]/ A functioning thing; effective phenomena. The class of phenomena that has the ability or power to effect changes. Synonymous to impermanence.

[arthāntarābhiprāya]/ Determining another meaning; intending another meaning. Interpretive [sūtra] indicating another meaning, e.g. the [sūtra], 'all phenomena lack inherent existence', to those who accept inherent existence as their basic philosophy.

Meaning retention; retaining the meaning. Spiritual power of retaining the meaning of teachings that are received from the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, e.g. the practice of the Bodhisat-tva levels and the ten perfections. This may also mean the power to retain the specific or general meaning of all that exists.

[anavakāra ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of that which is not to be abandoned. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽); the lack of inherent existence of the reality of all phenomena which is neither to be abandoned nor discarded.

Dakpo Kagyud Tradition. The Kagyud tradition that comes from Marpa, Milarepa and Dagpo Lhaje (Gampopa); because this tradition flourished extensively during Dagpo Lhaje (1079-1153), the sun-like disciple of Milarepa, it is known as Dagpo Kagyud. A sub-school of Kagyud's mainstream.

[ṛṣi]/ A Sage (Rishi); Lit. 'the righteous one'. Ancient vedic masters and practitioners; [mahārṣi] is used as an epithet for Buddha.

[daṡa smṛtiayaḥ]/ The ten mindfulnesses (see ༼རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ་བཅུ༽).

[catvāri smṛtyūpasthānāḥ]/ The four close mindfulnesses; the four close contemplations. The four objects of mindfulness for mental quiescence meditation.
1. ལུས་དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ།
[kāya smṛtyūpasthāna]/ close contemplation of body
2. ཚོར་བ་དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་བ། [vedanā smṛtyūpasthāna]/ close contemplation of feelings
3. སེམས་དྲན་བཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ། [citta smṛtyūpasthāna]/ close contemplation of mind
4. ཆོས་དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ། [dharma smṛtyūpasthāna]/ close contemplation of Dharma.

The three mindfulnesses of a Buddha.
1. གདུལ་བྱ་གུས་པས་ཉན་པ་ལ་ཆགས་པ་མེད་པ། he has no attachment towards those who listen respectfully
2. གུས་པས་མི་ཉན་བ་ལ་སྡང་བ་མེད་པ། he has no hatred towards those who do not listen respectfully
3. འདྲེས་མར་འཇུག་པ་ལ་གཉིས་ཀ་མིན་པ། he has neither attachment nor hatred to those who listen him with mixed feeling.

The False Aspect ([cittamātrin]) School. A sub-school of the Mind Oniy school which asserts that the Buddha's primordial awareness is conjoined with the stains of dualistic appearence.

[ṣaḍ gandhāḥ]/ The six types of smells; the six odours.
1. དྲི་ཞིམ་པ། [sugandha]/ sweet smell
2. དྲི་ང་བ། [durgandha]/ bad smell
3. དྲི་མཉམ་པ། [samagaridha]/ indifferent smell
4. ལྷན་སྐྱེས་ཀྱི་དྲི། [sahaja gandha]/ natural smell
5. སྦྱར་བྱུང་གི་དྲི། [samyojaka gandha]/ artificial smell

6. གྲུར་བ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་དྲི། converted smell.

A. The six waste products of the body.
1. དྲི་ཆིན། excrement
2. དྲེ་ཆུ། urine
3. མིག་སྐྱག eye mucus
4. རྣ་སྤབས། ear wax
5. མཆིལ་མ། saliva
6. སྣོབས། snot.
B. The six wrong attitudes to be discarded while listening to a teaching.
1. ང་རྒྱལ། pride
2. མ་དད་པ། lack of faith
3. དོན་གཉེར་མེད་པ། lack of interest
4. རྣམ་པར་གཡོང་བ། distraction
5. རྨུགས་པ། mental sloth
6. རྒོད་པ། despair.

[vimala bhūmi]/ The Stainless Ground. The second of the ten Bodhisattva grounds (see ༼ས་བཅུ༽) during which there is special practice of the perfection of moral discipline and self-control.

The three waste products. The three waste products of our body,
1. ཁ་ཟས་སྐ་བའི་སྙིགས་མ་བཤང་བ། faeces as the waste product of gross food
2. སླ་བའི་སྙིགས་མ་གཅིན། urine as the waste product of liquids
3. དྲོད་ཀྱི་སྙིགས་མ་རྔུལ་ནག sweat as the waste product of the body's warmth.

The True Aspect ([cittamātrin]) School. A sub-school of the [cittamātrin]s who assert that the primordial awareness of the Buddha is free from the stains of dualistic appearance.

[gandharva]/ The smell eaters. The intermediate beings, categorized as belonging to the class of hungry ghosts, who sustain on the smoke of burnt offerings.

The three kind master-translators. The three great translators of the eighth century in Tibet during the reign of King Trisong Deutsan:
1. Jinamitra
2. [dhanaṡīla]
3. Zhang Yeshede.

The 6th of the 4th Tibetan month. The celebration of Buddha's turning of the wheel of doctrine of the four noble truths at [vārāṇasi]. One of the important Buddhist festivals.

[ṣaḍ vargika]/ The six close disciples of Buddha [ṡākyamuni],
who were punished by Buddha [ṡākyamuni] for their breach of disciplines.
1. དགའ་བོ། Nanda
2. ཉེ་དགའ་བོ། Upananda
3. འགྲོ་མབྱོགས། [aṡvaka]
4. ནབས་སོ། Punarvasu
5. འདུན་པ། Chanda
6. འཆར་ཀ། [udāyi].

The fifteen types of arrogance.
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱིས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of observing moral discipline
2. ཐོས་པས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of being learned
3. སྤོས་པས་དྲེགསཔ། arrogance of being proud
4. རྙེད་པས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of finding wealth
5. བཀུར་སྟིས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of being respected by others
6. རིག་གནས་མཁས་པས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of being a scholar in the sciences of learning
7. དབེན་གནས་ཀྱིས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of being a hermit
8. སྦྱངས་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན་གྱིས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of the knowledge and trainings received
9. ཡོ་བྱད་ཉུང་བས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of owning only a few material possessions
10. གཟུགས་བཟང་བས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of possessing excellent physical features
11. ལོངས་སྦྱོད་ཀྱིས་དྲེགསཔ། arrogance of being rich
12. དབང་ཆེ་བས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of being powerful
13. འཁོར་གཡོག་བཟང་བས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of having an excellent circle of followers and servants
14. བསམ་གཏན་མངོནཤེས་ཀྱིས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of possessing meditative concentrations and extra-sensory perceptions
15. ལྷ་ཀླུ་སོགས་ཀྱིས་བསྟོད་པས་དྲེགས་པ། arrogance of being praised by gods and nagas.

A basis of imputation, e.g. the five psycho-physical aggregates which are the basis for imputing 'person', 'I' or 'self.

The [maṇḍala] of threefold seats. The meditation of visualizing one's own physical aggregates, sensory faculties and sources of perceptions as a divine [maṇḍala] of threefold seats in their entirety.
1. ཕུང་ཁམས་གཤེགས་པ་གཤེགས་མའི་གདན། visualizing one's aggregates and sensory faculties as the seat for the male and female Tathagathas
2. སྐྱེ་མཆེད་སེམས་དཔའ་སེམས་མའི་གདན། visualizing one's sources of perceptions as the seat for the male and female Bodhisattvas
3. ཡན་ལག་ཁྲོ་བོ་ཁྲོ་མོའི་གདན། visualizing one's limbs as the seat for the male and female wrathful deities.

[upadeṡa]/ Instruction. The essential spiritual communication—oral, written or intuitive, given by a guru to his disciple.

The exalted ground of reality. According to the Nyingma teachings this refers to the ninth ground attained at the fifth level of yoga when a trainee transcends all apprehensions of the activity and appearance of reality through his experience of the inseparability of the objective ultimate meahing clear light mind and the subjective divine body appearances.

Blood lineage; a hereditary hierarch. The patriarchal or matriarchal lineage holder of an exalted being, e.g. the heirs of the [ṡākya] tradition.

[ādibuddha]/ The primordial Buddha. The primordial Buddha, Samantabhadra. However, the basic primordial Buddha is recognized as the [tathāgata] essence within the mental continuum of all sentient beings.

The three evil forces.
1. སྟེང་གདོན་གཟའ་དང་རྒྱུ་སྐར། the planet of the upper world
2. བར་གདོན་བཙན་དང་རྒྱལ་པོ། the mountain-gods of the intermediate world
3. འོག་གདོན་ཀླུ་དང་ས་བདག the nagas and earth-lords of the subterranean world.

The fundamental condition. Something which is the main producer of a result but does not actually transform it into its substantial continuity, e.g. the eye sense power that generates eye consciousness.

[sādhana]/ Self-generation. A tantric practice of generating oneself into a deity and carrying out incantations of mantras and then dissolving into the sphere of emptiness at the conclusion, etc., according to a ritual-text ([sādhana]).

The suchness of self. One of the four suchnesses in action tantra meditation. In this meditation, also known as the pure reality deity of the right view, a trainee visualizes a deity within the understanding of one's mind being empty and clear and free of any elaboration and total pacification of all conventional appearances. Hence, his experience qualifies six features (see ༼བདེ་གཤེགས་སྙིང་པོའི་ཆོས་དྲུག༽).

The self-basis. In performance tantra it is the practice of self-generation in the form of a deity.

Relationship of identical nature, e.g. the relationship between a functional thing and an impermanent thing.

Self-empowerment; self-initiation. The practice of receiving initiation directly from the deity in the [maṇḍala] without a tantric preceptor; a lama before giving initiation to others receives self-initiation from the wisdom-beings and meditates himself being inseparable from the deity.

The ignorance of self-nescience. This refers to the ignorance that is the root of cyclic existence. The lack of knowledge of reality through which one sees one's aggregates as permanent, blissful, being the self, being solid and being the person contradicting the real nature of phenomenal status.

The two types of view of self. The two wrong views of self to be refuted through logical reasoning.
1. ཆོས་ཀྱི་བདག་ཏུ་ལྷ་བ། [dharma ātmagrāha]/ the view of a self of person
2. གང་ཟག་གི་བདག་ཏུ་ལྟ་བ། [puruṣātmagrāha]/ the view of self of phenomena.

The twenty views of self; the twenty wrong views of self.
1. གཟུགས་བདག་ཏུ་ལྷ་བ། the view of form as self
2. གཟུགས་ལ་བདག་དང་ལྡན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as possessing form
3. གཟུགས་ལ་བདག་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as abiding in form
4. བདག་ལ་གཟུགས་ཡོད་པར་ལྟབ། the view of form as abiding in self
5. ཚོར་བ་བདག་ཏུ་ལྷ་བ། the view of feeling as self
6. བདག་ཚོར་བ་དང་ལྡན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as possessing feeling
7. ཚོར་བ་ལ་བདག་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as abiding in feeling
8. བདག་ལ་ཚོར་བ་ཡོད་བར་ལྟ་བ། the view of feeling as abiding in self
9. འདུ་ཤེས་བདག་ཏུ་ལྟ་བ། the view of perception as self
10. བདག་འདུཤེས་དང་ལྡན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as possessing perception
11. འདུཤེས་ལ་བདག་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as abiding in perception
12. བདག་ལ་འདུ་ཤེས་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of perception as abiding in self
13. འདུ་བྱེད་བདག་ཏུ་ལྟ་བ། the view of compositional factors as self
14. བདག་འདུ་བྱེད་དང་ལྡན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as possessing compositional factors
15. འད་བྱེད་ལ་བདག་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as abiding in compositional factors
16. བདག་ལ་འདུ་བྱེད་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of compositional factors as abiding in self
17. རྣམ་ཤེས་བདག་ཏུ་ལྟ་བ། the view of consciousness as self
18. བདག་རྣམ་ཤེས་དང་ལྡན་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as possessing consciousness
19. རྣམ་ཤེས་ལ་བདག་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as abiding in consciousness
20. བདག་ལ་རྣམ་ཤེས་ཡོད་པར་ལྟ་བ། the view of consciousness as abiding in self.

The twenty-five views of self; the wrong views of self (see 1 -20, bdag-lta nyi-shu, above) plus:
21. བདག་གཟུགས་ལས་གཞན་དུ་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as other than form
22. བདག་ཚོར་བ་ལས་གཞན་དུ་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as other than feeling
23. བདག་འདུ་ཤེས་ལས་གཞན་དུ་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as other than perception
24. བདག་འདུ་བྱེད་ལས་གཞན་དུ་ལྟ་བ། the view of self as other than compositional factors
25. བདག་རྣམ་ཤེས་ལས་གཞན་དུ་ལྷ་བ། the view of self as other than consciousness.

[adhipatiphala]/ Environmental results. One's own experience of environment which is a result of one's previous actions in association with the community or surrounding in which one resides, e.g. the local fields which will not yield crops.

The stage of blessing oneself. The ritual and rite of purifying one's impure body and faculties, thereby blessing these into three vajras—vajra body, speech and mind.

[adhipatiphala]/ The environmental result (see ༼བདག་པོའི་འབྲས་བུ༽).

[nairātmya]/ Selflessness. The view of selflessness or the lack of an identity of independently existing phenomenon. There are two types:
1. གང་ཟག་གི་བདག་མེད། [puruṣa nairātmya]/ the elflessness of person
2. ཆོས་ཀྱི་བདག་མེད། [dharma nairātmya]/ the selflessness of phenomena.

[nairātmyā]/ She the Non-ego ([anātma]). The consort of Hevajra. Marpa's consort is also knwon by this name because of his spiritual association with the deity [hayagrīva]

The gross and subtle selflessnesses. The lack of an independent and self-suficient person and the lack of the inherent existence of a person.

Two types of graspings at the self; the conceptual misapprehension of a truly existent self of either a person or a phenomenon.
1. བདག་འཛིན་ཀུན་བཏགས། intellectual grasping at the self
2. བདག་འཛིན་ལྷན་སྐྱེས། innate grasping at the self.

The five evil arrows; the five evil influences.
1. ཆགས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་མདའ། that causing desirious attachment
2. རྨོངས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མདའ། that causing ignorance
3. ང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་མདའ། that causing pride
4. འཐབ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མདའ། that causing conflict
5. གཡེང་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མདའ། that causing distraction.

The five flower-arrows of the Lord of Desire; the five evil influences of lust.
1. དྲེགས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་མདའ། that causing arrogance
2. རྨོངས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་མདའ། that causing ignorance
3. ཀུན་ ཏུ་རྨོངས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་མདའ། that causing strong ignorance
4. བརྒྱལ་བར་བྱེད་པའི་མདའ། that causing one to faint
5. སེམས་མེད་པར་བྱེད་པའི མདའ། that causing unconsciousness.

[paсcamṛtāni]/ The five nectars; the five substances for preparing an inner offering in tantric practices.
1. དྲ་ཆེན། excrement
2. དྲི་ཆུ། urine
3. རཀྟ། blood 4. མཾས། flesh
5. རྡོ་རྗེའི་ཟིལ་པ། white and red regenerative substances.

[catvāri mārāḥ]/ The four devils; the four evil forces.
1. ཕུང་པོའི་བདུད། [skandhamāra]/ the evil of the aggregates
2. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་བདུད། [kleṡamara]/ the evil of afflictions
3. འཆི་བདག་གི་བདུད། [mrṭyupatimāra]/ the evil of death
4. ལྷའི་བུ་ཡི་བདུད། [devaputramāra]/ the evil of the son of god (lust).

[catvāri sūkṣma mārāḥ]/ The four subtle evils; the four subtle hinderances.
1. ཕུང་པོའི་བདུད་ཕྲ་མོ། [skandha sūkṣma māra]/the subtle evil of the aggregates, i.e. the aggregates caused by the | latency of ignorance and uncontaminated actions
2. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་བདོད་ཕྲ་མོ། [kleṡa sūkṣma mara]/ the subtle evil of affliction, i.e. the latency of ignorance
3. འཆི་བདག་གི་བདུད་ཕྲ་མོ། [mṛtyupati sūkṣma māra]/ the subtle evil of death; i.e. inconceiveable death
4. ལྷའི་བུ་ཡི་བདུད་ཕྲ་མ། [devaputra kleṡa sūkṣma māra]/ the subtle evil of lust, i.e. those evils other than the first three.

[catvāri sthūla mārāḥ]/ The four gross evils; the four gross hinderances.
1. ཕུང་བོའི་བདུད་རགས་པ། [skandha sthūla māra]/ the gross evil of the aggregates, i.e. the contaminated aggregates
2. ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་བདུད་རགས་པ། [kleṡa sthūla mara]/ the gross evil of afflictions, i.e. the six root delusions (see ༼རཏཟ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽) and the twenty secondary delusions (see ༼ཉེ་ཉོན་ཉི་ཤུ༽)
3. འཆི་བདག་གི་བདུད་རགསཔ། [mṛtyupati sthūla māra]/ the gross evil of death, i.e. natural death through severance of the life force
4. ལྷའི་བུ་ཡི་བདུད་རགས་པ། [devaputra sthūla māra]/ the gross evil of lust, i.e. the evil of Kamadeva.

The seven pure practices.
1. བཤགས་པ། confession
2. རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང། rejoicing
3. དོན་དམ་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། generating the ultimate mind of enlightenment
4. སྐྱབས་འགྲོ taking refuge
5. སྨོན་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། generating the aspiring mind of enlightenment
6. འཇུག་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། generating the engaging mind of enlightenment
7. བསྔོ་བ། dedication.

[sukhapāla cakra]/ The wheel of sustaining bliss. The channel wheel located at the region of the secret organ which has thirty-two petals spreading out from the central channel like the ribs of an umbrella spreading downwards.

[sugati]/ Fortunate beings; happy migrators. Beings in the fortunate realm — humans, gods and demi-gods.

[mahāsukha cakra]/ The wheel of great bliss. The channel wheel located at the level of the third eye which has thirty-two petals spreading out from the central energy channel like the ribs of an umbrella spreading downwards.

[mahāṁudrā]/ The [mahāmudrā] of great bliss. The [mahāmudrā] meditation according to the Kagyud tradition known as the [mahāmudrā] of the path of liberation (grol-lam phyag-rgya chen-mo)—the union of emptiness and the unchanging great bliss.

[sukhāvatī]/ The [sukhāvatī] Buddha field. The abode of Buddha Amitabha called the Buddha field of great bliss in the western direction.

The inseparability of bliss and void; the unity of great bliss, the method, and emptiness, the wisdom aspect. Also the Guru [pūja] rite and meditation in the Gelug tradition.

The eight Medicine Buddhas (see ༼སྨན་བླ་བདེ་གཤེགས་བརྒྱད༽).

The six features of the [tathāgata] essence.
1. གཟུང་འཛིན་ལ་སོགས་པའི་རྟོག་པ་མེད་པ། being free from grasping at subjective or objective phenomena
2. རྣམ་པར་མི་རྟོག་པའི་སྣང་བ་མེད་པ། being free of a non-conceptual appearances
3. རྡུལ་ཕྲ་རབ་ཀྱི་གཟུགས་མེད་པ། being free of body of subtle particles
4. མཚན་མའི་གཡོ་བ་མེད་པ། being free of disturbances from imaginative signs
5. དེ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་སྟོང་པའི་མེད་དགག་ལས་འདས་པའི་རང་བཞིན་འོད་གསལ་བ། being naturally clear because their emptiness transcends non-affirming negatives
6. རང་གི་ངོ་བོ་སོ་སོ་རང་གིས་རག་པའི་མཚན་ཉི་ཅན། experiencing the self-nature by intuitive awareness.

The two truths; the two divisions of truth.
1. ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ། [saṁvrti satya]/ the conventional truth
2. དོན་དམ་བདེན་པ། [paramārtha satya]/ the ultimate truth.

The twelve aspects of the first three noble truths.
1. མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། aspect of non-existence
2. མི་སྐྱེ་བའི་རྣམ་པ། aspect of non-production
3. དབེན་པའི་རྣམ་པ། aspect of isolation
4. མི་བརྫི་བའི་རྣམ་པ། aspect that cannot be repressed
5. གནས་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། aspect lacking a base
6. ནམ་མཁའི་རྣམ་པ། aspect of space
7. བརྗོད་དུ་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། inexpressible aspect
8. མིང་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། nameless aspect
9. འགྲོ་བམེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། non-going aspect
10. མི་འཁྲོག་པའི་རྣམ་པ། non-grasping aspect
11. མི་ཟད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། inexhaustible aspect
12. སྐྱེ་བ་མེད་པའི་རྣམ་པ། aspect without genesis.

[catvāri satyāni]/ The four noble truths.
1. སྡུག་བསྔལ་བདེན་པ། [duhkha satya]/ the truth of suffering
2. ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདདེན་པ། [samudaya satya]/ the truth of the origin of suffering
3. འགོག་པའི་བདེན་པ། [nirodha satya]/ the truth of cessation
4. ལམ་གྱི་བདེན་པ། [marga satya]/ the truth of the path.

[catuḥ satya dharma cakra]/ The Turning of the Wheel of the Four Noble Truths. The teachings given by Buddha [ṡākyamuni], after his enlightenment, on the four noble truths to the five ascetics at Varahasi in which Buddha introduced the nature, function and effect of each truth thereby elucidating the twelve aspects of the four noble truths.

[[sūtra]]/ the Discourses. The classification of Buddha's teachings, other than his tannic teachings, dealing with the gradual way of enlightenment.

The [sūtra], [māyā] and citta]. The three fundamental texts of generation, completion and ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན་༽ tradition of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.
1. མདོ་དགོངས་པ་འདུས་པ། The [sūtra] Integrating Essential Thoughts
2. རྒྱུད་སྐྱུ་འཕྲུལ་དྲྭ་བ་སྟེ་དཔལ་གསང་བ་སྙིང་པ། The Tantra of Illusory Net ([māyājāla tantra]—Guhyagarbha tantra)
3. སེམས་མདོ་མ་བུ་བཙ་བརྒྱད། The

Eighteen Father and Mother Treatises on Mind (sems-mdo ma-bu bco-brgyad).

[sautrātitika] School. A school of Buddhist tenets of the lesser vehicle relying mainly on the original discourses of the Buddha and not on their commentaries. This school asserts the existence of self-awareness (rang-rig) and the existence of an external entity (phyi-don).

[sūtra piṭaka]/ Sets of discourses. That category of Buddha's teaching which consists chiefly of the instructions on higher training in meditative concentration.

Crossed-thread ritual. This signifies either offering to gods or giving ransom to the spirits. In the case of the latter it maybe I called the Demon-trap ritual (mas-stags).

The five phenomena on the level of the aggregate of compositional factors.
1. འདུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། the aggregate of compositional factors
2. གཞི་དུས་ཀྱི་བྱ་སྒྲུབ་ཡེ་ཤེས། the basic wisdom of accomplishment
3. རླུང་གི་ཁམས། the element of wind
4. ལྕེའི་དབང་པོ། the tongue sense
5. རང་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་འདུས་པའི་རོ། the taste included within one's continuum.

The three types of compositional karmas.
1. བསོད་ནམས་ཀྱི་ལས། [kuṡala karma]/ meritorious karma
2. བསོད་ནམས་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ལས། [akuṡala karma]/ non-meritorious karma
3. མི་གཡོ་བའི་ལས། [acala karma]/ unfluctuating karma.

The five phenomena on the level of the aggregate of recognition.
1. འདུ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། the aggregate of recognition
2. གཞིའི་སོར་རྟོགས་ཡེ་ཤེས། the basic wisdom of analysis
3. མེའི་ཁམས། the element of fire
4. སྣའི་དབང་པོ། the nose sense
5. རང་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་འདུས་པོའི་དྲི། the odours within one's continuum.
The five attitudes. The five attitudes to be malntained while giving a discourse.
1. རང་ལ་སྨན་པའི་འདུ་ཤེས། thinking of oneself as a physician 2-5 (see ༼ཆོས་ཉན་པའི་སྐབས་ཀྱི་འདུ་ཤེས་དྲུག༽2,4-6).

A. The six recognitions.
1. མཚན་བཅས་ཀྱི་འདུ་ཤེས། [lakṣaṇa saṃjсā]/ recognition with signs
2. མཚན་མེད་ཀྱི་འདུ་ཤེས། [anaudārika saṃjсa]/ recognition without signs
3. རྒྱ་ཆུང་བའི་འདུ་ཤེས། [anaudārika saṃjсā]/ limited recognition
4. རྒྱ་ཆེ་བའི་འདུ་ཤེས། [vistāra saṃjсā]/ extensive recognition
5. ཚད་མེད་པའི་འདུ་ཤེས། [aparimāṇa saṃjсā]/ immeasurable recognition
6. ཅི་ཡང་མེད་པའི་འདུ་ཤེས། [akiṁcana saṃjсa]/ recognition of nothing whatsoever.

B. The six attitudes (see ༼ཆོས་ཉན་པའི་སྐབས་ཀྱི་འདུ་ཤེས་དྲུག༽).

The three types of wishes.
1. འཕྲད་འདོད་ཀྱི་འདུན་པ། wish to accomplish one's aspirations
2. མི་བྲལ་བར་འདོད་པའི་འདུན་པ། wish not to be separated from one's aspirations
3. དོན་དུ་གཉེར་བའི་འདུན་པ། aspired wish to fulfill one's aspirations.

The yoga of wishing aspiration. One of the five yogas (see ༼རྣལ་འབྱོར་ལྔ༽) according to the Nyingma tradition. This refers to the wish to attain the clear fight of emptiness and the deity that has been visualized oniy at an imagination level on the path of accumulation.

[vinayamūlasūtra]/ The Root [sūtra] of Monastic Discipline. An extensive treatise on monastic discipline that summarizes the essential meanings of the four Vinaya [sūtra]s (see, next) by [ācārya Guṇaprabha] who is renowned for his authority on Vinaya teachings.

[catvāri vinayāgama]/ The four categories of scriptures on the monastic discipline.
1. འདུལ་བ་ལུང་ག་ཞི། [vinaya vastu]/Basic Transmission on Monastic Discipline
2. འདུལ་བ་རྣམ་འབྱེད། [vinaya vibhaṅga]/ Distinguishing the Transmissions on Monastic Discipline
3. འདུལ་བ་ཕྲན་ཚེགས། [vinaya-agama]/ Minor Transmissions on Monastic Discipline
4. འདུལ་བ་གཞུང་དམ་པ། [vinaya-uttama]/ The Sublime Teachings on Monastic Discipline.

[saṁskṛta ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of conditioned phenomena. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the lack of inherent existence of the three realms produced from the collection of causes and conditions.

[asaṁskṛta]/ The eight types of uncollected phenomena; the eight permanent phenomena.
1-3. དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་གསུམ། the three suchnesses (see ༼དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་གསུམ༽)
4-5. འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་པ་དང་། འགོག་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་གི་དུས་ཀྱི་སེམས་འགག་པའི་གནས་སྐབས་གཉིས། the two moments of the cessation of the mind at the state of meditative absorption without .perception and the absorption of cessation
6-8. འདུས་མ་བྱས་གསུམ། the three uncollected phenomena (see ༼འདུས་མ་བྱས་གསུམ༽).

[asaṁskṛta ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of uncollected phenomena. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the emptiness of permanent phenomena which exist without depending on the collection of causes and conditions, such as the lack of truly independent existence of space.

The four types of uncollected phenomena; the four permanent phenomena
1. སོ་སོརབ་གརྟས་འགོག the analytical cessation (see ༼སོ་སོར་བརྟགས་འགོག༽)
2. སོ་སོར་བརྟགས་མིན་གྱི་འགོག་པ། the non-analytical cessation (see ༼སོ་སོར་བརྟགས་མིན་གྱི་འགོག་པ༽)
3. ནམ་མཁའ། space
4. དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད། suchness.

The three types of uncollected phenomena; the three permanent phenomena according to [abhidharmakoṡa].
1. སོ་སོར་བརྟགས་འགོག the analytical cessation
2. སོ་སོར་བརྟགས་མིན་གྱི་འགོག་པ། the non-analytical cessation
3. ནམ་མཁའ། space.

[kāma dhātu]/ Desire realm. One of the three realms of existence; the realm in which consciousness is preoccupied with desire for the five sensual objects and sustains on gross food. This realm includes the states of hell beings, hungry ghosts, animals, humans, demigods and the gods of the desire realm.

The twenty states of the desire realm.
1-8. ཚ་དམྱུལ་བརྒྱད། the eight hot hells (see ༼ཚ་དམྱལ་བརྒྱད༽)
9-12. གྲང་དམྱལ་བརྒྱད། the four continents (see ༼གླིང་བཞི༽)
13-18. འདོད་ལྷ་རིགས་དྲུག the six classes of gods within the desire realm (see ༼འདོད་ལྷ་རིགས་དྲུག༽)
19-21. ཡི་དྭགས་དང་དུད་འགྲོའི་གནས། hungry ghosts and animals.

The six objects of abandonment within the desire realm, to be eliminated by the path of meditation.
1. མ་རིག་པ། ignorance
2. འདོད་ཆགས། desire-attachment
3. ཁོང་ཁྲོ hatred-anger
4. ང་རྒྱལ། pride
5. འཇིག་ལྟ། view of the transitory collection
6. མཐར་ལྟ། extreme view.

The thirty-two objects of abandonment within the desire realm, by the path of seeing. According to [abhidharmakoṡa] text there are:
1. འདོད་པར་སྡུག་བདེན་གྱི་སྤང་བྱ་བཅུ། ten related to the truth of suffering,
2. ཀུན་འབྱུང་གི་སྤང་བྱ་བདུན། seven related to the truth of the origin of suffering,
3. འགོག་བདེན་གྱི་སྤང་བྱ་བདུན། seven related to the truth of cessation,
4. ལམ་བདེན་གྱི་སྤང་བྱ་བརྒྱད། eight related to the truth of the path.

The six objects of abandonment within the desire realm. The six types of delusions within the desire realm to be eliminated on the path of meditation (see ༼འདོད་པའི་སྒོམ་སྤང་དྲུག༽).

The five types of attachments.
1. ཕྱི་ལ་ཆགས་པ། Attachment to the outer
2. ནང་ལ་ཆགས་པ། Attachment to inner
3. སྡུག་བསྔལ་ལ་ཆགས་པ། Attachment to suffering
4. གཟུགས་ལ་ཆགས་པ། Attachment to form
5. འཛིག་ཚོགས་ལ་ཆགས་པ། Attachment to the collection of the transitory phenomena, i.e. the aggregates of the body.

The four types of desire; the four ways of utilizing desire as the path in tantra.
1. གཉིས་གཉིས་འཁྱུད་པའི་འདོད་ཆགས། desire through looking
2. ལག་པ་བཅངས་པའི་འདོད་ཆ་གས། desire through smiling
3. རྒོད་པའི་འདོད་ཆགས། desire through touching
4. བསྙས་པའི་དོད་ཆགས། desire through embracing.

The delusions within the desire realm. This includes the six root delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽) and the twenty near-delusions (see ༼ཉེ་ཉོན་ཉི་ཤུ༽).

The nine types of delusions within the desire realm; the nine delusions within the desire realm, to be abandoned by the path of meditation. The nine levels of delusion within the desire realm, categorized into three grades of strong, moderate and weak intensity for each of the three—strong, moderate and weak.

The eleven types of beings in the desire realm.
1. ཚ་དམྱལ། hot hells

2. གྲང་དམྱལ། cold hells
3. ཀླུ [nāgas]
4. ལྷ་མ་ཡིན། demigods
5. མི། humans
6-11. འདོད་ལྷ་རིགས་དྲུག the six classes of gods in the desire realm (see ༼འདོད་ལྷ་རིགས་དྲུག༽).

The nine types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation (see ༼འདོད་ཉོན་སྐོར་དགུ༽). This division is based on the principle of taking all those delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation as one delusion and then are divided into nine phases according to the process of their purification.

འདོད་པའི་སྒོམ་སྤང་ལྔ་ཅུ་རྩ་བཞི། The fifty-four types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation. When each of the six delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation (see ༼འདོད་པའི་སྒོམ་སྤང་དྲུག༽) are divided into nine phases such as strong, moderate and small, each of which are further divided into three phases as such, this comes to fifty four delusions.

The six types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation. These are the six delusions within the desire realm:
1-4. འདོད་པའི་སྒོམ་སྤང་བཞི། the four types of delusions within the desire realm (see ༼འདོད་པའི་སྒོམ་སྤང་བཞི༽)
5. འདོད་པའི་ལྷན་སྐྱེས་ཀྱི་འཇིག་ལྷ། the innately born view of the transitory collection within the desire realm
6. མཐར་ལྟ། the extreme view.

The four types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned by the path of meditation.
1. མ་རིག་པ། ignorance
2. འདོད་ཆགས། desire-attachment
3. ཁོང་ཁྲོ། hatred-anger
4. ང་རྒྱལ། pride.

Longing faith. One of the four types of faith (see ༼དད་པ་བཞི༽), the wish with respectful devotion to train on the paths leading to the attainment of unsurpassable enlightenment.

The wish granting boon. A result of secret mantra practice attained at the heat level of the path of preparation, whereupon one's body retains the equal-state with that of a deity, one is able to perform powerful knowledge-mantras (rig-sngags) and siddhis, and gains control of longevity.

A. The sensual objects: གཟུགས་སྒྲ་དྲི་རོ་རེག་བྱ། form, sound, smell, taste and touch.
B. The five articles representing the five sensual objects དོ་དག་སོ་སོར་མཚོན་པར་བྱེད་པའི་མཆོད་རྫས།
1. མེ་ལོང་། mirror
2. པི་ཝང་། guitar
3. དུང་ཆུ། conch-filled with water
4. ཤེང་འབྲས། fruits
5. གོས་དར། five silken scarves.

The six classes of gods of the desire realm.
1. རྒྱལ་ཆེན་རིགས་བཞི། [cātur mahārājakāyikāḥ]/ the four great Kings (see ༼རྒྱལ་ཆེན་རིགས་བཞི༽)
2. སུམ་ཅུ་རྩ་གསུམ། [trāyāstriṁṡaḥ]/ the gods of the heaven of Thirty-three
3. འཐབ་བུལ། [yāmāḥ]/ the gods of non-combat
4. དགའ་ལྡན། [tuṣitāḥ]/ the gods of Tusita heaven
5. འཕྲུལ་དགའ། [nirmāṅaratayaḥ]/ the gods enjoying emanation
6. གཞན་འཕྲུལ་དབང་བྱེད། [paranirmitavaṡavartinah]/ the gods controlling others' emanations.

The five signs of death for a god of the desire realm.
1. གོས་ལ་དྲེ་མ་ཆགས་པ། a bad smell is formed on his clothes
2. མེ་ཏོག་གི་ཕྲེང་བ་རྙིངས་པ། his flower garlands fade away
3. མཆན་ཁུང་དུ་རྔུལ་འབྱུང་བ། sweat if formed in his armpits
4. ལུས་ལ་དྲི་ང་བ། his body smells badly
5. ལྟན་ལ་མི་དགའ་བ། he feels discontent with his usual seat.

The entity composed of eight components. The objects compounded of different entities within the desire realm, for instance, an atom particle comprises earth, water, fire and wind as well as form, sound, smell and contact.

The entity composed of six components. The atom particles within the form realm, which comprise form, touch and the four basic elements.

[vajra]/ Diamond-hard; adamantine sceptre. A symbol of strength and indestructibility; also a tantric ritual object_consisting of a cylindrical axis from which two sets of curved spokes, generally five or nine in number, radiate.

[vajrabhairava]/ The Vajra Terrifier. A wrathful embodiment of [maсjuṡri] belonging to the highest yoga tantra.

[vajropama samādhi]/ Diamond-hard like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of enthusiastic perseverance possessed by a Bodhisattva on the fourth ground.

[bodhgayā]. The holy place where Buddha [ṡākyamuni] achieved complete enlightenment under the Bodhi tree; a | major site for Buddhist pilgrims situated about five miles south of the town of [gayā] in Bihar state, India.

The four diamond-hard seats; the four vajra seats.
1. བདག་གི་གདན། of self
2. གཞན་གྱི་གདན། of others
3. སྦྱོར་བའི་གདན། of practice
4. གསང་བའི་གདན། of secret.

Vajra brothers an'd sisters. Fellow disciples who have received initiation together from the same master.

[vajra naraka]/ Vajra hell. The hell of non-respite (mnar-med) destination for those who abuse the tantric path and break their tantric precepts or have committed any of the five heinous crimes (see ༼མཚམས་མེད་ལྔ༽).

[vajra japa]/ Vajra-recitation. A way of reciting mantras according to tantra

The four steps of vajra visualization. The meditation on the generation of a deity, in which one first meditates on emptiness and within this visualizes cushions of lotus, sun and so forth, then imagines rays of light coming out,of the cushions and the seed syllable, and withdrawing these back into emptiness, one then arises in the form of a deity bearing the syllables at three points of one's body—crown, throat and heart.

The three diamond-hard convictions (of the Kadampa masters).
1. ཐེབས་མེད་རྡོ་རྗེ། the conviction to reject objections to one's secluded practices by parents and relatives
2. ཁྲིལ་མེད་རྡོ་རྗེ། the conviction to face embarrassment
3. ཡེ་ཤེས་རྡོ་རྗེ་དང་འགྲོགས་པ། the conviction to abide by practices one has promised to do.

[vajrasattva]/ A tantric deity dedicated to purification and elimination of unwholesome deeds; appears both in peaceful and wrathful forms.

[vajrācārya]. Tantric master who gives initiations and precepts.

Taxila. An ancient site situated in the kingdom of Kapila which extended from the present day Bamiyan in Afghanistan to Swat in north-west Pakistan. Taxila was a renowned centre of Buddhist learning in the 7th century.

[viprayukta saṁskāra]/ Non-associated compositional factor. Impermanent phenomena being neither form nor consciousness, e.g. a person.

[caturdaṡa viprayuktasaṃskārāḥ]/ The fourteen non-associated compositional factors.
1. ཐོབ་པ། [prāpta]/ attainment
2. མ་ཐོབ་པ། [aprapta]/ non-attainment
3. སྐལ་མཉམ། equal state
4. འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་པ། [sambhāga]/ non-perception
5. འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [asaṁjсa samapatti]/ absorption without perception
6. འགོག་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [nirodha samāpatti]/ absorption in cessation
7. སྲོག life-force
8. སྐྱེ་བ། [jati]/ birth
9. རྒ་བ། [jara]/aging
10. གནས་པ། [sṭhita]/endurance
11.འཇིག་པ། [anitya]/impermanence
12. མིང་། [nāma]/ name
13. ཚིག [pada]/ words
14. ཡི་གེ [vyaсjana]/ letters.

The twenty-four non-associated composition factors.
1-14 (see ༼ལྡན་མིན་འདུ་བྱེད་བཅུ་བཞི༽).
15. སོ་སྐྱེ། ordinary person
16. འཇུག་པ། engagement or involvement
17. སོ་སོར་ངོས་པ། specific discernment
18. འབྱོར་འབྲེལ། combination
19. མབྱོགས་པ། speediness
20. གོ་རིམ། ranks
21. དུས། time
22. ཡུལ། object
23. གྲངས། number
24. ཚོགས་པ། collection.

The twenty-three non-associated compositional factors (see ༼གང་ཟག་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ལྡན་མིན་འདུ་བྱེད་ཉེར་གསུམ༽).

The four interpretative [sūtra]s (see ༼དགོངས་པ་གཙོ་བོ་སྟོན་པའི་ལྡེམ་དགོངས་ཀྱི་མདོ་བཞི༽)—the four interpretative [sūtra]s primarily stressing the intention of the Buddha).

Counter pervasion. The third logical mark or pervasion in a correct logical syllogism, stating that whatever is not the predicate is not the reason. Synonymous with the correct counter pervasion (see ༼ཨཱིདོག་ཁྱབ་རྣལ་མ༽).

Correct counter pervasion. The pervasion in a correct logical syllogism that whatsoever is not the predicate is not the reason.

Wrong counter pervasion. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatsoever is not the predicate is not that which is not the reason.

[nivṛtti]/ Reverse identity; isolated identity of the same thing. Apparently contradictory aspects of a thing having the same nature, e.g. the two faces of a coin which is a single entity with two distinct aspects.

The three types of reverse identity.
1. རང་ཡིན་པའི་ལྡོག་ཆོས། reverse identity of being itself
2. རང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ལྡོག་ཆོས། reverse identity of not being itself
3. ལྡོག་ཆོས་ཕུང་སུམ་ཙམ་བོ་བ། reverse identity of being neither.

[pāpāvaraṇa]/ Evils; non-virtues and obscurations. Misdeeds acquired in the past lives or this life.

[duḥkha duḥkhatā]/ The suffering of pain. The literal and gross
sufferings sometimes called the double suffering, e.g. the feeling of sharp pain in the kidneys.

[aṣṭa duḥkhātaḥ]/ Eight kinds of suffering. The eight sufferings that Buddha introduced while explaining the faults of the truth of suffering.
1. སྐྱེ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [jāti duḥkham]/ suffering of birth
2. རྒ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [jarā duḥkham]/ suffering of aging
3. ན་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [vyādhi duḥkham]/ suffering of sickness
4. འཆི་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [maraṇa duḥkham]/ suffering of death
5. སྡུག་བ་དང་བྲལ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [priya viprayogo duḥkham]/ suffering of separation from cherished objects
6. མི་སྡུག་པ་དང་འཕྲད་པའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [apriya saṁprayogo duḥkham]/ suffering of meeting with revolting objects
7. འདོད་པའི་དངོས་པོ་བཙལ་ཀྱང་མི་རྙེད་པའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [yad apīcchaya paryeṣamāno na labhate tadapi duḥkham]/ suffering of not finding desired objects
8. ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ་སྡུག་བསྔལ་བ་ཡིན་པ། [saṁkṣepanam paсcoskandha duḥkham]/ the suffering of the five aggregates.

[ṣaḍ duḥkhatāḥ]/ Six types of suffering. The six miseries within
cyclic existence.
1. ངེས་པ་མེད་པའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། suffering of uncertainty
2. ངོམས་པ་མེད་པའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། suffering of dissatisfaction
3. ཡང་ནས་ཡང་དུ་ལུས་འདོར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། suffering of
discarding one's body time and again
4. ཡང་ནས་ཡང་དུ་ཉིང་མཚམས་སྦྱོར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། suffering of frequent conception
5. ཡང་ནས་ཡང་དུ་མཐོ་དམན་དུ་འགྱུར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། suffering of frequent cnange of status
6. གྲོགས་མེད་པའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། suffering of loneliness.

The four attributes of the noble truth of suffering.
1. མི་རྟོག་པ། [anityam]/ impermanence
2. སྡུག་བསྔ་ལ་བ། [duḥkhita]/ suffering/ misery
3. སྟོང་པ། [s'u_nyam]/ emptiness
4. བདག་མེད་པ། [anātmakam]/ selflessness.

The four types of suffering.
1. སྐྱེ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [jāti duḥkham]/ suffering of birth
2. རྒ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [jarā duḥkham]/ suffering of old age
3. ན་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [vyādhi duḥkham]/ suffering of sickness
4. འཆི་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [maraṇa duḥkham]/ suffering of death.

The three types of suffering.
1. སྡུག་བསྔལ་གྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [duḥkha duḥkhatā]/ suffering of pain
2. འགྱུར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [vipriṇāma duḥkhatā]/ suffering of change
3. ཁྱབ་པ་འདུ་བྱད་ཀྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། [saṁskāra duḥkhatā]/ pervasive suffering.

The ten objects to be abandoned by the truth of suffering. The realization of the truth of suffering within this desire realm involves abandoning
1-5. ལྷ་བ་ལྔ་། the five views (see ༼ལྟ་བ་ལྔ༽)
6-10. ལྟ་མིན་ལྔ་། the five non-views (see ༼ཨཱིཏ་མིན་ལྔ༽).

Emancipation of a beautiful form. This is a kind of concentration within the form realm cultivated by a Yogi visualizing himself as having a very attractive form and taking all appearances to be of the same taste; one of the eight emancipations (see ༼རྣམ་ཐར་བརྒྱད༽).

[tripiṭaka]/ The three baskets of teachings. The way in which Buddha's teaching is classified in general into three divisions according to their subject matter and trainings they describe.
1. འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད། [vinaya pitaka]/ the basket of teachings on moral discipline mainly emphasizes the training of ethics
2. མདོ་སྡེའི་སྡེ་སྣོད། [sūtra piṭaka]/ the basket of teachings in discourses mainiy emphasizes the training of concentration
3. མངོན་པའི་སྡེ་སྣོད། [abhidharma piṭaka]/ the basket of teaching on knowledge mainiy emphasizing the training of wisdom.

The obeisance for identifying the three baskets of teachings (see ༼་སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ༽). All Vinaya texts begin with the line, 'obeisance to the all-knowing one'. All [sūtrapiṭaka] texts begin with the line, 'obeisance to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas', and all [abhidharmapiṭakas] begin with the line, 'obeisance to the youthful [maсjuṡrī]་.

The Two Compendiums. The two works of [asaṅga].
1. ཐེག་བསྡུས། Compendium of the Greater Vehicle ([mahāyānasaṁgraha])
2. མངོན་པ་ཀུན་བཏུས། Compendium of Knowledge ([abhidharmasamuccaya]).

The four ways of losing vows (see ༼ལྟུང་བའི་སྒོ་བཞི༽)

[trisaṁvara]/ A. The three classes of vows.
1. སོ་ཐར་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ། [pratimokṣa saṁvara]/ the individual liberation vows
2. བྱང་སེམས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་པ། [bodhicitta saṁvara]/ the Bodhisattva vows
3. གསང་སྔགས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་པ། [mantra saṇvara]/ the tantric vows.
1. འདོད' པའི་སས་བསྡུས་པ་སོ་ཐར་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ། the individual liberation vows of those within the desire realm
2. གཟུགས་ཀྱི་སས་བསྡུས་པ་བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ། the concentration vows of those within the form realm
3. ཁམས་གསུམ་ལསའདས་ཤིང་འཕགས་པའི་སས་བསྡུས་པ་ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་པ། the
uncontaminated vows of those at the level of an [ārya]'s path transcending all those vows within three realms.

Symbolic negative phenomena, e.g. although emptiness is a
mere absence of a truly existent nature it is not a negative thing.

[catuḥsaṁgraha]/ The four compendiums; the four works of [asaṇga] on the [yogacāra] tenet.
1. གཏན་ལ་དབབ་པའི་བསྡུ་བ། [niṃayasaṁgraha]/ Compendium of Ascertainment
2. གཞི་བསྡུ་བ། [vastusaṁgraha]/ Compendium of Bases
3. རྣམ་གྲངས་བསྡུ་བ། [paryāyasaṁgraha]/ Compendium of Enumerations
4. རྣམ་པར་བཤད་པའི་བསྡུབ། [vivaranasaṁgraha]/ Compendium of Explanations .

[catvāri saṁgraha vastūni]/ The four means of conversion; the four means of assembling disciples.
1. མཁོ་བ་སྦྱིན་པ། [dānam]/ giving whatever is necessary
2. སྙན་པར་སྨྲ་བ། [priya vāditā]/ speaking pleasantly
3. དོན་མཐུན་པ། [samānārthatā] helping others
4. དོན་སྤྱོད་པ། [artha caryā] consistency between words and deeds.

The Collected Topics. The basic texts on the Buddhist study of logic. Chapa Choekyi Senge (12th century A.D.) and others formulated this study as a key for studying Buddhist logic taught in Valid Cognition ([pramāṅa]). This text is studied in all the monastic universities of the Gelug order as a part of their basic curriculum.

The three summarized topics; the three basic wisdoms.
1. གཞི་ཤེས། [vastu jсāna]/ the basic wisdom
2. ལམ་ཤས། [mārga jсāna]/ the path wisdom
3. རྣམ་མཁྱེན། [sarvajсāna]/ the omniscient wisdom.

[sarvabuddhaḍākinī]. A mantra practice of a female deity, Vajrayogini, with its lineage coming from the great Naropa.

The six doctrines of Naropa; the six yogas of Naropa There are two ways of listing these six yogas.
1. གཏུམ་མོའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། [caṇḍāli yoga]/ yoga of psychic heat
2. འོད་གསལ། [prabhāsvara yoga]/ yoga of clear light
3. སྒྱུ་ལུས། māyākāya yoga]/ yoga of illusory body
4. བར་དོ། [antarābhava yoga]/ yoga of intermediate rebirth
5. འཕོ་བ། [saṁkrānti yoga]/ yoga of consciousness transference
6. གྲོང་འཇུག yoga of entering a corpse.
1. གཏུམ་མོ། yoga of psychic heat
2. འོད་གསལ། yoga of clear light
3. སྒྱུ་ལུས། yoga of illusory body
4. ཟུང་འཇུག yoga of the state of union
5. འཕོ་བ། yoga of consciousness transference
6. གྲོང་འཇུག yoga of entering a corpse.

[naropa]/ A great Indian scholar and adept who, after serving as abbot of Nalanda, obtained the highest tantric teachings from Tilopa. His disciple, Marpa, took those teachings to Tibet and propagated the doctrine.

[nālanda]/ The great monastery of [nālanda] in ancient Magadha in Bihar, India. One of the main places of pilgrimage for Buddhist devotees, also known as the birth place of [ṡariputra].

The four negative conducts. The four transgressions of the Bodhisattva vows.
1. བླ་མར་དབུ་བསྐོར་བ། misleading the teacher
2. གཞན་གྱི་དགེ་བ་ལ་འབྱོད་དུ་བཅུག་པ། leading others to regret their virtuous deeds
3. ཐེག་ཆེན་དུ་ཞུགས་པ་ལ་སྐྱོན་འདོགས་པ། disparaging those in the [mahāyāna] doctrine
4. གཡོ་སྒྱུ། cheating others.

[vānaprastha]/ A forest dweller. One who forsakes his home to seek freedom from suffering and dwells as an ascetic in the forest.

The three inner mandates.
1. ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཀྱི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། [saṁvṛti maṇḍala]/ conventional [maṇḍala]
2. བྷ་གའི་དཀྱིལ་འཁར། [bhaga maṇḍala]/ the female genital [maṇḍala]
3. དོན་དམ་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་ཀྱི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། [paramārtha bodhicitta maṇḍala]/ the [maṇḍala] of ultimate bodhicitta

[ṣaḍ antarāyatanāni]/ The six inner sources of perception (see ༼དབང་པོ་དྲུག༽).

[ṣaḍ antara dhātavaḥ]/ The six inner sense powers (see ༼ཁམས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽ B.)

The ten internal qualities; the ten inner qualities of a [vajrācārya].
1. བསྲུང་འཁོར་བསྒོམས་ནས་ཕྱེར་བཟློག་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in dispelling interferences by means of meditation on the wheel of protection
2. འཁོར་ལོ་བྲིས་པ་ལུས་ལ་བཏགས་བསོགས་ཀྱི་སྒོ་ནས་ཕྱུར་བཟློག་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in dispelling interferences by means of drawing mystic circles and tying them to the body
3. བུམ་དབང་དང་གསང་དབང་བསྐུར་བ་་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in bestowing the vase and secret initiation
4. ཤེས་རབ་ཡེ་ཤེས་དང་དབང་བཞི་པ་བསྐུར་བ་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in bestowing the wisdom and fourth initiation
5. དགྲོ་བོའི་བསྲུང་མ་དང་ཕྲལ་བའི་ཁ་སྦྱོར་དབྱེ་བ་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in sending off and scattering the protectors of the enemy
6. གཏོར་མའི་ཆོ་ག་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in the practice of ritual cake offerings
7. བཟླས་པའི་ཚུལ་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in the practice of vajra recitations
8. ཚུལ་བཞིན་བསྒྲུབས་ཀྱང་མ་འགྲུབ་ན་སྤོག་ཆོག་བྱ་བར་དྲག་ཤུལ་གྱི་ལས་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in
the means of aggressively reversed practice when unable to actualize the results through the usual order of practice
9. རབ་གནས་ཀྱི་ཆོ་ག་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in the consecration rituals
10. དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་སྒྲུབ་མཆོད་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in the creation and worship of [maṇḍala]s.

The internal demons. The mental adversities or demonic impulses created through imbalanced and disturbed attitudes of desire, hatred and closed-mindedness.

The inner distractions. One of the six distractions (see ༼རྣམ་ག་ཡེང་དྲུག༽). Mental sloth, agitation and clinging to the experience that are obstructions to generating concentration.

The three inner tantras. According to the Nyingma tradition, these are:
1. རྒྱུད་མ་ཧཱ་ཡོ་ག [mahāyoga]
2. ལུང་ཨ་ནུ་ཡོ་ག Annuyoga
3.མན་ངག་ཨ་ཏི་ཡ་ག Atiyoga

Inner offering. An offering in mantrayana practice related to the secret initiation.

The initiations of entering into a [maṇḍala]. The process of initiation of placing the disciples into the [maṇḍala] of the deity by opening the curtain of the mansion. This involves entering the [maṇḍala] from the eastern gate and making circumambulation of the deities, binding the disciples to oath, showing wisdom beings and stabilizing the disciples inseparable from the commitment being and wisdom being, throwing flowers by reciting verses of truth, and choosing the lord of the Buddha family and the offering of flowers for auspicious reasons and connection.

Adhyātma s'u_nyatā]/ Internal emptiness. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽); the lack of the true and independent existence of objects conjoined with consciousness, such as the cognitive eye power, and so forth.

Internal matter. Something which is composed of internal matter, e.g. such as the sense faculties.

The five initiations of inner yoga practice. The initiations that are gateways to mahayoga tantra practice in the Nyingma tradition. For those with potentials to fulfill one's purposes:
1. ཉན་དབང་། initiation to listen
2. སྒོམ་དབང་། initiation to meditation. For those with potentials to fulfill the goals of others;
3. འཆད་དབང་། initiation to teach
4. ཕྲིན་དབང། initiation to perform the activities. For those with potentials to fulfill the goals of both self and others:
5. རྡོ་རྗེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་བཀའ་རབ་འབྱམས་ཀྱི་དབང་། the [vajrarāja]'s precious word initiation.

A Buddhist. One who accepts the Buddha, Dharma and [saṅgha] as the ultimate objects of refuge and protection.

The Buddhist tenet. A philosophy that accepts the Three Jewels as the perfect object of refuge and the four seals of Buddhist doctrine (see ༼ལྟ་བ་བཀར་བཏགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི༽).

The Nang Dzod scarf. A traditional offering scarf of a great quality depicting a design of auspicious symbols and writings.

Niguma; Yogini Niguma The principal lama and meditational deity of the master Khyungpo Naljor, the founder of the Shangpa Kagyud lineage.

The six doctrines of Yogini Niguma. The transmission of tantric practice that comes from Niguma.
1. གཏུམ་མོ་བདེ་དྲོད་རང་འབར། self-ignition of bliss through the yoga of psychic heat
2. སྒྱུ་ལུས་ཆགས་སྡང་རང་གྲོལ། self-liberation from attachment and hatred through the yoga of the illusory body
3. རྨི་ལམ་ཉིང་འཁྲུལ་རང་དག incineration of wrong conceptions through the yoga of dreams
4. འོད་གསལ་གཏི་མུག་རང་གསལ། self-awakening from ignorance through the yoga of clear light
5. འཕོ་བ་མ་བསྒོམས་སངས་རྒྱས། full awakening without meditation through the yoga of consciousness transference
6. བར་དོ་རྒྱལ་བ་ལོངས་སྐུ། meditation on the Sambhogakaya Buddha through the yoga of the intermediate state of rebirth.

The eight types of inherent powers. The eight different powers of medicines rooted in their elemental composition.
1-2. ལྕི་བ་དང་སྣུམ་པ་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་རླུང་ནད་སེལ་བ། heavy and oily, powerful for wind disease.
3-4. བསེལ་བ་དང་རྟུལ་བ་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་མཁྲིས་ནད་སེལ་བ། coolness and dullness, for Pe diseases.
5-8. ཡང་བ་དང་རྩུབ་པ་ཚ་བ་རྣོ་བ་བཅས་བཞི་པོས་བད་ཀན་གྱི་ནད་སེལ་བ། lightness, roughness, hot and sharpness, for phiegm.

The seven secondary jewels; the seven secondary precious objects.
1. རྒྱལ་བོའི་རྣ་ཆ། a king's ear ring
2. བཙུན་མོའི་རྣ་ཆ། a queen's ear ring
3.  བློན་པོའི་རྣ་ཆ། a minister's ear ring
4. རྣོར་བུ་མིག་གསུམ། the three-eyed jewel
5. བསེ་རུའི་རྭ། a rhinoceros horn
6. བྱུ་རུའི་སྡོང་པོ། a coral branch
7. གླང་ཆེན་མཆེ་བ། an elephant's tusk.

A. The three principles. The principal psycho-physical discipline to be maintained in the leap-over (thod-rgal) system of ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན་༽ meditation.
1. བཅའ་བ་ལུས་ཀྱི་གནད་སྐུ་གསུམ་གྱི་བཞུགས་སྟངས་གསུམ་ལས་མི་གཡོ་བ། stillness as the principle of the body seated in the manners of three kayas
2. འཁྲེད་པ་དབྱིངས་ཀྱི་གནད་སྐུ་གསུམ་གྱི་གཟིགས་སྟངས་ལས་མི་འགུལ་བ། guidance as the principle of absorption in reality immutable from the manner of looking into three kayas
3. སྣང་བ་ཡུལ་གྱི་གནད་དབྱིངས་རིག་མི་འབྲལ་ཞིང་རླུང་དལ་བར་སྡོད་པ། appearance as the principle of the object of meditation inseparable from primordial awareness and reality, and maintaining a gentle pace of the flow of energy wind.
B. The three essential practices.
1. སྣང་བ་སེམས་སུ་སྒྲུབ་པ། taking all appearances as the (nature of) mind
2. སེམས་སྒྱུ་མར་སྲུབ་པ། taking mind as illusory
3. སྒྱུ་མ་རང་བཞིན་མེད་པར་སྒྲུབ་པ། taking all illusories as lacking inherent existence.

A. Thunder and lightning
B. An adamantine vajra, normally a discovered treasure-object of metal that has a soothing sound when beaten with a shadowy dark metal, unbeatable by other metals. Powerful for clearing hindrances and curing insanity.

The ten qualities of a resident teacher or guru.
1. བརྟན་པ། he is stern/firm
2. མཁས་པ། he is wise
3. ལུས་ཐ་མལ་དུ་གནས་པ། he abides in his ordinary physical form
4. ས་རང་བཞིན་དུ་གནས་པ། he is constantly aware of his vows and commitments
5. སྙིང་རྗེ་དང་ལྡན་པ། he is compassionate
6. བཟོད་པ་དང་ལྡན་པ། he is patient
7. ནང་འཁོར་དག་པ། he has a close circle of disciples
8. ཆོས་ཀྱིས་ཕན་འདོགས་པ། he benefits others with teachings
9. ཟང་ཟིང་གིས་ཕན་འདོགས་པ། he benefits others with material gifts
10. དུས་སུ་གདམས་པ། he gives instructions in time of need.

The eight stages; the eight stages of the dissolution of elements and minds at death according to tantra.
1-4. ས་ཆུ་མེ་རླུང་། the earth into water, water into fire, fire into wind, wind into consciousness
5. དཀར་ལམ། consciousness into the mind of radiant white appearance
6. དམར་ལམ། radiant white into the the mind of radiant red
7. ནག་ལམ། radiant red into mind of black near-attainment
8. སྣང་བ། འོད་གསལ། near-attainment into clear light mind.

The twenty-five occasions of mental impulses; the twenty-five principles.
1. བདེ་བ། sukha/ happiness
2. སྡུག་བསྔལ། [duḥkha]/ suffering
3. བཏངསྙོམས། [upekṣa]/ indifference
4. ཆུང་ངu། [alpa]/ weak
5. འབྲིང་། [madhya]/ moderate
6. ཆེན་པོ། br.hat]/ strong
7. དགེ་བ། [kuṡala]/ virtuous
8. མི་དགེ་བ། [akuṡala]/ non-virtuous
9. ལུང་མ་བསྟན། [avyākṛta]/unspecified
10. ཐོས་པ། [ṡruta]/ hearing
11. བསམ་པ། [cintā]/ contemplation
12. སྒོམ་པ། [bhāvanā]/ meditation
13. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་བསླབ་པ། [ṡīla ṡikṣa]/ training in morality
14. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་བསླབ་པ། [samādhi ṡikṡa]/ training in concentration
15. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་བླབ་པ། [prajсā ṡikṣā] raining in wisdom
16. ཕྱི། [bāhya]/ the external
17. ནང་། [ādhyātmika]/the internal
18. གཟུང་བ། [grāhya]/ the object of perception
19. འཛིན་པ། [grahita]/ the object perceiver
20. སྤོང་བ། [prahāṇa]/ the abandonment
21. གཉེན་པོ། [pratipakṣa]/ antidotes
22. མངོན་གྱུར། [pratyakṣa]/ manifest
23. ལྐོག་གྱུར། [parokṣa]/hidden
24. རྒྱུ་དུས། [hetuḥkāla]/causal
25. འབྲས་དུས། [phalam kāla]/ resultant.

The four states; the four states of experiencing objects through the six-fold consciousnesses following the maturation of energy channels, energy winds and essential drops in the human body.
1. གཉིད་འཐུག་པོའི་གནས་སྐབས། deep sleep state
2. རྨི་ལམ་གྱི་གནས་སྐབས། dream state
3. སད་པའི་གནས་སྐབས། awakening state
4. སྙོམས་འཇུག་གི་གནས་སྐབས། absorption in a dormant state.

The four periods of endurance of this universe.
1. རྫོགས་ལྡན། the perfected aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན༽).
2. བསྐལ་པ་གསུམ་ལྡན། the three-fold aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་གསུམ་ལྡན༽)
3. བསྐལ་པ་གཉི་ལྡན། the two-fold aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་གཉིས་ལྡན༽).
4. རྩོད་ལྡན་གྱི་བསྐའ་པ། the quarrelsome period.

གནས་འགྱུར་མཐར་ཕྱིན་པ་གསུམ། The three types of perfect transformation.
1. བྲལ་སེམས་ཀྱི་གནས་འགྱུར། attainment of cessation as the transformation of mind
2. ལམ་གྱི་གནས་འགྱུར། the transformation of paths
3. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་གནས་འགྱུར། the transformation of wisdom.
[dauṣṭhulya]/ The compulsive obtainment; taking unfortunate rebirth; bad rebirth. Being born in adverse circumstances.

The five points; the five points of one's body for visualization of the object of meditation.
1. སྤྱི་བོ། crown
2. མགྲིན་པ། throat
3. སྙིང་ག heart
4. ལྟེ་བ། navel
5. གསང་གནས། secret organ

The five holy places. The five holy places in this universe for Buddhist followers.
1. ཡུལ་དབུས་རྒྱ་གར་རྡོ་རྗེ་གདན། Bodhgaya of India in the centre
2. ཤར་གྱི་རི་བོ་རྩེ་ལྔ་། the Five-peaked mountaln (Mt. Wu-te'i) in the east
3. ལྷོའི་པོ་ཏ་ལ། Potala palace in the south
4. ནུབ་ཀྱི་ཨོ་ཌི་ཡ་ན། Oddiyana in the west
5. བྱང་གི་ཤམྦྷ་ལ། Sambhala in the north.

[sthavira]; An Elder. A sehior monk who has completed at least ten years of training as a fully ordained monk, and h_ gained mastery over the theory and practice of a monk's discipline, and thus is authorized to give the novice and full ordination vows to others.

The sixteen Arhats; the sixteen saints to whom Buddha [ṡākyamuni] entrusted his doctrine.
1. ཡན་ལག་འབྱུང་། [aṅgaja]
2. མཕམ་པ། [ajita]
3. ནགས་ན་གནས། [vanavāsin]
4. དུས་ལྡན། [kālika]

5. རྡོ་རྗེ་མོའི་བུ། [vajriputra]
6. བཟང་པོ། Bhadra
7. གསེར་གྱི་བེའུ། [kanakavatsa]
8. བྷ་ར་རྡྭ་ཛ་གསེར་ཙན། [kanaka Bharadvāja]
9. བ་ཀུ་ལ། [bakula]
10. སྒྲ་ཅན་འཛིན། [rahula]
11. ལམ་ཕྲན་བན། [cūḍapanthaka]
12. བྷ་ར་རྡྭ་ཛ་བསོད་སྣོམས་ལེན། [piṇḍola Bharadvāja]
13. ལམ་ཆེན་བསྟན། [mahāpanthaka]
14. ཀླུའི་སྡེ། [nāgasena]
15. སྡེད་བྱེད། Gopaka
16. མི་ཕྱེད་པ། Abheda.

[sthaviravāda]. The School of Elders. One of the four main schools of the Hinayana order. There are three sub-schools within this school which are:
1. རྒྱལ་བྱེད་ཚལ་ན་གནས་པ། [Jetavāniyāh]
2. འཇིགས་མེད་རིལ་གནས་པ། [abhayagiri vasinaḥ]
3. གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ཆེན་ན་གནས་པ། [mahāvihāravāsinaḥ].

The hine objects of reliance.
1. སྟོན་པ། teacher
2. ཆོས། Dharma
3.དགེ་འདུན། [saṅgha]
4. སློབ་དཔོན། [ācārya]
5. མཁན་པོ། abbot
6. བླ་མ། one's master
7. གནས། residence
8. གང་ཟག person
9. ཡུལ། environment.

Aeon of endurance. The period of twenty intermediate aeons since the formation of the universe until the beginning of its destruction. It begins with the rebirth of a being born in the most heinous hell reaim and lasts till the end of the teaching of the last of the thousand Buddhas to appear in this uhiverse.

[vātsīputrīya] school. One of the eighteen sub-schools of the [vaibhāṣika] school of thought that asserts the existence of an inexpressible self, that is neither permanent nor impermanent; neither one nor separate from the five aggregates.

The unchanging ground. According to the Nyingma tradition this refers to the eighth ground attained at the level of the fifth yoga, where a Bodhisattva's absorption in the inseparability of primordial wisdom and reality is immutably established.

A. [yakṣat]/ harmful spirit; demons.
B. A god of wealth.

Capturing, destroying and dispelling. The yogic practice of exorcism which involves
1. སྲི་མནན་པ། capturing

2. གདོན་གེགས་བསྲེགས་པ། burning and
3. གཏོར་ཟོར་འཕངས་པ། expelling an evil spirit who is harming the practice of dharma.

[avīci] hell; the hell without-respite. The hottest of the hot hells, migration to which is a result of committing any of the five heinous crimes (see ༼མཚམས་མེད་ལྔ༽).

The nine types of grudges or ill-will. The feeling that one's enemy has harmed, is harming and would harm onself; has harmed, is harming and would harm their friends; and has helped, is helping and would help another enemy.

The one hundred and ten aspects of the omniscient mind.
1-37. ཉན་རང་དང་ཐུན་མོང་བའི་རྣམ་པ་བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན| the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment common to Hearers and Solitary realizers (see ༼བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན༽)
38-71. བྱང་སེམས་དང་ཐུན་མོང་བའི་རྣམ་པ་སོ་བཞི། thirty-four aspects common to Bodhisattvas (see ༼བྱང་སེམས་དང་ཐུན་མོངས་བའ་ཨི་མམ་པ་སོ་བཞི༽)
72-110. རྣམ་མཁྱེན་གྱི་ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་རྣམ་པ་སོ་དགུ thirty-nine aspects exclusive to the omniscient mind (see ༼སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཐུན་མོངས་མ་ཡིན་པའི་མམ་པ་སོ་དགུ༽).

རྣམ་མཁྱེན་གྱི་རྣམ་པ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་བཞི བྱང་སེམས་དངཐུན་མོང་བའི་རྣམ་པ་སོ་བཞི བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ལ་ཡོད་པ་དང་རྗས་སུ་མཐུན་པའི་རྣམ་མཁྱེན་གྱི་རྣམ་པ་སོ་བཞི།
The thirty-four aspects of the omniscient mind.
1-3. རྣམ་ཐར་སྐོ་གསུམ། [tri vimokṣamukha]/ the three doors of emancipadon (see ༼རྣམ་ཐར་སྒོ་གསུམ༽)
4-6. སྤྲུལ་ལམ་གསུམ། [tri nirmāṇa mārga]/ the three paths of emanation (see ༼སྤྲུལ་པའི་ལམ་གསུམ༽)
7-11. མཐོང་ཆོས་བདེར་གནས་ཀྱི་ལམ་ལྔ་། [paсca dṛṣṭidharma sukhathita]/ the five paths bestowing peace in this life (see ༼མཐོང་ཆོས་བདེ་གནས་ཀྱི་ལམ་ལྔ༽)
12-20. འཇིག་རྟན་ལས་འདས་པའི་ལམ་དག [nava lokottaramārga]/ the nine transcendental paths (see ༼ཐར་གྱིས་གནས་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་དགུ༽)
21-24. སྤོང་བའི་ལམ་རིགསའདྲ་ཕྱི་མ་བཞི། the four forbearances with the reality (chos-bzod bzhi) of the four noble truths (see ༼མཐོང་ལམ་ཤེས་བཟོད་སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག༽).

Thirty-nine qualities of the omniscient mind (see ༼སནས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་རྣམ་པ་སོ་དགུ༽).

The ten topics that characterize the omniscient mind.
1. སེམས་བསྐྱེད། the generation of the mind of enlightenment
2. གདམས་ངག the [mahāyāna] instruction
3. ངེས་འབྱེད་ཡན་ལག་བཞི། the four limbs of definite analysis of the [mahāyāna] path of preparation
4. ཐེག་ཆེན་སྒྲུབ་པའི་རྟེན་རང་བཞིན་གནས་རིགས། the naturally abiding Buddha nature that is the basis for achieving [mahāyāna] path
5. ཐེག་ཆེན་སྒྲུབ་པའི་དམིགས་པ། the objects of [mahāyāna] paths
6. ཐེག་ཆེན་སྒྲུབ་པའི་ཆེད་དུ་བྱ་བ། objectives of the [mahāyāna] paths
7. གོ་ཆའི་སྒྲུབ་པ། achievement through armour-like practices
8. འཇུག་སྒྲུབ། achievement through engagement in the Bodhisattva practices
9. ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། achievement through the collection of merit and wisdom
10. ངེས་འབྱུང་སྒྲུབ་པ། the definitely arising achievement.

The twenty-three principles. According to the [saṁkhya] school of Hindu philosophy one is born in cyclic existence because of being ignorant of these principles.
1. སྤྱི་གཙོ་བོ། the fundamental principle
2. ང་རྒྱལ། I-pride
3-13. དབང་པོ་བཅུ་གཅིག the eleven faculties (see ༼བདང་པོ་བཅུ་གཅིག༽)
14-18. དེ་ཙམ་ལྔ་། the five mere phenomena (see ༼དེ་ཙམ་ལྔ༽)
19-23. འབུང་བ་ལྔ་། the five elements (see ༼འབྱུང་བ་ལྔ༽).

Nominally imputed phenomena. One of the two imputed phenomena (see ༼ཀུན་བརྟགས་གཉིས༽), the generic image (see ༼དོན་སྤྱི༽) of thoughts and the clear appearances of nonexistent phenomena

[paryāya paramārtha]/ The nominal ultimate. There are two:
1. ཡུལ་གྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་པའི་དོན་དམ། the nominal ultimate object, e.g. conglomerate matter of a vase
2. ཡུལ་ཅན་གྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་པའི་དོན་དམ། the nominal ultimate object perceiver, e.g. the inferential understanding of emptiness.

The actual ultimate. There are two:
1. ཡུལ་གྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་མ་ཡིན་པའི་དོན་དམ། the actual ultimate object, e.g. the emptiness of true existence of a vase
2. ཡུལ་ཅན་གྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་མ་ཡིན་པའི་དོན་དམ། the actual ultimate object perceiver, e.g. the concentration of an [ārya] who comprehends that emptiness.

[vimuktimārga]/ Path of thorough liberation. A path of single-pointed concentration in which the practitioner gains a cessation through abandoning the particular object of elimination.

[saṁkalpa]/ vikalpa
A. Conceptual cognition; imagination
B. Suspicion; superstition.
C. Idea; thought.

The four conceptualizations; the four thoughts.
A. གཟུང་རྟོག་གཉིས། the two conceptions of grasping at objects.
1. ཉོན་མོངས་གཟུང་རྟོག grasping at deluded phenomena
2. རྣམ་བྱང་གཟུང་རྟོག grasping at purified phenomena
B. འཛིན་རྟོག་གནཉིས། The two conceptions of grasping at the subject.
1. རྫས་འཛིན་རྟོག་པ། grasping at substantial phenomena
2. བཏགས་འཛིན་རྟོག་པ། grasping at imputed phenomena

The three doors of emancipation; the three types of concentrations for liberation.
1. རྣམ་པར་ཐར་པའི་སྒོ་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད། [ṡūnyatā vimokṣamukha]/ emancipation through emptiness
2. མཚན་མ་མེད་པ། [animitta vimokṣamukha]/ emancipation through signlessness
3. སྨོན་པ་མེད་པ། [praṇihita vimokṣamukha]/ emancipation through wishiessness.

The eight emancipations.
A. གཟུགས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པར་ཐར་པ་གསུམ། The three emancipations within the form realm:
1. གཟུགས་ཅན་གཟུགས་ལ་བལྟ་བའི་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation of one with body looking at a form
2. གཟུགས་མེད་གཟུགས་ལ་བལྟ་བའི་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation of one without form body looking at a form
3. སྡུག་པའི་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation through beautiful form
B. གཟུགས་མེད་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པར་ཐར་པ་ལྔ་། The five emancipations within the formless realm:
1. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐས་ཡས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation of infinite space
2. རྣམ་ཤས་མཐའ་ཡས་ཀྱ་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation of infinite consciousness
3. ཅིང་ཡང་མེད་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation of nothingness
4. སྲིད་རྩིའི་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation of the peak of existence
5. འགོག་པའི་རྣམ་ཐར། emancipation of cessation.

The six pledges concerning Vairocana.
1-3. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་རྣམ་གསུམ་ཉམས་སུ་ལེན་པ། practice of the three types of morality (see ༼ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་རྣམ་གསུམ༽)
4-6. དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ། taking refuge in the Three Jewels.

The seven-fold posture of Buddha Vairocana; the seven physical disciplines to be maintained during a formal meditation in Buddhist practice.
1. རྐང་པ་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང། sitting cross-legged
2. ལག་པ་མཉམ་བཞག hand in the gesture of equipoise — the right hand lying palm upward on the upturned left hand
3. སྒལ་ཚིག་དྲང་པོ་བསྲང་བ། a straight back
4. མགྲེན་པ་ཅུང་ཟད་གུག་པ། neck bent slightly forward
5. དཔུང་པ་གཤོལ་ལྟར་བརྐྱངས་པ། མིག་སྣ་རྩེར་ཕབ་པ། shoulders straight like a yoke
6. མིག་སྣ་རྩེར་ཕབ་པ། eyes looking at the tip of the nose
7. ལྕེ་རྩེ་ཡ་རྐན་ལ་སྦྱར་བ། tongue touching the upper palate.

The four absolute purities.
1. ཡུལ་དག་པ། purity of object
2. ཡུལ་ཅན་དག་པ། punty of object perceiver
3. རྟོག་པ་དག་པ། purity of thought
4. ཤེས་པ་དག་པ། purity of mind.

The thoroughly moving energy-wind; the intensely moving wind. The energy-wind for cognitive faculties of hearing; one of the five secondary wind energies (see ༼ཡན་ལག་གི་རླུང་ལྔ༽).

[paсca viṡuddha hetavaḥ]/ The five causes of purity.
1. ལམ་དངོས་ཡོངས་སུ་དག་པ། total punty of the path
2. ཉེར་བསྡོགས་ཡོངས་སུ་དག་པ། total purity of the preparatory stage
3. རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པས་མ་སྨྲས་པ། lack of conceptual concoction
4. དྲན་པས་ཡོངས་སུ་ཟིན་པ། total mindfulness
5. མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པར་བསྔོས་པ། dedication towards [nirvāṇa]

[avipāka ekakṣaṇika prayoga]/ Non-fruitional momentary training. The yogic practice of a Bodhisattva which is the_wisdom directiy opposing the obstructions to omniscience and which in actualizing the non-contaminated, non-matunng dharma, also actualizes the other concordant dharmas, all in the space of one instant (i.e. the 1 /60th of a finger snap).

[vipāka ekakṣaṇika prayoga]/ Fruitional momentary training. The yogic practice of a Bodhisattva, which is the wisdom directly opposing the obstructions to omniscience, and which, in actualizing the non-contaminated, maturing dharma, also actualizes the other concordant dharmas, all in the space of one instant (i.e. the l/60th of a finger snap).

[vijсaptirūpa]/ Revelatory form. The physical or verbal expressions of a person's attitude or feeling.

[avijсaptirūpa]/ Non-revelatory form. For instance, the vows possessed by a [bhikṣu] while in deep sleep. There are five types:
1. འདུས་པ་ལས་གྱུར་པ། those arising from an aggregation of potential substance
2. མངོན་པར་སྐབས་ཡོད་པ། those appearing only to a mental consciousness
3. ཡང་དག་པར་བླངས་པ་ལས་གྱུར་པ། those arising from taking precepts
4. ཀུན་བཏགས་པ། those arising from imputation
5. དབང་འབྱོར་བ། those arising from powers.

The seven-fold analysis of the emptiness of a chariot. To analyse whether:
1. གཅིག་གམ། the chariot is one with its parts
2. ཐ་དད། the chariot is different from its parts
3. ལྡན་པའམ། the chariot possesses its parts
4. རྟེན་དང། the chariot is the parts dependent upon the chariot
5. བརྟེན་པ། the chariot is that which depends upon its parts
6. ཚོགས་པའམ། the chariot is a mere collection of its parts
7. དབྱིབས། the chariot is merely its shape.

[aṣṭa vaivadānikendriyāni]/ The eight purified mental faculties; the eight pure powers:
1. དད་པའི་དབང་པོ། [ṡraddhendriya]/ the faculty of faith
2. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། [viryendriya]/ the faculty of virtuous efforts
3. དྲན་པའི་དབང་པོ། [smṛtindriya/] the faculty of mindfulness
4. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་དབང་པོ། [samādhīndriya]/ the faculty of concentration
5. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། [prajсendriya]/ the faculty of wisdom
6. མེ་ཤེས་པ་ཀུན་ཤེས་པའི་དབང་པོ། [anajсātam ājсāsyām indriya]/ the faculty of knowing all that is unknown
7. ཀུན་ཤེས་བའི་དབང་པོ། [ajсendriya]/ the faculty of knowing all
8. ཀུན་ཤེས་པ་དང་ལྡན་པའི་དབང་པོ། [ajсātendriya]/ the faculty of that which has the knowledge of knowing all.

The fifty-five topics of purified phenomena; the fifty-five classes of virtuous phenomena.
1-6. སྤྱོད་པའི་ལམ་ཕར་ཕྱིན་དྲུག the six perfections (see ༼ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག༽) as paths of practice
7-24. ལྟ་བའི་ལམ་སྟོང་ཉིད་བཅོ་བརྒྱད། the eighteen emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽)
25-31. རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་ལམ་བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན། the thirty-seven limbs of enlightenment (see ༼བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན༽)
32. ཞི་གནས་ཀྱི་ལམ་འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི། the four noble truths (see ༼འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི༽) as paths of mental quiescence meditation
33. བསམ་གཏན་བཞི། the four meditative concentrations (see ༼བསམ་གཏན་བཞི༽)
34. ཚད་མེད་བཞི། the four immeasurables (see ༼ཚད་མེད་བཞི༽)
35. གཟུགས་མེད་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི། the four absorptions of the formless realm (see ༼གཟུགས་མེད་སྙོམས་འཇུག་བཞི༽)
36. རྣམ་ཐར་བརྒྱད། the eight emancipations (see ༼རྣམ་ཐར་བརྒྱད༽)
37. མཐར་གྱེས་གནས་པའི་སྙོམས་པར་འཇུག་པ་དགུ the nine absorptions in series (see ༼མཐར་གྱིས་གནས་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་དགུ༽)
38. ལྷག་མཐོང་གི་ལམ་རྣམ་ཐར་སྒོ་གསུམ། the three concentrations of the three doors of emancipation (see ༼རྣམ་ཐར་སྒོ་གསུམ༽) as paths of penetrative insight meditation
39. ཡོན་ཏན་ཁྱད་པར་ཅན་གྱི་ལམ་མངོན་ཤེས་ལྔ་། the five clairvoyances (see ༼མངོན་པར་ཤེས་པ་ལྔ༽) as paths for higher qualities
40. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་བཞི། the four concentrations (see ༼ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་བཞི༽)
41. གཟུངས་ཀྱི་སྒོ་བཞི། the four doors of retention (see ༼གཟུངས་ཀྱི་སྒོ་བཞི༽)
42. འབྲས་བུའི་ལམ་སྟོབས་བཅུ། the ten powers (see ༼དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྟོབས་བཅུ༽) as the resultant paths
43. མི་འཇིགས་པ་བཞི། the four fearlessnesses (see ༼མི་འཇིགས་པ་བཞི༽)
44. སོ་སོར་ཡང་དག་པ་རིག་པ་བཞི། the four perfect specific understandings (see ༼སོ་སོར་ཡང་དག་རིག་པ་བཞི༽)
45. བྱམས་པ་ཆེན་པོ། great love
46. སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་བོ། great compassion
47. ཆོས་མ་འདྲེས་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད། the eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (see ༼མ་འདྲེས་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽)
48-52. གང་ཟག་ལྔ་། the five aspirants to the above (see ༼གང་ཟག་ལྔ༽)
53-55. མཐར་ཐུག་གི་འབྲས་བུ་གསུམ། the three ultimate fruits (see ༼མཁྱེན་གསུརན༽) the basis, path and omniscient wisdom.

The four types of purified phenomena
1. རང་བཞིན་གྱི་རྣམ་བབྱང་། the natural purified phenomena
2. དམིགས་པའི་རྣམ་བྱང་། purified phenomena of the object of meditation
3. རྣམ་དག་གིའམ་སྒྲུབ་པའི་རྣམ་བྱང་། purified practice
4. ཐོབ་པའི་རྣམ་བྱང་། purified attainment.

[vipāka hetu]/ The ripening cause; maturing cause. All contaminated virtuous and non-virtuous karma

[vipāka phala]/ The ripening results; the maturing fruits. One of the five types of results (see ༼འབྲས་བུ་ལྔ༽); results of the contaminated virtues and non-virtues.

The eight qualities of fully ripened karma
1. ཚེ་རིང་བ། long life

2. ཁ་དོག་ཕུན་སེམ་ཚོགས་པ། excellent features
3. རིགས་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། excellent family lineage
4. དབང་ཕྱུག་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། excellent wealth and power
5. ཚིག་བཙན་པ། respected speech
6. དབང་ཆེ་བར་གྲགས་པ། renowned authority
7. སྐྱེས་པ་ཡིན་པ། being a male
8. སྟོབས་དང་ལྡན་པ། strong will-power.

The training of the complete aspects. A Bodhisattva path or wisdom which meditates in a condensed way upon the hundred and seventy-three aspects of the three wisdoms of the basis, paths and omniscient mind. This wisdom exists from the [mahāyāna] path of accumulation to the last instant of the path of meditation.

The eleven topics that characterize the training of the complete aspects.
1. རྣམ་པ། aspects
2. སྦྱོར་བ། training
3. སྦྱོར་བའི་ཡོན་ཏན། qualities of trainings
4. སྦྱོར་བའི་སྐྱོན། faults of trainings
5. སྦྱོར་བའི་མཚན་ཉིད། characteristics of trainings
6. ཐར་པ་ཆ་མཐུན། aids to liberation
7. ངེས་འབྱེད་ཆ་མཐུན། aids to definite discrimination
8. སློབ་པ་ཕྱིར་མི་སྡོག་པའི་རྟགས། the irreversible trainees
9. སྲེད་ཞི་མཉམ་ཉིད་ཀྱི་སྦྱོར་བ། training in the sameness of existence and peace
10. ཞིང་དག་སྦྱོར་བ། training of the pure field
11. ཐབས་མཁས་སྦོར་བ། training m skillful means.

The ten conceptual distractions; the ten mental wanderings:
1. དངོས་པོ་མེད་པར་རྟོག་པ། conception of the lack of things
2. དངོས་པོ ཡོད་པར་རྟོག་པ། conception of the existence of things
3. སྒྲོ་འདོགས་པའི་རྟོག་པ། conception of exaggeration
4. སྐུར་འདེབས་ཀྱི་རྟོག་པ། conception of underestimation
5. གཅིག་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ། conception of being one
6. ཐ་དད་དུ་རྟོག་པ། conception of being different
7. ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་དུ་རྟོག་པ། conception of the identityness
8. ཁྱད་པར་དུ་རྟོག་པ། conception of being the qualities
9. མིང་ཇི་ལྟ་བ་བཞིན་དུ་རྟོག་པ། conception in accord with the name
10. དོན་ཇི་ལྟ་བ་བཞིན་དུ་རྟོག་པ། conception in accord with the meaning.

The six types of distractions; six distractions towards sensual objects.
1. རང་བཞིན་གྱི་རྣམ་གཡེང་། natural distraction
2. ཕྱི་རོལ་ཏུ་རྣམ གཡེང་། distraction towards outer objects
3. ནང་གི་རྣམ་གཡེང་། inner distraction
4. མཚན་མའི་གཡེང་བ། distraction towards signs (mtshan-ma)
5. གནས་ངན་ལེན་གྱི་གཡེང་བ། distraction towards non-virtuous causes
6. ཡིད་ལ་བྱེད་པའི་གཡེང་བ། obsessive-mental-distraction.

The five phenomena on the level of the aggregate of consciousness.
1. ཀུན་རྟོག་བརྒྱད་ཅུ། the eighty indicative thoughts

2. སྣང་བ་དཀར་ལམ་པའི་སེམས། the mind of radiant white appearance

3. མཆེད་པ་དམར་ལྨ་པའི་སེམས། the mind of radiant red increase
4. ཉེར་ཐོབ་ནག་ལམ་པའི་སེམས། the mind of radiant black near attainment
5. འཆི་བ་འོད་གསལ་གྱི་སེམས། the mind of the clear light of death.

[vijсānāhāra]/ Mental nourishment; food of consciousness. The energy of consciousnesses that assists the survival of a person's life.

The two types of consciousness; the two kinds of mind.
1. རྒྱུ་དུས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཤེས། [hetuḥkāla vijсāna]/ causal consciousness
2. འབྲས་ཀྱི་རྣ་ཤེས། [kāryakāla vijсāna]/ resultant consciousness.
[nava vijсāna saṁkrānti mukhāḥ]/ The nine orificies for consciousness transference.
1. ཚངས་བུག [brahmarandhra]/ crown of the head
2. སྨིན་མཚམས། [ūṃa]/ between the eyes
3. མིག [cakṣu]/ eyes
4. རྣ་བ། [kaṃa]/ ears
5. སྣ། [ghrāṇa]/ nose
6. ཁ། [mukha]/mouth
7. ལྟེ་བ། [nābhi]/navel
9. ཆུ་ལམ། [mūtramārga]/urethra
10. བཤང་ལམ། [varcomārya]/anus.

The eight groups of consciousness; the eight consciousnesses.
1. མིག་གི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ། [cakṣu vijсānam]/ eye consciousness
2. རྣ་པའི་རྣམ་པརཤེས་པ། [ṡrotra vijсānam]/ ear consciousness
3. སྣོའི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ། [ghrāṇa vijсānam]/ nose consciousness
4. ལྕེའི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ། [jihvā vijсānam]/ tongue consciousness
5. ལུས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ། [kāya vijсānam]/ body consciousness
6. ཡིད་ཀྱི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ། [mano vijсānam]/ mental consciousness
7. ཉོན་ཡིད་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ། [kleṡa vijсānam]/ afflictive consciousness
8. ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ། [ālaya vijсānam]/ foundational consciousness, the mental basis of all.

Meat free from the three objections. Any meat or flesh of an animal that one has not seen, heard or even suspected to have been killed for oneself.

[paсca yogibhūmayaḥ]/ The five yogic stages.
1. གཞིའི་ས། the basic stage
2. བསྐྱེད་པའི་ས། the generated stage
3. མེ་ལོང་ལྟ་བུའི་ས། the mirror-like stage
4. སྣང་བའི་ས། the luminous stage
5. གནས་བའི་ས། the stage of abidance.

Yoga tantra. The third of the four classes of tantras that stresses the importance of internal activities, i.e. meditation rather than external or physical practices.

རྣལ་འབྱོར་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་དམ་ཚིག་བཅུ་བཞི། The fourteen commitments related to Yoga tantra.
1-3. མཆོག་གསུམ་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་བསྙེན་པ་དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་རིགས་ཀྱི་ས། refuge in
the Three Jewels, as the three commitments related to the

[tathāgata] family
4-6. རྡོ་རྗེ་དང། དྲིལ་བུའི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་དང་། སློབ་དཔོན་བཟུང་བ་སྟེ་རྡོ་རྗེའི་རིགས་ཀྱི་དམ་ཚིག་གསུམ། commitment of accepting vajra, bell and [ācārya], as the three commitments related to the Vajra family
7-10. ཆོས་དང་། ཟང་ཟིང་དང་། མི་འཇིགས་པ་དང་། བུམས་པའི་སྦྱིན་པ་སྟེ་རིན་ཆེན་རིགས་ཀྱི་དམ་ཚིག་བཞི། practicing the giving of dharma, material possession, protection from fear and love, as the four
commitments related to the Ratna family
11-13. ཕྱི་བྱ་སྤྱོ་དང་། ནང་རྣལ་འབྱོར་རྒྱུད་དང་། ཐེག་པ་གསུམ་གྱི་ཆོས་འཛིན་པ་སྟེ་པད་མའི་རིགས་ཀྱི་དམ་ཚིག་གསུམ། accepting the outer action tantra, inner yoga tantra, and the dharma of the three vehicles, as the three commitments related to the Padma family
14. མཆོད་པའི་ལས་ལ་བརྩོན་པ་ལས་ཀྱི་རིགས་ཀྱི་དམ་ཚིག་གཅིག་སྟེ་སྒྲུབ་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་དམ་ཚིག striving in the activities of offering service, as the commitment related to the Karma family.

[sapta yoga tantra abhiṣekha]/ The seven initiations of Yoga tantra.
1. མེ་ཏོག་ཕྲེང་བའི་དབང་། initiation of the flower garland
2. ཆུ་དབང་། water initiation
3. ཙོད་པཎ་གྱི་དབང་། crown initiation
4. རྡོ་རྗེའི་དབང་། vajra initiation
5. དྲིལ་བུའི་དབང་། bell initiation
6. མིང་གི་དབང་། name initiation
7. རྡོ་རྗེ་་སློབ་དཔོན་གྱི་དབང་། [vajrācarya] initiation.

The five families of Yoga tantra.
1. སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་རིགས། Buddha family
2. རྡོ་རྗེའི་རིགས། Vajra family
3. རིན་ཆེན་གྱི་རིགས། Ratna(Jewel) family
4. པད་མའི་རིགས། Lotus family
5. ལས་ཀྱི་རིགས། Karma(Action) family.

The four seals according to the Yoga tantra system.
1. ཕྱག་ཆེན། [mahāmudrā]/ the great seal
2. དམ་རྒྱ། [samayamudrā]/ the pledge seal
3. ཆོས་རྒྱ། [dharmamudrā]/ the dharma seal
4. ལས་རྒྱ། [karmamudrā]/ the action seal.

The five stages of yoga. According to the Anuyoga teaching of the Nyingma tradition there are five stages of yoga within the five paths.
1. ཚོགས་ལམ་འདུན་པ་སེམས་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of an aspirational mind of enlightenment on the path of accumulation
2. སྦྱོར་ལམ་རིགས་ཆེན་འབྱེད་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱེར། the yoga of distinguishing great families on the path of preparation
3. མཐོང་ལམ་དབུགས་ཆེན་འབྱིན་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of releasing great breadth on the path of seeing
4. བསྒོམ་ལམ་ལུང་ཆེན་ཐོབ་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of obtaining great oral transmission on the path of meditation
5. མི་སློབ་ལམ་རྩལ་ཆེན་རྫོགས་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of perfecting great skills on the path of no-more learning.

[yogi pratyakṣa]/ Yogic bare perception; yogic direct cognition. The non-mistaken, non-conceptual mind of an [ārya] which arises in dependence upon its exclusive condition; the union of mental quiscence and penetrative insight.

[anuttarayoga tantra]/ The highest yoga tantra The highest of the four classes of tantra which stresses the supreme importance of inner activity, regardless of the purificatory practices of external activities.

[yogi]/ A Yogi; an adept. In its loose sense it is applied to any male practitioner, in contrast to a female practitioner who is known as a Yogini (rnal-'byor-ma).

The four yogas. The four stages of [mahāmudrā] meditation according to the Kagyud tradition.
1. སེམས་ལ་དམིགས་པ་རྩེ་གཅིག་ཏུ་གཏད་པས་རྩེ་གཅིག་གི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga of single-pointed concentration upon one's mind
2. སེམས་སྦྲོས་བྲལ་དུ་རྟོགས་པས་སྤྲོས་བྲལ་གྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga free of conceptual elaborations lacking any entertainment of thoughts upon one's mind
3. སྣང་སེམས་རོ་གཅིག་ཏུ་རྟོགས་པས་རོ་གཅིག་གི་བྱེར། yoga of single-taste experiencing the inseparability of appearances and mind
4. མཚན་བཅས་ཀྱིས་སྒོམ་དུ་མེད་པས་སྒོམ་མེད་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga without meditation free of any signs.

The three yogic grounds.
1. གང་ཟག་གི་བདག་མེད་རྟོགས་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་ས། the yogic ground realizing the selflessness of persons
2. གཟུང་འཛིན་གཉིས་སྟོགང་རྟོགས་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་ས། the yogic ground
realizing the non-duality of subject and object
3. བདེན་སྟོང་རྟོགས་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་ས། the yogic ground realizing the lack of true existence of phenomena.

The subtle wind and mind of reality. The wind energy and mind inherent in the body of a person; the primordial wind energy and intuitive awareness.

A lay-person observing only some vows. One of the four nominally ordained lay persons (see ༼དགེ་བསྙེན་བཏགས་པ་བ་བཞི༽) observing two or three precepts.

A lay-person observing only one vow. One of the four nominally ordained lay persons (see ༼དགེ་བསྙེན་བཏགས་པ་བ་བཞི༽) observing oniy one of the precepts.

[viṡva vajra]/ The multiple vajra A ritual implement (vajra) with three, five or more spokes.

The inseparability of appearance and emptiness. The indivisibility of appearing objects as the method and emptiness as the wisdom; thus a unity of the two from the object's side.

The seven conceptions (see ༼སྣང་བ་རྣམ་བདུན༽).
The symbolic guru. One's own teacher who is the symbol of reality or total enlightenment.

The three-fold appearances; the three types of visions according to the Path and Fruit teachings of the Sakya tradition (see ༼སྣང་གསུམ༽).

The seven deceptive conceptions; the seven appearances.
1. རྨི་ལམ། like a dream
2. སྒྱུ་མ། like an illusion
3. སྨིག་རྒྱུ། like a mirage
4. སྒྲ་བརྙན། like an echo
5. གཟུགས་བརྙན། like a reflection in a mirror
6. དྲི་ཟའི་གྲོང་ཁྲེར། like a city of smell-eaters (bar-do)
7. སྤྲུལ་པ། like a hallucination.

The four types of experiences. The experiences attained as a result of practicing ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན་༽ meditation covering the experiences from the path of a trainee to the path of no-more learning.
1. ཆོས་ཉིད་མངོན་སུམ་གྱིསྣང་བ། the experience of seeing reality directly
2. ཉམས་སྣང་གོང་འཕེལ་གྱི་སྣང་བ། the experience of advancing in one's spiritual development
3. རིག་པ་ཚད་ཕེབས་ཀྱི་སྣང་བ། the experience of reaching a correct realization of the intuitive awareness (rig-pa)
4. ཆོས་ཟད་བློ་འདས་ཀྱི་སྣང་བ། the experience of the total withdrawal of all phenomena into the sphere of intrinsic awareness (rig-pa) beyond imagination.

Inattentive perception. One of the seven perceptions (see ༼བློ་རིགས་བདུན༽) which an object, though it appears clearly, is not properly discerned, e.g. reception of sound to an ear consciousness while one's eye consciousness is totally absorped in observing a beautiful form.

The purity of appearance and existence. The appearance of everything in its pure nature; a yogic way of experiencing phenomena

Self-liberation from the world of appearances. One who has gained liberation from this impure world.

The Three visions; the three basic paths.
A. Preliminary practice of the Path and Fruit teachings of the Sakya tradition, (see ༼སྣང་གསུམ༽).
B. Three types of visions:
1. མ་དག་པའི་སྣང་བ། the impure visions
2. རྣལ་འབྱོར་ཉམས་ཀྱི་སྣང་བ། the pure visions of yogic experience
3. དག་པའི་སྣང་བ། the pure vision.

The three faults of a receptacle; the three faults to be removed while listening to a discourse.
1. རྣ་བ་མི་གཏད་ཁ་སྦུབ་ལྟ་བུའི་སྐྱོན། fault of not paying attention to the teachings like a pot turned upside down
2. ཡིད་ལ་མི་འཛིན་ཞབས་རྡོལ་ལྟ་བུའི་སྐྱེན། fault of not retaining the teachings in one's mind like a pot which is leaking
3. ཉོན་མོངས་དང་འདྲེས་དུག་ཅན་ལྟ་བུའི་སྐྱེན། fault of having a deluded mind like a dirty or poisonous vessel.

The three [pāla] kings. The three kings of the [pāla] dynasty in ancient India—[sadhupāla], [guṇapāla] and [prajсāpāla]; the three principal followers of Indian [ācārya Paṇḍita Dharmapāla], who was invited by Guge King Yeshe Od of the Ngari region of Tibet during the early eleventh century. His three disciples also came with him and worked for the revival of Buddhism in Tibet.

[padma]/ Lotus. It symbolizes the purity of a Bodhisattva's motive, just as a lotus blooms unblemished upon the mire of a swamp, a Bodhisattva remains in cyclic existence without being polluted by its negative aspects. The white lotus in particular symbolizes the pure nature of discriminative wisdom analyzing the nature of reality.

པད་མ་འབྱུང་གནས། M
[padmasambhava]/ The great Indian [ācārya] who brought the tantric teachings to Tibet in the eighth century. He founded Samye monastery and propagated the tantric form of Buddhism in Tibet.

The eight treatises of [vasubandhu]; the eight [prakaraṇas].
1. མདོ་སྡེ་རྒྱན་གྱི་བཤད་པ། [ṡūtrālaṁkara bhāṣya]/ Commentary on the Ornament of Discourses
2. དབུས་མཐའ་རྣམ་འབྱེད་ཀྱི་བཤད་པ། [madhyāntavibhaṅgaṭika]/ Commentary on the Distinction Between the Middle Way and the Extreme Way
3. ཆོས་ཉིད་རྣམ་འབྱེད་ཀྱི་བཤད་པ། [dharma dharmatāvibhaṅga vṛtti]/ Commentary on the Distinguishing the Phenomena and its Reality
4. སུམ་ཅུ་པའི་ཚིག་ལེའུར་བྱས་པ། [triṁṡika kārika]/ The Thirty Verses (on [cittamātra])
5. ཉི་ཤུ་པའི་ཚིག་ལེའུར་བྱས་པ། [viṁṡika kārikā]/ The Twenty Verses
6. ཕུང་པོ་ལྔའི་རབ་བྱེད། [paсca skandhaprakaraṇa]/ The Chapter on the Five Aggregates
7. རྣམ་བཤད་རིག་པ། [vyākhyayukti]/ The Thorough Exposition
8. ལས་སྒྲུབ་པའི་རབ་ཏུ་བྱེད་པ། The Chapter on Establishing the Law of Karma

A. According to the Abhidharma tradition it is a measurement of length equal to eight krosa (see ༼གྱང་གྲགས༽), equal to 500 armspans.
B. According to the [kālacakra] measurement, four fingernails long becomes a cubit (see ༼ཁྲུ༽), four cubits equals an armspan, two thousand armspans equals one gyang-dak (see ༼རྒྱང་གྲགས༽), and four gyang-dak equals one yojana (see ༼དཔག་ཙད༽).

The state of glorious Samantabhadra. The state of Buddhahood according to Nyingma tradition, the entity of the three kayas (see ༼སྐུ་གསུམ༽) and five wisdoms (se ye-shes-lnga).

[ṡrīmat vājradhāra]/ The glorious Vajra master. Vajra master in the secret mantra tradition fulfilling six qualities:
1. འཁོར་བའི་ཆོས་རྒྱབ་ཏུ་དོར་བ། one who has fully renounced samsaric concerns
2. འདོད་པ་ཆུང་ཞིང་ཆོག་ཤེས་པ། one who is content with few desires
3. ལག་ལེན་ལ་མཁས་ཤིང་ཉམས་མྱོང་ཡོད་པ། one who is experienced in practice and ritual activities
4. རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་ཚིག་དོན་ལ་མཁས་ཤིང་སྒྲུབ་པ་ལ་མརྩོན་པ། one who is knowledgeable of tantric treatises, can explain their literal and implied meaning, and is devoted to practice
5. ལྟ་བའི་དོན་ལ་མཁས་ཤིང་ནུས་པ་རྫོགས་པ། one who is learned in the meaning of the right view and fully accomplished in it
6. སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞིང་གཏོང་བ་ལ་དགའ་བ། one who is highiy compassionate and generous.

The eight adornments of a Tantric Yogi.
1. སྤྱི་གཙུག་ཏུ་མི་འགྱུར་རྡོ་རྗེ་ཕྱེད་པའི་ཆས། a half vajra on his crown is a sign of the immutability of his goals
2. ཁམས་གསུམ་ཟིལ་གནོན་ལྕང་ལོ་རལ་པའི་ཆས། his matted hair is a sign of outshining the three realms
3. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་ཤུགས་ལྡན་ཐབས་ཤེས་གཤོག་པའི་ཆས། the wings of method and wisdom are a sign of his miraculous powers
4. ཕ་རོལ་དཔུང་འཇོམས་ཕྱག་མཚན་ཚོགས་ཀྱ་ཆས། the different hand [mūdras] (gestures) are a sign of overcoming the opponent forces
5. གཞན་གྱིས་མུ་ཐུབ་བསྲུང་བ་གོ་ཁྲབ་ཆས། his armour protects him against harms caused by others
6. ཉམ་ང་ཀུན་བྲལ་རྟོག་མེད་རོ་ལྡན་ཆས། he wears the skins of different beings as a sign of his freedom from all fears
7. འཁོར་འདས་རོ་སྙོམས་ཁྲག་གཞག་རྒྱ་མཚོའི་ཆས། he uses blood and animal fat freely as a sign of his realizations of the sameness of existence and peace
8. ཉོན་མོངས་ཀུན་བསྲེགས་བསྐལ་པའི་མེ་དཔུང་ཆས། he uses fire freely as a sign of his freedom from all delusions.

Heroes and Heroines. The male and female practitioners residing in the celestial heavens; more loosely used for male and female tantric practitioners.

The eight-fold laughs of a Hero.
1. ཧ་ཧ་བསྡིགས་པའི་རྒད་མོ། Ha-Ha the frightening laugh
2. ཧི་ཧི་དགྱེས་པའི་རྒད་མོ། Hi-Hi the pleasing laugh
3. ཧེ་ཧེ་སྒེག་པའི་རྒད་མོ། Heh-Heh the majestic laugh
4. ཧོ་ཧོ་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པའི་རྒད་མོ། Ho-Ho the subduing laugh.

The four kinds of warriors.
1. གླང་པོ་ཆེའི་དམག [hasti kāya]/ those fighting on elephants
2. རྟའི་དམག [aṡva kāya]/ those fighting on horses
3. ཤིང་རྟའི་དམག [ratha kāya]/ those fighting on chariots
4. རྐང་ཐང་གི་དམག [patti kāya]/ those who fight on foot.

The nine examples; the nine illustrations to prove the existence of Buddha nature within the mental stream of all sentient beings.
1. པད་མའི་ནང་གི་སངས་རྒྱས། a Buddha in a lotus
2. སྦྲང་རྩིའི་ནང་གི་སྦྲང་མ། bees in the honeycomb
3. སྦུན་གྱི་ནང་གི་སྙིང་པོ། grain in the husk
4. མི་གཙང་ནང་གི་གསེར། gold in a rubbish heap
5. ས་འོག་གི་གཏེར། treasure beneath the earth
6. མྱུ་གུ་ལས་འབྲས་བུ་སྐྱེ་བའི་ནུས་པ། the potential in a seedling to produce fruit
7. གོས་ཧྲུལ་ནང་གི་རྒྱལ་བའི་སྐུ། a statue of Buddha wrapped in dirty rags
8. བུད་མེད་ངན་པའི་ལྟོ་ནང་གི་འཁོར་ལོས་བསྒྱུར་བའི་རྒྱལ་པའི་སྐུ། a universal king in the
womb of an ugly woman
9. ས་འོག་གི་རིན་ཆེན། a precious object buried in the ground.

[aṡityanuvyaсjanāni]/ The eighty minor marks of a Buddha
1. སེན་མོ་ཟངས་ཀྱི་མདོག his nails are copper-coloured
2. སེན་མོ་མདོག་སྣུམ་ཅན། his nails are moderately shiny
3. སེན་མོ་མཐོ་བ། his nails are raised
4. སོར་མོ་རྣམས་ཟླུམ་པ། his nails are round
5. སོར་མོ་རྣམས་རྒྱས་པ། his nails are broad
6. སོར་མོ་རྣམས་བྱིན་གྱིས་ཕྲ་བ། his nails are tapered
7. རྩ་མི་མངོན་པ། his veins do not protrude
8. རྩ་མདུད་པ་མེད་པ། his veins are free of knots
9. ལོང་བུ་མི་མངོན་པ། his ankles do not protude
10. ཞབས་མི་མཉམ་པ་མེད་པ། his feet are not uneven
11. སེང་གེའ་སྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པ། he walks with a lion's gait
12. གླང་པོ་ཆེའི་ལྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པ། he walks with an elephant's gait
13. ངང་པའི་སྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པ། he walks with the gait of a goose
14. ཁྱུཨུུ་མཆོག་གི་སྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པ། he walks with a bull's gait
15. གཡས་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ལྡོག་ཅིང་གཤེགས་པ། his gait tends to the right
16. མཛིས་པར་གཤེགས་པ། his gait is elegant
17.མི་གཡོ་བར་གཤེགས་པ། his gait is steady
18. སྐུ་འཁྲུལ་བག་ཆགས་པ། his body is well-covered
19. སྐུ་བྱི་དོར་བྱས་པ། his body looks as if it were polished
20. སྐུ་རིམ་པར་འཚམས་པ། his body is well-porportioned
21. སྐུ་གཙང་ཞིང་རྣམ་པར་དག་པ། his body is clean and pure
22. སྐུ་འཇམ་པ། his body is smooth
23. སྐུ་རྣམ་པར་དགུ་པ། his body is perfect
24. མཚན་རྣམ་པར་རྫོགས་པ། his sex organs are fully developed
25. སྐུ་ཁོ་ལག་ཡངས་ཤིང་བཟང་བ། his physical bearing is excellent and dignified
26. གོམ་པ་སྙོམས་པ། his steps are even
27. སྤྱན་རྣམ་པར་དག་པ། his eyes are perfect
28. སྐུ་གཞོན་ཤ་ཅན། he is youthful
29. སྐུ་ཞིམ་པ་མེད་པ། his body is not sunken
30. སྐུ་རྒྱས་པ། his body is broad
31. སྐུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གྲིམས་པ། his body is not hose
32. ཡན་ལག་དང་ཉིང་ལག་རྣམ་པར་འབྱེས་པ། his limbs are well-proportioned
33. གཟིགས་པ་རབ་རིབ་མེད་ཙིང་རྣམ་པར་དག་པ། his vision is clear and unblurred
34. སྐུ་ཟླམ་པ། his belly is round
35. སྐུ་སྐབས་ཕྱིན་པ། his belly is perfectly moderate
36. སྐུ་མརྙོངས་པ། his belly is not long
37. སྐུ་ཕྱལ་ཕྱང་ངེ་བ་མ་ཡིན་པ། his belly does not bulge
38. ལྟེ་བ་ཟབ་པ། his navel is deep
39. ལྟེ་བ་གཡས་ཕྱགས་སུ་འཁྱེལ་བ། his navel winds to the right
40. ཀུན་ནས་མཛེས་པ། he is perfectly handsome
41. ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་གཙང་བ། his habits are clean
42. སྐུ་ལ་སྨེ་བ་སྣགས་སྤག་མེད་པ། his body is free of moles and discolouration
43. ཕྱག་ཤིང་བལ་ལྟར་འཇམ་པ། his hands are soft as cotton wool
44. ཕྱག་གི་རི་མོར་མདངས་ཡོད་པ། the lines of his palms are clear
45. ཕྱག་གི་རི་མོ་ཟབ་པ། the lines of his palms are deep
46. ཕྱག་གི་རི་མོ་རིང་བ། me lines of his palms are long
47. ཞལ་ཧ་ཅང་མི་རིང་བ། his face is not too long
48. མཆུ་བིམ་པ་ལྟར་དམར་བ། his lips are red like copper
49. ལྗགས་མཉེན་པ། his tongue is pliant
50. ལྗགས་སྲབ་པ། his tongue is thin
51. ལྗགས་དམར་བ། his tongue is red
52. གསུང་འབྲུག་གི་སྒྲ་དང་ལྡན་པ། his voice is like thunder
53. གསུང་སྙན་ཅིང་འཇམ་པ། his voice is sweet and gentle
54. མཆེ་བ་ཟླུམ་པ། his teeth are round
55. མཆེ་བ་རྣོ་བ། his teeth are sharp
56. མཆེ་བ་དཀར་བ། his teeth are white
57. མཆེ་བ་མཉམ་པ། his teeth are even
58. མཆེ་བ་བྱིན་གྱིས་ཕྲ་བ། his teeth are tapered
59. ཤངས་མཐོ་བ། his nose is prominent
60. ཤངས་གཙང་བ། his nose is clean
61. སྤྱན་ཡངས་པ། his eyes are clear and wide
62. རྫི་མ་སྟུག་པ། his eyelashes are thick
63. སྤྱན་དཀར་ནག་འབྱེད་ཅིང་པད་མའི་འདབ་མ་ལྟར་རངས་པ། the black and white parts of his eyes are well-defined and are like lotus petals
64. སྨིན་ཚུགས་རིང་བ། his eyebrows are long
65. སྨིན་མ་འཇམ་པ། his eyebrows are smooth
66. སྨིན་མ་སྣུམ་པ། his eyebrows are soft
67. སྨིན་མའི་སྤུ་མཉམ་པ། his eyebrows are eveniy haired
68. ཕྱག་རིང་ཞིང་རྒྱས་པ། his hands are long and extended
69. སྙན་མཉམ་པ། his ears are of equal size
70. སྙན་གྱི་དབང་པོ་མ་ཉམས་པ། his ear sense power is perfect
71. དཔྲལ་བ་ལེགས་པར་འབྱེས་པ། his forehead is well-formed and well-defined
72. དཔྲལ་བ་འབྱེས་ཆེ་བ། his forehead is broad
73. དབུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་རྒྱས་པ། his head is very large
74. དབུ་སྐྲ་བུང་བ་ལྟར་གནག་པ། hjs hajr is bjack as a bumble bee
75. དབུ་སྐྲ་སྟུག་པ། his hair is thick
76. དབུ་སྐྲ་འཇམ་པ། his hair is soft
77. དབུ་སྐྲ་མ་འཛིངས་པ། his hair is untangled
78. དབུ་སྐྲ་མི་གཤོར་བ། his hair is not unruly
79. དབུ་སྐྲ་དྲི་ཞིམ་པ། his hair is fragrant
80. ཕྱག་ཞབས་དཔལ་བེའུ་དང་བཀྲིས་དང་གཡུང་དྲུང་འཁྱིལ་བ། his hands and feet are
marked with auspicious emblems such as the [ṡr_ivasta] and [svastika].

[upamā māyā]/ The exemplary illusion. The magical creation of the conjurers such as elephants and others.

[upamā prabhāsvara]/ The examplary clear light mind.
A completion stage practice of tantra in which the energy-wind is integrated into the central energy channel at the heart-centre and the subtle mind is brought to a manifest level for the elimination of delusions.

[vicāra bhāvanā]/ Analytical meditation. Meditation of checking or reviewing the topic through applying analysis.

The three-fold analysis; the three criteria for validating a phenomenon.
1. མཐོང་བ་མངོན་འགྱུར་ལ་མངོན་སུམ་ཚད་མས་གནོད་པ་མེད་པ། obvious things are not contradicted by valid bare perception
2. ཅུང་ཟད་ལྐོག་གྱུར་ལ་རྗེས་དཔག་ཚད་མས་གནོད་པ་མེད་པ། slightly obscure things are not contradicted by valid inference based on the force of evidence
3. ཤིན་ཏུ་ལྐོག་གྱུར་ལ་ལུང་ཚད་མས་གནོད་པ་མེད་པ། extremely obscure things are not contradicted by valid inference based on scriptural authority.

A citation pure of the three-fold analysis. A citation in Buddhist teachings and practice qualified by the three-fold analysis (see ༼དཔད་པ་གསུམ༽).

[mīmāṁsaka] school of thought. A Hindu school of philosophy, which considers [vedāntic] teachings as self-originated and ultimate, and asserts that the self is permanent, partless and a substantially existent consciousness. They deny the existence of the omniscient mind and true speech, and also assert that there is no liberation which is the cessation of defilement, since the defilements are an intrinsic part of the mind. However, they assert that a person can attain Brahmahood through the practice of sacrifice.

[pāyantika]/ Abandoning downfalls. A class of monk's transgression of vows that can be confessed in the presence of the [saṅgha] community through abandoning the causal object of the downfall.

The unity of abandonment; the union of the pure illusory body and the abandonment of deluded obscurations to liberation; the state of unity of a trainee.

He who abandons the obstacles simultaneously.

The ten limbs of abandonment; the ten abandonments (see ༼དགེ་ཚུལ་གྱི་སྤང་བྱ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ༽).

He who abandons the obstacles serially.

The three exalted abandonments; the three qualities of abandonment exclusive to Buddhas.
1. ལེགས་པར་སྤངས་པ། excellent abandonment
2. སླར་མོ་ལྡོག་པའི་ཚུལ་གྱིས་སྤངས་པ། irreversible abandonment
3. མ་ལུས་པར་སྤངས་པ། complete abandonment.

Demotion, pleasing and expulsion. The monastic rules for confessing a transgression of the 'remainder' category of vows by accepting the demotion of ranks, by offering services to the monk community which pleases them, or by accepting expulsion from the community.

The moral discipline of seven-fold abandonments and their auxiliaries. A moral discipline primarily requiring the abandonment of the three non-virtues of body (see ༼མི་དགེ་བ་བཅུ༽ 1-3), and the four non-virtues of speech (see ༼མི་གདེ་བ་བཅུ༽ 4-7) and other minor misdeeds such as abandoning taking intoxicants.

[pratibhāna pratisaṁvit]/ Specific understanding of confidence. A skillful way of a Bodhisattva's training of redressing their doubts through listening to dharma discourses and passing the transmission to others with tireless effort.

Object for overcoming obsession. One of the four objects of calm abiding meditation (see ༼ཞི་གནས་ཀྱི་དམིགས་པ་བཞི༽), e.g. one who is obsessed with lust must take ugliness as its object of antidote for developing calm abiding meditation.

[paсca cakṣu]/ The five eyes; the five eyes possessed by Buddhas.
1. ལྷའི་སྤྱན། [divya cakṣu]/ divine eye
2. ཤའི་སྤྱན། [carma cakṣu]/ fleshy eye
3. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་སྤྱན། prajсā caks.u]/ wisdom eye
4. ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྤྱན། [dharma cakṣu]/ dharma eye
5. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་སྤྱན། [jсāna cakṣu]/ primordial wisdom eye.

Collective karma; common karma, e.g. karma of a society or locality.

[prakṛti]/ The Fundamental Nature; the Universal Principle. The fundamental principle as asserted by the [saṁkhyā] school_of Hindu philosophy, which is permanent, pervasive over all animate and inanimate objects, is the creator of all activities and is an undifferentiable unit.

[sāmānya lakṣaṇa]/ Generally characterized phenomena. Phenomena that are ultimately unable to perform a function, e.g. space.

The four types of generality.
1. ཚོགས་སྤྱི། [saṁgraha sāmānya]/ collective generality
2. རིགས་སྦྱི། [gotra sāmānya]/ categorical generality
3. དོན་སྤྱི། [artha sāmānya]/ meaning generality
4. སྒྲ་སྤྱི། [ṡabda sāmānya]/ sound generality.

[cārya Tantra]; Performance Tantra. The second of the four classes of tantras, stressing the importance of a balanced approach in both the external rites and internal mental activity.

The fourteen commitments related to performance tantra.
1-10. མི་དགེ་བ་བཅུ་སྤོང་བ། The abandonment of the ten non-virtues (see ༼མི་བ་བཅུ༽),
11. དམ་པའི་ཆོས་མི་གཏོང་བ། not to abandon the sublime Dharma
12.  བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་མི་གཏོང་བ། not giving up the mind of enlightenment
13. སེར་སྣས་མི་གཏོང་བ། not abandoning practicing giving due to miserliness
14. སེམས་ཅན་ལ་གནོད་མི་བྱེད་པ། not harming other sentient beings.

[ṣaḍ cārya tantra abhiṣekhāḥ]/ The six initiations of performance tantra.
1. མེ་ཏོག་ཕྲེང་དབང་། initiation of flower garland
2. ཆུའི་དབང་། water initiation
3. ཅོད་པཎ་གྱི་དབང་། crown initiation
4. རྡོ་རྗེའི་དབང་། vajra initiation
5. དྲིལ་བུའི་དབང་། bell initiation
6. མིང་གི་དབང་། name initiation.

[tri cārya tantra gotrāḥ]/ The three families of performance tantra.
1. དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་རིགས། the [tathāgata] family
2. པད་མའི་རིགས། the lotus family
3. རྡོ་རྗེའི་རིགས། the vajra family.
That of སྐུ་སུང་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་རིགས། Buddha's body, speech and mind.

A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life ([bodhisattvacāryāvatāra]).
A fundamental text of [mahāyāna] composed by [ācārya ṡāntideva] during the eighth century, in which a Bodhisattva's conduct is explained.

The four activities.
1. འགྲོ་བ། going
2. འཆག་པ། walking
3. ཉལ་བ། sleeping
4. འདུག་པ། waking.
1. ཀུན་བཟང་སྤྱོད་པ། all-good behaviour
2. གསང་བའི་སྤྱོད་པ། secret behaviour
3. འདུ་འཛིའི་སྤྱོད་པ། behaviour in a crowd
4. ཕྱག་ཆེན་གྱི་སྤྱོད་པ། the [mahāmudrā] behaviour.

The doors of activity in performance tantra.
1. འཇུག་པའི་སྦྱོད་པ། activity of entering into practice
2. སྦྱོར་བའི་སྤྱོད་པ། activity of application
3. སྒྲུབ་པའི་སྦྱོད་པ། activity of the actual stage of practice
4. གྲུབ་པའི་སྤྱོད་པ། activity of accomplishment.

[meghopamacittotpāda]/ Cloud-like Bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with skillful means within the continuum of a [nirmāṇakāya] Buddha.

The three emanation bodies of a Buddha.
1. བཟོ་བོ་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ། [ṡilpa nirmāṇakāya]/ artisan emanation
2. སྐྱེ་བ་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ། [janma nirmāṇakāya]/ miscellaneous emanation
3. མཆོག་གི་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ། [uttama nirmaṇakāya]/ supreme emanation.

[nirmāṇacakra]/ The wheel of emanation; the channel-wheel located at the navel.

A non-Buddhist by emanation. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who have chosen to emanate as teachers of non-Buddhist philosophy in order to lead those beings not yet ripened to progress on the higher states of realizations.

The three paths of manifestation; the three paths of emanation (see ༼རྣམ་ཐར་བརྒྱད༽A.).

The eight extremes; the eight extreme views.
1. སྐྱེ་མཐའ། production
2. འགག་མཐའ། cessation
3. རྟག་མཐའ། eternalism
4. ཆད་མཐའ། nihilism
5. འགྲོ་མཐའ། going
6. འོང་མཐའ། coming 
7. གཅིག་ཡིན་པའི་མཐའ། one
8. ཐ་དད་པའི་མཐའ། different.

The lack of eight extremes. The extremes to be abandoned while establishing the view of [prāsangika Mādhyamika]. Lack of inherently existent birth and so on (see ༼སྤྲོས་པའི་མཐའ་བརྒྱད༽).

[pitṛ tantra]/ Father Tantra. The highest class of tantra in which the primary focus is the development of an illusory body, e.g. [guhyasamāja] tantra.

The father Dharma; also called the teachings of the father of the Kadam tradition, compiled by the father of the Kadampa tradition, Dromtonpa. This collection of teachings includes his questions to [atiṡa] and the tatter's replies on many essential doctrinal points, and a short biography of [atiṡa] and the guru lineage of the Kadampa's sixteen drops (thig-le bcu drug) transmission.

The father and son dharma (see ༼ཕ་ཆོས༽and ༼བུ་ཆོས༽) of the Kadampa tradition.

[daṡa pāramitā]/ The ten perfections.
1-6. The six perfections (see ༼ཕར་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག༽).
7. ཐབས་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [upāya pāramitā]/ perfection of means
8. སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [praṇidhāna pāramitā]/ perfection of aspirational prayers
9. སྟོབས་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [bala pāramitā]/ perfection of power
10. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། jсāna pāramitā]/ perfection of primordial wisdom.

[ṣaḍ pāramitāḥ]/ The six perfections.
1. སྦྱིན་པའི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [dāna pāramita]/ perfection of giving
2. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [ṡīla pāramitā]/ perfection of morality
3. བཟོད་པའི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [kṣānti pāramitā]/ perfection of patience
4. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [virya pāramitā]/ perfection of effort
5. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [dhyāna pāramitā]/ perfection of concentration
6. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ། [prajсa pāramitā]/ perfection of wisdom.

[ṣaḍ pāramitā pratipakṣāḥ]/ The six opponents to the six perfections.
1. སེར་སྣ། [matsava]/ miserliness
2. ཚུལ་འཆལ། [duḥṡīla]/ corrupt morality
3. ཞེ་སྡང་། [krodha]/ hatred
4. ལེ་ལོ། [alasa]/ laziness
5. རྣམ་གཡེང་། [vikṣapana]/ mental wandering
6. ཤེས་རབ་འཆལ་བ། [duḥprajсā]/ corrupt wisdom.

The three treasures obtained from the father; the three constituents obtained from father.
1. ཁུ་བ། regenerative fluid
2. རྐང་། marrow
3. རུས་པ། bone.

The Phagdru Kagyud Order. One of the divisions of the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Phagmo Drupa (1110-1170), the chief disciple of Gampopa. He
mastered the art of writing and painting without being taught. His eight disciples founded the eight sub-sects of the Kagyud.

Mutually exclusive things.

Mutually exclusive contradictions; mutually exclusive dichotomy, e.g. permanence and impermanence, or hot and cold.

[aṣṭa parājikā dharmāḥ]/ The eight moral defeats; the eight root
transgressions of a fully ordained nun, [bhikṣunī].
1-4. the four moral defeats (see ༼ཕམ་པ་བཞི༽) of a [bhikṣu]
5. སྐྱེས་པ་ལ་ཆགས་སེམས་ཀྱིས་ལུས་འཁྱུད་ཅིང་རེག་པ། touching and embracing a man with lust
6. སྐྱེས་པ་ལ་ཆགས་སེམས་ཀྱིས་ལུས་གན་རྐྱལ་དུ་བཀན་པ། throwing a man down overwhelmed with lust
7. ཟླ་མོར་ཕམ་པ་བྱུང་བ་ཤེས་བཞིན་དུ་འཆབ་པ། knowingly concealing moral defeat of a fellow nun
8. དགེ་སློང་འགའ་ཞིག་དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་གནས་ནས་ཕྱུང་བ་ལ་སླར་ཡང་འགྱོད་པའི་སེམས་ཀྱིས་བཟོད་པར་གསོལ་བ་དེ་ཉིད་ལུས་ངག་གི་སྒོ་ནས་ཟློག་པར་བྱེད་པ། ignoring the
forgiveness sought by [bhikṣu]s through physical and verbal
gestures for their expulsion from the monastery.

The concealed moral defeats. Concealment of any of the four root transgressions by an ordalned monk.

[catvāri parājikā dharmāḥ]/ The four moral defeats; the four root transgressions of a monk, the committing of any would lead to loosing the status of a being a monk.
1. མི་བསད་པ། [manusyabadha]/ killing a human
2. མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ། adattādana/ taking what is not given
3. མི་ཚངས་པར་སྦྱོད་པ། [abrahmacārya]/ indulging in sexual misconduct
4. མི་ཆོས་བླ་མའི་བརྫུན་སྨྲ་བ། [uttaramanuṣya dharma pralāpa]/ lying about one's attainment of suprahuman dharmas.

[pāramitā yāna]/ The Perfection Vehicle. The Bodhisattva vehicle as taught in the [sūtra]s known as the causal vehicle (rgyu'i-iheg-pa) in contrast to the mantrayaria vehicle known as the resultant vehicle.

[ṣaḍ pāramitā vṛttiprasthāna pratipatti]/ Achievement through engagement in the six perfections; the Bodhisattva paths encompassing the practice of the six perfections.

[mahāsaṁgikā]/ [mahāsaṁgikā] school. One of the four principal schools of the Hinayana tradition whose direct teacher is [kāṡyapa] (see ༼དགེ་འདུན་ཕལ་པོ་ཆེའི་སྡེ་པཨིང༽).

The ten innermost jewels of the Kadampa tradition (see ༼བཀའ་གདམས་ཕུགས་ནོར་བཅུ༽).

[paсca skandhāḥ]/ The five aggregates.
1. གཟུགས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [rūpa skandha]/ aggregate of form
2. ཚོར་བའི་ཕིང་པོ། [vedanā skandha]/ aggregate of feeling
3. འདུ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [saṁjсā skandha]/ aggregate of perception
4. འདུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [saṁskara skandha]/ aggregate of compositional factors
5. རྣམ་པར་ཤེཨེས་པའི་ཕུང་པོ། [vijсāna skandha]/ aggregate of consciousness.

[ṣaḍ skandhāḥ]/ The six aggregates 1-5. The five aggregates (see ༼ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ༽)
6. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [jсāna skandha]/ the aggregate of primordial wisdom.

The Tnree Heaps.

A. ཕུང་པོ་གསུམ་པོའི་མདོ། ལྟུང་བཤགས། The [sūtra] of confession:
1. སྡིག་པ་བཤགས་པ། the practice of confessing non-virtues
2. རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ། the practice of rejoicing
3. དགེ་བསྔོ་བ། the practice of dedication.
1. སྡིག་པ་བཤགས་པ། confessing non-virtues
2. རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ། rejoicing at the virtues
3. ཆོས་འཁོར་བསྐོར་བ། turning the wheel of doctrine.

The five excellences.
1. ཆོས་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། [dharma saṁpanna]/ excellent Dharma
2. དུས་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། [kāla saṁpanna]/ excellent period
3. སྟོན་པ་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། [ṡāstra saṁpanna]/ excellent teacher
4. གནས་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། [sthāna saṁpanna]/ excellent abode
5. འཁོར་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། [pariṣad saṁpanna]/ excellent retinue.
1. སྐུ་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། [kāya saṁpanna]/ perfect body with the major and minor marks
2. སྤངས་རྟོགས་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། [prahāṇa pratīta saṁpanna]/ perfect abandonments and accomplishments
3. འཁོར་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ| [pariṣada saṁpanna]/ perfect retinue
4. ཞིང་ཕུན་སིམ་ཚོགས་པ། [kṣetra saṁpanna]/ perfect field created from the wisdom of self-awareness
5. སྤྲུལ་པ་ཕུན་སིམ་ཚོགས་པ། [nirmāṅa saṁpanna]/ perfect emanation of wisdom and body.

The four excellences.
A. འཇིག་རྟེན་པའི་ཕུན་ཚོགས་སྡེ་བཞི The four worldly excellences:
1. ཆོས། Dharma
2. ནོར། wealth
3. འདོད་པ། wishes
4. ཐར་པ། liberation.
B. འཛིག་རྟེན་ལས་འདས་པའི་ཕུན་ཚོགས་སྡེ་བཞི། The four transworidiy excellences:
1. སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཚོས་དར་བ། flourishing of the Buddha Dharma
2. ནོར་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་དང་ལྡན་པ། possessing riches and wealth
3. འདོད་ཡོན་ལྔ་ལ་སྤོད་པ། enjoying the five sensual objects (see ༼འདོད་ཡོན་ལྔ༽)
4. ཆོས་ལ་བརྟེན་ནས་ཐར་པ་མྱང་འདས་ཀྱི་གོ་འཕང་འཐོབ་པ། attalnment of the state of liberation following Dharma practices.

The triple excellences; the three primary requirements for a person going to receive monk vows.
1. གང་ལ་སྡོམ་པ་བླང་པའི་ཡུལ་མཁན་སློབ། the presence of an abbot and assistant abbots from whom the vows are to be received
2. གང་གིས་སྡོམ་འབོག་པར་བྱེད་པའི་ཆ་ག the full-fledged ritual ceremony through which the vows are to be received
3. གང་བསླབ་པར་བྱ་བའི་གནས་ལ་ཚུལ་བཞིན་དུ་བསླབ་པར་འདོད་པའི་བསམ་པ། the perfect motivation to receive the vows.

A. The three excellences.
1. རྒྱུ་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། excellent cause
2. འབྲས་བུ་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། excellent fruit
3. ཕན་འདོགས་བ་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ། excellent benefit
B. The three perfect accomplishments.
1. རང་དོན་ཕུན་ཚོགས། accomplishment of one's goals
2. གཞན་དོན་ཕུན་ཚོགས། accomplishment of others' goals
3. དོན་གཉིས་སྒྲུ་པའི་ཐབས་ཕུན་ཚོགས། accomplishment of the means for achieving both goals.

The Male Ritual of Cutting-Off. The transmission of the cutting-off ritual (gcod), of severing the ego, directly handed down from Phadampa Sangye to Yarlung Lama [ṣonam] and his disciples.

The nine skills of a man; nine dexterities of manhood.
A. ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་གྱི་རྩལ་གསུམ་རེ་སྟེ་དགུ The three each of body speech and mind.
B. According to another tradition these are:
1. གཏམ། oratorship
2. ཡི་གེ writing
3. རྩིས། calculation
4. མདའ། archery
5. རྡོ། weight lifting
6. མཆོངས། jumping
7. བང་། running
8. རྒྱལ། swimming
9. སྦེ། stick-games.

[ṡāta]/ Eveniy shaped. The perfect and refined shape of a thing.

[viṡata]/ Unevenly shaped. The imperfect and unrefined shape of a thing.

A. Hand gestures ([mudrā])
B. Official or non-official seal.

[mahāmudrā]; the Great Seal. The greal seal of emptiness; an exalted meditation on the nature of mind, particularly associated with the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism.

The consort. Wife of an accomplished Lama

A. The six symbolic ornaments. Costumes associated with tantric deities and yoginis, made of bones representing the six perfections.
1. ནོར་བུ། jewels
2. ལག་གདུབ། bracelets
3. རྣ་ཆ། ear rings
4. སྐ་རག belt
5. འཁོར་ལོ། wheel
6. ཐལ་བ། funerary ashes.

B. The six sacred articles obtained from heaven during the reign of the Tibetan King, Lha Tho-Tho-Ri Nyan-Tsen.
1. མདོ་སྡེ་སྤང་སྐོང་ཕུག་རྒྱ། the [sūtra] ༼སྤང་སྐོང་ཕྱག་རྒྱ༽
2. མདོ་སྡེ་ཟ་མ ཏོག the [sūtra] ཟ་མ་ཏོག
3. གསེར་གྱི་མཆོད་རྟེན། a golden stupa
4. གཡུའི་མཆོད་རྟེན། a turquoise stupa
5. མུ་དྲའི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ། a [mudrā] of woven pearl-net
6. ཙིཏྟམཎིའི་སྐོས་ཕོར། wish-fulfilling pot.

The four seals; the four principles of meditation according to the yoga tantra tradition.
1. ལས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ། [karma mudrā]/ seal of activity
2. དམ་ཆིག་ཕུག་རྒྱ། [samaya mudrā]/ seal of pledge
3. ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ། [dharma mudrā]/ seal of doctrine
4. སྟོང་པའི་ཕུག་རྒྱ། [ṡūnyatā mudrā]/ seal of emptiness or great seal.

The [mudrā] deity. One of the six kinds of deities within action tantra, involving visualizing implements such as a vajra, wheel etc., at the heart and sealing it with the commitment related to the concerned deity.

The Amulet Box traditon of [mahāmudrā]. The [mahāmudrā] transmission of the realization of the clear light mind, through meditation on the inseparability of bliss and emptiness, being likened to the two clasped sides of an amulet box.

The four [mahāmudra] yogas.
1. རྩེ་གཙིག་མའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of single-pointed concentration on the nature of mind
2. སྤྲོས་བྲལ་གྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of realizing the mind as being free from
conceptual elaboration
3. རོ་གཅིག་གི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of realizing the sameness of the appearance and mind
4. སྒོམ་མེད་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of no more meditation.

[sahaja mahāmudra prayoga]/ The [mahāmudrā] of simultaneous arisal and merging. A [mahāmudrā] linage of practice taught by Gampopa for practitioners of the initial level in order that they gradually realize the beginningless, inseparable nature of the mind and finally attain the Truth Body of a Buddha

[vajrapāṇi]; the Vajra Holder. A Bodhisattva who embodies the might and power of all the Buddhas.

A. Emblems, implements and hand gestures of a deity.
B. Signs and marks.

The four outer offering goddesses inside the [maṇḍala].
1. སྒེག་མ། goddess with pleasing gesture
2. ཕྲེང་བ་མ། goddess holding garland
3. གླུ་མ། goddess of song
4. གར་མ། goddess of dance.

The defender, the opponent. The respondent in a debate who defends his or her position.

The three outer tantras. According to the Nyingma tradition the Kriya (action) tantra was taught by Buddha [ṡākyamuni] himself and the Upayoga (performance) tantra and Yoga (union) tantra were taught by Buddha Vairocana.

The entrance from outside; the process of initiation of the disciples entering from outside the curtain of the [maṇḍala]. This involves having made requests to the master, placing the disciple at the eastern gate of the [maṇḍala], bestowal of the common and uncommon vows and enquiring about their Buddha family and aspiration, generating the all-encompassing yogic mind and binding the disciples to the oath of secrecy.

[bahirdhā ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of external objects. One of the sixteen emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽); the lack of inherent existence of non-sentient phenomena, such as the four external elements, object of perception, etc.

External phenomena. The assertion that form, i.e. the five objects of sensory consciousness, and the cognizing sensory consciousness are not substantially the same, but exist separately and have a special causal relationship. This is an assertion of the two lower schools of Buddhist tenets, as well as of the [prāsangika mādhyamika] school.

External matteṛ For instance rocks and eartḥ

[adhyānta bahirdhā ṡūnyatā]/ The emptiness of external and internal objects. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽); the lack of inherent existence of objects pervaded by consciousness, such as the six faculties, six consciousnesses and the internal organs.

The ten beneficial outer initiations. The initiations that are the gateway to entering the mahayoga tantra teachings in the Nyingma tradition.
1. སྙིང་པོ་ལྔའི་དབང་། The initiations of the five essences (see ༼སྙིང་པོ་ལྔ༽)
2. དབུ་རྒྱན་གྱི་དབང་། initiation of the head-dress
3. བུམ་པའི་དབང་། vase initiation
4. ཅོད་པན་གྱི་དབང་། crown initiation
5. ཕྲེང་བའི་དབང་། garland initiation
6. གོ་ཆའི་དབང་། armour initiation
7. རྒྱལ་མཚན་གྱི་དབང་། initiation of the victory banner
8. གདུགས་ཀྱི་དབང་། initiation of the umbrella
9. ཕྱག་རྒྱའི་དབང་། initiation of the [mudrā]
10. བཟའ་བཏུང་གི་དབང་། initiation of food and drinks.

An outsider; a non-Buddhist. Those who belong to a faith other than Buddhism.

The four misapprehensions; the four wrong thoughts.
1. མི་གཙང་བ་ལ་གཙང་བར་འཛིན་པ། to apprehend what is impure as pure
2. བདག་མེད་པ་ལ་བདག་ཏུ་འཛིན་པ། to apprehend what is selfless as
having a self
3. སྡུག་བསྔལ་བ་ལ་བདེ་བར་འཛིན་པ། to apprehend what is miserable as happiness
4. མེ་རྟག་པ་ལ་རྟག་པར་འཛིན་པ། to apprehend what is impermanent as permanent.

The four qualities of the six perfections (see ༼ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པདྲག༽).
1. ཕར་ཕྱིན་རང་རང་གི་མི་མཐུན་པའི་ཕྱོགས་དང་བྲལ་བ། non-association with their respective opponents (see ༼ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་མི་མཐུན་ཕྱོགས་དྲུག༽)
2. གྲོགས་འཁོར་སུམ་མི་རྟོག་པའི་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱིས་ཟིན་པ། conjoined with the wisdom of the purity of the three circles (see ༼འཁོར་གསུམ༽) as their favourable condition
3. བྱེད་ལས་གཞན་གྱི་འདོད་དོན་རྫོགས་པར་བྱེད་པ། fulfilling others' wishes as their function
4. འབྲས་བུང་ཆུང་ཆུབ་གསུམ་སྨིན་པར་བྱེད་པ། ripening of the fruits as their results.

The three external white substances.
1. འོ་མ། [kṣira]/ milk
2. ཞོ། [dadhi]/ curd
3. མར། [ghṛta]/ butter.

The four external [maṇḍala]s.
1. རྡུལ་ཚོན་གྱི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། coloured powder [maṇḍala]
2. རས་བྲིས་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། [maṇḍala]s painted on cloth
3. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། concentration [maṇḍala]
4. ལུས་དཀྱིལ། body [maṇḍala].

The six outer sources of perception (see ༼ཡུལ་དྲུག༽).

[ṣaḍ bahirdhā dhātavaḥ]/ The six outer sensory spheres (see ༼ཁམས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽, A).

The outer dependent arising; the working of the nature; the phenomena of nature.

The ten external qualities of a Vajracarya.
1. དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་འབྲི་བ་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in the art of drawing [maṇḍala]s and meditating upon them
2. དང་པོ་སྦྱོར་བ་སོགས་ཀྱི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing the preliminary practices such as maintaining concentration
3. ལྷ་ལ་རྒྱས་འདེབས་པའི་ཕུག་རྒྱ་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing mudras or hand gestures
4. སྟངས་སྟབས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in positioning the body
5. འདུག་སྟངས་སོགས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in maintaining various sitting positions
6. བཟླས་བརྫོད་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in mantra recitation
7. སྦྱིན་སྲེག་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing fire-rituals
8. མཆོད་པའི་ཆོ་ག་སོགས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing offering rituals
9. ལས་ལ་སྦྱོར་བ་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing practical ritual arts
10. གཤེགས་གསོལ་དང་སླར་བསྡུ་བའི་ལས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in bidding farewell to the deities and withdrawing them into the heart, etc.

[bahīrdhā mudrā]/ External [mudrā]; external seal; a tantric consort; a gesture.

External tutor. The living Guru other than oneself.
[pratikriyā]/ Restoration of vows. Restoration of transgressed vows through a confession ceremony.

Ten never-returners.
1. ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་ཞུགས་པ། the enterer into never-returner
2. བར་དོར་འདའ་བ། the never-returner who attains liberation in the intermediate state
3. སྐྱེས་ནས་འདའ་བ། the never-returner who attains liberation as soon as he is born
4. འཕར་བ་གསུམ། the three never-returners of the leap-over
5. མཐོང་ཆོས་ཞི་བ། the never-returner who attains liberation in the same life-time
6. ལུས་མངོན་བྱེད། the never-returner who attains liberation with the cessation of his body.

The five irreversible aspirants to virtue. The Bodhisattvas on the peak, forbearance, and supramundane levels of the path of preparation and the path of seeing and meditation.


[aṣṭa digpālāḥ]/ The eight directional protectors.
1. ཤར་དུ་དབང་པོ། Indra to the east
2.ལྷོ་རུ་གཤིན་རྗེ། Yarna to the south
3. ནུབ་ཏུ་ཆུ་བདག [varuṇa] to the west
4. བྱང་དུ་གནོན་སྦྱིན། [yakṣa] to the north
5. ཤར་ལྷོར་མེ་ལྷ། [agnideva] to the south-east
6. ལྷོ་ནུབ་ཏུ་བདེན་བྲལ། to the south-west
7. ནུབ་བྱང་དུ་རླུང་ལྷ། [vāyudeva] to the north-west
8. བྱང་ཤར་དུ་དབང་ལྡན། [Indra] to the north-east.

[daṡa digpālāḥ]/ The ten directional protectors.
1. དབང་པོ། [Indra]
2.གཤིན་རྗེ། [yama]

3. ཆུ་བདག [varuṇa]
4. གནོད་སྦྱིན། [yakṣa]
5. མེ་ལྷ། [agnideva]
6. སྲིན་པོ། [rakṣasa]
7. རླུང་ལྷ། [vāyudeva]
8. འབྱུང་པོ། [bhūta]
9. ཚངས་པ། [brahma]
10.སའི་ལྷ་མོ། [vanadevi].

[paсcadaṣa digpālāh]/ The fifteen directional protectors.
A. (see ༼ཕྱོགས་སྐྱོང་བཅུ༽ 1-10.)
11. ཉེ་དབང་། [upendra]
12. ཚོགས་བདག [gaṇapati]
13. ཉི་མ། [sūrya]
14. ཟླ.་བ། Candra
15. ཐགས་བཟང་། [avirala].
B. According to [guhyasamāja] tantra, these are:
1. ཤར་དུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་མཚོན་ཚ་སེར་པོ། Yellow Vajra Weapon to the east
2. གཡས་སུ་སྒྱུ་མ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ནག་པོ། Black Vajra Illusion to his right
3. མེར་རྡོ་རྗེ་མེ་དམར་པོ། Red Vajra Fire to the south-east
4. ལྷོར་རྡོ་རྗེ་དུས་ནག་པོ། Black Vajra Time to the south
5. ལྷོ་ནུབ་ཏུ"རྡོ་རྗེ་གཏུན་ཤིང་། Black Vajra Club to the south-west
6.  ནུབ་ཏུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ཀླུ་དཀར་པོ། White Vajra Naga to the west
7. ནུབ་བྱང་དུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་རླུང་ལྗང་ཁུ། Green Vajra Wind to the north-west
8. བྱང་དུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་འཇིགས་བྱེད་སོར་པོ། Yellow Vajra Terrifier to the north
9. གཡས་སུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་སྣ་རིང་དཀར་པོ། White Vajra [ganeṡ] to his right side
10. བྱང་ཤར་དུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ཁྲོ་བོ་དཀར་པོ། White Vajra Wrath to the north-east
11. དབང་ལྡན་དང་ཉེ་དབང་གི་བར་དུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་འཁྲིལ་བ་དམར་པོ། Red Vajra Sun between north-east and east
12. རྡོ་རྗེ་འོད་དཀར་པོ། White Vajra Moon
13. མི་སྨྲ་རྡོ་རྗེ་སེར་པོ། Yellow Vajra Silent (Brahma)
14. ཆུ་ལྷ་དང་བདེན་བྲལ་གྱི་བར་དུ་ཐགས་བཟང་རིས་ནག་པོ། Black Tak Zangri between west and south-west
15. ས་ཡི་ལྷ་མོ་སེར་མོ། Yellow Goddess of the Earth.

The ten directions.
1-4. ཕྱོགས་བཞི། the four cardinal directions
5.8. མཚམས་བརྒྱད། the four sub-directions
9. སྙིང་། zenith
10. འོག nadir.

[pakṣa dharma]/ The first logical mark. The first condition to be fulfilled in a logical syllogism, i.e. the existence or presence of a logical mark in the subject of the syllogism.
[anuṡaya]/ Delusion; affliction. That which is subtle and multiplying. Delusions are subtle because they are difficult to see, and they are multiplying because of their auxilary mental factors or objects of grasping.

The delusive doubt; the deluded doubt.

The ninety-eight delusions. The ninety-eight delusions of the three realms—eighty-eight delusions to be abandoned on the path of seeing, and ten delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.

The hundred and twenty-eight delusions. The one hundred and twenty-eight delusions of the three realms, one hundred and twelve delusions to be abandoned on the path of seeing, and sixteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.

The ten delusions (see ༼མི་དགེ་བ་བཅུ༽).

The six delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽).

The yoga of subtle conceptions. The subtle conceptual yoga. A generation stage practice in the highest yoga tantra in which the objects of meditation are subtle.

[mālā]/ A rosary. Common religious article used for counting prayers, mantras, etc., usually strung with 108 beads. Also means a garland; a row, e.g. of votive lamps.

[ārya]/ A Noble Being. An exalted being; a superior. One who has attained the third path, the path of seeing, on which a person becomes a real [saṇgha] refuge.

[ārya] [nāgārjuna]The pioneer of the Madhyamika philosophy after Buddha [ṡākyamuni], who elucidated the subtlest profound view of emptiness.

[ārya Upa li]. A close disciple of Buddha [ṡākyamuni], and a
barber by caste and profession, who was renowned for his mastery of the Vinaya teachings. After Buddha [ṡākyamuni]'s passing away, he was responsible for reciting the Vinaya teachings at the first Buddhist council.

[ārya Mahākās'yapa]. A close disciple of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] belonging to the Brahmin caste, he was the first patriach or successor of the Buddha and was responsible for reciting the Abhidharma teachings at the first Buddhist council.

[catvāri ārya satyāni]/ The four noble truths.
1. སྡུག་བསྔལ་བདེན་པ། [duḥkha satya]/ the truth of suffering
2. ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པ། [samudaya satya]/ the truth of the origin of suffering
3. འགོག་པའི་བདེན་པ། [nirodha satya]/ the truth of cessation
4. ལམ་གྱི་བདེན་པ། [mārga satya]/ the truth of the path.

[sapta ārya dhanāni]/ The seven riches of the Noble Beings; the Seven Jewels of the [ārya]s.
1. དད་པ། [ṡraddha]/ faith
2. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས། [ṡīla]/ moral discipline
3. ཐོས་པ། [ṡruta]/ hearing
4. གཏོང་བ། [tyāga]/ generosity
5. ངོ་ཚ་ཤེས་པ། [hrī]/ a sense of shame
6. ཁྲིལ་ཡོད་པ། [apatrāpya]/ a dread of blame
7. ཤེས་རབ། [prajсa]/ wisdom.

The four types of [ārya]s; the four types of ascetics.
1. ཆོས་གོས་ངན་ངོན་ཙམ་གྱིས་ཆོག་ཤེས་པ། one who is content with poor clothing
2. བསོད་སྙོམས་ངན་ངོན་ཙམ་གྱིས་ཆོག་ཤེས་པ། one who is contented with meagre alms
3. གནས་མལ་ངན་ངོན་ཙམ་གྱིས་ཆོག་ཤེས་པ། one who is content with a poor dwelling
4. སྤོང་བ་སྒོམ་པ་ལ་དགའ་བ། one who takes joy in ascetic practices.

The three secret ways of the [ārya]s.
1. སྣོད་ཐམས་ཅད་གཞལ་ཡས་ཁང་དང་བཅུད་ཐམས་ཅད་ལྷའི་རྣམ་རོལ་དུ་ལྷ་བ། viewing the environment as the divine abode and all sentient beings as divine manifestations
2. སྒྲ་ཐམས་ཅད་གཟུངས་སྔགས་དང་གདམས་ངག་ཏུ་འཁྱེར་བ། taking all sounds as being mantras or teachings of the Buddha
3.ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་གདོད་མ་ནས་སྟོང་པར་ལྷ་བ། viewing all phenomena as being empty of true existence from beginningless time.

[āryadeva]. A direct disciple of [nāgārjuna] who defeated the famous Tirthika teacher [aṡvaghoṣa], a highly regarded scholar, in an open debate. Author of the Four Hundred Stanzas.

[āryaṣṭāṅga mārga]/ The eight-fold Noble Path.
1. ཡང་དག་པའི་ལྟ་བ། [saṁyakdṛṣṭi]/ right view
2. ཡང་དག་པའི་རྟོག་པ། [sam`yaksaṁkalpa]/ right thought
3. ཡང་དག་པའི་ངག [saṁyagvāk]/ right speech
4. ཡང་དག་པའི་རྩོལ་བ། [saṁyag vyāyama]/ right effort
5. ཡང་དག་པའི་འཚོ་བ། [saṁyagājīva]/ right livelihood
6. ཡང་དག་པའི་དྲན་པ། [saṁyaksmṛti]/ right mindfulness
7. ཡང་དག་པའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། [saṁyaksamādhi]/ right concentration
8. ཡང་དག་པའི་ལས་ཀྱི་མཐའ། [saṁyakkarmānta]/ right action.

The projected results; the four propelled fruits within the twelve links of interdependent origination—name and form, sources, contact, and feeling.

Projecting causes; the three causes within the twelve links of interdependent origination which implant the causes for ripening karmas to be reborn in cyclic existence ([saṁsāra])— ignorance, karmic formation and consciousness.

Multiplied relics. Relics like mustard seeds, off-white in colour, found in the cremated ashes of holy lamas; they are placed inside statues, stupas, or amulet boxes as articles of protection and devotion.

[saṁkrānti]/ Consciousness transference.
A type of exalted purification practice in which one's or other's consciousness is transfered to a pure land; one of the six yogas of Naropa (see ༼ན་རོ་ཆོས་དྲུག༽).

The consciousness transference of entering a corpse (see ༼གྲོང་འཇུག༽),
Causes for temporary deception.

Virtuous activity; Buddha's grace. Synonymous with the virtue, merits or positive energy received through the blessings of the Buddha and his teachings.

The five types of virtuous activities. The five activities of a Buddha:
1. ཞི་བའི་ལས། activity of peace
2. རྒྱས་པའི་ལས། activity of increase
3. དབང་གི་ལས། activity of power
4. དྲག་པོའི་ལས། activity of wrath
5. ལྷུན་གྱིས་གྲུབ་པའི་ལས། the spontaneous activity.

The four types of virtuous activity (see ༼ཕྲིན་ལས་ལྔ༽ 1-4).

[patāka]/ Flags; prayer flags.

The five products of a cow; fresh substances produced from a cow, collected before they drop to the ground.
1. ཆུ། urine
2. སྕི་བ། dung
3. འོ་མ། milk
4. མར། butter
5. ཞོ། curd.

Pills made out of cow products (see བ་བྱུང་ལྔ་།).
[vāsanā]/ Latencies; instincts; karmic imprints.

[vāsana kāya]/ The instinct body; the body of a dream state mainiy impelled by the instincts left upon one's mind.

The four types of instincts.
1. མངོན་བརྗོད་ཀྱི་བག་ཆགས། instinct of intuition
2. བདག་ལྟའི་བག་ཆགས། instinct of the view of grasping at self
3. སྲིད་པའི་ཡན་ལག་གི་བག་ཆགས| instinct of samsaric experiences
4. རིགས་མཐུན་པའི་བག་ཆགས། instinct of similar factors.

The three types of instincts. That of body, speech and mind.
Lack of conscientiousness; recklessness; negligence. An attitude of not guarding one's actions.

[ṡapta anuṡayāh]/ The seven subconscious minds. The different subconscious experiences activated in conjunction with one's own experiences.
1. འདོད་པའི་འདོད་ཆགས་ཀྱི་བག་ཉལ། subconscious attachment to the desire realm
2. ཁོང་ཁྲོའི་བག་ཉལ། subconscious anger
3. སྲིད་པའི་འདོད་ཆགས་ཀྱི་བག་ཉལ། subconscious attachment within [saṁsāra]
4. ང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་བག་ཉལ། subconscious pride
5. མ་རིག་པའི་བག་ཉལ། subconscious ignorance
6. ལྟ་བའི་བག་ཉལ། subconscious view
7. ཐེ་ཚོམ་གྱི་བག་ཉལ། subconscious doubt.

Treasure-like Bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment possessed by Bodhisattvas on the three pure stages—the eighth, ninth and tenth, surpassing the two accumulations of merits and insights.

Volume. Generally a standard number of three hundred verses forming the sub-divisions of a text; a device to ensure accurate translation and classification of a manuscript; but it may vary from text to text.

[antarakalpa]/ The intermediate aeon. The period of time taken for each of the four intermediate aeons (see བར་བསྐལ་བཞི།) to begin and end in themselves.

The four intermediate aeons.
1. ཆགས་པའི་བསྐལ་བ། aeon of formation
2. གནས་པའི་བསྐལ་བ། aeon of endurance
3. འཇིག་པའི་བསྐལ་བ། aeon of destruction
4. སྟོང་པའི་བསྐལ་བ། aeon of vacuity.

The twenty intermediate aeons; consisting of:
1. མིའི་ཚེ་ལོ་དཔག་མེད་ནས་ཚེ་ལོ་བརྒྱད་ཁྲིའི་བར་བྲི་བ་ནས་ཚེལ་བཅུའི་བར་བྲི་བ་དེ་བར་བསྐལ་པ་གཅིག one mn of decline) during wnicn the infinite human lifespan decreases to 80,000 to 10 years.
2. དེ་ནས་ཡང་ཚེ་ལོ་བརྒྱད་ཁྲིའི་བར་དུ་ཡར་འཕེལ་ཞིང་མར་ལོ་བཅུའི་བར་དུ་བྲི་བའི་བསྐལ་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད། eighteen aeons of increase and decrease, during which the lifespan of human beings goes from 10 to 80,000 and back to
10.3. ཡང་ཚེ་ལོ་བཅུ་པ་ནས་བརྒྱད་ཁྲིའི་བར་ཡར་འཕྲེལ་བའི་བསྐལ་པ་གཅིག one
aeon of increase, during which the human life span increases from 10 to 80,000 years.

[ānantarya samādhi]/ The uninterrupted concentration. The moment of capturing a meditative concentration that realizes emptiness directly.

[ānantaryamūrdhaprayoga]/ Uninterrupted peak training. The final moment of the Bodhisattva path that results in the
immediate attainment of Buddhahood. Synonymous with the wisdom of the last moment within the mental continuum of a Bodhisattva.

[ānantarya mārga]/ Uninterrupted path. A path of single-pointed concentration that overcomes its respective object of abandonment, e.g. the first instant of the path of seeing.

The four interruptions. The four interruptions in the course of maintaining meditative concentration:
1. རོ་མྱང་ཅན། obsession of taste
2. ང་རྒྱལ་ཤས་ཆེ་བ། strong pride
3. མ་རིག་པ་ཤས་ཆེ་བ། strong ignorance
4. ལྟ་བ་ཤས་ཆེ་བ། strong view.

[antarābhava]/ Intermediate state. The state of existence between death and rebirth, during which the consciousness takes a mental body projected by the previous karmic tendencies.

Six classes of intermediate states.
1. སྐྱེ་བའི་བར་དོ། intermediate state of birth
2. རྨི་ལམ་གྱི་བར་དོ། intermediate state of dreams
3. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་བར་དོ། intermediate state of concentration
4. འཆི་ཁའི་བར་དོ། intermediate state of near-death
5. ཆོས་ཉིད་བར་དོ། intermediate state of reality
6. སྲིད་པའི་བར་དོ། intermediate state of becoming.

The probationary novice. One who has received layman's ordination but has not yet received novice vows.

[prānta]/ Wilderness retreat. A retreat place completely set apart from the town life.

The nine orifices or gates of exit for consciousness to exit from the human body (see ༼རྣམ་ཤེས་འཕོ་བའི་བུ་ག་དགུ༽).

A branch monastery. A subsidiary centre of learning founded by a later disciple of a master affiliated to the monastic centre, which is called the 'mother monastery' (ma-dgon).

The son dharma. The collection of teachings of [atiṡa] and Drom Tonpa as received and compiled by their spiritual son, Ngog Legpe Sherab comprising many anecdotes in the life of Dromtonpa, and the entrustment of the Kadampa's doctrine to Dromtonpa during the last days of [atiṡa]'s life. This collection is also known as the Kadampa's miraculous text (sprul-pa'i glegs-bam).

The great scholar Buton (1290-1364). Born in central Tibet, he became famous for his scholarship of all sciences of learning. He compiled all the treatises translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan in a systematic order of index, and has also left more than two dozen volumes of collected wntings. Je Tsong Khapa also became his disciple and received many tantric teachings from him. His lineage is known as the Buton lineage (bu-lugs).

[Ikṣvāku]/ The sugarcane descendant. An epithet for Buddha

[ṡākyamuni] whose ancestral lineage is traced to a child born of an egg that was dropped from semen which had dripped onto a sugarcane leaf.

The expulsion, finding and attainment. The Kadampa principles of;
1. མི་གྲལ་ནས་བུད། expulsion from the ranks of worldly people
2. ཁྱི་གྲལ་བསྙེགས། finding the ranks of dogs
3. ལྷ་གྲལ་ཐོབ། attaining the rank of a god.

The generation of the vase. A tantric practice of generating the ritual vase as a deity by connecting vajra threads (multicoloured thread) from the vase to the heart of the master. First the vase to the heart of the master visualizes the deities, then they are offered blessed scented water from a conch, then are immersed in the nature of bliss and void and transformed as inseparable from the scented water contained in the vase etc., following a ritual text and tradition.

The preparatory vase ritual. A part of the preparatory rite for an initiation. The commitment beings (see ༼དམ་ཚིག་སེམས་དཔའ༽) are generated in the vase and the wisdom beings (see ༼ཡེ་ཤེས་སེམས་དཔའ༽) are immersed into it, and then the initiation is bestowed following a rite and tradition of a lineage.

The Vase Initiation. A tantric empowerment (see ༼བུམ་དབང་བཅུ་གཅིག༽) meant for ripening a disciples's mental continuum and allowing the practice of the generation stage paths aimed at gaining Buddhahood.

The eleven vase initiations.
1. བུམ་དབང་། water initition
2. ཅོད་པན་གྱི་དབང་། crown initiation
3. རྡོ་རྗེའི་དབང་། vajra initiation
4. དྲིལ་བུའི་དབང་། bell initiation
5. མིང་གི་དབང་སྟེ་སློབ་མའི་དབང་ལྔ་། name initiation
6. རྡོ་རྗེ་སློབ་དཔོན་གྱི་དབང་། [vajra-cārya] initiation
7. སྔགས་ཀྱི་དབང་། mantra initiation
8. ལུང་བསྟན་དང་དབུགས་དབྱུང་གི་དབང་། prophecy and relief granting initiation
9. རྡོ་རྗེའི་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་ཀྱི་དབང་། vajra practice initiation
10. སྤྱོད་པའི་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་ཀྱི་དབང་། ascetic practice initiation
11. རྗེས་སྣང་གི་དབང་། permission initiation.

[putraprabhāsvara]/ The son clear light. The clear light mind recognized through the power of meditation while on the trainee's path arising during the dissolution of winds within the central channel through the force of meditation; the son clear light is the experience of various levels of clear light mind gained on the path towards total perfection. This has two types:
1. དབེན་པའི་འོད་གསལ། the clear light of isolation
2. མི་དབེན་པའི་འོད་གསལ། the clear light of non-isolation.

[daṇḍa]/ Club with an ornamental human, vajra, or human head at its top; generally depicted as an implement in the hands of Asuras.

Matter. Any existent thing that is neither form nor consciousness, e.g. a person. There are two types of matter.
1.ཕྱི་དོན་བེན་པོ། external matter, e.g. a clay pot
2. ནང་དན་བེན་པོ། internal matter, e.g. sense organs.

Three difficult aspects of practice.
1. ཆེད་དུ་བྱ་དཀའ་བ། fulfilling the goals
2. སྦྱོད་པ་བྱ་དཀའ་བ། executing the conduct
3. ལས་བྱ་དཀའ་བ། pursuing the practice.

[garuḍa]; celestial eagle. A bird in Buddhist and Hindu mythology which is half man and half eagle symbolizing anger or wrath.

A purification ceremony conducted by a lama in which he sprinkles blessed water on one's head and gives water to sip.

[gṛdhrakūta]/. Vulture Peak. The holy place near Rajgiri where Buddha [ṡākyamuni] turned the second wheel of doctrine, e.g. the Perfection of Wisdom [sūtra]s.

[kriyātantra]/ Action tantra. The first of the four classes of tantra, stressing the importance of purifying external

The three types of siddhis of action ([kriyā]) tantra. The power
of gaining proficiency in caryatantra practices
1. རབ་རིག་འཛིན་དང་མངོན་ཤེས་དང་ནསྟན་བཅོས་ཀུན་ཤེས་པ་སོགས་དང་།
the siddhi of knowledge of all sciences of learning as the supreme result
2. འབྲིང་མི་སྣང་བ་དང་བཅུད་ལེན་དང་རྐང་མགྱོགས་སོགས་དང་། the siddhi of disappearance, extracting the essence/ art of elixir and swift footedness as the middling result
3. ཐ་མ་གཞན་དབང་དུ་འདུ་བ་དང་བསད་བསྐྲད་སོགས་སམ་རྫས་ལུས་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་གསུམ་སོགས་དབང་དུ་འདུ་བ། the siddhi of capturing, killing and expelling others or gaining control over matter, body and resources as the modest result.

The four suchnesses according to action tantra. The four primary applications of the action tantra practices (see ༼དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་བཞི༽).

The three initiations according to action tantra
1. མེ་ཏོག་ཕྲེང་བའི་དབང་། the flower garland initiation
2. ཆུ་དབང། water initiation
3. ཅོད་པཎ་གྱི་དབང་། crown initiation.

The three types of concentration according to the action tantra The three suchnesses of concentration.
1. མེར་གནས་ཀྱི་དེ་ཉིད| suchness of abiding in fire
2. སྒྲར་གནས་ཀྱི་དེ་ཉིད། suchness of abiding in sound
3. སྒྲ་མཐའི་དེ་ཉིད། suchness of abiding in the finality of sound.

The six deities of the action tantra.
1. སྟོང་པའི་ལྷ། [ṡūnyatā deva]/ emptiness deity
2. ཡི་གེའི་ལྷ། [akṣara deva]/ letter deity
3.སྒྲའི་ལྷ| [ṡabda deva]/sound deity
4. གཟུགས་ཀྱི་ལྷ། [rūpādeva]/ form deity
5. ཕྱག་རྒྱའི་ལྷ། [mudrā deva]/ seal deity
6. མཚན་མའི་ལྷ། [lalcṣaṇa deva]/ symbol deity.

The fourteen commitments of action tantra in general.
1-3. དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ལ་དད་པ། maintaining faith in the Three Jewels
4. སྔགས་ལ་དད་པ། faith in mantra
5. ཐེག་ཆེན་ལ་མོས་པ| possessing aspiration in the greater vehicle teachings
6. བླ་མ་དང་ཆོས་གྲོགས་ལ་གུས་པ། being respectful to spiritual masters and friends
7. འདས་མ་འདས་ཀྱི་ལྷ་གཞན་ལ་མི་སྡང་བ། having no hatred towards other deities of the past and future

8. ཉ་སྟོང་དུས་བཞིའི་མཆོད་པ་མི་གཅོག་པ། not failing in carrying out one's commitments during the four days of a month, i.e., the eighth, fifteenth, twenty-fifth and thirtieth
9. ཀླ་ཀློ་དང་མུ་སྟེགས་པའི་གཞུང་གཞན་ལ་མི་མཆོད་པ། not worshipping other barbarian and non-buddhist doctrines or philosophies
10. གློ་བུར་ལྷགས་པའི་མགྲོན་ལ་ཟས་སྐོམ་སོགས་མཆོད་པ། offering of feast to strangers
11. སེམས་ཅན་ལ་ བྱམས་པ་མ་ག་ཏང་བ། not giving up one's love and affection towards sentient beings
12. བསོད་ནམས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་གོང་དུ་སྤེལ་བ། accumulating the collection of merits
13. བཟླས་བརྗོད་ལ་རྩོན་པ། devotion to incantation of mantras
14. དམ་ཚིག་གཞན་རྣམས་ཀྱང་བསྲུང་བ། observing other commitments.

The six families of action tantra.
1. དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་རིགས། the Tathagata family
2. པདྨའི་རིགས། the Padma family
3. རྡོ་རྗེའི་རིགས། the Vajra family, known as the three transworldly families
4. ནོར་བུའི་རིགས། the Ratna family
5. ལྔས་རྩེན་གྱི་རིགས། the Spirit (lngas-rtsen) family
6. འཇིག་རྟེན་ཕལ་པའི་རིགས། the common family, known as the three worldly families.

The three families of action tantra (see ༼བྱ་རྒྱུད་རིགས་དྲུག༽, 1-3).

The time between the beginning and end of an activity. The span of time whrch is l/60th of a finger-snap.

Bodhicitta/ Mind of enlightenment. Altruistic mind of enlightenment to attain Buddhahood for the sake of other sentient beings; a Bodhisattva's way of life.

[sapta bodhyaṅgāni]/ The seven limbs of enlightenment; the seven auxiliaries to enlightenment which are in an equilibrim state of concentration and wisdom.
1. དྲན་པ། [smṛti]/ mindfulness
2. ཤེས་རབ། [prajсa]/ wisdom
3. བརྩོན་འགྲུས། [virya]/ effort
4. དགའ་བ། [priti]/joy
5. ཤིན་སྦྱངས། [praṡrabdhi]/ suppleness
6. ཏེང་ངེ་འཛིན། [samādhi]/ concentration
7. བཏང་སྙོམས། [upeksa]/equanimity.

[bodhivṛkṣa]/ Bodhi tree. The pipal tree under which Buddha [ṡākyamuni] attained complete eniightenment at Bodhgaya.

Bodhisattva. Practitioner of the greater vehicle teachings who has resolved to attain Buddhahood for the sake of ail sentient beings; also called the son of the Victorious Ones, more strictly, one who has at least attained the first path of the greater vehicle.

[daṡa bodhisattvabalāni]/ The ten powers of a Bodhisattva
1. བསམ་པའི་སྟོབས། [āṡaya balam]/ power of intention
2. ལྷག་པའི་བསམ་པའི་སྟོབས། [adhyāṡaya balam]/ power of resolute intention
3. སྦྱོར་བའི་སྟོབས། [prayoga balam]/ power of application
4. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་སྟོབས། [praj~na balam]/ power of wisdom
5. སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་སྟོབས། [praṇidhāna balam]/ power of prayer
6. ཐེག་པའི་སྟོབས། [yāna balam]/ power of vehicle
7. སྤྱོད་པའི་སྟོབས། [caryā balam]/ power of conduct
8. སྤྲུལ་པའི་སྟོབས། [vikurvaṇa balam]/ power of emancipation
9. བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སྟོབས། [bodhi balam]/ power of eniightenment
10. ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་བསྐོར་བའི་སྟོབས། [dharmacakra pravartana balam]/ power of turning the wheel of doctrine.

The thirty-four qualities common to Bodhrsattvas; the thirty-four aspects of the omniscient mind (see ༼རྣམ་མཁྱེན་གྱི་ར་ནམ་པ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་བཞི༽).

The ten aspects of a Bodhisattva's control.
1. ཚེ་ལ་དབང་བ། control over life
2. སེམས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over mind
3. ཡོ་བྱད་ལ་དབང་བ། control over materials
4. ལས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over action
5. སྐྱེ་བ་ལ་དབང་བ། control over birth
6. ཆོས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over doctrine
7. སྨོན་ལམ་ལ་དབངབ། control over prayers
8. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་ལ་དབང་བ། control over miracles
9. མོས་པ་ལ་དབང་བ། control over different faculties
10. ཡེ་ཤེས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over wisdom.

[daṡa bodhisattva bhūmayaḥ]/ The ten Bodhisattva grounds; the ten levels of Bodhisattvas (see ༼ས་བཅུ༽).

Twelve ways in which a Bodhisattva fulfils the purposes of sentient beings; the Bodhisattva's twelve means of working for the welfare of others.
1. བྱ་བ་བྱེད་པ། performance in action
2. སྡུག་བསྔལ་གྱིས་གཟིར་བའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those who are suffering
3. ཐབས་ལ་རྨོངས་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those ignorant of means
4. ཕན་འདོགས་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those in need of help
5. འཇིགས་པས་ཉེན་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those oppressed by fear
6. མྱ་ངན་གྱིས་གཟིར་བའི་དོན་བྱད་པ། helping those overcome by suffering
7. ཡོ་བྱད་ཀྱི་ཕོངས་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those lacking resources
8. གནས་འཆའ་བར་བྱེད་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping the homeless
9 བློ་མཐུན་པར་འདོད་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those seeking to live in harmony
10. ཡང་དག་པར་ཞུགས་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those wishing to enter the teaching
11. ལོག་པར་ཞུགས་པའི་དོན་བྱེད་པ། helping those holding wrong views
12. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་སྒོ་ནས་དོན་བྱེད་པ1 helping through miraculous deeds.

The thirty-seven limbs of enlightenment; the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment.
1-4. དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ་བཞི། four close contemplations (see ༼དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ་བཞི༽)
5-8. ཡང་དག་པར་སྤོང་བ་བཞི། four perfect abandonments (see ༼ཡང་དག་སྤོང་བ་བཞི༽)
9-12. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ་བཞི། four limbs of miracles (see ༼རྫུ་འཕྲལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ་བཞི༽)
13-17. དབང་པོ་ལྔ་། five powers (see ༼དབང་པོ་ལྔ༽)
18-22.སྟོབས་ལྔ་། five forces (see སྟོབས་ལྔ་།)
23-29. བྱང་ཆུབ་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བདུན། seven limbs of enlightenment (see ༼བྱང་ཆུབ་ཡན་ལག་བཞི༽)
30-37. འཕགས་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད། eight noble paths (see ༼འཕགས་པའི་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད༽).

[bodhisattva saṁvara]/ Bodhisattva vows; Bodhisattva precepts. The vows taken with the aim of helping others to attain the state of Buddhahood.

[ārya Bodhisattva]; superior Bodhisattva. A Bodhisattva who has attained the third of the five paths—the path of seeing.

The Five Works of Maitreya
1. མདོ་སྡེ་རྒྱན། Ornament of [mahāyāna] Discourses ([mahāyāna sūtrālaṁkāra])
2. མངོན་རྟོགས་རྒྱན1 Ornament of Clear Realization ([abhisamayālaṁkāra])
3. དབུས་མཐའ་རྣམ་འབྱེད། Clear Distinction Between the Middle Way and Extremes ([madhyāntavibhaṅga])
4. ཆོས་དབྱིངས་རྣམ་འབྱེད། Clear Distinction Between Phenomena
and their Reality ([dharma dharmatāvibhaṅga])
5. རྒྱུད་བླ་མ། The Sublime Continuum ([uttaratantra]).

[maitreya]/. A. Love; the wish for all sentient beings to be happy. B. Buddha Maitreya. Also called Maitreyanath, the future Buddha who will appear after the total disappearance of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]'s teaching, presently believed to be residing in the Tusita God Realm. C. Bodhisattva Maitreya The author of the Five Works of Maitreya (see ༼བྱམས་ཆོས་སྡེ་ལྔ༽).

Blessed words of the Buddha; the teaching given through the force of Buddha's blessings although not spoken by him. There can be the blessings of body, speech and mind, e.g. the Heart [sūtra] is a discourse of the Buddha blessed by his mind.

The four types of blessings.
1. བདེན་པའི་བྱིན་རླབས། blessing of the truth
2. གཏོང་བའི་བྱིན་རླབས། blessing of giving
3. ཉེ་བར་ཞི་བའི་བྱིན་རླབས། blessing of ultimate peace
4. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་བྱིན་རླབས། blessing of wisdom.

The seven initiations of entering (the [maṇḍala]) like a child.
1. ཆའི་དབང་། water initiation
2. ཅོད་པཎ་གྱི་དབང་། crown initiation
3. དར་དཔྱངས་ཀྱི་དབང་། ribbon initiation
4. རྡོར་དྲིལ་གྱི་དབང་། vajra and bell initiation
5. རྡོ་རྗེ་བརྟུལ་ཞུགས་ཀྱི་དབང་། vajra practice initiation
6. མིང་གེ་དབང་། name initiation
7. རྗེས་སྣངག་དབང་། permission initiation.

[vaiṡeṣika]/ The Particularists. Proponents of non-Buddhist tenets following the sage Kanand, who asserted that all objects of knowledge are included in six categories (see བྱེ་བྲག་པའི་ཚེག་དོན་དྲུག); they also assert that ablution, initiations, fasts, and offerings of fire rituals are perfect paths to liberation; accordingly, when the self is in isolation free from desire, hatred, anger or pleasure, liberation is attained.

The six principles of the Paticularists.
1. རྫས། [dravya]/ substance
2. ཡོན་ཏན། [guṇa]/ quality
3. ལས། [karma]
4. སྤྱི། [sāmānya]/ enerality
5. བྱེ་བྲག [viṡeṣa]/ particularity
6. འདུ་བ། [saṁgraha]/ composition.

[vaibhāṣika]. A lower school of Buddhist philosophy that asserts the division of all phenomena into the following five I categories, and assert three times as substantially existent.
1. འདུ་མ་བྱས་རྟག་པའི་གཞི། non-composite phenomena as permanent
2. སྣང་བ་སེམས་ཀྱི་གཞི། appearances as form (objects of perception)
3. གཙོང་བོ་སེམས་ཀྱི་གཞི། primary mind
4. འཁོར་སེམས་བྱུང་གི་གཞ། secondary minds
5. ལྡན་པ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་འདུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་གཞི། non-associated compositional factors.

[aṣṭadaṡa vaibhāṣika nikāyāḥ]/ The eighteen schools of [vaibhāṣika] The eighteen schools of Hearers (see ༼ཉན་ཐོས་སྡེ་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽).

The four principal schools of [vaibhāṣika]. The four mains schools of Hearers (see ༼ཉན་ཐོས་རཏཟ་བའི་སྡེ་པ་བཞི༽).

[mahāvibhāṣa]/ The Great Ocean of Commentary (mahavibhasa). One of the principal texts of the [vaibhāṣika] school of philosophy said to have been composed collectively by five hundred Arhats lead by Upali, after the passing away of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]. It belongs to the Abhidharma class of teachings.

[kāraṇahetu]/ Active phenomena; active cause. A phenomenon is said to be an active cause of another when it is both substantially distinct from that phenomenon and does not obstruct its arisal. There are two types of active causes:
1. བྱེད་རྒྱུ་ནུས་ལྡན། effective active cause, e.g. food for body
2. བྱེད་རྒྱུ་ནུས་མེད། ineffective active cause, e.g. permanent phenomena.

Twenty types of active causes.
1. གནས་པའི་ཨེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of endurance
2. བརྟན་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause-of stablization
3. འབྲལ་བའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of separation
4. གསལ་བའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of clarity
5. ཡིད་ཆེས་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of conviction
6. བསྒྱུར་བའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of transformation
7. ཡིད་ཆེས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of prompting conviction
8. འཐོབ་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of achievement
9. ཐ་སྙད་པའི་པབྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of convention
10. ལྟོས་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of reliance
11. འཕེན་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of projection
12. མངོན་པར་འགྲུབ་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of establishment
13. ཡོངས་སུ་འཛིན་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of perfection
14. ཆུང་བར་བྱེད་པའི་བྱིད་རྒྱུ། active cause of diminishment
15. སོ་སོར་ངེས་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of specific understanding
16. ལྷན་ཅིག་བྱེད་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of co-operation
17. མི་མཐུན་པའི་དྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of discord
18. མི་མཐུན་པ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ! active cause of harmony
19. འབྱུང་བའི་བྱེད་རྒྱུ། active cause of elements
20. བྱེད་རྒྱ། active cause itself.

Brahmin. One of the four castes of Indian society who are traditionally occupied with religious duties.

Four Vedas of Brahmins.
1. ངེས་བརྗོད། Rig Veda
2. མཆོད་སྦྱིན། Yajur Veda

3. སྙན་ཚིག Sama Veda
4. སྲིད་སྲུང་། Atharva Veda

Six tasks of a Brahmin; six trainings of a Brahmin.
1. ཀློག་པ། reading
2. ཀློག་ཏུ་འཇུག་པ། training others to read
3. མཆོད་སྦྱིན། making sacrificial offerings
4. མཆོད་སྦྱིད་བྱེད་དུ་འཇུག་པ། encouraging others to perform sacrificial offerings
5. སྦྱིན་པ། giving alms
6. ལེན་པ། accepting offerings.
[visaṁyoga phalam]/ Fruit of cessation, e.g. the noble truth of cessation of suffering.

[ṣaḍ anuttarayāṇi]/ Six unsurpassables.
1. མཐོང་བ་བླ་ན་མེད་པ། [darṡanānuttaryam]/ unsurpassable seeing
2. ཐོས་པ་བླ་ན་མེད་པ། [ṡravaṇanūttaryam]/ unsurpassable hearing
3. རྙེད་པ་བླ་ན་མེད་པ། [lābhānuttaryam]/ unsurpassable finding
4. བསླབ་པ་བླ་ན་མད་པ། [ṡikṣānuttaryam]/ unsurpassable precepts
5. རིམ་གྲོ་བླ་ན་མེད་པ། [paricaryānuttaryam]/ unsurpassable honour
6. རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པ་བླ་ན་མེད་པ། [anusmṛty anuttaryam]/ unsurpassable recollection.

Lama estate. An estate owned by a high lama

Canopy. A brocade and silk hanging above a high lama's throne.

Lama. A. Spiritual master; qualified religious teacher. Lit. 'high one' (guru) or 'weighty one', meaning one who possesses great knowledge and spiritual accomplishments.

A. The entire group of objects of refuge.
B. A humble and sincere person.
C. Not good, not bad.

Three qualities of a Guru.
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་རྣམ་པར་དག་པས་སྒོ་གསུམ་གྱི་སྤྱོད་པ་གཙང་པ། tne conduct of his body, speech and mind are pure due to his strict morality
2. ཤེས་རབ་རྣམ་པར་དག་པས་བཤད་པའི་དོན་ལ་མཁས་པ། ne is wise in giving
teaching due to his pure wisdom
3. བསམ་པ་རྣམ་པར་དག་པས་གཞན་ལ་ཕན་འདོགས་པ། he benefits others due to his pure altruistic thoughts.

A tantric monk. A monk either from the upper or lower tantric college of the Gelug order.

A Buddhist minstrel. A professional bard who moves freely, tell stories and sings poems of Buddhist ethics, karma, life stories and epics to people.

Guruyoga. The practice of guru devotion; the meditation and services to please one's guru in order to increase one's power to reach one's goal of ultimate enlightenment.

The four initiations of the highest tantra (see ༼དབང་བཞི༽).

The three highest yoga tantras (anuttarayoga tantra).
1. ཕ་རྒྱུད། father tantra, e. g Guhyasamaja
2. མ་རྒྱུད། mother tantra, e.g. Cakrasanivara
3. གཉིས་མེད་ཀྱི་རྒྱུད། non-dual tantra, e.g. [kālacakra].

The thirty-six precepts of observance and abandonment of a novice monk (see ༼དགེ་ཚུལ་གྱི་བླངས་འདས་སོ་དྲུག༽).

Buddhi/1. Mind; perception
2. Wisdom.

Wisdom; intelligence; sagacity; prudence; knowledge.

The three evil wisdoms.
1. མ་རྟོགས་པ། not-knowing
ལོག་པར་རྟོག་པ། knowing wrong
3. ཐེ་ཚོམ། doubt.

The four principles of thought transformation; the four basic mind trainings.
1. དལ་འབྱོར་རྙེད་དཀའ་བསམ་པ། realizing the preciousness of a human rebirth
2. འཆི་བ་མི་རྟག་བསམ་པ། realizing the impermanence of this life
3. འཁོར་བའི་ཉེས་དམིགས་བསམ་པ། realizing the faults of cyclic existence ([saṁsāra])
4. ལས་རྒྱུ་འབྲས་བསམ་པ། realizing that pleasure and suffering result from good and bad actions respectively.

Eight sessions of mind training. Kadampa's mind training precepts transmitted by Dromtonpa.
1. ཟས་ལ་བརྟོན་པའི་བློ་སྦྱོང་། mind training in reliance on eating
2. དབུགས་ལ་བརྟེན་པའི་བློ་སྦྱོང་། mind training in reliance on breath
3. ལུས་གངྒཱའི་བྱེ་མ་སྙེད་དུ་སྤྲུལ་པ་ལ་བརྟེན་པའི་བློ་སྦྱོང་། mind training through visualizing one's body as being as numerous as the grains of sand in the river Ganges
4. ཤ་ཁྲག་ལ་བརྟེན་པའི་བློ་སྦྱོང་། mind training in reliance on flesh and blood
5. གཏོར་མ་ལ་བརྟེན་པའི་་བློ་སྦྱོང་། mind training in reliance on ritual cake offerings
6. འབྱུང་བ་ལ་བརྟེན་པའི་བློ་སྦྱོང་། mind training in reliance on the elements
7. ལུས་ཡིད་བཞིན་ནོར་བུར་སྤྲུལ་ཏེ་བློ་སྦྱོང་། mind training through transforming one's body into a wish-fulfilling jewel
8. འཆི་བ་མན་ངག་བློ་སྦྱོང་ mind training in reliance on the instructions for death.

The seven point mind training. The Kadampa's mind training precepts: སྔོན་འགྲོ་རྟེན་གྱི་ཆོས་སེམས་པ། the preliminary practice
2. དངོས་གཞི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་སྦྱོང་བ། generating the mind of enlightenment
3. རྐྱེན་ངན་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་ལམ་དུ་བསྒྱུར་བ། transforming misfortunes into paths to eniightenment
4. ཚེ་གཅིག་གི་ཉམས་ལེན་དྲེལ་ནས་བསྟན་པ། synthesizing the practices of this life
5. བློ་འབྱོངས་པའི་ཚད། the yardstick of mind training
6. བློ་སྦྱོང་གི་དམ་ཚིག the commitments of mind training
7. བློ་སྦྱོང་གི་བསློབ་བྱ། the precepts of mind training.

The mind training, 'Parting Away from the Four Clingings' common to the Sakya tradition.
1. ཚེ་འདི་ལ་ཞེན་ན་ཆོས་པ་མིན། if you have attachment to this life, you are not a religious practitioner
2. འཁོར་བ་ལ་ཞེན་ན་ངེས་འབྱུང་མིན། if you are attached to cyclic existence, you have no renunciation
3. རང་དོན་ལ་ཞེན་ན་བྱང་སེམས་མིན། if you are attached to your own welfare, you do not have the mind of enlightenment
4 འཛིན་པ་བྱུང་ན་ལྟ་བ་མིན། if you have grasping, you do not have the correct view.

Seven awarenesses; seven ways of knowing.
1. མངོན་སུམ། [pratyakṣa]/ direct perception
2. rjeས་དཔག [anumāna]/ inferential perception
3. བཅད་ཤེས། [paricchinna jсāna]/ subsequent cognition
4. ཡིད་དཔྱོད། [manaḥparīkṣā]/ presumption
5. སྣང་ལ་མ་ངེས། [darṡanāniyata]/ inattentive perception
6. ཐེ་ཚོམ། [vicikitsā]/ indecisive mind/ doubt
7. ལོག་ཤེས། [mithyājсāna]/ distorted awareness.

The four classes of awareness. The classification of mind according to the way it cognizes its respective object of perception.
1. སྣང་ལ་མ་ངེས་པ་དང་ཡིད་དཔྱོད་གཉིས་པོ་མ་རྟོགས་པའི་བློ། non-discerning mind, e.g. the presumptions and inattentive mind
2. རྟོག་བཅས་རྟོག་མེད་ཀྱི་ལོགཤེས་གཉིས་པོ་ལོག་པར་རྟོག་པའི་བློ། distorted mind, e.g. the conceptual and non-conceptual misconceptions
3. བློ་རྩེ་གཉིས་སུ་འཇུག་པ་ཐེ་ཚོམ་གྱི་བློ། doubt, e.g. wavering minds
4. མངོན་རྗེས་ཀྱི་ཚད་མ་གཉིས་པོ་རྟོགས་པའི་བློ། fcrning mind, e.g. valid direct perception and inferential minds.

Ways of dividing mind into two.
A. རྟོག་པ་དང་རྟོག་མེད་གཉིས་སུ་དབྱེ་བ། Conceptual and non-conceptual minds.
B. ཚད་མ་ཚད་མིན་གཉིས་སུ་དབྱེ་བ། Valid and invalid cognitions.
C. འཁྲུལ་བ་དང་མ་འཁྲུལ་བའི་ཤེས་པ་གཉིས་སུ་དབྱེ་བ། Mistaken and unmistaken minds.
D. རྟོགས་པ་དང་མ་རྟོགས་པ་གཉིས་སུ་དབྱེ་བ། Realized and unrealized minds.

Mental exclusion of other. An affirming negadve which is a mere projection of thought, e.g. the appearance of not not a vase, i.e. the generic image of a vase.

Intellectually formulated emptiness. Wrongly conceived emptiness.

[abhiṣekha]/ Initiation; empowerment. A tantric ceremony in which a lama empowers his disciples to engage in higher practices of tantra through ripening their mental continuum.

The actual-initiation rite. A part of the initiation programm entailing the erection of the [maṇḍala] and performing the accomplishment rite (sgrub-mchod), the self-initiation and bestowing initiation to others.

The concluding rite of initiation. Offering of the thanks giving [maṇḍala], agreeing to abide by the commitments, offering the three gates of activities for the master's service, and dedicating virtues.

The preparatory rite of initiation. This includes the ground ritual seeking permission for its use, preparatory rites of accomplishment by constructing the [maṇḍala] be that a powdered sand or painted [maṇḍala], and the actual accomplishment rite for a couple of days.

The five sensory direct perceptions. That of eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body senses.

[daṡa vaṡitāḥ]/ The ten powers. The ten powers or^Bodhisattvas having transcended the rank of being an ordinary person, i.e.
control over the ten types of harms which a common person is likely to experience.
1. ཚེ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of life-span
2. སེམས་ལ་དབང་བ། control of mind
3. ཡོ་བྱད་ལ་དབང་བ། control of resources
4. ལས་ལ་དབང་བ། control of activities
5. སྐྱེ་བ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of rebirth
6. མོས་པ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of aspiration or wishes
7. སྨོན་ལམ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of prayers
8. རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of miracles
9. ཆོས་ལ་དབང་བ། control of dharma
10. ཡེ་ཤེས་ལ་དབང་བ། control of wisdom.

The eleven initiations; the eleven initiations that are gateways to entering yoga tantra.
1-5. སློབ་མའི་དབང་ལྔ་། the five initiations of a disciple (see ༼རིག་པའི་དབང་ལྔ༽).
6-11. སློབ་དཔོན་གྱི་དབང་དྲུག the six initiations of the master (see ༼སློབ་དཔོན་གྱི་དབང་དྲུག༽).

[navendriyāṇi]/ The nine powerful faculties. The nine faculties possessed by an [ārya]
1-5. རྣམ་བྱང་གི་དབང་པོ་སྔ་། the five pure powers or purified mental faculties (see ༼དབང་པོ་ཨཱིང༽ B).

6. ཚོར་བ་བདེ་བ། pleasant feeling
7. ཡིད་བདེ་བ། unpleasant feeling
8. བཏང་སྙོམས། equanimity
9. ཡིད་དབང་། faculty of consciousness.

[paсcendriyāṇi]/The five faculties; the live powers.

A. དབང་པོ་གཟུགས་ཅན་པ་ལྔ་། The five physical sense faculties (see ༼ཁམས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽, 7-12).

B. རྣམ་བྱང་གི་དབང་པོ་ལྔ་། The five purified mental faculties:
1. དད་པའི་དབང་པོ། [ṡraddhendriyam]/ power of faith
2. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། [vīryendriyam]/ power of effort
3. དྲན་པའི་དབང་པོ། [smṛtindriyam]/ power of mindfulness
4. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་དབང་པོ། [samādhīndriyam]/ power of concentration
5. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། [prajсendriyam]/ power of wisdom.
C. སོ་སྐྱེའི་རྒྱུད་ཀྱིས་བསྡུས་པའི་ཚོར་བ་སྔ་། The five ever-afflictive faculties; the five feelings of an ordinary person.
1-2 ལུས་ཀྱི་ཚོར་བ་བདེ་སྡུག་གཉིས། comfortable and uncomfortable feeling of the body
3-4. ཡིད་ཀྱི་ཚོར་བ་ཡིད་བདེ་དང་ཡིད་མི་བདེ་གཉིས། the pleasant and unpleasant feeling of the mind
5. ཚོར་བ་བཏང་སྙོམས། the indifferent feeling.

[Ekadaṡendriyāṇi]/ Eleven faculties.
1-5. དབང་པོ་ལྔ་། the five sense powers (see ༼དབང་པོ་དྲུག༽ 1-5)
6. ཁ། mouth
7. ལག་པ། hands

8. རྐང་པ། feet

9. རྐུབ། anus
10. གསང་གནས། secret organs
11. ཡིད་དབང་། faculty of mind.

The twenty-two faculties; the twenty-two powers.
1-7. རྟེན་གྱི་དབང་པོ་བདུན། The seven faculties of reliance (see ༼རྟེན་གྱི་དབང་པོ་བདུན༽).
8-9. རྟེན་ཅན་གྱི་དབང་པོ་གཉིས། The two faculties of basis or sex (see ༼རྟེན་ཅན་གྱི་དབང་པོ་གཉིས༽).
10-14. ཚོར་བའི་དབང་པོ་ལྔ་། The five faculties of feeling (see ༼ཚོར་བ་ལྔ༽).
15-19. རྣམ་བྱང་གི་དབང་པོ་ལྔ་། the five purified faculties (see ༼དབང་པོ་ལྔ༽B).
20-22. ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ་གསུམ། the three uncontaminated faculties (see ༼ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ་གསུམ༽).

[ṣaḍ indriyāṇi]/ Six cognitive powers; six faculties; also called the six internal sources of perception (nang-gi skyed-mched drug).
1. མིག་གི་དབང་པོ། [cakṣurindriyam]/ eye sense power
2. རྣ་བའི་དབང་པོ། [ṡrotrendriyam]/ ear sense faculties
3. སྣའི་དབང་པོ། [ghraṇendriyam]/ nose sense faculties
4. ལྕེའི་དབང་པོ། [jihvendriyam]/ tongue sense power
5. ལུས་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། kāyendriyam]/ body sense power
6. ཡིད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ། [mana indriyam]/ mental sense power.
The five physical faculties (see ༼ཁམས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽ B. 1-5).

The three faculties. A. The three pure powers gained on the paths of seeing, meditation and no-more learning, respectively (see 6-8 of ༼རྣམ་བྱང་གི་དབང་པོ་བརྒྱད།་ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ་གསུམ༽).
B. The three types of persons according to their level of intelligence:
1. དབང་པོ་ཐ་མ། poor intellect
2. དབང་པོ་འབྲིང་། moderate intellect
3. དབང་པོ་རབ། sharp intellect

[īṡvara]/ A. Mahadeva ([ṡiva]).
B. Glory and power.
C. Excellence.
D. Powerful attainments ([siddhi]).

A. The eight sovereign qualities (see ༼ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་དབང་ཕྱུག་གི་ཡོན་ཏན་བརྒྱད༽).
B. The eight powerful attainments; the eight worldly feats (see ༼ཐུན་མོང་བའི་དབང་ཕྱུག་གི་ཡོན་ཏན་བརྒྱད༽).

The ten sovereign qualities of a Bodhisattva; the ten powers (see ༼བདང་བཅུ༽).

[īṡvara]/ The followers of [īṡvara]. A school of Hindu philosophy which asserts that the world and its inhabitants are created by the projected thought (blo-yi gyo-ba) of Isvara (Siva), who they believe to be permanent, omniscient and never changing.

The four-fold initiations. The four-fold initiations of the
highest yoga tantra.
1. བུམ་དབང་| the vase initiation
2. གསང་དབང་། the secret initiation
3. ཤེས་རབ་ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་དབང་། the primordial-wisdom initiation
4. ཚིག་དབང་། the word initiation.

The fourth initiation. The verbal initiation of words by which a tantric master introduces his disciple to the union of the pure body (illusory body) and mind (clear light) of a Buddha.

The threefold lineages—initiations, transmissions and explanations.

The two holy assemblies; the two spiritual communities.
1. གོས་དཀར་ལྕང་ལོ་ཅན་གྱི་ལྔེ་། tantric yogis and yoginis who wear a white lower garment
2. རབ་བྱུང་ངུར་སྨྲིག་གི་སྡེ། monks and nuns who wear red robes.

[prāsaṅgika mādhyamika] school. The highest school of Madhyamika philosophy which asserts that phenomena do not exist by their own nature, inherently, not even on the conventional level.

[mādhyamika] school. The middle-view school, who assert emptiness as being free of two extremes—the extreme of existence and extreme of non-existence.

[svātantrika mādhyamika] school. A sub-school of [mādhyamika] philosophy which asserts that all phenomena exist by their own nature, inherently, but do not have true existence.

The five middle way treatises. The five famous treatises of [ācārya Nāgārjuna]
1. དབུ་མ་རྩ་བ་ཤེས་རབ། [prajсāmūla]/ The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way
2. རྩོད་ཟློག [vigrahavyāvartanī]/ Refutation of Arguments
3. སྟོང་ཉིད་བདུན་ཅུ། [ṡūnyatāsaptati]/ Seventy Stanzas on Emptiness
4. རིགས་པ་དྲུག་ཅུ། [yuktiṣaṣṭikā]/ Sixty Stanzas of Reasoning
5. ཞིབ་མོ་རྣམ་འཐག [vaidalyasūtra]/ Fine Investigation and Discernment.

The six middle way treatises (see དབུ་མ་རིགས་ཚོགས་ལྔ་། 1-5)
6. རིན་ཆེན་ཕྲེང་བ། [ratnāvali]/ The Jewel Garland.

The alternative emptiness; the other emptiness (see ༼གཞན་སྟོང༽). The view asserted by Kunkhyen Dolpo-pa, a prophet of Jo-nang school of tibetan Buddhist philosophy (see ༼གཞན་སྟོང༽).

The three isolations.
A. མདོ་སྔགས་ཐུན་མོང་བའི་དབང་དུ། The three isolations common to both [sūtra] and tantra traditions.
1. ལུས་འདུ་འཛིས་དབེན་པ། body free of association in busy life
2. སེམས་མི་དགེ་བའི་རྣམ་རྟོག་གིས་དབེན་པ། mind fee of non-virtuous conceptualizations
3. སྒོ་གསུམ་ཐ་མལ་གྱི་སྣང་ཞེན་གྱིས་དབེན་པ། the three gates of activities free of ordinary vision and clinging.
B. གསང་སྔགས་རྫོགས་རིམ་གྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར་ལ། According to the Vajrayana's completion stage yoga of triple isolation (see ༼དབེན་གསུམ་རྡོ་རྗེའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར༽).

Vajrayoga of triple isolation. A meditation practice similiar to the completion stage yoga in highest tantra.
1. ངག་དབེན། isolation of speech
2. ལུས་དབེན། isolation of body
3. སེམས་དབེན། isolation of mind.

The sixty features of a melodic voice; the sixty mellifulous speech.
1. མཉན་པ། flexible
2. འཇམ་པ། soft
3. ཡིད་དུ་འོང་བ། attractive
4. ཡིད་ལ་ཐད་པ།delightful
5. དག་པ། pure
6. དྲི་མ་མེད་པ། faultless
7. གསལ་བ། clear
8. སྣང་ཞིང་འཇེབས་པ། pleasantly soothing
9. མཉན་པར་འོས་པ། worthy of hearing
10. མི་ཚུགས་པ། not harmful
11. སྙན་པ། beautiful
12. དུལ་བ། subdued
13. མི་རྩུབ་པ། not coarse
14. མི་བརླང་པ། not rought
15. རབ་ཏུ་དུལ་བ། completely subdued
16. རྣར་སྙན་པ། beautiful to hear
17. ལུས་སུམ་པར་བྱེད་པ། refreshing for body
18. སེམས་སིམ་པར་བྱེད་པ། refreshing for mind
19. རྙིང་དགའ་བར་བྱེད་པ། pleasing the heart
20. དགའ་བ་དང་བདེ་བ་བསྐྱེད་པ། generating pleasure and happiness
21. ཡོངས་སུ་གདུང་བ་མེད་པ། completely without sadness
22. ཀུན་ཏུ་ཤེས་པར་བྱེད་པ། being the object of universal knowledge
23. རྣམ་པར་རིག་པར་བྱེད་བ། being the object of thorough understanding
24. རྣམ་པར་གསལ་བ། completely clear
25. དགའ་བར་བྱེད་པ། producing pleasure
26. མངོན་པར་དགའ་བར་བྱེད་པ། producing manifest pleasure
27. ཀུན་ཏུ་ཤེས་པར་བྱེད་པ། producing universal knowledge
28. རྣམ་པར་རིག་པར་བྱེད་པ། producing thorough understanding
29. རིགས་པ། logical
30. འབྲེལ་བ། relevant
31. ཚིག་ཟློས་པའི་སྐྱོན་མེད་པ། free of repetition
32. སེང་གེའི་སྒྲའི་ཤུགས། possessing the strength of a lion's roar
33. གླང་པོ་ཆེའི་སྒྲ་སྐད། producing the sound of an elephant
34. འབྲུག་གི་སྒྲད་སྐད། producing the sound of a cloud (thunder)
35. ཀླུའི་སྒྲ་སྐད། producing the sound of a Naga (serpent-spirit)
36. དྲི་ཟའི་གླུ་དབྱངས། producing the sound of Gandharva (a celestial musician)
37. ཀ་ལ་པིང་ཀའི་གླུ་དབྱངས། producing the melody of a spanow
38. ཚངས་པའི་སྒྲ་དབྱངས། producing the melody of Brahma
39. ཤང་ཤང་ཏེའི་སྒྲ་དབྱངས་བསྒྲགས་པ། producing the sound of a [jīvaсjīvaka] bird
40. ལྷའི་དཔང་པོའི་དབྱངས་ལྟར་སྙན་པ། pleasant as the melodies of the lord of gods
41. རྔ་ཡི་སྒྲ། producing the sound of a dundubhi drum
42. མ་ཁེངས་པ། free of arrogance
43. མི་དམའ་པ། not degraded
44. སྒྲ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་རྗེས་སུ་ཞུགས་པ། harmonious to all sounds
45. ཚིག་ཟུར་ཆག་པ་མེད་པ། free of corrupted words
46. མ་ཚང་བ་མེད་པ། not incomplete
47. མ་ཤུམ་པ། not crying
48. མ་ཞན་པ། not depressed
49. རབ་ཏུ་དགའ་བ། extremely joyous
50. ཁྱབ་པ། pervasive
51. ཆུབ་པ། perfected
52. རྒྱུན་ཆགས་པ། flowing
53. འགྲེལ་བ། elegantly connected
54. སྒྲ་ཐམས་ཅད་རྫོགས་པར་བྱེད་པ། making all sounds complete
55. དབང་པོ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཚིམ་པར་བྱེད་པ། satisfying all senses
56. མ་སྨད་པ| non-abusive
57. མི་འགྱུར་བ། unchanging
58. མ་བརྟགས་པ། unwavering
59. འཁོར་ཀུད་ཏུ་གྲགས་པ། popular in all circles
60. རྣམ་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་མཆོག་དང་ལྡན་པ། possessing the best of all components.

Verse-form teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories (see ༼གསུང་རབ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས༽); verses which Buddha uttered during the beginning or conclusion of a discourse.

[sarasvatīdevī]. Goddess of eloquence. A goddess of both the Hindu and Buddhist pantheons, worshipped as the perfection of eloquence and regarded as the embodiment of mellifluent clarity of sound and speech.

Early summer retreat. Observance of a summer or rainy season retreat by the monastic communities from the sixteenth of the sixth month of the Tibetan calendar until the thirtieth of the eighth month. The tradition followed by the monastic community in general.

[vārṣika]/ Summer retreat. One of the three basic observances for monks as prescribed by Buddha [ṡākyamuni]; rainy season retreat during which time they do not go beyond the marked bounds of the monasteries and observe rules and regulations in addition to their regular routine.

Later summer retreat. Observance of a summer retreat by the monastic communities from the sixteenth day of the seventh month of the Tibetan calendar until thirtieth of the eighth month. This tradition is followed by both the upper and lower tantric colleges of Lhasa.

[vasubandhu]/ Regarded as a renowned Buddhist scholar of the 5th century, the younger brother of [ārya Asaṅga] and the author of [abhidharmakoṡṭika] and the eight treatises of Vasubandhu (see ༼པྲ་ཀ་ར་ན་སྡེ་བརྒྱད༽).

The threefold practices; the three generation stage yogas or practices:
1. བསྐྱེད་པ་དབྱིབས་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of generating into the shape and form of a deity
2. བཟླས་པ་སྔགས་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of reciting mantras of the deity
3. འོད་གསལ་འཇུག་ལྡང་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། the yoga of dissolution and arisal within the clear light experience.

Eight types of shape and form.
1. རིང་བ། long
2. ཐུང་བ། short
3. མཐོ་བ། high
4. དམའ་བ། low
5.ལྷམ་པ། square
6. ཟླུམ་པོ། round
7. ཕྱ་ལེ་བ། even
8. ཕྱ་ལེ་བ་མ་ཡིན་པ། uneven.

Inseparable truth body. The inseparability of the emanation body, enjoyment body and the natural truth body of a Buddha.

The inseparable vajra teachings. One of the five kinds of teachings of a Buddha (see ༼བསུང་ཨིང༽) according to the Nyingma tradition. This refers to the non-duality of sound and emptiness of all speeches and teachings of a Buddha being totally free of the two extremes.

Bamrom Kagyu tradition. One of the eight lineages of Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Gampopa's disciple, Bamrom Darma Wangchuk who is believed to have been the incarnation of Tulzug Choepa Nagpopa.

Five protruberances. That state of foetal development in the womb of a mother when the signs of five parts of body become obvious.
1-2. དཔུས་མོ་གཉིས། signs of two legs
3-4. དཔུང་པ་གཉིས། signs of two arms
5. མགོ། the head.

Seven tangible objects arising from the elements; seven objects of touch that are transformations of the four elements.
1.འཇམ་པ། smoothness
2. རྩུབ་པ། roughness
3. ཡང་བ། lightness
4. ལྕི་བ། heaviness
5. གྲང་བ། coldness
6. བཀྲེས་པ། hunger
7. སྐོམ་པ། thirst.

Twenty-two tangible objects arising from the elements.
1-7. (see ༼འབྱུང་འགྱུར་གྱི་རེག་བྱ་བདུན༽)
8. མཉེན་པ། pliancy
9. ལྷོད་པ། loseness
10. ལྷོད་པ་མ་ཡིན་པ། tauntness
11. ཚིམ་པ། contentment
12. ཉམ་ཆེ་བ། strong
13. ཉམ་ཆུང་བ། weak
14. བརྒྱལ་བ། fainting/ swooning
15. གཡའ་བ། itching
16. བགྲེད་པ། slipperiness
17. ན་བ| illness
18. རྒ་བ། aging
19. འཆི་བ། death
20. ངལ་བ། fatigue
21. ངལ་གསོ་བ། rest
22. སྤུངས་ཆེ་བ། weighty.

The four elements.
1. ས། earth
2. ཆུ། water
3. མ། fire
4. རླུང་། wind. When it is five add ནམ་མཁའ། space; and when six add རྣམ་ཤེས། consciousness.

Ten endowments; ten condusive factors for a person to practise dharma
1. མི་ཡིན་པ། being a human
2. ཡུལ་དབུས་སུ་སྐྱེས་པ། being born in a Buddhist land
3. དབང་པོ་ཚང་བ། having sound senses
4. ལས་མཐའ་མ་ལོག་པ། being free from extreme actions
5. ཆོས་ལ་དད་པ། having faith in the Dharma
6. སངས་རྒྱས་བྱོན་པ། Buddha's having appeared
7. དམ་ཆོས་གསུངས་པ། Buddha's having taught the Dharma
8. བསྟན་པ་གནས་པ། the flourishing of his teachings
9. དེའི་རྗེས་སུ་འཇུག་པ་བཞུགས་པ། there being people following his teachings
10. གཞན་ལ་རྟག་ཏུ་བརྩེ་བ་སྙིང་རྗེ་དང་ལྡན་པ། having compassionate feelings towards others.

[phala ṡaraṇa]/The resultant refuge. The fully enlightened state of Buddha in one's own continuum, i.e. that fully enlightened refuge developed within oneself.

The five resultant phenomena; the five qualities of Buddhahood. Those of the body, speech, mind, qualities, and enlightened activities of a Buddha.

The twenty-five resultant phenomena; the five each with respect to the body, speech, mind, qualities and enlightened activities of a |uddha according to the explanation given in the Nyingma tantras.

Correct reason of effect. A correct reason which is the effect of the predicate in a logical syllogism.

Five divisions of correct reason of result.
1. རྒྱུ་དངོས་གྲུབ་ཀྱི་རྟགས། that establishing the direct cause
2. རྒྱུ་སྔོན་སོང་གི་རྟགས། that establishing the preceding cause
3. རྒྱུ་སྤྱི་སྒྲུབ་ཀྱི་རྟགས། that establishing the general cause
4. རྒྱུ་ཁྱད་པར་སྒྲུབ་ཀྱི་རྟགས། that establishing the particular cause
5. རྒྱུ་ཆོས་རྗེས་དཔོག་གི་རྟགས། establishing the quality of a cause.

The resultant clear light. The perfect realization of the final reality of the basic primordial clear light existent within oneself as introduced by a qualified meditation master, and the ability to maintain this experience day and night.

[paсca phalāni]/ Five types of results; five types of fruits.
1. རྒྱུ་མཐུན་གྱི་འབྲས་བུ། [niṣyanda phalam]/ results that accord with the cause
2. བདག་པོའི་འབྲས་བུ། [adhipati phalam]/ environmental cause
3. སྐྱེས་བུའི་བྱེད་པའི་འབྲས་བུ| [puruṣa kāra phalam]/ results caused by persons
4. རྣམ་པར་སྨིན་པའི་ འབྲས་བུ། [vipāka phalam]/ ripened results
5. བྲལ་པའི་འབྲས་བུ། [visaṁyoga phalam]/ cessational results.

Four features characterizing the resultant Truth Body of a Buddha.
1. ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྐུ[svabhāvakāya]/ the nature truth body
2. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཆོས་སྐུ [jсānadharmakāya]/ the wisdom truth body
3. ལོངས་སྐུ [saṁbhogakāya]/ the complete enjoyment body
4. སྤྲུལ་སླུ [nirmāṇakāya]/ the emanation body

He who attains the fruit by leaps.

He who attains the fruit successively.

The five resultant vehicles; the five tantric vehicles or paths.
1-4. The four classes of tantra (see ༼རྒྱུད་སྡེ་བཞི༽)
5. ཨ་ནུ་ཡོ་ག anuyoga vehicle
6. ཨ་ཏི་ཡོ་ག atiyoga vehicle.

The resultant clear light. The dharmakaya itself.

Eleven resultant forms.
1-5. དབང་པོ་གཟུགས་ཅན་པ་ལྔ་། five physical sense faculties (see ༼དབང་པོ་དྲུག༽ 1-5)
6-10. གཟུང་དོན་ལྔ་། five objects of perception (see ༼ཡུལ་དྲུག༽)
11. ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་པའི་གཟུགས། abstract forms that are sources for mental consciousness.

[phalabhūtamāturāsannībhuta vastujсāna]/ Basic wisdom close to the resultant mother. The knowledge of the basis near to omniscient wisdom; synonymous with the knowledge of the basis (gzhi-shes) within the mental continuum of a [mahāyāna ārya] that is conjoined with exalted means and wisdom, characterized as an antidote towards grasping at true existence.

[phalabhūtamāturadūrībhūta vastujсana]/ Basic wisdom distant from the resultant mother; knowledge of the basis distant from omniscient wisdom; synonymous with the knowledge of the basis within the mental continuum of a [hīnayāna ārya], that lacks great compassion and is bound by grasping at true existence.

Drikung Kagyud. One of the prominent linaeges of the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by the master KyobaJigtenGonpo (1143-1217).

Drugpa Kagyud. One of the prominent lineages of the Kagyu order of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by Yogi Lingrepa Pema Dorje and Choeje Tsangpa Gyalre.

Two types of relationship. Relationship between any
phenomena can come under these two forms.
1. བདག་གཅིག་འབྲེལ། relationship of identical nature
2. དེ་བྱུང་འབྲེལ། cause and result relationship.

[kāntāra]/ Hermitage. Monastery or seat of learning for monks situated at least 500 armspans away from a town; a hermitage is situated further away then this according to the Vinaya rules.

Hidden meaning; implicit meaning, e.g. the teachings of
emptiness presented in the text, Ornament of Clear Realization.

Eight major transgressions (of tantric vows).
1. མཚན་ཉིད་མི་ལྡན་པའི་རིག་མ་བསྟེན་པ། relying on an unqualified consort
2. འདུ་ཤེས་གསུམ་དང་བྲལ་བའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་ལ་གནས་པ། being in union without the three recognitions
3. སྣོད་མིན་པ་ལ་གསང་བ་སྟོན་པ། revealing secret substances of one's Lama and his
consort to those who are not proper vessels
4. ཚོགས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོའི་དུས་སུ་རྩོད་པ། quarreling or arguing during an offering assembly
5. དད་པས་ཆོས་འདྲི་བ་ལ་ལན་སློག་པ། giving wrong answers to sincere questions
6. ཉན་ཐོས་ནང་དུ་ཞག་བདུན་ལོང་བར་བསྡད་པ། spending more than seven days in the home of a Hearer
7. རྣལ་འབྱོར་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་དང་མི་ལྡན་པར་སྔགས་པར་རློམ་པ། pretending to be a great yogi when you are not
8. དད་པ་མེད་པ་ལ་དམ་ཆོས་སྟོན་པ། giving teachings to those who do not have faith in them.

[dvādaṡa dhūta guṇāḥ]/ Twelve ascetic practices; twelve disciplines of a strict practitioner.
1. གོས་ཕྱག་དར་ཁྲོད་པ། [pāṁṡukūlika]/ wearing robes made of rags
2. ཆོས་གོས་གསུམ་པ། traicivarika/ wearing the three dharma robes
3. ཕྱིང་བ་པ། [nāmatika]/ wearing robes made only of wool
4. སྟན་གཅིག་པ། [aikāsanika]/ eating one's food in one sitting
5. བསོད་སྙོམས་པ། [paiṇḍapātika]/ subsisting on alms
6. ཟས་ཕྱིས་མི་ལེན་པ། [khalupaṡcād bhaktika]/ not accepting food after having risen from one's seat
7. དགོན་པ་བ། [āraṇyaka]/ dwelling in a hermitage
8. ཤིང་དྲུང་པ། [vṛkṣamūlika]/ dwelling at the foot of a tree/ forest dweller
9. བླ་གབ་མེད་པ། [ābhyavakāṡika]/ dwelling in an open and unsheltered place
10. དུར་ཁྲོད་པ། [ṡmāṡānika]/ dwelling in cemeteries
11. ཙོག་པུ་བ། [naiṣadika]/ remaining in the sitting posture
12. གཞི་ཇི་བཞིན་པ། [y_athāsaṁstarika]/ sleeping wherever one may happen to be.

Three types of giving.
1. ཟང་ཟིང་གི་སྦྱིན་པ། giving material help
2. མི་འཇིགས་པའི་སྦྱིན་པ། giving protection from fear
3. ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྦྱིན་པ། giving dharma teachings.
When it is five add
5.བྱམས་པའི་སྦྱིན་པ། giving of love.

Corrupt practice of liberation through union. The name given to the corrupt practice spread in Tibet by the so called Red [ācārya] and the [paṇḍita] with blue lower robes from India, the period between Lang Darma and the coming of [atiṡa]. They spread the erroneous teaching that liberation is attained through mere union with consorts and killing of animals.

A. Trainings; practices.
B. Commitment of an action; one of the four factors determining the completion of an action.
C. Preliminaries to an actual practice.

Twenty trainings. The twenty trainings of a Bodhisattva's meditation on the combination of the three basic trainings.
1. བདེན་ཞེན་ལ་མི་གནས་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training that does not focus on grasping at true existence
2. བདེན་ཞེན་བཀག་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training free from grasping at true existence
3. ཟབ་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། profound training
4. གཏུང་དཔག་དཀའ་བའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training that is hard to fathom
5. ཚད་མེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། immeasurable training
6. ཚེགས་ཆེན་ཡུན་རིང་རྟོགས་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training that leads to enlightenment painfully after a long period
7. ལུང་བསྟན་ཐོབ་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training bestowed with prediction
8. ཕྱིར་མི་ལྡོག་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། irreversible training

ངེས་པར་འབྱུང་བའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training of definite actualization

10. བར་ཆད་མེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training free of impediments

11. བྱང་ཆུབ་ལ་ཉེ་བའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training that is close to
12. མྱུར་དུ་འཆང་རྒྱ་བའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training leading to quick enlightenment
13. གཞན་གྱི་དོན་གྱི་སྦྱོར་བ། training for the welfare of others
14. འཕེལ་མེད་སྒྲིབ་མེད་ཀྱི་སྦྱོར་བ། training without progression or regression
15. ཆོས་དང་ཆོས་མིན་སོགས་མི་མཐོང་བའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training in not
seeing either dharma or non-dharma
16. བསམ་མི་ཁྱབ་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། inconceiveable training
17. རྣམ་པར་མི་རྟོག་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training free from conceptual elaboration
18. འབྲས་བུ་རིན་ཆེན་སྦྱིན་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training bestowing the jewel of fruits
19. གནས་ངན་ལེན་ཕྲ་མོ་དག་པར་བྱེད་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ། training purifying subtle negativities
20. ས་མཚམས་ཀྱི་སྦྱོར་བ། training within prescribed limits.

Four trainings; the four Bodhisattva trainings.
1. རྣམ་རྫོགས་སྦྱོར་བ། training of complete aspects
2. རྩེ་མོའི་སྦྱོར་བ། peak training
3. མཐར་གྱིས་སྦྱོར་བ། serial training
4. སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ། momentary training.

The ten approaches; བྱ་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་སྦྱོར་བའི་སྤྱོད་པའི་ཡན་ལག་སྟེ། the ways of approaching or undertaking action tantra practices.
1. སྔགས་པ་སྒྲུབ་པ་པོ། tantrika as the practitioner
2. རང་སྔགས་བསྒྲུབ་པར་བྱ་བའི་ལྷ། oneseif as the deity for
accomplishing the mantra
3. གཡོག་སྒྲུབ་པའི་གྲོགས་མཆོག helpers as the supreme friends for one's accomplishments
4. ལྡོང་རོས་ལ་སོགས་པའི་རྫས། possessing ldong-ros stones and others as the substances or articles
5. སྦྱོར་བའི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས| application as the enthusiastic perseverance
6. དབུས་ལ' སོགས་བའི་ཡུལ་ཕྱོགས། living in a central land or otherwise as the place of living
7. རི་རྩེ་ལ་སོགས་པའི་གཞིའི་གནས།
location in the mountains etc., as the environment
8. དཔྱིད་ཟླ་དང་སྔ་དྲོ་ལ་སོགས་པའི་དུས། spring time and mornings as the period of practice
9. རི་མོ་དང་གཟུགས་སྐུ་ལ་སོགས་པའི་ཡན་ལག་ཛོགས་པའི་ལྷ། possessing qualified images and paintings of deities
10. འཇིགས་པ་མེད་ཅིང་སྲན་ཆེ་བའི་སེམས་སྟོབས། fearlessness and forbearance as the spirit of carrying out practices.

The six yogas of the [kālacakra] tantra. The yogas of wind meditation according to the completion stage practices in the [kālacakra] tantra.
1. སོར་སྡུད། withdrawal
2. བསམ་གཏན། concentration
3. སྲོག་རྩོལ། pinpointing the life-sustaining wind
4. འཛིན་པ། retention
5. རྗེས་དྲན། recollection
6. ཏིང་འཛིན། single-pointed concentration.

Six preparatory practices. The six ways to prepare oneself for a daily session of meditation.
1. གནས་ཁང་བྱི་དོར་བྱས་པ། cleaning the room or place of practice
2. རྟེན་བཀྲམས་ཤིང་ མཆོད་པ་གཡོ་མེད་པར་གཤམས་པ། arranging symbolic objects of refuge and pure offerings
3. ལུས་རྣམ་སྣང་ཆོས་བདུན་གྱི་སྒོ་ནས་སྐྱབས་འགྲོ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་བྱ་བ། sitting on a comfortable cushion and maintaining the seven-fold posture of Vairocana (see ༼རྣམ་སྣང་ཆོས་བདུན༽), then taking refuge and generating the mind of enlightenment (bodhicitta)
4. ཚོགས་ཞིང་གསལ་བཏབ་པ། visualizing the merit-field
5. མཎཌལ་དང་འབྲེལ་ཡན་ལག་བདུན་པ་བྱ་བ། offering the seven branch practice and the mandate of the universe
6. རྒྱུད་དང་དྲེས་ངེས་ཀྱི་གསོལ་བ་བཏབ་པ། making powerful supplication and prayers from one's heart.

Fourteen qualities of (a Bodhisattva's) training.
1. བདུད་ཀྱི་མཐུ་བཅོམ་པ། annihilation of demonic powers
2. སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་དགོངས་ཤིང་མཁྱེན་པ། attention and knowledge of the Buddhas
3. སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མངོན་སུམ་དུ་མཛད་པ། being within
the sight of the Buddhas
4. རྫོགས་བྱང་ལ་ཉེ་བར་འགྱུར་བ།
nearing the state of enlightenment
5. རྣམ་པར་སྨིན་པ་ཆེ་བ། greatness of ripened results
6. ཤེར་ཕྱིན་ཟབ་མོ་སྨྲ་བའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་ཉིད་དུ་འགྱུར་བ། becoming a proponent of the perfection of wisdom teaching
7. རྫོགས་བྱངལ་མི་ཕྱེད་པ། non-deflection
from complete enlightenment
8. དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པ་སྐྱེ་བ། cultivation of special roots of virtues
9. དམ' བཅའ་བའི་དན་ཐམས་ཅད་སྒྲབ་པ། accomplishment of all the pledges and vows
10. རྣམ་སྨིན་གྱི་འབྲས་བུ་རྒྱ་ཆེ་བ། achievement of extensive and great fruits of merits
11. སེམས་ཅན་གྱི་དོན་སྒྲུབ་ནུས་པ། ability to work for the welfare of other sentient beings
12. ཚེ་བརྗེས་ཀྱང་ཤེར་ཕྱིན་ཟབ་མོ་ངེས་པར་ཐོབ་པ། attainment of profound perfection of wisdom from life to life
13. ཤེས་ཕྱིན་ཟབ་མོ་གང་དུ་དར་བའི་ཡུལ་དེར་སྐྱེས་ནས་འབྲི་བ་དང་ཁ་ཏོན་དུ་བྱ་བ། copying and reciting the perfection of wisdom teachings everywhere that the teachings flourish
14. ཡོན་ཏན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོངས་སུ་ཛོགས་པ། accomplishment of all good qualities.

Two types of forders; two types of non-Buddhists. These non-Buddhists are said to be possessing the five extra-sensory perceptions and the ability to fly. 1. non-buddhist through meditation 2. non-Buddhist through logic.

[prayoga mārga]/ Path of preparation. The second of the five paths, where a practitioner gains conceptual understanding o emptiness.

Ten aspects of the heat level of the path of preparation.
1. སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་སེམས་མཉམ་པ། equality of attitude towards all sentient beings
2. བྱམས་པའི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ།
attitude of love towards all sentient beings
3. ཕན་པའི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། attitude of benefit towards all sentient beings
4. ཁོང་ཁྲོ་བ་མེད་པའི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། attitude free from anger towards all sentient beings
5. རྣམ་པར་འཚེ་བ་མེད་པའི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། attitude of non-violence towards all sentient beings
6. རྒན་པ་རྣམས་ལ་ཕ་མའི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། attitude of regarding elders as one's parents
7. ན་མཉམ་པ་རྣམས་ལ་སྤུན་དང་སྲིང་མོའི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། attitude of regarding
one's peers as brothers and sisters
8. གཞོན་པ་རྣམས་ལ་སྤུན་དང་སྲིང་མོའི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། attitude of regarding the youngsters as sons and daughters
9. བར་མ་རྣམས་ལ་མཛའ་བཤེས་དང་གྲོགས་ཀྱི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། anitude of regarding equals as one's friends
10. སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་གཉེན་དང་གཉེན་མཚམས་ཀྱི་སེམས་དང་ལྡན་པ། attitude of friendliness towards all sentient beings.

Eleven marks of irreversibility of a Bodhisattva on the heat level of the path of preparation.
1. གཞན་དོན་དུ་གཟུགས་སོགས་ལ་བདེན་ཞེན་ལྡོག་པ། he has turned away from grasping at true forms, etc.
2. སྐྱབས་གསུམ་ལ་ཐེ་ཚོམ་ཟད་པ། he has extinguished doubts concerning the three jewels of refuge
3. མི་ཁོམས་པ་བརྒྱད་ཟད་པ། he has extinguished the eight non-condusive states (see ༼མི་ཁོམས་པ་བརྒྱད༽)
4. རང་གཞན་གཉིས་ཀ་དགེ་བའི་ཆོས་ལ་སྦྱོར་བ། he encourages both himself and others in dharma practice
5. བདག་གཞན་བརྗེ་བའི་བསམ་པས་སྦྱོན་པ། he practices giving with the thought of exchanging self-concern for concern for others
6. ཟཔ་མོའི་དོན་ལ་སེམ་ཀྱིས་སྤྱོད་པ། he has no doubt concerning the meaning of the profound emptiness
7. སྒོ་གསུམ་གྱི་སྤྱོད་པ་བྱམས་པའི་སེམས་ཀྱིས་སྤྱོད་པ། he performs the deeds of body, speech and mind with love
8. སྒྲིབ་པ་ལྔ་དང་མི་འགྲོགས་པ། he never associates himself with the five obstructions
9. བག་ལ་ཉལ་ཀུན་འཇོམས་པ། he has subdued all evil latencies

རྟག་ཏུ་དྲན་ཤེས་དང་ལྡན་པ། he is always mindful and alert
11. གོས་སོགས་ཡོངས་སུ་སྤྱོད་པ་གཙང་བ། he wears neat and ciean
cloth, etc.

[mūrdha prayoga mārga] Peak training of the path of preparation. The Bodhisattva practices at the the peak level of the [mahāyāna] path of preparation, on which he has gained a conceptual understanding of the emptiness conjoined with the mind of enlightenment.

The four levels of the path of preparation; the second of the five paths.
1. དྲོད། heat level, whereupon the first sign of
attaining the wisdom of the path of seeing is felt.
2. རྩེ་མོ།
peak level, where one has gained irreversible signs of one's
wholesome qualities for the first time
3. བཟོད་པ།
forbearance level, whereupon one initially gains confidence to
overcome fear from experiencing emptiness
4. ཆོས་མཆོག supramundane level, the final level of the path of preparation liable to ensure direct bare perception of emptiness in the next immediate instant.

[ajātaSatru] King [ajātaSatru] of Magadha in India during the time of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]. After Buddha's passing away into [parnirvāṇa] at Rajagrtia, he sponsored the first council (see ༼བཀའ་བསྡུ་གསུམ༽).

[abhrāntajсāna] Unmistaken perception; non-deceptive cognition. An awareness that is unmistaken with respect to its appearing object, e.g. the first moment that eye sense perception cognizes a tree.

Unestablished presumption; incorrect belief. Presuming what is true for an irrelevent reason.

[anivṛtāvyākṛta]/ Non-obscured unspecified phenomena Those categories of phenomena that are not deluded by nature, yet are neither virtuous nor non-virtuous with respect to their results, e.g. the universe, permanent phenomena

[mātā tantra]/ Mother tantra. The highest class of tantric teachings mainly emphasizing the development of the clear light mind, e.g. Cakrasambhava tantra

Six families of the mother tantra.
1. རྡོར་སེམས་ཀྱི་རིགས། Vajrasattva tantra
2. རྣམ་སྣང་གི་རིགས1 Vairocana tantra
3. ཧེ་རུ་ཀའི་རིགས། Heruka tantra
4. རྡོ་རྗེ་ཉི་མའི་རིགས། [vajrasūrya] tantra
5. པད་མ་དགར་དབང་གི་རིགས། [padmanarteSvara] tantra
6. རྟ་མཆོག་གི་རིགས། [paramaSva] tantra.

Indefinite presumption. Presuming what is true to be so for an undetermined reason.

[aṣṭāniyata bhūmikāḥ] Eight indefinite levels of thought; eight uncertain secondary mental factors.
1. རྟོག་པ། [vitarka]/ rough investigation
2. དཔྱོད་པ། [vicāra]/ subtle investigation
3. འགྱོད་པ། [kaukṛtya]/regret
4. གཉིད། [nidrā]/sleep
5. ཁྲོང་ཁྲོ [krodha]/ anger
6. ཆགས་པ། [rāga]/ attachment
7. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ pride
8. ཐེ་ཚོམ། [vicikitsā]/ doubt.

Machig Labkyi Dolma (1055-1145). A renowed female practitioner of the cutting-off ritual (༼གཅོད༽), a disciple of Phadampa Sangye.

[aSuddha māyakāya]/ Impure illusory body. A completion stage practice of tantra in which a meditator establishes the lack of non-inherent existence of all phenomena and their illusory nature of appearances.

[saptāSuddha bhūmayaḥ]/ Seven impure grounds; the first seven of the ten Bodhisattva grounds (see ༼ས་བཅུ༽, 1-7), in which a Bodhisattva possesses subtle pride still to be purified.

[aṣṭādaSāveṇika buddha dharmāḥ]/ Eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (also see ༼སངས་་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་མ་འདྲེས་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽). A. སྤྱོད་པས་བསྡུས་པ་དྲུག Six of behaviour:
1. སྐུའི་སྤྱོད་པ་འཁྲུལ་བ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti tathāgatasya skhalitam]/ possessing unmistaken bodily qualities
2. གསུང་ཅ་ཅོ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti ravitam]/ not possessing unskillful (noisy) speech
3. དྲན་པ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti muṣita smṛtitā]/ possessing undeclined memory
4. ཐུགས་མཉམ་པར་མ་གཞག་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāstyasamāhita cittam]/ constant abidance in meditative equipoise
5. བླང་དོར་ངོ་པོ་ཉིད་ཀྱིས་གྲུབ་པའི་ཐ་དད་པ་ཉིད་ཀྱི་འདུ་ཤེས་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti nānātva samjсā]/ realizing that cultivation and elimination are not inherently different
6. སོ་སོར་མ་བརྟག་པའི་བཏང་སྙོམས་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāstyapratisaṃkhyāyopekṣā]/ possessing indiscriminate equiminity. B. རྟོགས་པས་བསྡུས་པ་དྲུག Six of insight/ wisdom:
7. འདུན་པ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti cchandasya hāni]/ possessing undeclining aspiration
8. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti viryasya hāni]/ possessing undeclining effort
9. སེམས་ཅན་འདུལ་བའི་ཐབས་དྲན་པ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti smṛti hāni]/ possessing undeclining mindfulness as a means for taming sentient beings
10. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti samādhi hāni]/ possessing undeclining single-pointed
11. ཤེས་རབ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti prajсāyā hāni]/ possessing undeclining wisdom
12. རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བའི་ལམ་ཉམས་པ་མི་མངའ་བ། [nāsti vimukti hāni]/
possessing irreversibility from liberated paths. C. མཛད་པས་བསྡུས་པ་གསུམ། Three of virtuous activity:
13. སྐུའི་འཕྲིན་ལས། [kāyakarma]/ virtuous activity of body
14. གསུང་གི་འཕྲིན་ལས། [vākkarma]/ virtuous activity of speech
15. ཐུགས་ཀྱི་འཕྲིན་ལས། [manaḥ karma]/ virtuous activity of mind. D. དུས་ཀྱིས་བསྡུས་པ་གསུམ། Three of time:
16. འདས་པའི་དུས་མཁྱེན་པ་ལ་མ་ཐོགས་མ་ཆགས་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས། [atīte 'dhvanya san'gam apṛatihataṃ jсānadarSanaṃ parvartate]/ unobstructed wisdom concerning the past
17. མ་འོངས་པའི་དུས་མཁྱེན་པ་ལ་མ་ཐོགས་མ་ཆགས་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས། [anāgate 'dhvanyasan'gam apratihataṃ jсādarSanaṃ pravarttate]/ unobstructed wisdom concerning the future
18. ད་ལྟ་བའི་དུས་མཁྱེན་པ་ལ་མ་ཐོགས་མ་ཆགས་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས། [pratyutpanne 'dhvanyasan'gam apratihataṃ jсana darSanaṁ pravartate]/ unobstructed wisdom concerning the present.

[mātṛkā]/ Mamo. A class of goddesses of which Palden Lhamo (gelug) and Ekajati (Nyingma) is the most prominent; most Mamos are depicted as ugly and terrifying figures; a skull full of diseases, a magic ball of thread and a black snare are their typical weapons; Mamo, as a class of deities, are quite numerous in different forms and constitute an important feminine aspect of the protectors of Buddha's doctrine.

[anupalabdhi saṁyaghetu]/ Correct reason of non-cognition. Correct reason arising from non-coghition in which the actual predicate that is established is a negative phenomenon, i.e. is not perceived. There are two types:
1. སྣང་རུང་མ་དམིགས་པའི་རྟགས། correct reason arising from non-cognition (of a
specific thing) which is suitable to appear (to a perceiving mind).
2. མི་སྣང་བ་མ་དམིགས་པའི་རྟགས། correct reason arising from non-cognition (of a specific thing) which is unsuitable to appear (to a perceiving mind).

[anupāttaSabda]/ Unconjoined sound. Sounds that are created from elements not conjoined with consciousness, e.g. the sound of a running brook.

Affirming negative. A negation which when expressed in words negates its specific object of negation and directly or indirectly implies the existence of another affirming (non-negative) phenomena, e.g. the statement, 'Rani does not sleep during the day,' which indirectly implies that she sleeps during "the night. There are three types:
1. ཆོས་གཞན་དངོས་སུ་འཕེན་པའི་མ་ཡིན་དགག directly affirming negative
2. ཆོས་གཞན་ཤུགས་ལ་འཕེན་པའི་མ་ཡིན་དགག indirectly affirming negative
3. སྐབས་སྟོབས་ཀྱིས་འཕེན་པའི་མ་ཡིན་དགག circumstantially affirming negative.

Exclusion (of others), which is an affirming negation, i.e. an affirming exclusion synonymous with negation, e.g. the statement, 'not a vase.' There are two types:
1. བློའི་གཞན་སེལ། mental exclusion of other
2. དོན་རང་མཆན་གྱི་གཞན་སེལ། ultimate self-characterized exclusion of other.

[avidya]/ Ignorance. One of the six root delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽); a secondary mind that is a direct antidote to the wisdom understanding the law of causality and reality of phenomena; and hence the root of misapprehension of all. There are primarily three categories, those that are induced
through closed mindedness, doubt and wrong view or

མ་ལས་ཐོབ་པའི་མཛོད་གསུམ| Three treasures obtained from the mother.
1. ཤ། flesh
2. ལྤགས་པ། skin
3. ཁྲག blood.

[saṃmitīyaḥ]/ The three schools of Sammitiya; one of the eighteen [hīnayāna] schools of philosophy.
1. ས་སྒྲོག་རི་ལ་གནས་པའགྱ་སྡེ། [kaurukullakāḥ]
2. སྲུང་བ་པའི་སྡེ། [avantakāḥ]
3. གནས་མ་བུ་པའི་སྡེ། [vātsīputrīyāḥ]

The instruction lineage. A sub-school of the ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན་༽ atiyoga teachings of the Nyingma order of Tibetan Buddhism.

[maṇḍala]/ A. Mandala; a divine mansion. B. An offering to one's spiritual master, in which one visualizes offering the entire universe and its precious contents, etc.

The four types of [maṇḍala] offering.
1. ཕྱིའི་མཎཌལ། outer
2. ནང་གི་མཎཌལ། inner
3. གསང་བའི་མཎཌལ། secret
4. དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་མཎཌལ། suchness.

Mother clear light. Clear light mind of the death and sleep

Boundless action leading to lower realms; action of non-respite. One of the most serious hell-states in which a person
is reborn without even passing through the intermediate state of rebirth.

Marpa (1012-1099). The great Tibetan yogi and translator, the disciple of Naropa and teacher of Milarepa. He was responsible for transmitting the teachings of Naropa to Tibet and for founding the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism. He visited India three times and Nepal four and studied under numerous teachers.

Removing obstacles upward. Such as in Vajrasattva meditation in which the negativities are visualized as being flushed out of your own mouth and upper orifices by an upward flow of light and nectar coming from the body of Vajrasattva at the crown of one's head.

Four pledges of [akṣobhya].
1. རྡོ་རྗེའི་དམ་ཚིག pledge concerning the vajra
2. དྲིལ་བུའི་དམ་ཚིག pledge concerning the bell
3. ཕྱག་རྒྱའི་དམ་ཚིག pledge concerning the seal
4. སློབ་དཔོན་ཀྱི་དམ་ཚིག pledge concerning the master.

Eight non-condusive factors. Eight non-free states or factors making the practice of dharma impossible.
1. དམྱལ་བར་སྐྱེ་བ། born as a hell being
2. ཡི་དྭགས་སུ་སྐྱེ་བ། born as a hungry ghost
3. དུད་འགྲོར་སྐྱེ་བ། born as an animal
4. ལྷ་ཚེ་རིང་པོར་སྐྱེ་བ། born as a long living god
5. ཀླ་ཀློར་སྐྱེ་བ། born in a barbaric land where the doctrine of the Buddha does not exist
6. དབང་པོ་མ་ཚང་བ། having incomplete sense faculties, such as being blind, deaf or insane
7. ལོག་ལྟ་ཅན། holding wrong views, such as disbelief in the law of causality
8. སངས་རྒྱས་
ཀྱི་ཆོས་མེད་པའི་ཡུལ་ན་སྐྱེ་བ། born in a land where Buddha's doctrine does not flourish.

[daSākuSalāni]/ Ten non-virtuous actions; ten unwholesome deeds.
1. སྲོག་གཅོད་པ། killing
2. མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ། stealing
3. ལོག་གཡེམ། sexual misconduct
4. བརྫུན། lying
5. ཁྲ་མ། slander
6. ཚིག་རྩུབ། harsh speech
7. ངག་འཁྱལ། idle gossip
8. བརྣབ་སེམས། covetousness
9. གནོད་སེམས། malicious intent
10. ལོག་ལྟ། wrong view.

Two non-virtuous levels of thought. The two mental factors that accompany all non-virtuous thoughts.
1. ཁྲེལ་མེད་པ། [anapatrāpya]/ immodesty
2. ངོ་ཚ་མེད་པ། [āhrīkya]/ shamelessness.

The Unchangmg [vajrakāya]. A term common to the Nyingma tradition; one of the five types of Buddha's body or being (see ༼སྐུ་ལྔ༽). The inseparability of [dharmakāya] and [rupakāya].

Fourteen classes of person.
1. རྐང་ཐང་པ། infantry
2. རྟ་པ། cavalry
3. གླང་ཆེན་པ། elephant cavalry
4. ཤིང་རྟ་པ་སྟེ་རྒྱལ་རིགས་བཞི| charioteer belonging to the [kSatrīya] caste.
5. ནགས་ན་གནས་པ། hermit
6. ཁྱིམ་ན་གནས་པ། lay practitioner
7. དཀའ་ཐུབ་པ་སྟེ་བྲམ་ཟེའི་རགས་བཞི། ascetic belonging to the Brahmin caste.
8. ཡིག་མཁན། scribe
9. ཚོང་པ། merchant
10. སྨན་པ་སྟེ་རྡོ་རྗེའི་རིགས་གསུམ། physician belonging to a noble caste.
11. ས་གཞི་རྨོ་བ། farmer
12. བ་ལང་སྐྱོང་བ། herdsman
13. འཇིམ་ལས་པ། potter
14. ཁྱིམ་ན་གནས་པ་སྟེ་དམངས་རིགས་བཞི། householder belonging to a lower caste.

Lying about the attainment of superhuman qualities; lying about spiritual realization when actually not possessing them.

The sixteen human principles; the sixteen principles of moral conduct issued by the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo as a decree.
1. དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ལ་གུས་པས་མཆོད་པ། respectfully worshipping the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma and [saṅgha])
2. དམ་པའི་ཆོས་བསྒྲུབ་པ། practising sublime Dharma
3. ཕ་མ་ལ་བཀུར་བ། honouring one's parents
4. ཡོན་ཏན་ཅན་ལ་གོང་དུ་བཀུར་བ། honouring the learned scholars
5. རིགས་མཐོ་བ་དང་རྒན་པ་རྣམས་ལ་སྲི་ཞུ་ཕུ་དུད་བྱེད་པ། honouring and respecting the elders and those belonging to higher castes
6. མཛའ་བཤེས་ལ་གཞུང་རིང་བ། being loyal and benign by avoiding a temperamental relationship with one's friends
7. ཡུལ་མི་ཁྱིམ་མཚེས་ལ་ཕན་འདོགས་པ། being benevolent as well as one is able towards people in one's locality and neighbours
8. ཡིད་དྲང་བ། being honest and incorruptible
9. མི་ཡ་རབས་ལ་ལྟ་བ། following examples of the gentle and decent
10. ཟས་ནོར་ལ་སྤྱོད་ཤེས་པ། living a moderate life free from extreme means of livelihood
11. དྲེན་ཅན་ལ་ཕན་ལན་སློག་པ། repaying kindness to the generous
12. བྲེ་སྲང་ལ་གཡོ་སྒྱུ་མེད་པ། avoiding deceptive conduct and fraud, such as in weights and measures
13. སྤྱི་སྙོམས་ཤིང་ཕྲག་དོག་མེད་པ། avoiding jealousy of others' belongings and cultivating friendship with all
14. ངན་པའི་གྲོས་ལ་མི་ཉན་ཞིང་རང་ཚུགས་འཛིན་པ། avoiding the influence of evil friends and one's deceptive
15. བྱད་མེད་ཀྱི་ཁ་ལ་མི་ཉན་པ། not listening to what women say
16. ཐེག་པ་ཆེ་ཞིང་བློ་ཁོག་ཡངས་པ། being patient and far-sighted and enduring hardships in carrying out one's duties.

The five holy places that cannot be destroyed (see ༼གནས་ཆེན་ལྔ༽).

Four fearlessnesses; four grounds of self-confidence of a Buddha Fearlessness with respect to the assertion of:
1. རང་ དོན་དུ་སྤངས་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་སྤངས་ཞེས་དམ་བཅས་པ་ལ་མི་འཇིགས་པ། one's complete and perfect extinguishment of all negativities for the purpose of oneself
2. རང་དོན་དུ་ཡོན་ཏན་ཐམས་ཅད་དང་ལྡན་ཞེས་དམ་བཅས་པ་ལ་མི་འཇིགས་པ། one's complete and perfect accomplishment of knowledge for the purpose of oneself
3. གཞན་དོན་དུ་གཉེན་པོའི་ལམ་འདི་དག་གོ་ཞེས་དམ་བཅས་པ་ལ་མི་འཇིགས་པ། revealing the paths of antidotes for the purpose of others
4. གཞན་དོན་དུ་འདི་དག་སྤང་བྱ་ཡིན་ཞེས་དམ་བཅས་པ་ལ་མི་འཇིགས་པ། revealing the eliminations for the purpose of others.

[asamasamapaсcaskandhāh]/ The five aggregates equal to the unequalled one.
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [sīla skandha]/ aggregate of morality
2. བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [samādhi skandha]/ aggregate of concentration
3. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [prajсā skandha]/ aggregate of wisdom
4. རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བའི་ཕུང་པོ། [vimukti skandha]/ aggregate of thorough liberation
5. རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་མཐོང་བའི་ཕུང་པོ། [vimuktijсāna darSana skandha]/ aggregate of seeing the wisdom of thorough liberation.

The sixteen attributes of the four noble truths. 1-4. སྡུག་བསྔལ་བདེན་པའི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི། four attributes of the truth of suffering (see ༼སྡུག་བསྔལ་བདེན་པའི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི༽) 5-8. ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པའི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི། four attributes of the truth
of origin (see ༼ཀུན་འབྱུན་བདེན་པའི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི༽) 9-12. འགོག་བདེན་གྱི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི། four attributes of the truth of cessation (see ༼འགོག་བདེན་གྱི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི༽) 13-16. ལམ་བདེན་གྱི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི། four attributes of the truth of the path (see ༼ལམ་བདེན་གྱི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི༽).

The great non-conceptual heart. The primordial wisdom is .known as the great non-conceptual heart or mind in the Nyingma tradition.

A person of three-fold qualities. Being able to speak, understand and having a sound mind.

[pratipakṣa]/ Discordant factors; dissimilar factors. That which is either contradictory to or does not share a common basis with the predicate in a logical syllogism.

Eight causes of invisibility.
1. ཧ་ཅང་རིང་བ། very distant
2. ཧ་ཅང་ཉེ་བ། very close
3. དབང་པོ་ཉམས་པ། weak sense faculty
4. ཡིད་དབང་ཉམས་པ། weak mental faculty
5. ཆ་ཕྲ་བ། subtle object
6. སྒྲིབ་པ་དང་བཅས་པ། obstructive factors
7. ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། outshining factors
8. ཡུལ་འདྲེས་པ། confusing object.

Statement rejecting other qualities; statement rejecting the existence of other features, e.g. the statement, "sound is oniy an impermanent thing."
Nine unlovely perceptions; nine points of meditation on
1. རྣམ་པར་བམ་པ། perception of a swollen corpse
2. རྣམ་པར་འབུས་གཞིག་པ། perception of a worm eaten corpse
3. རྣམ་པར་རྣགས་པ། perception of a festering corpse
4. རྣམ་པར་དམར་བ། perception of a bloody corpse
5. རྣམ་པར་སྔོས་པ། perception of a bluish corpse
6. རྣམ་པར་ཟོས་པ། perception of a corpse being devoured
7. རྣམ་པར་འཐོར་བ། perception of a scattered corpse
8. རྣམ་པར་འཚིག་པ། perception of a burnt corpse
9. རྣམ་པར་དུག་ལྟ་བུ། perception of a poisonous corpse.

Eighteen signs of ugliness; eighteen unlovely signs.
1. མི་སྡུག་པ། ugliness
2. སྐྲ་བྱི་བ། falling hair
3. དཔྲལ་བ་ཆུང་བ། small forehead
4. མདོག་སེར་སྐྱ། pale color
5. མིག་སེར་བ། yellow color
6. མིག་ཟུམ་པ། closed eyes
7. མིག་ཆུང་བ། small eyes
8. སྨིན་མ་མཚམས་མ་སྦྱར་བ། eye-brows not joined
9. སྣ་ལེབ་པ། flat nose
10. སོ་རིང་བ། long teeth
11. ལྕེ་ལྡིག་པ། stammering
12. ཕྱི་ནང་སྒུར་བ། crooked body
13. ལྟོ་བ་ཆེ་བ། big belly
14. དཔུང་པ་རྗེ་ངར་ཐུང་བ། stooped shoulders
15. ལུས་ལ་སྤུ་མང་བ། hairy body
16. ལག་པ་དང་རྐང་པའི་མི་མ་ཉམས་པ། shrivelled hands and feet
17. ཚིག་སྤོམ་པ། thick joints
18. ཁ་དང་ལུས་ལས་དྲི་ངན་བྱུང་བ། bad smell from body and mouth.

[aprastiṣṭhita nirvāṇa]/ Non-abiding state of peace; non-abiding [nirvāṇa]. The full state of [nirvāṇa] free of the extremes of both cyclic existence and peace.

[anupalambha ṡūnyatā]/ Emptiness of non-apprehension. One of the sixteen emptinesses (see ༼སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་དྲུག༽); the lack of inherent existence of all phenomena witnin the context of any of the three times—past, present and future.

[kinnara]/ Probable-human. A class of beings included withrn the realm of the gods of desire.

Indestructible drop. The indestructible drop being either the ever existent very subtle wind and mind or the white and red drop at the heart-centre during one life-time.

The four causes of ignorance; the four causes of lack of knowledge.
1. ཡུལ་བསྐལ་པས་མི་ཤེས་པ། due to distant location of the object
2. དུས་བསྐལ་པས་མིཤེས་པ། due to distant time reference of the object
3. ངོ་བོ་བསྐལ་པས་མི་ཤེས་པ། due to the subtle nature of the object
4. ཟབ་ཅིང་མཐའ་ཡས་པས་མིཤེས་པ། profundity and vastness of the object.

Statement rejecting other possibilities, e.g. the statement, "it is only possible that a calf be born from a cow."
[aSaikṣa marga]/ Path of no-more learning. Last of the five paths.

The five cruelties; the five immoral activities-that deserve punishment. Those:
1. རྒྱལ་པོ་ལ་གནོད་པ། harming a king
2. ཕན་ཚུན་གཅིག་གིས་གཅིག་ལ་གནོད་པ། harming each other
3. རྒྱལ་པོའི་བཀའ་ལ་མི་ཉན་པ། disloyal to the king's advice
4. ལོག་པས་འཚོ་བའི་འཚོ་བ། practicing wrong livelihood
5. ལོག་པར་ཞུགས་པར་གྱུར་བ། engagement in hostile behaviours.

Blindfold. The red blindfold worn around the head during particular stages of a tantric initiation in order to prohibit the disciple from seeing the secrets of the [maṇḍala] before they pass through the permission to be able to do so.

Two types of name.
1. དངོས་མིང་། real name
2. བཏགས་མིང་། given name.

Conceptual cognition involving terms. A type of conceptual generation produced in conjuction with the name of a thing, e.g. a concept that takes for granted, "anything that is capable of rasing a beam is a pillar."
The interdependent link of name and form. The fourth in the link of the twelve interdependent originations. Name refers to sound, smell, taste, phenomena and form as the form

Tri koti/ Three possible combinations. 1. if it is 'X' it should be T but if it is T it is not necessarily 'X' 2. that which is both 'X' and T 3. that which is neither.

[cātuṣkoṭi]/ Four possible combinations. 1. that which is 'X' but not T 2. that which is T but not 'X' 3. that which is both 4. that which is neither.

Nine topics of the Nirgrantha school.
1. སྲོག life-force
2. གང་ཟག person
3. སྡོམ་པ། precepts
4. ངེས་པར་རྒ་བ། certainty of aging
5. འཚིང་བ! bindings
6. ལས། karma
7. སྡིག་པ| non-virtues
8. བསོད་ནམས། merits
9. ཐ་ར་པ། liberation.

[ṣaḍ tīrthika Sāstāraḥ]/ The six non-buddhist teachers; These were the one's who were defeated by Buddha [ṡākyamuni] while completing miracles, and the event is celebrated as the Great Prayer Festival.
1. འོད་སྲུང་རྫོགས་བྱེད། [pūraṇakāSyapa]
2. ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱ་གནག་ལྷས་ཀྱི་བུ། [maskarīgoṡalīputra]
3. སྒྲ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ བུ་ཡང་དག་རྒྱལ་བ་ཅན། [saсjayīvairaḍīputra]
4. མི་ཕམ་སྐྲའི་ལ་བ་ཅན། [ajitakeSakambala]
5. ཀ་ཏའི་བུ་ནོག་ཅན། [kakudakātyāyana]
6. གཅེར་བུ་བ་གཉེན་གྱི་བུ། [nirgranthojсātiputra].

Two types of non-Buddhists.
1. སྤྲལ་པའི་མུ་སྟེགས་པ། non-Buddhist by emanation
2. ངོ་བོའི་སྒོ་ནས་མུ་སྟེགས་པ། non-Buddhist by nature or birth.

Fire-like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with exertion possessed by Bodhisattvas on the path of preparation.

Non-affirming negative. A negation which when expressed in words negates its specific object of negation, but neither directly nor indirectly implies the existence of another (non-negative) phenomena, e.g. emptiness.

Awareness of the clear appearance of a non-existent object; an awareness in which something not existent seems clearly to exist, e.g. appearence of the single moon as double.

Female ritual of cutting-off (gcod). A ritual of severing negative thoughts handed down from Phadampa Sangye to Yogini Machig Labkyi Dolma and her disciples.

[adhimukticaryā bhUmi]/ State of faith. The first two of the five paths, where a practitioner employs faith and aspiration in his practice and has only a conceptual understanding of emptiness. Hence the Bodhicitta at these stages are also known by the name—Bodhicitta preoccupied by faith.

The four minds of enlightenment preoccupied by faith. The mind of enlightenment possessed by Bodhisattvas on the first two paths—the path of accumulation and preparation.
1. ས་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད། me earth-like mind of enlightenment (see ༼ས་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽)
2. གསེར་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད། the gold-like mind of enlightenment (see ༼གསེར་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽)
3. ཟླ་བ་ལྟ་བུའི་སམས་བསྐྱེད། the moon-like mind of enlightenment (see ༼ཟླ་བ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽)
4. མེ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད། the fire-like mind of enlightenment (see ༼མེ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད༽).

State of peace; liberation; [nirvāṇa].
Eight stages of the lower vehicle (see ༼ཐེག་དམན་གྱི་ས་བརྒྱད༽).

Explicit teachings; bare teachings. The transmission of certain
teachings in every detail, from the master's own experience in meditational practice.

Three minor red protectors common to the Sakya tradition
1. ཀུ་རུ་ཀུ་ལླེ་གསེར་གྱི་སྙིང་ཐག་ཅན། [kurukullāsuvarnaka]
2. ནོར་རྒྱུན་མ་དམར་པོ། [raktavasudhārā]
3. ལྷ་མོ་ཏི་ནུ་མ། [tinudevī].

Three major red protectors common to the Sakya tradition.
1. ཀུ་ར་ཀུ་ལླེ། [kurukullā]
2. ཚོགས་བདག [gaṇapati]
3. འདོད་རྒྱལ། [kāmarāja].

[ālambana pratyaya]/ Objective condition. One of the four conditions (see ༼རྐྱེན་བཞི༽); the objective condition held in the mind that serves as the direct cause of generating that perception, e.g. a vase, for an eye consciousness.

Marvelous teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories of Buddha's teachings, describing the marvelous qualities of the Hearers, Bodhisattvas and Buddhas or their heavens.

[svapana māya]/ Illusory body of the dream-state. A kind of illusory body experienced in a dream state through the force of karmic imprints; a subtle wind and mind body.

The lower Vinaya lineage. The restoration and spread of the lineage of monastic vows by the three persons known as Mar-Shakya, Yo-Gejung, and Gtang--Rabsel-rrom Do-kham, the lower region of Tibet to central Tibet after the persecution of Buddhrsm in Tibet by Lang Dharma. This Vinaya lineage was
received by Lachen Gongpa Rabsel, who passed the lineage to Lume Tsultrim Sherab, and subsequently to twelve persons of central Tibet.

Four medicine tantras; four basic texts of Tibetan medicine.
1. རྩ་རྒྱུད། root tantra
2. བཤད་རྒྱུད! explanatory tantra
3. མན་ངག་རྒྱུད། instruction tantra
4. རྒྱུད་ཕྱི་མ། later tantra.

Six tastes of medicine (see ༼རོ་དྲུག༽).

Medicine like Bodhicitta; the mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of wisdom practice possessed b,y a Bodhisattva on the sixth ground; it has the potential to pacify obstructions to omniscience like a powerful medicine.

Four types of medicine; four types of food for monks as prescribed by the Buddha.
1. དུས་རུང་གི་སྨན། food to be eaten before noon
2. ཐུན་ཚོད་དུ་རུང་བའི་སྨན། food suitable at a particular session
3. ཞག་བདུན་གྱི་སྨན། food to be taken for seven days
4. འཚོ་བཅང་གི་སྨན། food to support life.

[aṣṭa bhaiṣajyaguravaḥ]/ Eight medicine Buddhas; eight healing Buddhas.
1. ཤཱཀྱ་ཐུབ་པ། Buddha [ṡākyamuni]
2. སྨན་གྱི་བླ་བཻཌུརྱ་འོད་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ། [bhaiṣajyaguru]
3. མངོན་མཁྱེན་རྒྱལ་པོ། [abhijсanarāja]
4. ཆོས་བསྒྲགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ། [dharmakīrtisāgara]
5. མྱ་ངན་མེད་མཆོག་དཔལ། [aSokottamaSri]
6. གསེར་བཟང་དྲི་མེད། [suvaṃabhadravimala]
7. སྒྲ་དབྱངས་རྒྱལ་པོ། [svaraghoṣarāja]
8. མཚན་ལེགས་ཡོངས་བསྒྲགས་དཔལ། [sūpankīrtita nāmaSri].

Six good medicines.
1. ཛ་ཏི་སྙིང་གི་བཟང་པོ། nutmeg for heart
2. ཅུ་གང་གློ་བའི་བཟང་པོ། bamboo-manna for lungs
3. གུར་ཀུམ་མཆིན་པའི་བཟང་པོ། saffron for liver
4. ལི་ཤི་སྲོག་གི་ག་བཟང་པོ། clove for life force
5. སུག་མེལ་མཁལ་མེའི་བཟང་པོ། lesser cardamon for kidneys
6. ཀ་ཀོ་ལ་མཆེར་པའི་བཟང་པོ! cardamon for spleen.

[praṇidhijсana samādhi]/ Concentration knowing the object of prayers; meditative concentration on prayers that one may benefit sentient beings until the end of cyclic existence.

[praṇidhāna bodhicittotpāda]/ Wishing bodhicitta; aspirational thought of enlightenment.

The five kinds of prayers.
1. སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ། prayers for generating bodhicitta
2. སྐྱེ་བའི་སྨོན་ལམ། prayers for good rebirth
3. སྤྱོད་ཡུལ་གྱི་སྨོན་ལམ། prayers for a better environment
4. ཡང་དག་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ། prayers for perfection
5. སྨོན་ལམ་ཆེན་པོ། the great prayer.

The Great Prayer Festival. This prayer festival held at Lhasa Tsuglag Khang during the first month of every year was originally instituted by Tsong Khapa in

Eight precepts of the wishing bodhicitta. A. ཚེ་འདིར་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་མ་ཉམས་པར་འཕེལ་བའི་ཐབས་བཞི། Four means to prevent degeneration of Bodhicitta in this life:
1. སེམས་བསྐྱེད་ཀྱི་ཕན་ཡོན་དྲན་པ། being mindful of the benefits of Bodhicitta
2. ཉིན་མཚན་དུས་དྲུག་ཏུ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། reaffirming the Bodhicitta resolve six times a day
3. སེམས་ཅན་བློས་མི་སྤོང་བ། not neglecting sentient beings
4. ཚོགས་གཉིས་བསགས་པ། accumulating the two heaps of merits. B. སྐྱེ་བ་གཞན་དུ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་དང་མི་འབྲལ་བའི་ཐབས་བཞི། Four means of non-separation from bodhicitta in all respects:
1. མཁན་སློབ་དབུ་མི་བསྐོར་བ། not deceiving abbots, masters and lamas, etc.
2. གཞན་གྱི་དགེ་བ་ལ་འགྱོད་དུ་མི་འཇུག་པ། not inducing regret in those practising virtue
3. ཐེག་ཆེན་ལམ་ཞུགས་ལ་སྐྱེན་མི་འདོགས་པ། not disparaging those on the path of the greater vehicle
4. ལྷག་བསམ་མིན་པའི་གཡོ་སྒྱུ་སྤོང་བ། abandoning pretentious thoughts.

[vādisiṃha]/ Lion of eloquence; lion amongst teachers; an epithet of Buddha [ṡākyamuni].

Inexpressible and inconceiveable; emptiness.

To bewail; to mourn for; to grief.

A miniature painting. Small sized images and paintings of [maṇḍala]s, deities, implements and auspicious symbols used during the course of an initiation or other ceremonial occasions.

The holy place, Tsari located in the southern border of Tibet. It is considered a holy place of Cakrasambhava and Vajrayogini.

The three types of fiery energy; the three kinds of tu-mo energy (༼གཏུམ་མོ༽)
1. ཕྱིའི་གཏུམ་མོ་རང་བཞིན་ཙཎཌ་ལཱི། the natural fiery energy, the emptiness of all phenomena as the outer tu-mo
2. ནང་གི་གཏུམ་མོ་ཨ་ཐུང་ཙཎཌ་ལཱི། the fiery energy
of tu-mo, the short A at the navel as the inner tu-mo
3. གསང་བའི་གཏུམ་མོ་ཁ་སྦྱོར་ཙཎཌ་ལཱི། the fiery energy of union, the union of ever-excellent emptiness and the unchanging great bliss, the secret tu-mo.

Je Tsong Khapa (1357-1419). The founder of the Gelug order of Tibetan Buddhism. Renowed for his marvelous scholarship and practice. His eighteen volumes of collected writings comprises the heart of the Gelug doctrine.

[paсca uṣṇīṣabuddha]/ Five [uṣnīṣa] Buddhas.
1. གཙུག་ཏོར་གདུགས་དཀར། [uṣnīṣa sitātapatrā]
2. གཙུག་ཏོར་དྲི་མེད། [uṣnīṣa vimala]
3. གཙུག་ཏོར་རྣམ་རྒྱལ། [uṣṇiṣa vijayā]
4. གཙུག་ཏོར་འབར་བ། [uṣnīṣa jvālā]
5. གཙུག་ཏོར་ཕུར་བུ། [uṣnīṣa kilaka].

[jyeṣṭha]/ [pradhāna]/ Principal factor, main factor, fundamental principle; central figure; primary object; head; chief.

Two fundamental principles according to the [saṃkhya] school of Hindu philosophy.
1. རང་བཞིན་རྒྱུའི་གཙོ་བ། causal principle of nature
2. གནས་སྐབས་འབྲས་བུའི་གཙོ་བོ། resultant principle of manifestation.

Primary mind; A consciousness or mind that is accompanied by secondary mental factors, e.g. the six consciousnesses.

Mountain dwelling spirits. A type of non-human spirits
believed to be living in the mountains; may enter an oracle in trance and speak through him or her.

Monks and nuns.

The five channel wheels. 1-4. the four channel wheels (see ༼རྩ་འཁོར་བཞི༽)
5. གསང་གནས་བདེ་སྐྱོང་གི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of sustaining bliss at the secret place that has thirty two petals.

Six channel wheels. 1-5. the five channel wheels (see ༼རྩ་འཁོར་ལྔ༽)
6. ནོར་བུའི་དབུས་ཀྱི་འཁོ་ལོ། the wheel at the centre of the Jewel.

The four channel wheels.
1. སྤྱོ་བོ་བདེ་ཆེན་གྱི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of great bliss at the crown that has thirty-two petals
2. མགྲིན་པར་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of enjoyment at the throat that has sixteen petals
3. སྙིང་ག་ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of phenomena at the heart that has eight petals
4. ལྟེ་བ་སྤྲུལ་པའི་འཁོར་ལོ། the wheel of emanation at the navel that has sixty-four petals.

The three channel wheels (see ༼རྩ་འཁོར་བཞི༽, 1-3).

Six root delusions; the six root defilements.
1. འདོད་ཆགས། [rāga]/ desire-attachment
2. ཁོང་ཁྲོ། [pratigha]/ hatred
3. ང་རྒྱལ། [māna]/ pride
4. མ་རིག་པ། pavidyā]/ ignorance
5. ཐེ་ཚོམ། [vicikitsā]/ doubt
6. ལྟ་བ། [mithya dṛṣṭi]/ wrong view.

Four root downfalls; four root transgressions of a monk's vows.
1. སྲོག་གཅོད་པ། taking life
2. མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ། taking what is not given
3. མི་ཚངས་པར་སྤྱོད་པ། indulging in sexual misconduct
4. བརྫུན་སྨྲ་བ། lying.

Fourteen root downfalls; fourteen root transgressions of the tantric vows/ precepts.
1. རྡོ་རྗེ་སློབ་དཔོན་ལ་བརྙས་པ། belittling the vajra master/guru
2. བདེ་གཤེགས་བཀའ་ལས་འདས་པ། despising the precepts of the Buddha
3. རྡོ་རྗེའི་སྤུན་ ལ་འཁུ་བ། speaking badly of vajra brothers and sisters
4. བྱམས་པ་འདོར་བ། abandoning love for sentient beings
5. སྨོན་འཇུག་གི་སེམས་འདོར་བ། abandoning the wishing and committed mind of enlightenment
6. མདོ་སྔགས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་ལ་སྨོད་པ། despising the [sūtra] and tantra teachings
7. སྨོད་མིན་ལ་གསང་བ་སྒྲོག་པ། exposing the secret of tantra to those who are not initiated
8. ཕུང་པོ་ལ་བརྙས་པ། mistreating one's body
9. སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་སྤོང་བ། abandoning emptiness or being sceptical about it
10. གདུག་ཅན་གྱི་གྲོགས་བསྟེན་པ། associating with bad friends
11. སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་དྲན་པར་མ་བྱས་པ། not reflecting on emptiness
12. དད་ལྡན་སེམས་སུན་འབྱིན་པ། disturbing another's faith in the Dharma
13. དམ་ཚིག་ཇི་བཞིན་མི་བསྟེན་པ། not observing the pledges and commitments
14. བུད་མེད་སྨོད་པ། despising women.

རྩ་ལྟུང་བཅོ་བརྒྱད། འཇུག་སྡོམ་གྱི་བསླབ་བྱ།
Eighteen root downfalls; eighteen root transgressions of the Bodhisattva vows.
1. བདག་བསྟོད་གཞན་སྨོད། praising oneself and belittling others
2. ཆོས་ནོར་མི་སྟེར་བ། not giving material aid or teachings of Dharma
3. བཤགས་ཀྱང་མི་ཉན་པར་གཞན་ལ་འཆོག་པ། not listening when someone declares his or her offences
4. ཐེག་ཆེན་སྤོང་ཞིང་དམ་ཆོས་འདྲར་སྣང་སྟོན་པ། abandoning the teachings of the greater vehicle and preaching false doctrine akin to the [mahāyāna] teachings
5. དཀན་མཆོག་གི་དཀོར་མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ། misusing offerings of the three jewels not given to oneself
6. དམ་པའི་ཆོས་སྤོང་བ། abandoning the sublime Dharma
7. རབ་བྱུང་ལ་འཚེ་བ། evicting monks and nuns
8. མཚམས་མེད་ཀྱི་ལས་བྱེད་པ། committing any of the five boundless actions
9. ལོག་ལྟ་འཛིན་པ། holding wrong views
10. གནས་འཇིག་པ། destroying places of worship or pilgrimage
11. སྣོད་མིན་ལ་སྟོང་ཉིད་བསྟན་པ། teaching emptiness to improper receptacles
12. རྫོགས་བྱང་ཐོབ་པའི་བློ་ལས་བཟློག་པར་བྱེད་པ། turning people away from working for enlightenment
13. སོ་ཐར་སྤོང་བ། abandoning the vows of individual liberation
14. ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་ལ་སྐྱར་བ་འདེབས་པ། mistreating the lower vehicle doctrine
15. མི་ཆོས་བླ་མའི་རྫུན་སྨྲ་བ། lying exorbitantly of superhuman attainments
16. དཀོན་མཆོག་གི་དཀོར་མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ། misappropriation of the property of the three jewels
17. ཁྲིམས་ངན་འཆང་བ། holding corrupt ethical discipline
18. བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་འདོར་བ། abandoning the mind of enlightenment.

[naḍīgranthi]/ Knot of the channel-wheel. In tantra, this constitutes channel-knots or coils formed from the transfiguration of the three principal energy channels of the body—central, right and left, at different locations of the standing central energy-channel.

The wheel of energy-channels. The wheels or cakras of energy channels formed from their mode of coiling at the central energy-channel.

The four root precepts. The four basic vows, the transgression of which constitutes loss of monk vows (see ༼རྩ་ལྟུང་བཞི༽).

Four primary colors.
1. སྔོན་པོ། blue
2. སེར་པོ། yellow
3. དཀར་པོ། white
4. དམར་པོ། red.

[ṣaḍ mūladharmāḥ]/ Six root precepts; six root vows of a probationary nun.
1. གཅིག་པུ་ལམ་དུ་མི་འགྲོ་བ། not going alone on the road
2. ཆུར་རྐྱལ་བར་མི་བྱ་བ། not swimming across to the other shore
3. སྐྱེས་པ་རེག་པར་མི་བྱ་བ། not touching a male person
4. སྐྱེས་པ་དང་ལྷན་ཅིག་འདུག་པར་མི་བྱ་བ། not living with a male person
5. ཟླ་མོའི་ཉེས་པ་འཆབ་པར་མི་བྱ་བ། not concealing a transgression of vows by a fellow
6. སྨྱན་འགྱུར་བ་མི་བྱ་བ། not acting as a go-between.

Mental attitudes of the root delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽).

[ṣaḍ mūlakleSāḥ]/ Six root delusions; the six root defilements (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽).

The four root commitments; the root samayas. The four vows of observance common to all the lower tantras.
1. འཇིག་རྟེན་པའི་ཡང་དག་པའི་ལྟ་བ། upholding right worldly view
2. དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ། taking refuge in the Three Jewels
3. བྱང་ཆུབ་ཆེན་པོར་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། generating the mind of enlightenment
4. དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་དུ་དབང་བསྐུར་བ། receiving initiation into a [maṇḍala].

[tri mūla duḥkhāḥ]/ The three fundamental sufferings (see ༼སྡུག་བསྔལ་གསུམ༽).

Four main [hīnayāna] schools.
1. ཕལ་ཆེན་སྡེ་པ། [mahāsāṃghika], pioneered by [kāSyapa]
2. གཞི་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོད་པར་སྨྲ་བའི་སྡེ་པ། [mūlasarvāstivādin], pioneered by Rahula
3. གནས་བརྟན་པའི་སྡེ་པ། [sthavira], pioneered by Katyayana
4. མང་བཀུར་བའི་སྡེ་པ། [saṃmitīya], pioneered by [upāla].

Six root tastes; six fundamental flavours (see ༼སྨན་གྱི་རོ་དྲུག༽).

Five principal energy winds; the energy winds retaining the nature of the five fundamental elements functioning in the human body.
1. སྲོག་འཛིན་གྱི་རླུང། [prāṇa]/ life-supporting wind
2. ཐུར་སེལ་གྱི་རླུང་། [apāna]/ downward moving wind

གྱེན་རྒྱུའི་རླུང་། [udāna]/ upward moving wind
4. མཉམ་གནས་ཀྱི་རླུང་། [samāna]/ equally abiding wind
5. ཁྱབ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་རླུང་། [vyāpaka]/ pervasive wind.

[avadhūti]/ Central energy channel. Located midway between the left and right channels, extending from the tip of the sex organ up to the top of the head from where it bends down in an arch and terminates between the eye-brows; the energy channel through which the essential drops passes.

Energy channels, winds and drops. The three fundamental interdependent components of our body, which can be utilized through proper yogic practice to understand the ultimate nature of all phenomena; the basis of our consciousness for sustenance and survival of our life. It is explained that the
energy channels are like our home, essential drops as our property and energy wind and mind as the owner.

The three roots: A.
1. བྱིན་རླབས་ཀྱི་རྩ་བ་བླ་མ། spiritual master as the source of blessing
2. དངོས་གྲུབ་ཀྱི་རྩ་བ་ཡི་དམ། meditational deity as the source of siddhi
3. བར་གཅོད་སྲུང་བའི་རྩ་བ་མཁའ་འགྲོ་ཆོས་སྐྱོང། [ḍākinī] as the guardian for protecting oneself from hindrances. B. The energy channels:
1. རྩ་དབུ་མ། the central energy channel
2. རོ་མ། energy channel to the right
3. རྐྱང་མ། energy channel to the left.

The entity of the three roots; one's personal spiritual master.

The skillful yoga of completion. One of the five yogas according to the Nyingma tradition; the total perfection of all qualities of the state of union of a learner on the path to liberation.

Six signs of irreversibility from the peak level of the path of preparation.
1. ལུས་ལ་སྲིན་བུའི་རིགས་མི་འབྱུང་བ། families of worms cannot arise in his body
2. སེམས་ལ་གྱ་གྱུ་མེད་པ། he has no crookedness in his mind
3. སྦྱངས་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན་བཅུ་གཉིས་བསྟེན་པ། he trains in the twelve ascetic practices (see ༼སྦྱངས་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན་བཅུ་གཉིས༽)
4. སེར་སྣ་དང་འཆལ་བའི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་སོགས་མེད་པ། he has no signs of meanness or immorality
5. ཆོས་ཉིད་དང་མི་འགལ་བར་ཤེར་ཕྱིན་དང་ལྡན་པར་འགྲོ་བ། he advances in the perfection of wisdom which is not in conflict with reality
6. གཞན་དོན་དུ་དམྱལ་བར་འགྲོ འདོད་པ། he wishes to enter hell for the welfare of others.

[mūrdhaprayoga]/ Peak training. [mahāyāna] path of preparation at the peak of the accumulation of merits, which surpasses the meditation of the aspects of the three knowledges—that of basis, path and omniscience.

[aṣṭa mūrdhaprayoga dharmāḥ]/ Eight topics that characterize the peak training.
1. དྲོད་རྩེ་སྦྱོར། peak training of the heat level of the path of preparation
2. རྩེ་མོའི་རྩེ་སྦྱོར། peak training of the peak level of the path of preparation
3. བཟད་པའི་རྩེ་སྦྱོར། peak training of the forbearance level of the path of preparation
4. ཆོས་མཆོག་རྩེ་སྦྱོར། peak training of the supramundane qualities level of the path of preparation
5. མཐོང་ལམ་རྩེ་སྦྱོར། peak training of the path of seeing
6. སྒོམ་ལམ་རྩེ་སྦྱོར། peak training of the path of meditation
7. བར་ཆད་མེད་པའི་རྩེ་སྦྱོར། peak training of the uninterrupted path
8. བསལ་བྱ་ལོག་སྒྲུབ། wrong achievements to be eliminated.

[kaliyuga]/ Quarrelsome period; degenerated age/era. In the event of further degeneration of the second-fold aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་བ་གཉིས་ལྡན༽), when people gradually begin to commit all the ten non-virtuous activities, the quarrelsome period is said to have come. This is the third phase of degenerating age.

The four features of virtuous efforts; the four qualities of the perfection of effort, it:
1. ལེ་ལོ་སོགས་མི་མཐུན་ཕྱོགས་ཉམས་པ། quells laziness and negativities
2. ཆོས་ཀྱི་བདག་མེད་རྟོགས་པའི་རྣམ་པར་མི་རྟོག་པ། generates non-conceptual
understanding of the selflessness of phenomena
3. འདོད་པ་རྫོགས་པར་བྱེད་པ། fultllls wishes 4 རིགས་ཅན་གསུམ་སྨིན་པར་བྱེད་པ། ripens the potentials for the three types of liberations—Hearer's, Solitary Realizer's and Bodhisattva's.

[vīrya bala]/ Power of effort. One of the five powers (see ༼སྟོབས་ལྔ༽) within the classification of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see ༼བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན༽) that is immune to hindrances such as laziness.

Serial training in effort. A Bodhisattva training concentrated in the development of the perfection of effort.

[vīrya pāramitā]/ The perfection of effort. An effort dedicated towards virtuous goals following the Bodhisattva's way of cultivating it.

[vīryendriya]/ Faculty of effort; power of effort. One of the five ever-purified faculties (see ༼དབང་པོ་ལྔ༽) within the classification of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment; the continuous flow of virtuous hearing, contemplation and meditation.

[vīryārddhipāda]/ Limb of the miracle of effort; One of the four legs of miracles (see ༼རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ་བཞི༽); possessing a wish to eliminate negative conduct.

Five types of effort; the five types of effort that generate higher qualities,
1. གོ་ཆའི་བརྩོན་འ3གྲུས། armour-like effort
2. སྦྱོར་བའི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས། effort of action
3. ཞུམ་པ་མེད་པའི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས| effort free of discouragement
4. མི་ལྡོག་པའི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས། irreversible effort
5. ཆོག་པར་མི་འཛིན་པའི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས། effort that is never contented.

Threetypes of efifort
1. གོ་ཆའི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས། armour-like effort
2. དགེ་བ་ལ་སྤྲོ་བའི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས། joyful effort in virtuous conduct
3. སེམས་ཅན་དོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་བརྩོན་འགྲུས། effort for the welfareof sentient beings.

Stamped clay figure house; little houses made to store clay figures (see ༼ཙ་ཙ༽).

Eight hot hells.
1. ཡང་སོས། [saсjīvana]/ reviving
2. ཐིག་ནག [kālasūtra]/ black-line
3. བསྡུས་འཇོམས། [saṃghāta]/ mass destruction
4. ངུ་འབོད། [rāurava]/ crying
5. ངུ་འབོད་ཆེན་པོ། [mahārāurava]/ great crying
6. ཚ་བ། [tāpana]/ hot
7. རབ་ཏུ་ཚ་བ། [pratāpana]/ very hot
8. མནར་མེད། [avīci]/ non-respite or boundless.

[sāccha]/ Stamped clay figures. Clay figures stamped with the image of stupas or deities; they are placed in a stUpa, shrine, or a place of worship and veneration.

Brahma. A. According to the Buddhist accounts, Brahma is the lord of the gods of the form realm. B. Hindus believe him to be the creator of the universe. C. The pure celestial domain within the form and formless realm.

The four pure moral bases. The worldly paths retaining the nature of love, compassion, joy and equinimity that ensures the attainment of a state of Brahma.

Four immaculate merits.
1. སྔར་མཆོད་རྟེན་མེད་པའི་ས་ཕྱོགས་སུ་རིང་སྲེལ་གྱི་སྙིང་པོ་ཅན་གྱི་མཆོད་རྟེན་བརྩེགས་པ། construction of a [stūpa] preserving holy relics in a place where none exist
2. དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་སྡེ་ལ་ཀུན་དགའ་རྭ་བ་ཕུལ་བ། offering a garden or estate to the [saṅgha] community
3. དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་དབྱེན་འདུམ་པ། healing a schism in the ordained community
4. ཚད་མེད་བཞི་སྒོམ་པ། meditating on the four immeasur-ables.

[brahmācārya upāsaka]/ Celibate ordained layperson. A lay ordained practitioner who has vowed to accept the precept of not indulging in sexual conduct throughout his life, e.g. [ācārya candragomin].

The vows of an approximate-celibacy. An ordination ceremony accepted before taking a probationary nun's vow.

Two types of valid cognition.
1. མངོན་སུམ་ཚད་མ།
[pratyakṣa] pramana/ direct valid cognition
2. རྗེས་དཔག་ཚད་མ། [anumāna pramāṇa]/ inferential valid cognition.

Seven treatises on valid cognition. Seven works of [dharmakīrti] on the study of valid cognition.
1. ཚད་མ་རྣམ་འགྲེལ། Commentary on Valid Cognition ([pramāṇavartika])
2. ཚད་མ་རྣམ་ངེས། Discernment of Valid Cognition ([pramāṇa-vinis'caya])
3. ཚད་མ་རིགས་ཐིག Drop of Reasoning on Valid Cognition ([nyāyabindu])
4. གཏན་ཚིགས་ཐིག་པ། Drop of Logical Reasoning ([hetubindu])
5. འབྲེལ་བ་བརྟག་པ། Analysis of Relationship ([saṃbandhaparīkṣa])
6. རྒྱུད་གཞན་སྒྲུབ་པ། Establishing Alternative Continuum ([saṃtānāntarasiddhi])
7. རྩིད་པའི་རིགས་པ། Science of Debate ([vādanyāya]).

The five types of invalid cognitions.
1. བཅད་ཤེས། subse-quent cognition
2. ལོག་ཤེས། wrong perception
3. ཐེ་ཚོམ། doubt
4. ཡིད་དཔྱོད། presumption
5. སྣང་ལ་མ་ངེས་པའི་བློ། inattentive perception.

[catvāryapramāṇāni]/ Four immeasurables; the four immeasurable thoughts in [mahāyāna] teachings.
1. བྱམས་པ་ཚད་མེད། [maitrī] immeasurable love
2. སྙིང་རྗེ་ཚད་མེད། [karuṇā]/ immeasurable compassion
3. དགའ་བ་ཚད་མེད། [muditā]/ immeasurable joy
4. བཏང་སྙོམས་ཚད་མེད། [upekṣā]/ immeasurable equanimity.

Tsalpa Kagyud Order of Tibetan Buddhism founded by the holy master Zhand Drowe Gonpo.

Word retention. Ability to retain names, terms and words by heart; a power gained through meditation.

Six topics; as asserted by the [vaiṡeṣika] school of Hindu philosophy.
1. རྫས། [dravyam]/ substance
2. ཁྱད་ཆོས། [guṇa]/ property
3. ལས། [karma]/ activity
4. སྤྱོ། [sāmānyam]/ generality
5. བྱེ་བྲག [viṡeṣa]/ particularity
6. འདུ་བ། [samavāya]/co-existence/composition.

[ṡabdābhiṣekha]/ Word initiation; word empowerment. The last of the four-fold initiation according to the highest yoga tantra in which the master introduces the state of union ([yuganada]) to his disciples.

[apara]/ This side, meaning cyclic existence ([saṁsāra]) as contrast to the state beyond suffering ([nirvāṇa]).

One who oniy sees the worldly view; an ordinary person.
The four features of the perfection of morality.
1. ཚུལ་འཆལ་སོགས་མི་མཐུན་ཕྱོགས་ཉམས་པ། pacifies opponent forces such as corrupt morality
2. ཆོས་ཀྱི་བདག་མེད་རྟོགས་པའི་རྣམ་པར་མ་རྟོག་པ། generates non-conceptual understanding of selflessness
3. ཡོངས་སུ་སྲུང་བར་བྱེད་པ། gives thorough protection
4. རིགས་ཅན་གསུམ་སྨིན་པར་བྱེད་པ། ripens the fruits of the three vehicles—Hearer, Solitary Realizer and Bodhisattva.

[ṡīlānupurva prayoga]/ Serial training in the perfection of morality. The Bodhisattva paths from the path of accumulation up to the moment before complete enlightenment.

Three types of morality. A. བྱང་སེམས་ཀྱི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་གསུམ། Three moralities of a Bodhisattva:
1. ཉེས་སྦྱོད་སྡོམ་པའི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས། [duṣkṛta saṃvara ṡīla]/ morality of abstention from misbehaviour
2. དགེ་བ་ཆོས་སྡུད་ཀྱི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས། [kuSala dharma saṃgraha ṡīla]/ morality of integrating virtues
3. སེམས་ཅན་དོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས། [sattva kṛtya ṡīla]/ morality for the welfare of other sentient beings. B. In general:
1. འཇིགས་སྐྱོབ་ཀྱི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས། morality giving protection from fear
2. ལེགས་སྨོན་གྱི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས། morality of admiration in virtues
3. ངེས་འབྱུང་གི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས། morality of seeking freedom from cyclic existence.

[duḥṡīla]/ Immorality; corrupt morality.

[kuhana]/ A. Hypocritical. B. Cunning way of earning a living; one of the five wrong livelihoods (see ༼ལོག་འཚོ་ལྔ༽).

Four-fold methods; four means of transmitting a tantric teaching.
1. ཚིག་གི་ཚུལ། word by word transmission
2. ཕྱིའི་ཚུལ། explicit method
3. སྦས་པའི་ཙུལ། implicit method
4. དོན་དམ་པའི་ཚུལ། ultimate method.

[ṡalākā]/ Counting sticks. Sticks measuring about one foot, that
are used in monasteries during the ritual ceremony for counting the number of monks entering a rainy season retreat.

Three modes of reasoning; three criteria for establishing a logical reason.
1. ཕྱོགས་ཆོས། property of the subject
2. རྗེས་ཁྱབ། subsequent pervasion
3. ལྡོག་ཁྱབ། counter pervasion.

Vase of longevity; life-vase. Vase held in the hands of Buddha Amitabha or a vase in which long-life blessings has been

The immortality of life. One of the four immortalities (see ༼རིག་འཛིན་རྣམ་བཞི༽) according to the Nyingma tradition of attaining grounds and paths. As soon as a trainee attains the supramundane stage, i.e. the fourth level of the path of preparation, he or she has attained the pure human vajra body, and because his or her consciousness becomes fully ripened to be transformed into the path of seeing, has also attained the immortality of life.

Five long living sisters; five goddesses of Tibet.
1. ལྷ་མོ་བཀྲིས་ཚེ་རིང་མ། Tashi Tsering Ma, the goddess of long-life and glory
2. མཐིང་གི་ཞལ་བཟང་མ། Thingi Zahlzang Ma, the goddess of clairvoyance
3. མི་གཡོ་བློ་བཟང་མ། Miyo Lobsang Ma, the goddess of earth and environment
4. ཅོད་པན་མགྲིན་བཟང་མ། Chodpan Drinzang Ma, the goddess of precious articles
5. གཏད་དཀར་འགྲོ་བཟང་མ། Tadkar Drinzang Ma, the goddess of cattle and domestic animais.

Six symbols of longevity; six objects of long life.
1. མི་ཚེ་རིང་། long living man
2. བྱ་ཚེ་རིང་། long living bird
3. རི་དྭགས་ཚེ་རིང་། long living deer
4. ཤིང་ཚེ་རིང་། long living tree
5. ཆུ་ཚེ་རིང་། long living running water
6. བྲག་ཚེ་རིང་། long living rocky cave.

The three: life-span, life-force and spirit. The first is likened to the butter-oil of a butter lamp; the wick to the life-force, and flame to the spirit. The three conditions that are basic faculties for the maintenance of our life.

The three longevity deities.
1. ཚེ་དཔག་མེད། Amitayus
2. སྒྲོལ་དཀར། White [tārā]
3. རྣམ་རྒྱལ་མ། [vijayā].

A. The Tsok-offering; the ritual feast offering ceremony. The ceremony of offering food and drink to the host of divinities by blessing these in the form of bliss and void. B. Accumulation of merits—virtues.

[gaṇacakra]/ The cycle of Tsok-offering. The ritual of offenng tsok-feast. The feast comprises the five sensual objects (see ༼འདོད་ཡོན་ལྔ༽) and food and drink by blessing these into uncontaminated wisdom-nectar to the host of divinities and oneself visualized in the form of a deity. A special way of accumulating merits and positive energy.

[saṃbhāra pratipatti]/ Achievement through accumulation. A Bodhrsattva path of practice existing from the great level of the supramundane qualities stage of the path of preparation upto the moment before complete enlightenment.

Seventeen achievements through accumulation. That of:
1. བརྩེ་བ་སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོའི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། great compassion 2-7. ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག་གི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། Six perfections (see ༼ཕནརོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག༽)
8. ཞི་གནས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། mental quiescence
9. ལྷག་མཐོང་གི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། penetrative insight
10. ཞི་ལྷག་ཟུང་འབྲེལ་གྱི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། union of mental quiescence and penetrative insight
11. ཐབས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། skillful means
12. བསོད་ནམས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། accumulation of ments
13. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། accumulation of insight
14. ལམ་གྱི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། paths
15. གཟུངས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། retention
16. སའི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ grounds
17. གཉེན་པོའི་ཚོགས་སྒྲུབ། antidotes.

Statement indicating a group, e.g. the statement, "race."
Dual accumulation; two types of mentonous collections.
1. བསོད་ནམས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས། [pūnya saṃbhāra]/ accumulation of merits
2. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས། [jсana saṃbhāra]/ accumulation of insight.

Collective generality. Any group which is the combination or collection of many factors or components, e.g. a pillar.

The five limbed practices on the path of accumulation.
1. སོ་སྐྱེའི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ལ་བརྟེན་པ། observance of the morality of ordinary persons
2. དབང་པོའི་སྒོ་སྡོམ་པ། retraining one's sensual organs
3. ཟས་ཀྱེ་ཚོད་རིག་པ། maintaining a dietary balance
4. ནམ་གྱི་ཆ་སྟོད་སྨད་ལ་མི་ཉལ་བར་རྣལ་འབྱོར་ལ་བརྩོན་པ། practicing yoga at the early and latter parts of dawn without sleeping
5. དྲན་ཤེས་ལྡན་པའི་དག་བ་ལ་རྩེ་གཅིག་ཏུ་གནས་པར་དགའ་བ། rejoicing in the practice of remaining in single-pointed virtuous acts.

The three paths of accumulation. The small, middling and great.

Three types of collection; three groups.
1. མིང་གི་ཚོགས། group of names
2. ཚིག་གི་ཚོགས། group of words
3. ཡི་གེའི་ཚོགས། group of letters.

The seven limbed practices for the accumulation of merits (see ༼ཡན་ལག་བདུན་པ༽).

[paсca vedanāḥ]/ Five types of feelings. 1-2. ལུས་ཀྱི་ཚར་བ་བདེ་སྡུག་གཉིས། two of the body-pleasure and pain 3-4. ཡིད་ཀྱི་ཚོར་བ་ཡིད་བདེ་དང་ཡིད་མེ་བདེ་གཉིས། two of mental-happiness and unhappiness
5. ཚོར་བ་བཏང་སྙོམས། neutral feeling.

[vedana smṛtyūpasthāna]/ Close contemplation of feelings; mindfulness of feelings. Contemplating that all feelings whatsoever have the nature of suffering and misery.
[ṣaḍ vedanāḥ]/ Six types of feelings. མིག ཤེས་སུ་གྱུར་བའི་ཚོར་བ་ནས་ཡིད་ཤེས་སུ་གྱུར་བའི་ཚོར་བ་བར་དྲུག Feeling with respect to the six consciousnesses (see ༼རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་དྲུག༽).

[dvādaṡa vedanā skandhāḥ]/ Twelve aggregates of feeling.
1. མིག་གི་འདུས་ཏེ་རེག་པ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeling produced through visual contact
2. སྣའི་འདུས་ཏེ་རེག་པ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeling produced through olfactory contact
3. རྣ་བའི་འདུས་ཏེ་རེག་པ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeling produced through aural contact
4. ལྕེའི་འདུས་ཏེ་རེག་པ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeling produced through gustatory contact
5. ལུས་ཀྱི་འདུས་ཏེ་རེག་པ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeling produced through physical contact
6. ཡིད་ཀྱི་འདུས་ཏེ་རེག་པ་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeling produced through mental contact
7. དབང་ཤེས་སུ་གྱུར་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeiing from sense powers
8. ཡིད་ཤེས་སུ་གྱུར་བའི་ཚོར་བ། feeling from mental consciousness
9. ཟང་ཟིང་དང་བཅས་པའི་ཙོར་བ། disturbed feeling
10. ཟང་ཟིང་མེད་པའི་ཚོར་བ། undisturbed feeling
11. ཞེན་པ་པ་སྟེན་པའི་ཚོར་བ། feelings stimulating attachment
12. མངོན་པར་འབྱུངབ་བ་བསྟེན་པའི་ཚོར་བ། feelings expressing experiences.

Yoga with signs. A [kriyā] tantra practice of deity yoga lacking direct realization of emptiness, in which a practitioner meditates on the inseparability of the pledge being (see ༼དམ་ཚིག་སེམས་དཔའ༽) and the wisdom being (see ༼ཡེ་ཤེས་སེམས་དཔའ༽).

Three aggregates of perception with signs.
1. ཐ་སྙད་ལ་མཁས་པའི་འདུ་ཤེས། skillful perception of the conventions
2. འདུས་བྱས་མི་རྟག་པ་སོགས་ལ་དམིགས་པའི་འདུ་ཤེས། perception
observing compositional factors, impermanence, etc.
3. དམིགས་རྣམ་གསལ་བའི་འདུ་ཤེས། perception of a clearly focused object.

[lakṣaṇa]/ A. Definition; characteristics. Anything that is a definition must fulfil three qualities of a substantial existence (see ༼རྫས་ཡོད་ཆོས་གསུམ་ཚང་བ༽). B. Study of Buddhist philosophy.

The three causal vehicles; the three characteristic vehicles. A term used in the Nyingma tradition for the Hearers vehicle, Solitary realizer vehicle, and Bodhisattva vehicle.

[lakṣaṇābhisandhi]/ Interpretive [sūtra] concerning the characteristics (of phenomena), e.g. the [sūtra] included in the Third Turning of the Wheel of doctrine in which Buddha clearly explained the three categones of phenomena in terms of their true existence or lack of true existence.

[alakṣaṇatvaikakṣaṇābhisaṃbodha]/ Signless momentary training. The last instant of the Bodhisattva paths of advancement, which is categonzed as a direct antidote to the obstruction to omniscience and which has direct perception of emptiness.

[trīṇi lakṣaṇāni]/ Three characteristics; three natures; the three types of phenomena according to the [cittamātin] school of philosophy.
1. ཀུན་བརྟགས། [parikalpita lakṣaṇam]/ imputed phenomena, mere objects of conceptual labelling, e.g. permanent phenomena
2. གཞན་དབང་། [paratantra lakṣaṇam]/ dependent phenomena, e.g. a vase
3. ཡོངས་གྲུབ། [pariniṣpanna lakṣaṇam]/ thoroughly established phenomena, e.g. emptiness of a vase.

[animitta yoga]/ Yoga without signs. A kriya tantra practice of deity yoga conjoined with the wisdom cognizing emptiness, in wnich a practitioner meditates on the inseparability of the pledge being (see ༼དམ་ཚིག་སེམས་དཔའ༽) and the wisdom being (see ༼ཡེ་ཤེས་སེམས་དཔའ༽).

The sign-deity. One of the six types of deities according to action tantra (see ༼བྱ་རྒྱུད་ལྷ་དྲུག༽) in which a trainee maintains the imagination of oneself and one's activities as that of a deity.

Exemplary mental consciousness. The mind-stream representing the conventional "I" that acts as the basis upon which the latencies of karma abide and mature.

Thirty-two major marks of a Buddha.
1. ཕྱག་ཞབས་འཁོར་ལོས་མཚན་པ། the palms of his hands and feet bear signs of a wheel
2. རུས་སྦལ་བཞིན་དུ་ཞབས་ཤིན་ཏུ་གནས་པ། his feet are well set upon the ground like a tortoise
3. ཕྱག་ཞབས་སོར་མོ་དྲ་བས་འབྲེལ་བ། his fingers and toes are webbed
4. ཕྱག་ཞབས་འཇམ་ཞིང་གཞོན་ཤ་ཆགས་པ། the palms of his hands and feet are smooth and tender
5. ཕྱག་དང་ཞབས་དང་ཐལ་གོང་དང་ལྟག་པའི་ཕྱོགས་མཐོ་བའི་ཕྱིར་སྐུའི་གནས་བདུན་མཐོ་བ། his
body has seven prominent features: broad heels, broad hands,
broad shoulder blades and broad neck
6. སོར་མོ་རིང་བ། his fingers are long
7. རྟིང་པ་ཡངས་པ། his heels are soft
8. སྐུ་ཆེ་ཞིང་དྲང་བ། he is tall and straight
9. ཞབས་ཀྱི་ལོང་བུ་མི་མངོན་པ། his ankle-bones do not protrude
10. སྐུའི་བ་སྤུ་གྱེན་དུ་ཕྱོགས་པ། the hairs on his body point upward
11. བྱིན་པ་རི་དྭགས་ཨེ་ན་ཡ་འདྲ་བ། his ankles are like an antelope's
12. ཕྱག་རིང་ཞིང་མཛེས་པ། his hands are long and beautiful
13. མདོམས་ཀྱི་སྦ་བ་སྦུབས་སུ་ནུབ་པ། his male organ is withdrawn
14. པགས་པ་གསེར་མདོག་འདྲ་བ། his body is the colour of gold
15. པགས་པ་སྲབ་ཅིང་འཇམ་པ། his skin is thin and smooth
16. བ་སྤུ་རེ་རེ་ནས་གཡས་ཕྱོགས་སུ་འཁྱིལ་བ། each hair curls to the right
17. ཞལ་མཛོད་སྤུས་བརྒྱན་པ། his face is adorned by a coiled hair between his eyebrows
18. རོ་སྟོད་སེང་གེ་འདྲ་བ། the upper part of his body is like that of a lion
19. དཔུང་པའི་མགོ་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཟླུམ་པ། his head and shoulders are perfectly round
20. ཐལ་གོང་རྒྱས་པ། his shoulders are broad
21. རོ་མི་ཞིམ་པ་རོ་མཆོག་སྣང་བ། he has an excellent sense of taste even of the worse tastes
22. སྐུ་ནྱ་གྲོ་ལྟར་ཆུ་ཞེང་གབ་པ། his body has the proponions of a banyan tree
23. གཅུག་ཏོར་བལྟར་མི་མངོན་པ། he has a protrusion on the crown of his head
24. ལྗགས་རིང་ཞིང་སྲབ་པ། his tongue is long and thin
25. གསུང་ཚངས་དབྱངས་ལྟ་བུ། his voice is mellifluent
26. འགྲམ་པ་སེང་གེ་འདྲ་བ། his cheeks are like those of a lion
27. ཚོམས་ཤིན་ཏུ་དཀར་བ། his teeth are white
28. ཚོམས་མཉམ་པ། there are no gaps between his teeth
29. ཚེམས་ཐགས་བཟང་བ། his teeth are eveniy set
30. ཚེམས་བཞི་བཅུ་མངའ་བ། he has a total of forty teeth
31. སྤྱན་མཐོན་མཐིང་འདྲ་བ། his eyes are the colour of saphire
32. སྤྱན་གྱི་་རྫིམ་བ་མཆོག་གི་རྫེ་མ་དང་འདྲ་བ། his eyelashes are like those of a magnificient heifer.

[paсcānantarīyāṇi]/ Five heinous crimes; five boundless actions. Five non-virtuous actions that propel a person immediately into the most serious hell realm.
1. ཕ་གསོད་བ། [pitṛghāta]/ patricide
2. མ་གསོད་པ། [mātṛghāta]/ matricide
3. དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ་གསོད་པ། [arhadghāta]/ killing an Arhat
4. དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྐུ་ལས་ངན་སེམས་ཀྱིས་ཁྲག་འབྱིན་པ། [tathāgatasyāntike duṣṭacitta rudhirotpādanam]/ drawing blood from the body of a Buddha with evil intent
5. དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་དབྱེན་འབྱེད་པ། [saṃghabheda]/ causing a schism within the [saṃgha].

[saṃprayukta hetu]/ Concomitant cause. Sharing five common factors with the result, which pertain oniy to a cognition; one of the six types of causes (see ༼རྒྱུ་དྲུག༽).

Five concommitant factors. The way a secondary mind accompanies the primary mind through five-fold correlationships. 1, རྟེན་མཚུངས་པ། common sense base
2. དམིགས་པ་མཚུངས་པ། common object
3. རྣམ་པ་མཚུངས་པ། common aspect
4. དུས་མཚུངས་པ། common time
5. རྫས་མཚུངས་པ། common substantial entity.

Tsurphu Monastic University. The principal monastic seat of the Karma Kagyud Order of Tibetan Buddhism, established in 1189 by the First Karmapa, Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa (1110-1193).

Ocean-like bodhicitta. The mind of eniightenment associated with the exalted practice of the perfection of patience possessed by a Bodhisattva on the third ground.

The six lakes.
1. སྤྲང་རྩིའི་མཚོ། lake of honey
2. མར་གྱི་མཚོ། lake of butter
3. ཞོའི་མཚོ། lake of yogurt
4. འོ་མའི་མཚོ། lake of milk
5. ཆུའི་མཚོ། lake of water
6. ཆང་གི་མཚོ། lake of liquor.

Topic to be defined. Any phenomenon that is qualified by:
1. being generally a topic to be defined
2. not being a topic to be defined other than by its definition
3. that of which there is an example.

The three types of livelihood; the three causes for our survival.
1. ཚེ life-span
2. བསོད་ནམས། merits
3. ལས། karma.

Thirteen articles of livelihood for a monk.
1. སྣམ་སྦྱར། Namja: patched yellow robe worn oniy by a fully ordained monk
2. བླ་གོས། patched yellow robe worn by any monk
3. མཐང་གོས། undergarment
4. རྔུལ་གཟན། sweat shawl
5. རྔུལ་གཟན་གྱི་གཟན། shawl over sweat shawl
6. ཤམ་ཐབས། lower robe
7. ཤམ་ཐབས་ཀྱི་གཟན། shawl
8. སྐྲ་བཟེད། protective cloth for shaving the head
9. གདོང་ཕྱིས། towel
10. གདིང་བ། mat
11. རྣག་གཟན། གཡན་དགབ། itch covering/rash bandage
12. གཡར་གྱི་རས་ཆེན| large rain cap
13. གཏུར་བུ། cloth bag.

[jayantu]. A Sanskrit word meaning victorious or victory forever.

Twelve deeds of Buddha [ṡākyamuni].
1. དགའ་ལྡན་ནས་འཕོ་བའི་མཛད་པ། descent from Tusita heaven
2. ཡུམ་གྱི་ལྷུམས་སུ་ཞུགས་པའི་མཛད་པ། entering the womb of his mother
3. སྐུ་བལྟམས་པའི་མཛད་པ། taking birth
4. བཟོའི་གནས་ལ་མཁས་པར་སྟོན་པའི་མཛད་པ། displaying his skill in the worldly arts
5. བཙུན་མོའི་འཁོར་དུ་དགྱེས་པར་རོལ་པའི་མཛད་པ། life with the women of the harem
6. རབ་ཏུ་བྱུངབའི་མཛད་པ། renunciation and ordination as a monk
7. དཀའ་བ་སྤྱད་པའི་མཛད་པ། practising arduous discipline
8. བྱང་ཆུབ་ཤིང་དྲུང་དུ་བཞུགས་པའི་མཛད་པ། meditation under the Bodhi tree
9. བདུད་བཅོམ་པའི་མཛད་པ། defeating the host of demons ([māra])
10. སངས་རྒྱས་པའི་མཛད་པ། attaining full enlightenment
11. ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་བསྐོར་བའི་མཛད་པ། turning the wheel of doctrine
12. སྐུ་མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པའི་མཛད་པ། passing into the state of peace ([parinirvāṇa]).

A. Word by word teaching by a teacher pointing his finger at the text. B. Detailed teaching pointing out every single detail and reference.

[koṡa]/ A. Treasure-house B. Treasure of Knowledge (Abhidharma); a major Buddhist text on metaphysics, cosmology, etc.

Treasure-house like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the practice of accumulations (see ༼ཚོགས་གཉིས༽), possessed by a Bodhisattva on the tenth ground.

[ūṃākeṡa]/ Coiled hair, hair-treasure. A long coiled hair between the eyebrows of a Buddha; one of the thirty-two major marks of a Buddha (see ༼མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་རྩ་གཉིས༽).

Ten awarenesses according to the Abhidharma tradition; the ten knowledges of a Buddha.
1. ཆོས་ཤེས་པ། [dharma jсānam]/ knowledge of Dharma
2. རྗེས་སུ་ཤེས་པ། [anvaya jсānam]/ subsequent knowledge
3. སྡུག་བསྔལ་ཤེས་པ། [duḥkha jсānam]/ knowledge of sufferings
4. ཀུན་འབྱུང་ཤེས་པ། [samudaya jсānam]/ knowledge of the origin of sufferings
5. འགོག་པ་ཤེས་པ། [nirodha jсānam]/ knowledge of the cessation
6. ལམ་ཤེས་པ། [mārga jсānam]/ knowledge of the path
7. ཟད་པ་ཤེས་པ། [kṣaya jсānam]/ knowledge of exhaustion
8. མི་སྐྱེ་བ་ཤེས་པ། [anutpāda jсānam]/ knowledge of non-production
9. ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཤེས་པ། [saṃvṛti jсānam]/ knowledge of conventional phenomena
10. གཞན་གྱི་སེམས་ཤེས་པ། [paracitta jсānam]/ knowledge of others' minds.

The six ornaments and two excellences of this world; the great Indian pandits (see ༼རྒྱན་དྲུག་མཆོག་གཉིས༽).

Two conceptions of grasping; two thought-apprehensions of the object-holder.
1. རྫས་འཛིན་རྟོག་པ། apprehension of the substantial entity
2. བཏགས་འཛིན་རྟོག་པ། apprehension of the imputed entity.

[muṣṭibandha]/ Mode of apprehension; apprehended object irrespective of its existence or not.

[grahaṇa]/ A. Subjective mind; awareness; object-holder. B. Grasping; holding; apprehension; attachment.

[dvayagrāha]/ Two types of apprehension; two types of grasping:
1. འཕྲད་ནས་འཛིན་པ| apprehension through contact
2. མ་འཕྲད་པར་འཛིན་པ། apprehension without contact
1. རང་མཚན་འཛིན་པ། apprehension of self-characterized phenomena
2. སྤྱི་མཚན་འཛིན་པ། apprehension of generally characterized phenomena
1. གང་ཟག་གི་བདག་འཛིན། grasping at the self of a person
2. ཆོས་ཀྱི་བདག་འཛིན། grasping at the self of a phenomena.

[dravya]/ Substance. Things that are not merely labelled through concepts or ideas but are actually capable of performing a function, e.g. form.

[dravya dharma]/ A. Functioning thing; things that are actually capable of performing a function, e.g. form. B. Qualities of a thing, e.g. impermanence of form.

[nava dravya]/ Nine principles; nine phenomena as asserted by the [vaiṡeṣika] school of philosophy.
1. བདག [ātman]/ self
2. དུས། [kāla]/ time
3. ཕྱོགས། [diṡā]/ direction
4. ཡིད། [citta]/mind
5. ནམ་མཁའ། [ākāṡa]/space
6. ས། [pṛthvī]/ earth
7. ཆུ། [apa]/ water
8. མ། [agni]/ fire
9. རླུང་། [v_ayu]/wind.

[dravyasat]/ Substantial existent. A. A material entity or existent, e.g. a vase. B. A category of phenomena which can be understood without first having to understand another phenomena, e.g. the aggregate of form, or a vase.

The three features of substantial existence; the three features of those substantial entities that are themselves the definition of a phenomena
1. རང་མཚན་ཉིད་ཡིན་པ། being a definition
2. རང་གི་མཚན་གཞིའི་སྟེང་དུ་གྲུབ་པ། that which is established upon its own basis to be defined
3. རང་གི་མཚོན་བྱ་ལས་གཞན་པའི་ཆོས་གཞན་གྱི་མཚན་ཉིད་མི་བྱེད་པ། not being a definition other than its own basis to be defined.

Six types of substantial existents. 1-4. (see ༼རྫས་ཡོད་བཞི༽, ibid)
5. ཚུགས་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་ཛས། primordially established substantial existence
6. བདེན་གྲུབ་ཀྱི་རྫས། truly existent substantial existence.

Four types of substantial existents.
1. རིགས་པས་གྲུབ་པའི་རྫས་ཡོད། logically established substantial existence
2. བརྟན་པས་མི་འགྱུར་བའི་རྫས་ཡོད། ever unchanging substantial existence
3. དོན་བྱེད་ནུས་པའི་རྫས་ཡོད། functional substantial existence

4. རང་3་ཐུབ་པའི་ཛས་ཡད། self-sufficient (independent) substantial existence.

Same substantial entities. For instance, a white and black vase made from the same lump of clay.

[catvāra ṛddhipādāḥ]/ Four legs (causes) of miracles. A class of division within the thirty-seven auxilaries to enlightenment; qualities gained by a Bodhisattva on the great level of the path of accumulation (tshogs-lam). That of:
1. འདུན་པའི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ། [chanda ṛddhipāda]/ aspiration
2. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ཀྱི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ། [virya ṛddhipāda]/ effort
3. བསམ་པའི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ། [citta ṛddhipāda]/ thought
4. དཔྱོད་པའི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ། [mīmaṃsā ṛddhipāda] analysis.

Five types of miracles.
1. སྒོམ་བྱུང་གི་རྫ་འཕྲུལ། miracles acquired through meditation
2. སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ། miracles acquired by birth
3. སྔགས་ལས་ཐོབ་པའི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ། miracles acquired through tantric practices
4. སྨན་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ། miracles acquired through medicinal pills
5. ལས་ལས་བྱུང་བའི་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ། miracles acquired through karmic forces.

Four types of lying; four types of lying about monk's precepts.
1. ཕམ་པའི་སྡེར་གཏོགས་ཀྱི་རྫུན། lying classed as a defeat
2. ལྷག་མའི་སྡེར་གཏོགས་ཀྱི་རྫུན། lying classed as a remainder
3. མ་ངེས་པའི་སྡེར་གཏོགས་ཀྱི་རྫུན། lying classed as an indefinite case
4. ཉེས་བྱས་ཀྱི་སྡེར་གཏོགས་ཀྱི་རྫུན། lying classed as a fault.

The Perfected Aeon (see ༼བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན༽).

Great perfection. A term exclusive to Nyingma doctrine and meditation. The spontaneous and natural perfection of fully enlightened qualities possessed by the three [kāyas] within the reality of mind, i.e. the primodially empty nature [dharmakāya]; the naturally luminous [sambhogakāya]; and all-pervasive compassion [nirmāṇakāya], which is otherwise the ultimate reality of all phenomena.

Heart's core great perfection. The transmission of great perfection originally received by King Trisong Deutsan from [ācārya vimalamitra] During the later period of propagation of Buddhism (see ༼བསྟན་པ་ཕྱི་དར༽) in Tibet. This transmission was widely disseminated by the great master Kunkhyen Longchen Rabjampa (see ༼ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས༽).

The ground of riding the uhiversal ༼རྫོགས་ཆེན་༽. According to the Nyingma tradition, this refers to the tenth Bodhisattva ground attained on the fifth stage of yoga, where a person has completely and perfectly integrated all experiences and appearances on the path to liberation into the sphere of lack of production of all projections of the Rupakaya.

[saṃpanna krama]/ Completion stage. An anuttarayoga tantra practice of meditation in which a practioner trains or is able to activate the innate primordial wisdom through experiencing the four-fold joys (see ༼དགའ་བ་བཞི༽) and the mind of clear light through experiencing the four-fold empties (see ༼སྟོང་བཞི༽) respectively upon this vajra (deity) body.

The four completion stage yogas; the four completion stage yogas of the [yamāntaka tantra].
1. སྔགས་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga of mantra
2. དམ་ཚིག་གི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga of samaya
3. དབྱིབས་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga of shape
4. ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་རྣལ་འབྱོར། yoga of primordial wisdom.

Five levels of the completion stage.
1. ལུས་དབེན། isolation of body
2. ངག་དབེན| isolation of speech
3. སེམས་དབེན། isolation of mind
4. འིད་གསལ། clear light mind
5. སྒྱུ་ལུས། illusory body. In some cases, the first two are listed as one and the state of union ([yuganaddha]) is added to the list to make five. See the five profound paths ([zab-lam rim-lnga]).

Six levels of the completion stage, (see ༼རྫོག་རིམ་རིམ་ལྔ༽ 1-5, above)
6. ཟུང་འཇུག the state of union ([yuganaddha]).

Completing karma. Karma that primarily determines the specific details of environmental and physical attributes, personality, etc., of a being irrespective of the level of rebirth, e.g. a dtfg enjoying comforts of living in a palace though just an animal.

Accomplishment, maturation and purification.
[upapāduka]/ Miraculous birth. One of the four types of birth (see ༼སྐྱེ་གནས་བཞི༽), e.g. the birth of Guru Padmasambhava.

Fox; exemplifies cowardice and deceit in a person


Guttur or wolf's lair.


Donkey; ass.

[vārāṇasi]. One of the four principal holy places of Buddhist
pilgrimage, where Buddha [ṡākyamuni] turned the first wheel of doctrine concerning the four noble truths to the the five ascetics (see ༼འཁོར་ཨཱིང་སྡེ་བཟང་པོ༽).

Name of a [nāga]; a water-deity.


Joyful state of mind; laughing expression.

Clear mental comprehension of words and meanings.

Vartu. An ancient script used by Tonmi Sambhota as a model for headless Tibetan script (U-med).

Warrior god; god of weapon.

Tiredness; fatigue.

Zhalu monastery. A monastery in the vicinity of Zhigatse established during the 11th century, which flourished as a principal centre of study and training of Zhalu philosophy during the time of Buton Rinchen Drup. It is believed that this monastery had many Sanskrit texts.

Zhang-Zhung is believed to be the cradle of ancient Tibetan culture, and according to some the place of origin of the Bon religion. Some historical texts like the Blue Annals identify Zhang-zhung with Guge, now the Tsa-dha district in the Ngari region of western Tibet.

The threefold services; the three ways to honour and please
one's root guru.
1. རབ་སྒྲུབ་པའི་མཆོད་པ། offering of practice as the supreme
2. འབྲིང་ལུས་ངག་གི་ཞབས་ཏོག physical and vocal service as the middling
3. ཐ་མ་ཟང་ཟིང་གི་འབུལ་བ། material offering as the modest.

[vārika]/ Monk steward. Monk official in charge of economic affairs; especially one chosen during the three months rainy season retreat.

Spoken teaching of Buddha. Teachings that Buddha actually spoke from his mouth directly; verbal teachings of Buddha.

Instruction; advice of a respected person.

[bhojya]/ Food; food offerings.

[ṡamatha]/ Mental quiescence meditation; calm abiding meditation. A single-pointed meditative concentration developed through the techniques of settling the mind; a practice common to both Buddhists and non-Buddhists.

The six powers of calm abiding meditation (see ༼སྟོབས་དྲུག༽).

Four objects of mental quiescence meditation.
1. ཁྱབ་པའི་དམིགས་པ། pervasive object
2. སྤྱད་པ་རྣམ་སྦྱོང་གི་དམིགས་པ། objects for overcoming objects of obsession
3. མཁས་པའི་ དམིགས་པ། object of the wise practitioner
4. ཉོན་མོངས་རྣམ་སྦྱོང་གི་དམིགས་པ། object for purification of delusions.

The conditions for calm abiding meditation; the necessities for practicing calm abiding meditation.
1. མཐུན་པའི་ཡུལ་ན་གནས་པ། living in a harmonious place
2. འདོད་པ་ཆུང་བ། having few desires
3. ཆོག་ཤེས་པ། having contentment
4. བྱ་བ་མང་པོ་ཡོངས་སུ་སྤངས་པ། having few activities of involvement
5. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་རྣམ་པར་དག་པ། having pure morality
6. འདོད་པ་ལ་སོགས་པའི་རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་ཡོངས་སུ་སྤངས་པ།
having freedom from gross delusions such as attachment.

The four attentions of calm abiding meditation (see ༼ཡིད་བྱེད་བཞི༽).

Restoration and purification ritual through mental quiescence meditation. A gathering of monks for purification of negativities entailing meditation on close mindfulness or contemplation.

The five faults of calm abiding meditation (see ༼ཉེས་པ་ལྔ༽).

[ṡāntarakṣita]/ [ācārya ṡāntarakṣita]. A highly learned master-scholar from Bengal who visited Tibet during the time of King Tnsong Deutsan. He assisted Guru Padmasambhava in the building of Samye monastery and was responsible for founding the monastic community for the first time in Tibet.

The Pacifier. This is a Buddhist religious tradition founded by Phadampa Sangye at the beginning of the 12th century, and propagated the practice of gcod (cutting-off) ritual in Tibet.

[ṡamatha vipaṡyana yuganaddha]/ Union of mental quiescence and penetrative insight meditation.

[kṣetrapāla]/ Field protectors. Protectors of the land and fields; a kind of local deity often associated with charnel grounds. Also those male and female guardians who reside in the heavens.

The ten heinous hindrances (see ༼བསྒྲལ་བའི་ཞིང་བཅུ༽). These identify someone as an enemy of the Buddha Dharma to be expelled according to tantra

[kṣetraṡuddhi prayoga]/ Pure land training. A Bodhisattva practice by which one can transform all roots of virtue into means for establishing a Buddha field, with its inhabitants, where he will gain the state of full enlightenment; this path arises on the three pure Bodhisattva grounds, i.e. the eigth, ninth and tenth.

Eight noble persons; enterers and abiders in the four state of an ascetics—Stream-winner, Once returner, Never returner and Arhatship.
1. རྒྱུན་ཞུགས་ཞུགས་པ། enterer into the fruit of a stream-winner
2. རྒྱུན་ཞུགས་འབྲས་གནས། abider in the fruit of a stream-winner
3. ཕྱིར་འོང་ཞུགས་པ། enterer into the fruit of a once-returner
4. ཕྱིར་འོང་འབྲས་གནས། abider in the fruit of a once-returner
5. ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་ཞུགས་པ། enterer into the fruit of a never-returner
6. ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་འབྲས་གནས། abider in the fruit of a never-returner
7. དགྲ་བཅོམ་ཞུགས་པ། enterer
into the fruit of a Foe-destroyer
8. དགྲ་བཅོམ་འབྲས་གནས། abider in the fruit of a Foe-destroyer.

Entering, abiding and dissolution. The three-fold tantric practice of causing the energy winds to enter, abide and dissolve into the central channel through meditation.

The mind training, "Parting Away from Four Clingings" (see ༼བློ་སྦྱོང་ཞེན་པ་བཞི་བྲལ༽).

Object of attachment. Synonymous with the apprehended object of conception (༼རྟོག་པའི་ཞེན་ཡུལ༽).

[parabhāva ṡūnyatā]/ Emptiness of others. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the lack of inherent existence of transwordly phenomena as opposed to worldly exi stents.

Four changeable mental factors.
1. གཉིད། [niddham]/ sleep
2. འགྱོད་པ། [kaukṛtyam]/ regret
3. རྟོག་པ། [vitarka]/ gross investigation
4. དཔྱོད་པ། [vicara]/ subtle investigation.

Other emptiness; alternative emptiness. The lack of existence of other conventional phenomena, i.e. dependent and imputed phenomena, etc., upon the thoroughiy established phenomena, i.e. the non-dual wisdom understanding the inseparability of the subjective mind and objective existence. An alternative middle-vtew asserted by Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Abandonments of harms to others along with the basis. The
nature of individual liberation vows; 'others', here refers to
the seven non-virtuous activities of body and speech that
inflicts direct harm on others, and 'bases', here refers to the
causes of those non-virtues—the three non-virtues of mind.

When a person holding individual liberation vows eliminates
these with his or her mind conjoined with a sense of
renunciation, it becomes a fully characterized individual
liberation vow (pratimoksa).

Alternative dissimilar factor. That which is a dissimilar factor, yet shows a common basis with the predicate in a logical syllogism.

Two types of dependent phenomena. One of the three categories of phenomena according to the [cittamātrin] school.
1. དག་པའི་གཞན་དབང་། [ṡuddhaparatantra]/ pure dependent phenomena
2. མ་དག་པའི་གཞན་དབང་། [aṡuddhaparatantra]/ impure dependent phenomena.

Five circumstantial endowments. Of the ten endowments (see ༼འབྱོར་བ་བཅུ༽) the five factors required to be fulfilled in the environment in which one lives:
1. སངས་རྒྱས་འཇིག་རྟེན་ན་བྱོན་པ། Buddha's having come
2. དམ་པའི་ཆོས་གསུངས་པ། His having taught the doctrine
3. བསྟན་པ་གནས་པ། the existence of His doctrine
4. དེའི་རྗེས་འཇུག་ཡོད་པ་། the existence of His followers
5. གཞན་ཕྱིར་རྟག་ཏུ་སྙིང་བརྩེ་བ། being compassionate towards others.

Valid cognition ascertainable from other factors, e.g. valid
cognition within the continuum of a person who has no knowledge of valid cognition.

[anyāpoha]/ Exclusion of other; negative phenomena. An awareness that understands its own object of perception through negating the existence of its direct opposite, e.g. the generic image of a vase. Synoymous with negative phenomena. There are two types:
1. མེད་དགག་གི་གཞན་སེལ། non-affirming exclusion of other, e.g. emptiness
2. མ་ཡིན་དགག་གི་གཞན་སེལ། affirming exclusion of other, e.g. not being a vase.

Two types of knowable objects; two objects of knowledge.
1. སྦྱི། [sāṃanya]/ general phenomena
2. བྱེ་བྲག [viṡeṣa]/ particular phenomena or
1. སྦྱི་མཚན། བརྫུས་སྐྱེས། [sāmnānyalakṣaṇa]/generally characterized
2. རང་མཚན། [svalakṣaṇa]/ self-characterized phenomena or
1. རྟག་པ། [nitya]/ permanent
2. མི་རྟག་པ། [anitya]/impermanent.

Three objects of knowledge.
1. མངོན་གྱུར། [pratyakṣa]/ manifest phenomena, e.g. pillar
2. ལྐོག་གྱུར། [parokṣa]/ obscure phenomena, e.g. impermanence
3. ཤིན་ཏུ་ལྐོག་གྱུར། [atiparokṣa]/ extremely obscure phenomena, e.g. very subtle nature of the law of causality.

[vimāna]/ Inconceiveable mansion; celestial mansion; heaven.

The seventeen basic precepts. The basic precepts of cultivation for an ordained monk. There is one precept for obtaining the vows not yet obtained; nine precepts for protecting the vows already obtained; and seven precepts for purifying the transgressed vows.

[yathāsaṃstarika]/ He who sleeps wherever he happens to be. One of the twelve ascetic practice (see ༼སྦྱངས་པའི་ཡོན་ཏན་བཅུ་གཉིས༽); to sleep on a bed of grass or leaves, etc., which are laid out once without being rearranged for comfort's sake.

[sapta mūlasarvāstivādāḥ]/ Seven Mulasarvastivadin schools.

One of the eighteen schools of the Hinayana tradition.
1. གཞི་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོད་པར་སྨྲ་བ། [mūlasarvāstivāda]
2. འིད་སྲུང་བ། [kāṡyapīyāḥ]
3. ས་སྟོན་པ། [mahīṡāsakāḥ]
4. ཚོས་སྲུང་བ། [dharmaguptāḥ]
5. མང་ཐོས་པ། [bāhuṡrutiyāḥ]
6. གོས་དམར་བ། [tāmraṡātīyāḥ]
7. རྣམ་པར་ཕྱེ་སྟེ་སྨྲ་བ། [vibhajyavādinaḥ]

The basic clear light mind. The Buddha nature within the mental continuum of sentient beings, i.e. the primordially pure nature of the minds of all beings.

The five basic wisdoms for transforming the five delusions into wisdoms.
1. གཞི་དུས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་ཡེ་ཤེས། mirror-like wisdom for self-pacification of hatred-anger
2. གཞི་དུས་ཀྱི་མཉམ་ཉིད་ཡེ་ཤེས། wisdom of equality or sameness for self-pacification of pride
3. གཞི་དུས་ཀྱི་སོར་རྟོགས་ཡེ་ཤེས། wisdom of analysis for self-pacification of desire-attachment
4. གཞི་དུས་ཀྱི་བྱ་སྒྲུབ་ཡེ་ཤེས། wisdom of accomplishment for self-pacificationof jealousy
5. གཞི་དུས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་དབྱིངས་ཡེ་ཤེས། wisdom of reality for self-pacification of closed-mindedness.

Twenty-seven aspects of the basic wisdom. 1-12. བདེན་པ་དང་པོ་གསུམ་རྣམ་པ་བཅུ་གཉིས། twelve aspects of the first three noble truths (see ༼བདེན་པ་དང་པོ་གསུམ་གྱི་རྣམ་པ་བཅུ་གཉིས༽) 13-27. ལམ་བདེན་གྱི་རྣམ་པ་བཅོ་ལྔ་། fifteen aspects of the noble truth of the path (see ༼ལམ་བདེན་གྱི་རྣམ་པ་བཅོ་ལྔ༽).

Nine topics that characterize the basic wisdom.
1. ཤེས་པས་སྲིད་ལ་མི་གནས་པའི་གཞི་ཤེས། non-abidance in the extreme of existence through knowledge
2. སྙིང་རྗེས་གཞི་ལ་མི་གནས་པའི་གཞི་ཤེས། non-abidance in the extreme of peace through compassion
3. ཐབས་མ་ཡིན་པས་འབྲས་ཡུམ་ལ་རིང་བའི་གཞི་ཤེས། distant from the mother effect due to lack of skill in means
4. ཐབས་མཁས་པས་འབྲས་ཡུམ་ལ་ཉེ་བའི་གཞི་ཤེས།
close to the mother effect due to skill in means
5. མི་མཐུན་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་གཞི་ཤེས། basic wisdom classed as a discordant factor
6. གཉེན་པོ་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་གཞི་ཤེས། basic wisdom classed as an antidote
7. གཞི་ཤེས་ཀྱི་སྦྱོར་བ། training in basic wisdom
8. གཞི་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མཉམ་ཉེད་སྦྱོར་བ། training in the sameness of basic wisdom
9. གཞིཤེས་ཀྱི་མཐོང་ལམ། path of seeing.

The three basic rituals; the three basic ceremonies of monks. The text of rituals concerning:
1. གསོ་སྦྱོང་། bi-monthly restoration and confession ceremony
2. དབྱར་གནས། summer or rainy season retreat for three months beginning from the sixteenth of the sixth Tibetan month
3. དགག་དབྱེ། the ceremony of lifting restrictions after the completion of the three months retreat.

The three basic kayas.
1. ཐ་མལ་བའི་སྐྱེ་བ་གཞིའི་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ the
ordinary state of birth as the basic [nirmāṇakāya]
2. ཐ་མལ་གྱི་འཚི་བ་གཞིའི་ཆོས་སྐུ the ordinary state of death as the basic [dharmakāya]
3. ཐ་མལ་གྱི་བར་དོ་གཞིའི་ལོངས་སྐུ the ordinary state of intermediate rebirth as the basic [sambhogakāya].

[avatāraṇābhisaṃdhi]/ Interpretative [sūtra] encouraging conversion, e.g. a [sūtra] explaining the existence of the self of a person in order to convert a follower into Buddhist doctrine.

The great treatises of philosophy studied in the monastic universities or elsewhere.

The five treatises of Buddhist philosophy.
1. ཕར་ཕྱིན། Perfection of Wisdom
2. དབུ་མ། Middle Way
3. ཚད་མ། Valid Cognition
4. འདུལ་བ། Monastic Discipline
5. མཛོད། Treasure of Knowledge.

Chiding; reprimand; upraising in an ironic manner.

The three types of incantation according to action tantra; the three suchnesses of recitation in prahayama meditation.
1. གཞི་ལ་གཞོལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on the object deity
2. སེམས་ལ་གཞོལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on the mind deity
3. སྒྲ་ལ་གཞོལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on the sound deity.

Mount-like bodhicitta. Mind of enlightenment associated with the exalted practice of compassion and resolute intention possessed by a Bodhisattva on the three pure grounds.

[karaṇḍa]/ A. Food casket; carried by ascetics as their pot. B. Za-ma-tog [sūtra] concerning [ārya avalokiteṡvara] cycle of teaciiings.

[sāsrava]/ Contaminated phenomena. Deluded phenomena capable of increasing affliction by their presence, e.g. a human body.

Five contaminated aggregates (see ༼ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ༽).

Four types of contaminations (see ༼ཆུ་བོ་བཞི༽).

The six gates of contamination; the six ways in which delusions increase or become stronger.
1. ཟག་པའི་བདག་ཉིད། being a contaminated thing, such as being any of the twenty root or near delusions (see ༼རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག༽ and ༼ཉེ་ཉཅན་ཉི་ཤུ༽)
2. ཟག་པ་དང་འབྲེལ་བ། being connected to a contamination, such as the sense faculties that are immediate conditions for producing contaminated mental experiences
3. ཟག་པས་བཅིངས་པ། being bound by contamination, such as the contaminated virtues within the three realms of existence
4. ཟག་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་འབྲེལ་བ། being possessed by contamination, such as the inability to exploit one's body, speech and mind for positive activities
5. ཟག་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་མཐུན་པ། being similar to contamination, such as form, sound etc., that are physical sources of contamination
6. ཟག་པའི་རྒྱུ་ལས་བྱུང་བ། arisen from the contaminated, the results of contamination, such as this human body.

Five uncontaminated aggregates; the five pure ways.
1. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [ṡīla skandha]/ aggregate of moral disciple
2. ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [samādhi skandha]/ aggregate of concentration
3. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། [prajсā skandha]/ aggregate of wisdom
4. རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བའི་ཕུང་པོ། [vimukti skandha]/ aggregate of thorough liberation
5. རྣམ་པར་གྲོལ་བའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་མཐོང་བའི་ཕུང་པོ། [vimukrijсāna skandha]/ aggregate of seeing the wisdom of thorough liberation.

The three uncontaminated powers (see ༼དབང་པོ་གསུམ༽, B). The powers of a person who has attained the truth of the path.

The five uncontaminated paths (see ༼ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ༽). These are known as the five uncontaminated paths when the word aggregates are replaced with the word path.

Twenty-one groups of uncontaminated wisdom.
1. བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སོ་བདུན། thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see ༼བྱངས་ཕྱོག་སོ་བདུན༽)
2. ཚད་མེད་བཞི། four immeasurables (see ༼ཚད་མེད་བཞི༽)
3. རྣམ་ཐར་བརྒྱད། [aṣṭa vimokṣāḥ]/ eight emancipations (see ༼རྣམ་ཐར་བརྒྱད༽)
4. མཐར་གྱིས་གནས་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་དགུ nine absorptions (see ༼སྙོམས་འཇུག་དགུ༽)
5. ཟད་པར་བཅུ། ten exhaustions/ ten totally pervasive concentrations (see ༼ཟད་པ་བཅུ༽)
6. ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ་བརྒྱད། eight outshining factors/ eight surpassing concentrations (see ༼ཟིལ་གནོན་བརྒྱད༽)
7. ཉོན་མོངས་མེད་པའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན། concentration free of delusions
8. སྨོན་གནས་མཁྱེན་པ། [praṇidhijсāsamādhi]/ knowledge of one's object of prayers
9. མངོན་ཤེས་དྲུག six extra-sensory perceptions (see ༼མངོན་པར་ཤེས་པ་དྲུག༽)
10. སོ་སོ་ཡང་དག་རིག་པ་བཞི། four specific perfect understandings (see ༼སོ་སོར་ཡང་དག་པ་རིག་པ་བཞི༽)
11. རྣམ་དག་བཞི། four purities: a) རྟེན་རྣམ་དག pure basis b) དམིགས་པ་རྣམ་དག pure objects c) ཐུགས་རྗེ་རྣམ་དག pure compassion d) ཡེ་ཤེས་རྣམ་དག pure primordial wisdom
12. དབངབཅུ། ten sovereign qualities (see ༼དབང་ཕུག་བཅུ༽)
13. སྟོབས་བཅུ། [daṡa balāni]/ ten powers (see ༼དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྟོབས་བཅུ༽)
14. མི་འཇིགས་པ་བཞི། four fearlessnesses (see ༼མི་འཇིགས་པ་བཞི༽)
15. བསྲུང་བ་མེད་པ་གསུམ། three unguarded aspects—that of physical, verbal and mental behaviours of a Buddha
16. དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་གཞག་པ་གསུམ། three close contemplations (see ༼དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་གཞག་པ་གསུམ༽)
17. བསྙེལ་བ་མི་མངའ་བའི་ཆོས་ཉེད། non-negligence of the purpose of sefttient beings
18. བག་ཆགས་ཡང་དག་བཅོམ་པ། complete elimination of latencies of three delusions
19. ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོ། [mahākaruṇā]/ great compassion
20. སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་མ་འདྲེས་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད། eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (see ༼མ་འདྲེས་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད༽)
21. མཁྱེན་པ་གསུམ| three wisdoms (see ༼མཁྱེན་གསུམ༽).

[navānāsrava bhūmayaḥ]/ Nine uncontaminated grounds; nine uncontaminated levels of concentration.
1. བསམ་གཏན་དང་པོའི་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག actual absorption of the first concentration
2. བསམ་གཏན་དང་པོའི་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་ཙམ་པོ་བ། ordinary absorption of the first concentration
3. བསམ་གཏན་དང་པོའི་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་ཁྱད་པར་ཅན།
exalted absorption of the first concentration
4. བསམ་གཏན་གཉིས་པའི་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག actuai absorption of the second concentration
5. བསམ་གཏན་གསུམ་པའི་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག actual absorption of the third concentration
6. བསམ་གཏན་བཞི་པའི་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག actual absorption of the fourth concentration
7. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག actual absorption of infinite space
8. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག actual absorption of the infinite consciousness
9. ཅི་ཡང་མེད་ཀྱི་དངོས་གཞི་སྙོམས་འཇུག actual absorption of nothingness.

The unobstructed phenomena; The uninterrupted phenomena
The copper coloured glorious mountain. The legendary abode of Guru Padmasambhava.

[āmiṣa]/ A. Material goods. B. Blurred vision; confusion.
[kṣayajсāna]/ Knowledge of exhaustion. One of the ten types of awarenesses according to the Abhidharma tradition (see ༼མཛོད་ལས་བཤད་པའི་ཤེས་པ་བཅུ༽); knowledge of one's own confidence of having abandoned all objects of elimination.

The total pervasive concentration; the concentration of exhaustion. The power of concentration gained by a person who is able to transform any phenomena into any particular element.

The ten exhaustions; the ten totally pervasive concentrations (see ༼ཟད་པར་བཅུ༽, below).

Ten exhaustions; ten totally pervasive concentrations the aim of which is to develop omniscience, by training in perceiving an element such as fire or a color such as blue as totally pervading all phenomena. Totally pervasive concentration with respect to 1 -4. ས་ཆུ་མེ་རླུང་བཞི་དང། five elements 5-8. སྔོ་སེར་དཀར་དམར་བཞི། four root colours-blue, yellow, white and red
9. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས། infinite space
10. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས། infinite consciousness.

The dough-ball divination. In this system the contents of divination written down on pieces of paper are rolled up in a dough-ball and thrown in front of holy images or paintings of deities of special significance through chanting invocation prayers.

[gaṃbhīradarṡana tantra]/ Lineage of the profound view; the profound view lineage. Lineage of teaching and practice coming from [maсjuṡrī], [nāgārjuna] and [candrakīrti] which mainiy emphasises the wisdom aspect of the teachings.

[gaṃbhīra ṡūnyatā]/ Profound emptiness; profound voidness.

Lineage of profound pure perception; lineage of sacred vision. A. The transmission obtained as a result of direct vision and access of one's personal meditational deity. B. A Nyingma lineage derived from accomplished masters, who through their pure perception, have attained a vision of their root guru and meditational deity as the same, and received certain secret teachings that are transmitted only to a limited circle of disciples.

[aṣṭa gaṃbhira dharmatāḥ]/ Eight profound realities; eight aspects of the profound reality.
1. སྐྱེ་བ་ཟབ་མོ། profound production
2. དགག་པ་ཟབ་མོ། profound stopping
3. དེ་ཉིད་ཟབ་མོ། profound thusness/reality
4. ཆོས་ཟབ་མོ། profound phenomena
5. ཤེས་པ་ཟབ་མོ། profound awareness
6. ཉམས ལེན་ཟབ་མོ། profound practice
7. གཉིས་སྟོང་ཟབ་མོ། pro-found non-duality
8. ཐབས་མཁས་ཟབ་མོ། profound skill in means.

The profound peace; the clear light mind of a Buddha; the dharmakaya The unfathomable omniscience and the state of [nirvāṇa] or cessation of sufferings within the continuum of a Buddha.

The profound peace free of the eight extremes (see ༼སྤྲོས་པའི་མཐའ་བརྒྱད༽).

The five profound paths; the five stages of tantric paths
according to the highest yoga tantra.
1. ངག་དབེན། isolation of speech
2. སེམས་དབེན། isolation of mind
3. སྒྱུ་ལུས། illusory body
4. འོད་གསལ། clear light mind
5. ཟུང་འཇུག the state of unity of the illusory body and clear light mind.

The yoga of non-dual profundity and clarity. The yoga of union of emptiness and the primordial mind realizing it.

The primordial wisdom of non-dual profundity and clarity. The wisdom of a yogi, who experiences a clear vision of the divine [maṇḍala] like the rainbow within the understanding of emptiness.

The yoga of foods.
1. ཁ་ཟས་སྨན་དང་འདྲ་བར་རིག་པར་སྤྱོད་པ། the practice of relishing food like a medicine for sustenance
2. ནང་སྤྱིན་སྲེག་གི་ཚུལ་དུ་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་པ། the practice of relishing food like offering for the inner fire-ritual.

The three white foods; yogurt, milk and butter.

The first bit of food. The tradition of offering the first portion of a meal to the objects of refuge before one eats.

[ṡuddhodana]/ King [ṡuddhodana]; the father of Buddha [ṡākyamuni].

[catvāra-āhārāḥ]/ Four types of food; four nourishments.

ཁམ་གྱི་ཟས། [kavalīkārahāra]/ coarse food, for the growth of
the sense organs of this body
2. རེག་པའི་ཟས། [sparṡāhāra]/ food of touch, for the growth of consciousness
3. སེམས་ཀྱི་ཟས། [manaḥ saṃcetanāhāra]/ food of mental thought, for projecting rebirth in future lives
4. རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པའི་ཟས། [vijсānāhāra]/ food for consciousness, for the actualization of the next rebirth.

The conjoined sounds. The sound produced by a person through the force of elements such as wind, e.g. sound of clapping hands and flute.

[aṣṭabhibhavāyatanāni]/ Eight surpassing concentrations; the power of concentration through which a yogi aims to gain control of the miracles.
1. རང་གཟུགས་ཅན་དུ་འདུ་ཤེས་པས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་ཆུང་ངུ་ལ་བལྟ་ཞིང་གཟུགས་དེ་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། imagining himself having form, he sees small external forms and overcomes them
2. རང་གཟུགས་ཅན་དུ་འདུ་ཤེས་པས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་ཆེན་པོ་ལ་བལྟ་ཞིངགཟུགས་དེ་དག་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། imagining himself having form, he sees large external forms and overcomes them
3. རངགཟུགས་མེད་པར་འདུ་ཤེས་པས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་ཆུང་ངུ་ལ་བལྟ་ཞིང་གཟུགས་དེ་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། imagining himself as lacking form, he sees small external forms and overcomes them
4. རང་གཟུགས་མེད་པར་འདུ་ཤེས་པས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་ཆེན་པོ་ལ་བལྟ་ཞིང་གཟུགས་དེ་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། imagining himself as lacking form, he sees large external forms and overcomes them
5. རང་གཟུགས་ཅན་མེད་པར་འདུ་ཤེས་པ་ཁོ་ནས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་སྔོན་པོ་ལ་བལྟ་ཞིང་གཟུགས་དེ་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། merely imagining himself as lacking form, he sees external blue forms and overcomes them
6. རང་གཟུགས་མེད་པར་འདུ་ཤེས་པ་ཁོ་ནས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་སེར་པོ་ལ་བལྟ་ཞིང་གཟུགས་དེ་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། merely imagining himself as lacking form, he sees external yellow forms and overcomes them
7. རང་གཟུགས་མེད་པར་འདུ་ཤེས་པ་ཁོ་ནས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་དམར་པོ་ལ་བལྟ་ཞིང་གཟུགས་དེ་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། merely imagining himself as lacking form, he sees external red forms and overcomes them
8. རང་གཟུགས་མེད་པར་འདུ་ཤེས་པ་ཁོ་ནས་ཕྱི་རོལ་གྱི་གཟུགས་དཀར་པོ་ལ་བསྟ་ཞིང་གཟུགས་དེ་དག་ཟིལ་གྱིས་གནོན་པ། merely imagining himself as lacking form, he sees external white forms and overcomes them.

[yuganaddha]/ A. Unification; state of union, e.g. the union of calm-abiding and penetrative insight meditation or the union of bhss and void. B. One of the five levels of the completion stage practices in tantr^ the union of emptiness, the wisdom aspect and great compassion, the method aspect or the union of the wisdom of spontaneous great bliss, the method aspect and the emptiness of clear light mind, the wisdom aspect or the ever-supreme emptiness, the object and the unclianging wisdom of great bliss, the object-per(^iver.

Twenty-three types of unification; twenty three states of union.
1. འཁོར་འདས་དབྱེར་མེད་ཀྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of the inseparability of cyclic existence and the state beyond suffering
2. ཀུན་བྱང་གི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of ever-deluded and ever-purified phenomena
3. རྣམ་བཅས་རྣམ་མེད་ཀྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of that with and without aspects
4. གཟུང་འཛིན་གྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of object and object-perceiver
5. རྟག་ཆད་བླལ་བའི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of mat wnich is free of the extremes of eternalism and nihilism
6. སྟོང་ཉིད་རྗེའི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of emptiness and compassion 7 ཐབས་ཤེས་ཟུང་འཇུག union of method and wisdom
8. ལྷག་བཅས་ལྷག་མེད་ཀྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of residual and non-residual cessation
9. བདག་མེད་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of two selflessnesses
10. སྒྱུ་ལུས་དང་འོད་གསལ་གྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of the illusory body and clear light
11. རིལ་འཛིན་གྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of thorough dissolution
12. རྗེས་གཞིག་གི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of gradual dissolution
13. བདེན་གཉིས་ཟུང་འཇུག union of two truths
14. མཉམ་གཞག་ག་ཟུང་འཇུག union of meditative equipoise
15. རྗེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of post-meditative equipoise
16. སད་གཉིད་ཀྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of sleep and the awakened state
17. མཉམ་པར་འཇུག་ལྡང་གི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of engagement and arisal from meditative equipoise
18. དྲན་པ་མི་དྲན་པའི་ཟུངའཇུག union of mindfulness and unmindfulness
19. བདེ་སྟོང་ཟུང་འཇུག union of bliss and emptiness
20. བྱ་བྱེད་ཟུང་འཇུག union of action and action-performed
21. བསྐྱེད་རྫོགས་ཟུང་འཇུག union of generation and completion stage
22. དག་མ་དག་གི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of a pure and impure state
23. གཟུགས་ཅན་གཟུགས་མེད་ཀྱི་ཟུང་འཇུག union of an embodied and unembodied entity. In the list of twenty-one, nos. 11 and 12 and nos. 14 and 15 are counted as one each the union of thorough and gradual dissolution and the union of a meditative and post-meditative state.

Two types of unification; two states of union (yuganaddha).
1. སློབ་པའི་ཟུངའཇུག state of union of a trainee or learner
2. མི་སློབ་པའི་ཟུང་འཇུག state of union of a non-trainee or a Buddha.

The four types of unification; the four states of union.
1. སྣང་སྟོང་ཟུང་འཇུག union of appearance and emptiness
2. རིག་སྟོང་ཟུང་འཇུག union of awareness and emptiness
3. བདེ་སྟོང་ཟུངའཇུག union of bliss and emptiness
4. གསལ་སྟོང་ཟུང་འཇུག union of clear light and emptiness.

[cīraka]/ Top-knot; knotted hair gathered at the crown of the head.

Monk's overcoat; worn during religious gatherings, especially during winter.

Four auspicious days of every month; four special days of a month according to the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.
1. ཚེས་བརྒྱད་པར་སངས་རྒྱས་སྨན་བླའི་དུས་བཟང། eighth is the day of the Medicine Buddha
2. ཚེས་བཅུ་པར་མཁའ་འགྲོའི་དུས་བཟང་། tenth is the day of the [ḍākinī]
3. ཚེས་བཅོ་ལྔར་སངས་རྒྱས་ཤཱཀྱ་ཐུབ་པའི་དུས་བཟང་། fifteenth is the day of Buddha [ṡākyamuni]
4. ཚེས་སུམ་ཅུ་པར་སངས་རྒྱས་འོད་དཔག་མེད་ཀྱི་དུས་བཟང་། thirtieth is the day of Buddha [amitābha].

Waxing and waning moon.

[nava graha]/ Seven planets; seven days of the week.
1. ཉི་མ། [āditya]/ Sun
2. ཟླ་བ། [soma]/ Moon
3. མིག་དམར། [aṇgāraka]/ Mars.
4. ལྷག་པ། [budha]/ Mercury
5. ཕུར་བུ། [bṛhaspatiḥ]/Venus
6. པ་སངས། [ṡukraḥ]/ Jupiter
7. སྤེན་པ། [ṡanaiṡcara]/ Saturn.
8. སྒྲ་གཅན། [rāhu]/ ascending node of the moon
9. མཇུག་རིང་། [ketu]/ descending node of the moon.

Five predeterminations of Buddha [ṡākyamuni] before conceiving to be born in this world while he was in the god realm, born as [devaputra] (༼དམ་པ་ཏོག་དཀར་པོ༽).
1. དུས་ལ་གཟིགས་པ། observation of the time for his appearance
2. རུས་ལ་གཟིགས་པ། observation of the family of his birth
3. རིགས་ལ་གཟིགས་པ། observation of the caste of his lineage
4. ཡུམ་ལ་གཟིགས་པ། observation of the mother to who he would be born
5. ཡུལ་ལ་གཟིགས་པ། observation of the land in which to disseminate his doctrine.

[pūpāyatanam]/ The source of perception of form; synonymous with forms (gzugs); direct objects of sight—shape and colour.

[rūpadeva]/ The form deity. One of the six deities according to action tantra. A visualization meditation of emitting and withdrawing light from the moon [maṇḍala] and the circle of mantras, the transformation of which then give rise to complete feaiures of the concerned deity of one's meditation.

[rūpadhātu]/ Form realm. Realm in which beings are preoccupied with meditative concentration free of attachment to sensual objects within the desire realm but have attachment to forms.

One hundred and eighty objects of elimination within the form realm to be* abandoned on the path of meditation. The four levels of concentrations—first, second, third and fourth within the form realm each have forty-five objects of elimination (see ༼གཟུགས་ཁམས་ཀྱི་སྒོམ་སྤང་ལྔ༽) when each of the five eliminations are further divided into nine levels of subtlety from within the three basic levels of great, middling and small and each of these levels are further divided into three levels, thus making one hundred and eighty in all.

གཟུགས་ཁམས་ཀྱི་སྒོམ་སྤང་ལྔ་། The five objects of elimination within the form realm to be
abandoned on the path of meditation.
1. མ་རིག་པ། ignorance
2. འདོད་ཆགས། desire-attachment
3. ང་རྒྱལ། pride
4. འཇིག་ལྟ། view of transitory collection
5. མཐར་ལྟ། the extreme view.

The four levels of the form realm; the four states of concentration within the form realm; the four worlds of the form realm – བསམ་གཏན་དང་པོ། གཉིས་པ། གསུམ་པ། བཞི' པ། first, second, third and fourth concentration realms.

Seventeen regions of the form realm. Three states of the first level concentration:
1. ཚངས་རིས། [brahmakāyikāḥ]/ Brahma type
2. ཚངས་པ་མདུན་ན་འདོན། [brahmapurohitāḥ]/ Brahma attendants
3. ཚངས་ཚེན། [mahābrahmāṇaḥ]/ great Brahma. Three states of the second level concentration:
4. འོད་ཆུང་། [parīttābhāḥ]/ little light
5. ཚད་མེད་འོད། [apramāṇābhāḥ]/ limitless light
6. འོད་གསལ། [ābhāsvarāḥ]/ bright light. Three states of the third level concentration:
7. དགེ་ཆུང་། [parīttaṡubhāḥ]/ little virtue
8. ཚད་མེད་དགེ [apramāṇaṡubhāḥ]/ limitiess virtue
9. དགེ་རྒྱས། [ṡubhakṛtṣnāh]/ vast virtue. Eight states of the fourth level concentration:
10. སྦྲིན་མེད། [anabharakāḥ]/ cloudless
11. བསོད་ནམས་སྐྱེས། [puṇyaprasavāḥ]/ born from merit
12. འབྲས་བུ་ཆེ་བ། [bṛhatphalāḥ]/ great fruit
13. མི་ཆེ་བ། [avṛhāḥ]/ not great
14. མི་གདུང་བ། [atapāḥ]/without pain
15. གྱ་ནོམ་སྣང་། [sudṛṡāḥ]/
excellent appearance
16. ཤིན་ཏུ་མཐོང་། [ṡudarṡanāḥ]/ great perception
17. འོག་མིན། [akaniṣṭāḥ]/ not low.

Emancipation of one possessing form, looking at a form. A concentration of the form realm cultivated by a yogi while considering himself as a being with physical form, in order to eliminate attachment towards external forms.

Six classes of non-physical aggregates of concomitant compositional factors.
1. སེམས་ཀྱི་ས་མང་། mental attitude
2. དགེ་བའི་ས་མང་། virtuous attitude
3. མི་དགྲེ་བའི་ས་མང་། non-virtuous attitude
4. ཉོན་མོངས་ཆེན་པོའི་ས་མང་། mental attitude of the major delusions
5. ཉོན་མོངས་ཆུང་ངུའི་ས་མང་། mental attitude of the minor delusions
6. མ་ངེས་པའི་ས་མང་། indefinite mental attitude.

Twenty-five types of forms.
1-4. རྩ་བའི་ཁ་དོག་བཞི། four root colors (see ༼རྩ་བའི་ཁ་དོག་བཞི༽)
5-12. ཡན་ལག་གི་ཁ་དོག་བརྒྱད། eight secondary colours (see ༼ཡན་ལག་གི་ཁ་དོག་བརྒྱད༽)
13. རིང་བ། long
14. ཐུང་བ། short
15. ལྷམ་པ། squareness
16. ཟླུམ་པོ། sphencal
17. རྡུལ་ཕྲ་མོ། fine particles
18. རྡུལ་རགས་པ། gross particles
19. མཐོ་བ། high
20. དམའ་བ། low
21. ཕྱ་ལེ་བ། evenness
22. ཕྱ་ལེ་བ་མ་ཡིན་པ། unevenness
23. མངོན་པར་སྐབས་ཡོད་པ། manifest form
24. རྣམ་པར་རིག་བྱེད། revelatory form
25. ནམ་མཁའ་དང་ཁ་དོག་གཅིག་པའི་གཟུགས། color identical with the sky.

Fifteen form aggregates.
1-4. རྒྱུ་འབྱུང་བ་ཆེན་པོ་བཞི། four causal elements (see ༼འབྱུང་བ་བཞི༽)
5-15. འབྲས་གཟུགས་བཅུ་གཅིག། eleven resultant form aggregates (see ༼འབྲས་གཟུགས་བཅུ་གཅིག༽).

Five phenomena on the level of the form aggregate.
1. གཟུགས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ། form aggregate
2. གཞི་དུས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་ཡེ་ཤེས། basic mirror-like wisdom
3. སའི་ཁམས། earth element
4. མིག་གི་དབང་པོ། eye sense power
5. རང་རྒྱུད་ཀྱིས་བསྡུས་པའི་གཟུགས། form within one's mental continuum.

[arūpa dhātu]/ Formless realm. The realm in which the beings do not have a gross body but have a pure mental body; they are free of attachment towards sensual objects, but have attachments to the formless realms.

Never-returner who attains liberation without effort and migrates to the formless realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation as soon as he is born in the formless realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation in the highest state (either in [akaniṣṭha] or the Peak of Existence) after migrating to the formless realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation with great effort and migrates to the formless realm.

Never-returner who atains liberation without effort and migrates to the formless realm.

[catasra ārūpyasamāpattayaḥ]/ Four formless absorptions; four types of formless meditative absorptions.
1. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས་སྙོམས་འཇུག [ākāṡānantyāyatanaṃ]/ absorption of infinite space
2. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས་སྙོམས་འཇུག [vijсānānantyāyatanaṃ]/ absorption of infinite consciousness
3. ཅི་ཡང་མེད་པའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [akiсcanyāyatanaṃ]/ absorption of nothingness
4. འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་འདུ་ཤེས་མེད་མིན་གྱི་སྙོམས་འཇུག [naivasaṃjсānāsaṃjсayatanaṃ]/ absorption of that which is neither with discrimination nor non-discrimination.

Emancipation of one without form looking at a form. A concentration within the form realm cultivated by a yogic while considering himself as a being without form in order to eliminate his attachment to external objects.

Never-returner who migrates to the form realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation in the highest state ([akaniṣṭha]) after migrating to the form realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation as soon as he is born in the form realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation in the intermediate existence of the form realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation with great effort and migrates to the form realm.

Never-returner who attains liberation without effort and migrates to the form realm.

Two objective graspings; two graspings at objects; two conceptual graspings at objects.
1. འཇུག་པ་གཟུང་རྟོག grasping at engagements that are to be cultivated
2. ལྡོག་པ་གཟུང་རྟོག grasping at elimination that are to be abandoned or
1. ཉོན་མོངས་གཟུང་རྟོག grasping at delusive phenomena
2. རྣམ་བྱང་གཟུང་རྟོག grasping at purified phenomena.

Non-duality of the object and object-perceiver. The lack of difference between the object and the object-perceiver; a view asserted by the [cittamātrin] school of philosophy.

[grāhyaviṣaya]/ Referent object. Object as seized by a perception, e.g. vase for a consciousness apprehending vase.

[dhāraṇī]/ Retention power ([dhāraṇī]). The ability to hold words and meanings of the dharma through the force of exalted mindfulness and wisdom. Also means mantras (༼གཟུངས་སྔགས༽) through the power of which one summons blessings and the ability to eliminate interfering forces.

Four types of retention power, four doors of dharani.
1. བཟོད་པའི་གཟུངས། [kṣāntidhāraṇi]/ retention of patience, the ability to endure patiently the emptiness discerned without being terrified by it
2. སྔགས་ཀྱི་གཟུང་། [mantradhāraṇī]/ retention of mantra, the ability to convert any syllable or syllables into a mantra for eradicating infectious diseases and interfering forces
3. ཚིག་གི་གཟུངས། [vākya dhāraṇī]/ retention of word, the ability to retain names, terms or words through the power of memory
4. དོན་གྱི་གཟུངས། [artha dhāraṇī]/ retention of meaning, the ability to retain the specific and general meanings of all phenomena through the power of mindfulness.

The commitment related to food. The commitment according to the highest yoga tantra to accept the five fleshes (see ༼ཤ་ལྔ༽) and five nectars (see ༼བདུད་རྩི་ཨཱིང༽) without any preconceptions.

[ṡilpanirmāṇakāya]/ Artisan emanation. A form of incarnate Buddha's emanation as artisans and master-craftsman in order to tame beings.

The thirty skills of arts and craft. A section of the sixty-four arts.
1. ཡི་གེ literacy
2. ལག་རྩིས། calculation by hand
3. གྲངས། mathematics
4. རྩིས་ཆེན། great mathematics
5. ཐོར་ཚུགས། scare crowing
6. གོམ་སྟབས། gestures by feet
7. ལྕགས་ཀྱུས་སྒྱུར་ཐབས། art by iron rods
8. རལ་གྲིའི་ཐབས། sword slinging
9. ཞགས་པ་གདབ་པ། lasso throwing
10. མདའ་བོ་ཆེ་འཕེན་པ། archery
11. མདུན་དུ་བསྣུར་བ། offensive
12. ཕྱིར་བསྣུར་བ། defensive
13. བཅད་པ| cutting
14. དྲལ་བ། tearing
15. དབྱུག་པ། stick throwing
16. རྒྱང་ནས་འཕོག་པ། remote targeting
17. སྒྲ་གྲག་པར་འཕོག་པ། blasting
18. གནད་དུ་འཕོག་པ། blowing the target
19. མི་ཚོར་བར་འཕོག་པ། insensitive targeting
20. ཚབས་ཆེ་བར་འཕོག་པ། intense targeting
21. མཆོངས་པ། jumping
22. གྱད་ཀྱི་འཛིན་པ། weight lifting
23. བང་། racing
24. རྐྱལ། swimming
25. བརྒལ་བ། crossing
26. གླང་པེ་ཆེའི་གཉར་ཞོན་པ། elephant riding
27. རྟ་ལ་ཞོན་པ། horse riding
28. ཤིང་རྟའི་བཟོ་ཐབས། chariot making
29. མདའ་ཞུའི་བཟོ་ཐབས། bow and arrow making
30. གྱད་སྟོབས། wrestling.

The three types of patience.
1. གནོད་པ་ལ་ཇི་མི་སྙམ་པའི་བཟོད་པ། patience of not retaliating against someone who harms you
2. སྡུག་བསྔལ་དང་ལེན་གྱི་བཟོད་པ། patience of willingly enduring sufferings
3. ཆོས་ལ་ངེས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་བཟོད་པ། patience of discriminative awareness of the Dharma.

Two signs of irreversibility on the patience level of the path of preparation.
1. གཞན་གྱིས་དཀྲིར་མི་བཏུབ་པ། he cannot be led astray by others
2. ལས་བཅོས་མ་སྟོན་པའི་བདུད་ལ་བདུད་དུ་རྟོགས་པ། he recoghizes the maras preaching counterfeit paths as true maras.

[kṣāntigata mūrdhaprayoga]/ Peak training of the forbearance level of the path of preparation. A Bodhisattva path where he has gained stability in establishing his realization to progress further.

The five fundamentals of the performing arts; the five limbs of performing arts.
1. མདོ་འཛིན་པ། memorization of texts
2. རོལ་མོ། music
3. ཆས་ཞུགས། costumes
4. བཞད་གད། comedy
5. ཟློས་གར། art of dance and drama.

Four branches of recitation; four types of incantation practice
and meditation according to [krīya tantra].
1. སྒྲའི་གཞི་ལ་གཞོལ་བ། retitation while concentrating on the sound deity
2. སེམས་ཀྱི་གཞི་ལ་གཞོལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on the mind deity
3. གཞན་གྱི་གཞི་ལ་གཞོལ་བ། recitation while
concentrating on another deity
4. བདག་གི་གཞི་ལ་གཞོལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on self-deity.

[japāpekṣatadhyāna]/ Concentration dependent on recitation.

[japānāpekṣeiadhyāna]/ Concentration independent of recitation.