Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology

(Revised and Enlarged Edition)



Copyright 1986: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives Second Revised Edition 1993 Reprint 2003


Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without prior permission of the publisher.


ISBN: 81-85102-88-0


Published by the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, and printed at Indraprastha Press (CBT), 4 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi-110 002


It gives us pleasure to bring out this second edition of the Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology. The present edition has been revised and upgraded since it's first, and has been expanded with hundreds of new entries from various sources. For example, many new words have been added to the selected lists of terms from the Mahavyutpatti (bye-brag tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-mo) and from many other collected writings and lexicons. Attempts have been made to provide Sanskrit equivalents wherever possible in Romanised transliterated form with care. The English translations and definitions have been selected to provide a general meaning aimed at leading to a deeper understanding of Buddhist concepts.

Of course, a project of such encyclopedic scope would be exceedingly difficult to complete single-handedly, if not impossible. Nonetheless, Mr. Tsepak Rigzin of the Library's Translation Bureau is to be recognized and congratulated for his vision in undertaking such a timely project, as well as for his painstaking labour.

It is hoped that this Dictionary will not only serve as a reference tool but also as a handy book for providing overview of Tibetan Buddhism. Both students and scholars of Tibetan Buddhist culture will find it useful.

Gyatsho Tshering DIRECTOR


When I was informed that a revised edition of my previous Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology was due, I was immediately reminded of both the features (and the flaws) of the first edition. Having never seen myself as a Tibetan Buddhist studies scholar or as a qualified translator, I must confess that the compliments and criticisms that I have received have been extremely rewarding. The entire process of compiling this dictionary, from beginning to end, has been an extremely rewarding learning experience. Over two thousand new entries have been incorporated in this edition—all within the short period of time derived from maximum usage of my office hours as well as of my weekend holidays. With the exception of some minor editing and changes, the majority of these new entries have been directly translated from the glossary found in the three volumes of the Grand Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary.

Many of the first edition's redundant entries have been reduced to a minimum by giving cross references wherever possible in Tibetan transliterated form following the Turrell Wylie system of transliteration. Attempts have been made to occasionally provide Sanskrit equivalents in romanised transliterated form based on the standard dictionaries (primarily splitting the words for better comprehension). The purpose of incorporating Sanskrit in romanised form is to enable more advanced students to go into a deeper study and research. Every care has been taken in revising and editing the Sanskrit words provided herein; although I do not claim these to be absolutely free of flaws. Readers are therefore advised to take care and caution while using these words. In all, I hope that the modifications and changes I have made will prove helpful to all readers. The unfortunate presence of any overlooked mistakes in this dictionary reflects the sheer gift of my own ignorance and carelessness.

Finally, I would like to add that the production of this edition has been a gross experience of the interdependent nature of my own life and the lives of my associates. Th'e biggest change has been the Library's purchase of a computer (an advantage not known during its first edition); but also the assistance of many well wishers and scholars. It is to these people that I give my inexpressible thanks: to the many teachers in my life who taught me everything from the alphabet to philosophy; Ku-Ngo Gyatsho Tshering, Director of this institute, for his unflagging interest and encouragement; Jeremy Russell, for his many years of association at the Translation Bureau; Ms. Marguerite Mullins for her moral support; Robert Moyer for his editorial assistance in revising the english part and Mr. Sangye Tandar, LTWA's Tibetan Language Officer for revising the Tibetan spellings; Dr. Christoph Cuppers, a learned Tibetologist friend, for his generous time and erudition in revising and editing the Sanskrit equivalents and for providing extremely valuable suggestions; Mr. Tsering Dhendup, our Computer Geshe for his guidance through the computer world; and finally to Scott Heftier, for finalization—design, layout, formatting, proof-reading, and incorporating corrections. Mr. Heftler's work was done on a Macintosh Classic that was kindly made available by the Tibetan Medical Institute's Dr. Namgyal Qusa'r.

As always, I thank all those whose moral support has actually caused me to move along with this project.

Tsepak Rigzin

Research and Translation Officer Library of Tibetan Works & Archives Dharamsala


This is a text of religious history, a will left by King Songtsen Gampo and concealed in a pillar marked with tree leaves in the Lhasa Cathedral, which was later discovered by the great teacher, AtiSa This text is also known by the name Guide to Lhasa (lha-sa'i dkar-chag).


Katyayana/ A direct disciple of Buddha Sakyamuni known especially for his knowledge of Vinaya, and who was also the founder of the>Theravadin tradition, one of the four main schools of the Theravada tradition.


1. Primordially pure or pure from the beginning; the original mode of abidance of that which is basically unarisen; a term used in Nyingma teachings. 2. Emptiness.


Innately pure from the beginning; the primordial principle

^་དག་གད་མའ་ག^་ལག^! The nature of primordial purity; the primordial reality.


The primordial breakthrough-path. A core transmission of the secret rDzog Chen practice, the quintessential instruction for liberating lazy disciples effortlessly. Through the mastering of this instruction one is able to maintain the meaning of primordial reality in its instinctive and natural mode by way of gaining awareness within oneself, reaching a conclusion upon hearing the words and introducing inner confidence upon liberation, through understanding the intrinsically abiding self-arisen primordial mind otherwise stabilized but to be released oniy by means of four modes of liberating it (see grol-lugs-chen-po bzhi).


Kadampa Desheg. His real name is Sherab Senge, but is also known by the name Pobpa Thaye. Born in the Water-Tiger year (1122) of the second sexagenerary at Dokham, eastern Tibet, he built Kathog monastery in the Palyul district of the Kham region. He was a great master belonging to the Nyingma tradition. He died in the Water-Mouse year (1192).

Spear-noose; harpoon; a spear with a noose at its end used as a tantric implement.


Kaniska/ An early Indian King. With his military power he conquered small kingdoms and built the Gandhola kingdom


during the first century, but at the end of his life became a Buddhist and erected many temples and stupas. He accepted [Acarya Aryasura] (rta-dbyangs) as his teacher and patronized Buddhist activities. He also invited many Arhats to Kashmir and composed the treatise known as Mahavibhanga (bye-brag chen-po).


Kamalasila/ An Indian [Acarya] professing the philosophy of the [Yogacarya] Madhyamaka school which developed in the eastern part of India during the eighth century A.D. During the reign of King Tri-Song Deu-Tsan he was invited to Tibet and defeated the Chinese monk Hashang Mahayana holding 'ton-mun', the instantaneous path of enlightenment, as opposed to the Bodhisattva doctrine of 'chen-min', the gradual path of enlightenment, in a philosophical contest. As a consequence, he wrote Triple Stages to Enlightenment (sgom-rim rnam gsum) and established the latter tradition of doctrine.


A stupa with four gates built on the highway north of the Lhasa cathedral. It is believed to be a holy place where the great meditator, Thangtong Gyalpo spent many years practising meditation before 1368 A.D.


The Karma Kagyud Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism; one of the many lineages of Kagyud traditions founded by the first Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa (1110-1193), who was a distinguished disciple of Gampopa (see sgam-po-pa). He established Tsurphu Monastery, the main seat of his tradition, in the north-west of Lhasa. In India, the main centre of Karma Kagyud has been re-established in Rumtek, Sikkim.


That which pronounces ki-li ki-li, one of the eight cemeteries (see dur-khrod chen-po brgyad).


[Kumarajlva]. A a great translator from Kotan (li-yul). His father, although of Indian origin, married a princess of a northern Kotan (li-yul) king, and gave birth to this translator there. At a young age he entered monkhood, and received the name Zhonu Tsering. He studied Sanskrit language and Hinayana Buddhist doctrines, but later entered into Mahayana tradition and became erudite in the Middle View philosophy. He was proficient in both Tibetan and Chinese language. He translated the Diamond Cut Sutra and major and minor texts of the Wisdom Perfection texts, the White Lotus Sutra, the Stainless Wisdom Sutra, the Root Middle Way text of Nagarjuna, Aryadeva's Four Hundred Stanzas and many other treatises. He had many disciples and passed away at the age of seventy.


A goddess of power called Rigje-ma (rig-byed-ma) common to Sakya's golden transmission lineage (gser-chos).


The Kusa grass, literally meaning that which dispels evil or the supreme grass. It has a fine and rich, crispy tassel of leaves, it is sweet flavoured, moderate to digest, and has the power to prolong one's life and increase the essential energy of the human body.


Kusinagari/ The city of Kusha, Kushinagara where Buddha

Sakyamuni passed away into parinirvana. Located close to the border of India and Nepal near Gorakhpur.


An Indian pandit who was invited to Tibet during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo. He translated many tantric texts of different levels from Sanskrit into Tibetan.


A Yogi mendicant; a yogi who practices the art of tantric exorcism and penance.


A cut-ritual (gcod) practice in which one offers one's body as a feast (tshog) to accumulate merit.


The ever-binding factors; fetters. Those categories of delusions that are responsible for making repeated obstacles for one's mind during meditation on calm-abiding (samatha) and equanimity (upeksa/ btang-snyoms). There are four (see kun-dkris bzhi) and three levels of wrong activities which can be categorized as follows. If a wrong activity is committed fulfilling all the four factors, such a wrong activity becomes great; if only the first, i.e. not regarding a breach as a fault, is present and the others are absent, such a wrong activity becomes middling; and if all other three are present, except not regarding a breach as fault, it becomes weak.


Asta paryavasthana/ The eight ever-binding factors; eight fetters. The delusions that disturbs the mind repeatedly during meditation on calm-abiding (samatha) and equanimity (btang-snyoms). These are: 1. གས་པ styana/ mental sloth 2. གད། middha/ sleep 3. ད་པ། auddhatya/ agitation 4. འད་པ།

kaukartyam/ regret 5.ག་ག irsya/ jealousy 6. ར་། matsarya/ miserliness 7. ་ཚ་ད་པ། ahrikya/ lack of shame 8. ལ་ད་པ། anapatrapyam/ lack of concern for others.


Dasa paryavasthana/ The ten ever-binding factors; the ten fetters: 1-8. (see above, kun-dkris brgyad) 9. ་བ། krodha/ anger 10. འཆབ་པ། mraksa/ concealment.

Catvari paryavasthana/The four ever-binding factors; the four fetters. A breach of the Bodhisattva or tantric vows is complete if these four factors are present: 1. ས་དགས་་་བ།

not regarding the breach as wrong 2. ད་འད་མ་ག་པ། not wishing to avoid it in the future 3. དགའ་མ་ད་པ། rejoicing in misdeeds 4. ་ཚ་དང་ལ་ད་པ། not being ashamed or embarrassed.


The Omniscient Lama Longchen Rabjam (1308-1363). A Nyingma Lama regarded as a great visionary by all the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism; who was influenced greatly by a vision of Acarya Padmasambhava. Out of more than two hundred treatises some of his major works include the Seven Treasures (see klong-chen mdzod-bdun), Triple Relaxation (ngal-gso skor gsum) and Triple Self Liberation (rang-grol skor gsum).


Sammatiya/ A school of Buddhist philosophy (see mang-pos bkur-ba'i sde).


The real name of Sakya Pandita (see sa-skya pandi-ta).


Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158). One of the five foremost masters of the Sakya tradition. He was the abbot of the Sakya monastic university at Sakya for forty-six years.


Ananda; one of the twelve close disciples of Buddha Sakyamuni known for his knowledge of scriptures. He was second of the seven hierarchs (see ston-pa'i gtad rabs-bdun) after the passing away of Buddha and recited by heart the Sutrapitaka during the first council held at Rajagrha. He was also one of the main disciples who attended Buddha's teachings on the four tantras of medicine.


A. Space B. Snake С Mental factor or factors (see below) that accompanies every instance of mind or mental activity.


Panca sarvagah/ Five ever-functioning mental factors. Mental factors that accompany every instance of mind and mental activity. These are: 1. ས་བ vedana/ feeling 2. འ་ས། sarnjna/ recognition 3. མས་པ centana/ perception 4. ག་པ sparsa/ contact 5.ད་ལ་ད་པ manasikara/ attention.


Ever-functioning cause. One of the six types of causes (see rgyu-drug). Those delusions (phra-rgyas) that occur in or travel through all the three realms of existence and act as an obstacle for attaining the state of liberation (nirvana).


The five feelings (see tsor-ba Inga) within the mental continuum of ordinary persons.


The five great disciples; the five ascetics (see 'khor lnga-sde bzang-po).


Maskarin Gosaliputra. One of the six non-Buddhist teachers; a self-professed teacher of Hindu philosphy during the time of Buddha Sakyamuni. He taught that the sufferings of all sentient beings were spontaneous without any reliance upon causes and conditions.


Adesana pratiharya/ Miracle of speech. The power of Buddha enables him to read others minds (meritorious or non-meritorious) and teach accordingly.


Parikalpita laksana/ Imputed phenomena. One of the three phenomena (see mtsan-nyid gsum). The existence of a thing by mere conceptual labelling, i.e. the confused mind labels persons and phenomena by misconception and identifies existents as I, self, mine or name, upon imputation.


Samantabhadra/ A. Those existents that are pure or virtuous throughout all of its parts. B. The sphere of reality (dharmadhatu) or the nature truth body (dharmakaya). С Tathagata Samantabhadra. D. Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, one of the eight close spiritual sons of Buddha Sakyamuni (see nye-ba'i sras-brgyad). E. According to the Bon tradition, the complete enjoyment body (sambhogakaya).


Samkalpa/ A. Thorough investigation; the process of

conceptual analysis. В. Thoughts, concepts, conceptualization and imagination.


Parikalpita/ Conceptual imputation; intellectual imputation; artificial labelling or imputation. Misconception of the true nature of phenomena developed through reasoning rooted in philosophical and intellectual study or training.

ུན་བགས་གས། fc

The two types of imputed phenomena 1. མ་ངས་པ་ན་བགས། pariyaya parikalpita/ nominally imputed phenomena 2. མཚན་ ད་ངས་་ཆད་པ་ན་བགས། alaksana parikalpita/ imputed phenomena lacking identity.


Parikalpita rupa/ Imputed form. Forms seen in imagination, e.g. horse, elephant, house, etc., seen in a dream, and seeing all surroundings filled with skeletons in concentration meditation (samadhi).


Parikalpita klesa/ Imputed delusions. Deluded views and such that disturb the peace of mind as a result of wrong conceptual labelling of the meaning of reality imposed by a mind tainted with a wrong philosophy.


Parikalpita avidya/ Imputed ignorance. Lack of understanding of the mode of reality of phenomena conjoined with deluded views of a wrong philosophy.

Parikalpita bala/ Power of imputation. Lack of attachment towards all outer and inner phenomena; having seen all

phenomena as being empty and lacking self nature through wisdom combined with concentration (samadhi).


A monastery established in the Wood-Tiger year (1794) located to the south-west of the Potala palace in Lhasa Tagtra Rinpoche was the chief Lama of this monastery. Two masters of this lineage have been regents of Tibet.


Seven abandonments of the truth of origin. The seven things abandoned by a person having seen the truth of origin of all sufferings within this desire realm. These are: 1. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 2. འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 3. ང་།

pratigha/ hatred-anger 4. ང་ལ། mana/ pride 5. ་མ། vicikitsa/ doubt 6. ག་། mithyadrsti/ wrong views 7. ་བ་མག་ན། drstiparamarsa/ views holding wrong moral disciplines as superior.


Literally 'all-shaking'. This refers to the central energy channel. It is called this because the central energy channel is responsible for generating the essential drop, bliss within energy, and bliss from wind-energy.


Samklesa/ Thoroughly afflicted phenomena The six primary delusions (see rtza-nyon drug) and twenty near-delusions (see nye-nyon nyi-shu) motivated by cause or intent that motivates.


Samklesa vaiyadanika/ Thoroughly afflicted and purified phenomena. The ever-afflictive and the ever-wholesome side of phenomena The truth of suffering and origin are the ever-


afflictive and the truth of cessation and path are the ever-wholesome side.


Samklesa satya/ The thoroughly afflicted phenomena This refers to the truth of origin of suffering.


The fourteen faculties of the ever-afflicted phenomena 1-6. ག་་དབང་་ནས་ད་་དབང་་བར་བ། eye faculty to mental faculty. 7. ་དབང་ purusendriya/ faculty of maleness 8. ་དབང་། strindriya/ faculty of femaleness 9. ག་་དབང་ jiviendriya/ faculty of life-force 10. བ་བ་དབང་། sukhendriya/ faculty of joy 11. ག་བལ་་དབང་། duhkhendriya/ faculty of suffering 12. ད་བ་དབང་། sauamasyendriya/ faculty of mental pleasure 13. ད་་བ་དབང་། daurmanasyendriya/ faculty of mental displeasure 14. བཏང་མས་་དབང་། upeksendriya/ faculty of neutrality.


The fifty three divisions of ever-afflicted phenomena: 1-5. ང་་། panca skandha/ five aggregates (see phung-po Inga) 6-11. དབང་་ག sad indriya/ six sense faculties (see dbang-po drug) 12-17. མ་ས་ག sad vijnana/ six consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tsogs-brgyad, 1-6)18-23. ལ་བ། ་མད་ག sad samvrta/ six sources of perception (see bskyed-mched drug) 24-29.ག་པ་ག sad sparsa/ six contacts (see reg-pa drug) 30-35. ར་བ་ག sad vedana/ six feelings (see tsor-ba drug) 36-41. འང་བ་ག sad bhuta/ six elements ('byung-ba drug) 42-53. ན་འལ་བ་གས། dvadasanga pratityasamutpada/ twelve links of interdependent origination (see rten-'brel уаn-lag bcu-gnyis).


A. Complete abandonment or thorough release. B. The

primary vein (rtza) of the heart. С A mendicant, a recluse. D. The state of liberation (nirvana).


The universal principle. A. Mind or consciousness. B. Emptiness. С. The god, Brahma D. In rDzogs-chen doctrine it refers to the basic mind, the Tathagata essence or Buddha nature which is the origin of all phenomena within samsara and beyond, or the basis or source of all misconceptions and liberation. E. A tantric text in Nyingma secret mantrayana. Its full name is: byang-chub-kyi sems kun-byed rgyal-po lta-ba nam-mkh'a ltar mth'a-bdus med-pa'i rgyud le'u brgyad-cu rtza-bzhi pa. (Sarva dharma mahasanti bodhicittakulayaraja) Translated by Sri Sengha and Vairocana.


The truth of origin of suffering. All those karma and delusions that become causes for the origination of the impure world and its inhabitants including the human body.


Catvari samvrttisatya guna/ The four features of the truth of the origin of suffering. 1. ། hetu/ cause 2. ན་འང་། samudaya/ origin of all 3. རབ་ས། prabhava/ production 4. ན། pratyayah/ condition.


Asta samudaya satyaguna/ The eight features of the truth of origin. 1. འད་ཆགས་དང་ལ་བ་མ་པ། turning away from desire-attachment 2. ་གནས་པ་མ་པ། non-abidance 3. ་བ་མ་པ། peacefulness 4. འད་ཆགས་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of desire-attachment 5. ་ང་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of hatred-anger 6. ག་ག་ ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of closed-mindedness 7. ན་ངས་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of delusion 8. མས་ཅན་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of sentient beings.


Tri samyojana/ The three constant fetters; three ever-binding factors. These refer to the three types of delusions that are abandoned upon reaching the Path of Seeing (third of the five paths). 1. འག་་ན་བཏགས། satkayadrsti/ the intellectually acquired view of the transitory collection (of I or mine) that obstructs a person from achieving liberation 2. ལམས་དང་ བལ་གས་མག་འན། silavrata paramarsa/ the view that holds wrong moral disciplines and practices as superior and that obstructs a person by way of taking a wrong path as the right path 3. ་མས་ན་ངས་ཅན། klista vicikitsa/ doubt that obstructs a person by generating a wavering attitude towards the (right) path.


Nava samyojana/ The nine constant fetters; nine ever-binding factors. These are the ever-binding: 1. ས་་ཆགས་པ། raga/ attachment 2. ང་བ། krodha/ anger 3. ང་ལ། mana/ egotistic pride 4. མ་ག་པ avidya/ ignorance 5. ་བ། drsti/ wrong view 6. མག་འན། paramarsa drsti/ view of superiority 7. ་མ། vicikitsa/doubt 8.ག་ག irsya/jealousy 9. ར་ matsarya/ miserliness.


The obscuring conventional phenomena. One of the three conventional truths. For instance, an illusion, a mirage, a cataract (mi-yor), etc., that cannot perform their respective functions properly.


Samvrti sarana/ The conventional refuge; the conventional object of worship, e.g. an image of Buddha Sakyamuni.


The two conventional existences; the two types of relative existence. 1. ཡང་དག་ན་བ། samyag samvrti/ correct conventional truth, e.g. a pillar 2. ག་པ་ན་བ། mithya samvrti/ incorrect conventional truth, e.g. a mirror image.

Samvrti pratijnana/ A. Wisdom that has gained mastery over the five sciences of learning (see rig-pa'i gnas Inga). B. Wisdom understanding conventional phenomena; the discriminative awareness that understands things on the conventional level of truth, e.g. a wisdom understanding the illusory nature of phenomena.


Samvrti satya/ The conventional truth; the relative truth; generally referring to phenomena other than emptiness.

Samvrti bodhicitta/ The conventional bodhicitta; the conventional mind of enlightenment. This includes the wishing bodhicitta (see smon-pa sems bskyed) and the committed bodhicitta (see 'jug-pa sems-bskyed).


The three types of conventional truths. These are: 1. ན་བ་་ ན་བ། conventional nature of the conventional truth. 2.ཡང་ དག་པ་མ་ན་པ་ན་བ། incorrect conventional truth and 3. ཡང་ དག་པ་ན་བ། correct conventional truth. Or: 1. བཏགས་པ་ན་ བ། upacara samvrti/ the imputed conventional existence 2. ས་པ་ན་བ། the known conventional existence 3.བད་པ་ན་ བ།the expressed conventional existence.

Alayavijnana/ The foundational consciousness; mind basis of all; one of the eight types of consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tsogs-brgyad) asserted by the Mind Only school of Buddhist philosophy; believed to be primary and the store-house of all mental imprints.


The point at the heart level where all energy channels are collected.


Samantabhadra pujamegha/ A cloud of Samantabhadra's offerings; in the sutra tradition this refers to the panoply of offerings filling all of space and formed by Bodhisattva's holding one material of offering from which emanates many duplicates, each emanating further duplicates; in the tantra tradition this refers to an offering of non-duality of bliss and emptiness.


In the Nyingrna tradition this refers to the doctnne of Dzog-pa chen-po.


Samutthana/ Motivation; a primary consciousness directed towards a goal. There are two types of motivation. 1. ་ན་ ང་། causal motivation 2. ས་་ན་ང་། actual motivation at the time of action.


Kongtrul Yonten Gyatso (1813-1899). Also knows as Garwang Lodoe Thaye, was born in the Water-Bird year of the fourteenth sexagenerary at Dokham. He compiled The

Jewel Treasure (rin-chen gter mdzod), The Instruction Treasure (gdams-ngag mdzod) and The Secret Transmission Treasure (bka'-brgyud sngags-mdzod), and discovered The Treasure of Knowledge (shes-bya mdzod) and The Uncommon Secret Treasure (thun-min gsang-ba'i mdzod). These are known as the Five Treasures. He composed texts on medicine, poetry and others, comprising almost a hundred volumes in all.

Naga/ A kind of being regarded as belonging to the animal class; believed to abide in subterranean realms, having control over rain, ponds, rivers and soil productivity. Some are helpers while others can bring retribution if disturbed. Often in Buddhist art and in written accounts, they are portrayed as being half man and half snake. Generally serpents and snakes are recognised as nagas.


Nagarjuna/ The great Nagarjuna, founder of the Madhyamaka school of philosophy and of the lineage of the profound teachings of emptiness (see zab-mo lta brgyud). His works include The Six Treatises (see rigs-tshogs drug), Letter to a King (bshes-spring), and Jewel Garland (rin-chen phreng-ba).

The seven spiritual sons of Nagarjuna. 1.། Sakyamitra 2. ་ང་བ། Nagabodhi 3. འཕགས་པ་། Aryadeva 4. མ་ཏང་། Matariga 5. སངས་ས་བངས། Buddhapalita 6. གས་ན་འད། Bhavaviveka 7. བ་དན་དཔའ་། Asvaghosa


Asta maha nagaraja/ The eight naga kings. There are two ways of listing these. A. I. ་ལ་་མཐའ་ཡས། Nagaraja Ananta

2. ་ལ་་འག་། Nagaraja Taksaka 3. ་ལ་་བས་། Nagaraja Karkotaka 4. ་ལ་་གས་ན། Nagaraja Kulika 5. ་ལ་པ་ར་ས། Nagaraja Vasuki 6. ་ལ་་ང་ང་། Nagaraja Sahkhapala 7. ་ལ་་པད་མ། Nagaraja Padma 8. ་ལ་་ཕ་་ཎ། Nagaraja Varuna B. 1-7. as listed in A and 8. ་ལ་་པད་མ་ན་། Nagaraja Mahapadma.


A. Malignant or harmful nagas. B. Lord of the earth. There are two types of these, known as nagas or gnyan. These are spirits belonging to the category of animals or hungry ghost.

A treasure doctrine of the Nyingma tradition, mind-revelation of Rigzin Jigme Lingpa (1729-1798).

The seven treasure texts. The treatises composed by Longchen Rabjampa (see kun-mkhyen klong-chen rab-'byams), a fourteenth century master of the Nyingma tradition. These are: 1. བ་མཐའ་མད། The Treasure of Philosophy 2. ག་ན་མད།

The Greater Vehicle Treasure 3.ད་བན་མད། The Wish Granting Treasure 4. མན་ངག་མད། The Treasure of Transmission 5. ས་དངས་མད། The Treasure of Reality 6. གནས་གས་མད། The Treasure of Nature 7. ག་ན་མད། The Treasure of Words and Meanings.


The great master Longchen Rabjampa (see kun-mhyen klong-chen rab-'byams).


The Centrists. A transmission of Atiyoga practice within rDzogs-chen doctrine, the lineage of which comes from Longde Dorje Zampa, Acarya Sri Simha the great translator,

Vairocana and others. This doctrine professes that within the self-arisen primordial wisdom, i.e. the subjective ever wholesome wisdom, all appearances of objective phenomena dissolve into their own mode of appearance. Since both subjective wisdom and the objective phenomena do not exist as being subject and object, therefore, without applying analysis as to whether they are existent or not, all phenomena are by nature established in their primordial state of liberation and unlimited sphere of reality.


Tapas/ Asceticism; austere practices.


The three lay masters of Sakya tradition. 1. Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158) 2. Sonam Tzemo (1142-1182) 3. Jetsun Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1158).

The power of the white seed. The strong determination to collect merit and eliminate obstacles in order to develop an enlightened attitude; one of the five powers (see stobs-lnga); the wish to be able to develop the enlightened attitude in one's future lifetimes, generated at the time of death.

White karma; wholesome karma. The process of activity whereby happiness and fortunate consequences follow as the result of previously committed virtuous actions. Synonymous with all virtuous actions.

Catvari sukladharma/ The four white actions; the four wholesome actions. The four virtuous actions producing white karmic results which prevent the degeneration of

bodhicitta, the enlightened motive of a Bodhisattva, namely: 1. ག་གམ་ཐན་བཞད་གད་་ར་ཡང་ས་བན་་ན་་་བ། abandoning consciously telling lies at the cost of one's life or even for a joke 2. མས་ཅན་ལ་ག་་ད་པར་བསམ་པ་ང་ར་གནས་པ། being unbiased in helping all sentient beings without having ulteriour thoughts 3. མས་ཅན་ན་ལ་ན་པ་འ་ས་ད་ང་ན་གནས་ ་བགས་པ་བད་པ། recognizing all Bodhisattvas as teachers and praising them as they deserve throughout the four directions

4. གལ་་མས་་་བ་ག་པར་་འར་བར་གས་པ་ང་བ་འན་་

འག་པ།inspiring all sentient beings to strive for the attainment of supreme enlightenment.


The gods and goddesses of the white side. This includes all divinities that align with the virtuous and righteous factions.


Dhana/ Spiritual material. Offerings made to the objects of refuge, in a temple, to a monastic community or to an individual lama. It can also means offerings misused by a monk or nun or else monks and nuns spoiled by too many offerings.


Mandala/ A. Round shaped, e.g. the full moon. B. A complete feature of something, e.g. of face. С In (antra, this constitutes the complete celestial mansion or abode of a principal deity surrounded by his or her retinue, representing the paths and fruits of that particular cycle of practices. Often mandates may be either painted on a scroll, carved on wood or drawn with coloured sand.


The supramundane victorious mandala . Also called dkyil-'khor rgyal mchog-gi ting-nge-'dzin. Roughly translated as

meditation on the supramandane deity, one of the three stages of meditation on the generation stage practice of (antra, in which one visualizes and places all deities of a particular cycle of practice in their respective place of the mandala by imagining them as having emanated from the essential drop of the principal deity in union with his or her partner.


Buddha vacana/ Teachings or words of Buddha. Either originally spoken by Buddha himself, recorded in any of the three collections (lung-gi sde-snod gsum) or the insight and realizations (rtogs-pa'i chos) within Buddha's mental continuum.


Kagyud Tradition. One of the four Tibetan Buddhist traditions holding the commissioned lineage of Buddha Vajradhara. In Tibet, this transmission was divided into two schools, the Shangpa Kagyud started by Mahasiddha Kyungpo Nyaljor (978-1079) and the Dakpo Kagyud by Lhodrak Marpa (1012-1099). The Dakpo Kagyud tradition was further divided into four sub-schools known as the four major schools of the Kagyud tradition (see bКа'-brgyud che-bzhi) and its sub-school. Phagdu Kagyud developed into eight sub-schools known as Digung, Taglung, Drugpa, Yasang, Trophu, Shugseb, Yelpa and Martsang.


The four major schools of the Kagyud tradition. 1. འབའ་མ། Barong Kagyud established by Barompa Darma Wangchuk 2. ཕག་ Phagdru Kagyud established by Phagdru Dorjee Gyalpo (1110-1170) 3. ཀ་ཚང་། Karma Kagyud established by Karma Duesum Khyenpa (1110-1193) 4. ཚལ་པ། Tsalpa Kagyud established by Tsalpa Tsondru Dakpa, a disciple of Ongom Tsultrim Nyingpo.


Kangyur; the collection of Buddha's teachings translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan, generally consisting of 108 volumes, but the number varies according to different editions.


Kachen; the title or academic degree awarded at Tashi Lhunpo monastery, probably equivalent to the Geshe Degree of other monastic institutions.


Ajnakara/ Attendant; member of a retinue; minister.

A. The collection of Buddhist canons, the teachings of Buddha and their commentaries by Indian master-scholars; the former consists of 108 volumes and the latter 225, varying slightly according to the edition. B. The collection of sacred scriptures.


The Annals; the five prophetic texts. The five texts left as wills by Guru Padmasambhava as discovered by Ogyan Lingpa from Samye and Yeldag in the Wood-Bird year (1285) of the fifth sexagenerary. These are texts concerning: 1. ལ་་བཀའ་ཐང

the king (rgyal-po bka'-thang)2. བན་་བཀའ་ཐང་། the queen (btsun-mo bka'-thang) 3. ན་་བཀའ་ཐང་། the ministers (blong-po bka'-thang) 4. ་པཎ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the scholars and translators (lo-pan-bka'-thang) 5.་འ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the gods and spirits (lha-'dre bka'-thang).


Tri parigrahaka guru/ He possessing the three kindnesses. According to the sutra tradition, this refers to a spiritual

master from whom one has received vows, teachings and oral tansmission, and according to tantra, this refers to a spiritual master from whom one has received initiation, tantric teachings and oral transmissions.


Kadampa tradition. A tradition of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Atisa. Dromtonpa, Potowa and Chekawa are some of the great masters belonging to this tradition.


The three spiritual brothers of the Kadampa tradition. 1.་ང་པ་གན་་ལ་མཚན། Puchungwa Zhonu Gyaltsen 2. ་་བ་ན་ན་གསལ། Potowa Rinchen Sel 3.ན་བ་ལ་མས་འབར། Chengwa Tsultrim Bar.


The Kadampa tradition accepting the three doctrine and four deities (see bka'-gdams lha-chos bdun) passed down from Dromtonpa to'Je Tsong Khapa.


The Kadampa's teachings. These constitute the basic view or philosophy as transmitted by the founder of the Kadampa tradition, Atisa, to Chen-ngawa on the Four Noble Truths, the transmission of teachings on dependent arising as transmitted by Phuchungba, and the teachings on the two truths (conventional and ultimate) as transmitted by Naljorpa.


The father and son transmission of Kadampa doctrine. The secret transmission of the Kadampa tradition, rooted in Atisha as received by Dromtonpa Gyalwe Jungne, is known as the father-transmission (pha-chos): that received by Ngog Loden

Sherab and Khuton Tsondm is known as the son-transmission (bu-chos).


The ten innermost jewels of the Kadampa tradition. A. གཏད་པ་བ། The four entrustments: 1. ་གས་ས་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to the dharma as the simplest way of thought 2. ས་གས་ང་ལ་གཏད།

entrusting yourself to poverty as the simplest way of practising dharma 3. ང་གས་་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to death as the extreme consequence of poverty 4. ་གས་ག་་མ་་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to an empty cave as the simplest place to die. B. ་་གམ། The three diamond hard resolutions: 1. བས་ད་་། the resolution to reject objections

from parents, etc. to one's practising in seclusion 2. ལ་ད་་། the resolution to face embarrassment 3. ་ས་་་དང་འགས་པ། the resolution to abide by promised practices. С ད་གས་བ་གམ། The three-expulsion, finding and attaining: 1. ་ལ་ནས་ད། self expulsion from human society 2. ་ལ་གས། finding the company of dogs 3. ་ལ་བ། attaining heavenly status.


The Kadampa palace, name of two chambers at Radreng and Tashi Lhunpo.


Kadampas of the instruction lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Chen-ngawa to Jayulwa, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with the Heart Sutra of Dependent Origination and oral transmission of the masters.


The fundamental texts of Kadampa tradition. Entering the Two Truths ་བན་གས་ལ་འག་པ and Instruction on Middle View

ད་མ་མན་ངག composed by Atisa, primarily concerning the middle way teaching; Lamp of Essential Moral Conduct ད་བས་ན་། and Essential Conduct ད་བས། primarily concerning activity or behavior; and Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment ང་བ་ལམ་ན། concerning both.


The six texts of Kadampa tradition. Treatises which formed the fundamental basis of practice of the past Kadampa masters. These are: Life Stories of Buddha ས་རབས། and Specific Teachings ད་་བད་པ་མས། for inspiring faith and devotion; Bodhisattva Grounds ང་ས། and Ornament of Collection of Sutras མ་་ན for producing meditative concentration; and Guide to Bodhisattva's Way of Life ད་འག and Compendium of Precepts བབ་བས། for developing wholesome behavior.


Kadampas of the textual lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Geshe Potowa to Sharawa, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with the major texts of the Kadampa tradition (see bka'-gdams gzhung-drug).


Kadampas of the path lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Gonpowa to Neuzur, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with miscellaneous texts of the Kadampa tradition.


The four deities of the Kadampa tradition; the four divinities

of the Kadampas. 1. བ་པ། Buddha Sakyamuni 2. ན་རས་གགས། Avalokitesvara 3.་ལ་མ། Тага 4. ་ག་བ Acala.


The four deities and three texts of the Kadampa tradition. 1-4. (see bka'-gdams lha-bzhi). 5-7. (see sde-snod gsum).


The New Kadampa. The lineage of teachings directly originating from Tsong Khapa, based on the examples of the life and deeds of past Kadampa masters inclusive of the middle way view and secret mantrayana paths. This refers to the Gelug tradition.


The Three Buddhist Councils. The first council was held during the same summer of the Buddha's passing into parinirvana at Rajagrha sponsored by King Ajatasatru, in which Ananda recited the collection of Sutra teachings and Upali recited the collection of Abhidharma teachings. The second council was held 110 years after Buddha's pannirvana at Vaishali sponsored by King Ashoka. At that time, monks, especially from Magadha, who had transgressed their vows were expelled and thus the code of monastic discipline was revised. The third council was held at Pataliputra 137 years after Buddha's passing into parinirvana during the reign of King Kaniska. The purpose of this council was to create harmony amongst the different schools of philosophy.


The five major texts. The five subjects of Buddhist philosophy studied in the Geshe Degree curriculum in the great monastic universities of Tibet and India. 1. ཕར་ན། prajnaparamita/ Perfection of Wisdom 2. ད་མ། madhyamaka/

Middle Way 3. ཚད་མ Pramana/ Valid Cognition 4. མཛད། Abhidharma/ Treasure of Knowledge 5. འལ་བ། Vinaya/ Monastic Discipline.


A. The four great disciples of Marpa: 1. ག་ས་་་། Ngog Choku Dorje 2. མཚར་ན་དབང་་་། Tsurton Wangi Dorje 3. ས་ན་ན་། Meton Chenpo 4. ་ལ་རས་པ། Milarepa. B. The four commissioned lineages: 1. ་ས་དང་འ་བ་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of illusory body and consciousness transference 2. ་ལམ་་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of dreams 3. ད་གསལ་་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of clear light mind 4. གམ་་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of psychic heat.


Kazhipa. A Geshe Degree conferred on someone who has merely studied and fulfilled the requirements of an examination after completing his study on the Perfection of Wisdom (phar-phyin), the Middle Way View (dbu-ma), the Monastic Discipline ('dul-ba) and the Treasure of Knowledge (mdzod).


Oral transmission; prophesy; prediction.


Pravasravanodaka cittotpada/ Fountain-water-like Bodhimind. The bodhicitta or motive of enlightenment associated with the power of retention (see gzungs/ dharani) and confidence possessed by the Bodhisattva on the three pure grounds, i.e. the 8th, 9th and 10th grounds.


Asta mahgalacihna/The auspicious signs; the eight auspicious emblems. 1. གགས chattra/ an umbrella 2. དར་ཉ།

suvarnamatsya/ a pair of golden fish 3.་མ་པ། kalasa/ a treasure vase 4. པད་མ། padma/ a lotus 5. ང་དཀར saiikha/ a white conchshell with whorls turning to the right 6. དཔལ་། srivatsa/ an endless knot 7. ལ་མཚན། dhvaja/ a banner of victory 8. འར་། dharmacakra/ a wheel of doctrine.


Asta marigala dravya/ The eight lucky articles; the eight auspicious substances. 1. ་ང་། adarsa/ a looking-glass/ mirror 2.་ཝང་། gorocana/ medicinal concretion from the brains of elephants 3. ། dadhi/ curd 4.་དར་བ། durva/ fine

green grass 5. གན་ག་ལ་བ། bilva/ sriphala/ a wood-apple 6. ང་དཀར་གཡས་འལ། daksinavartasaiikha/ a right-whorled

conchshell 7. ་ sindhura/ vermillion 8. ངས་དཀར། sarsapa/ white mustard seed.


Human thighbone trumpet; femur trumpet. This is used as a ritual implement in certain tantric practices of exorcism to remind one of death and impermanence.


Rsi Aksapada/ Rishi Akshapada. Founder of the non-Buddhist school of philosophy called Nyaya (see rig-pa can-pa).


Steyasarhvasika/ Living a lie. The lifestyle of living like a monk without having received monk vows; or without changing one's heart, even though one has externally taken the vows.


Lalana/ The left energy channel. The left channel in our body which is white in colour and stands adjacent to the central channel. It runs from the level of The eyebrows to the point

between the navel. The specific details vary according to the lineage of the practice concerned.


Pratyaya/ Conditions. Conditions or circumstances which are a necessary prerequisite for a cause to produce an effect.


Tri pratyayah/ The three types of conditions. 1. ག་བ་ད་པ་ན།

nriha pratyaya/ unchanging condition 2. ་ག་པ་ན། anitya pratiyaya/ impermanent condition 3. ས་པ་ན།

samartha pratyaya/ effective condition.


Catvari pratyayah/ The four conditions; the four conditions for a cognition. 1. ་ན། hetu pratyaya/ causal condition 2. དགས་ན། alambana pratyaya/ objective condition 3. བདག་ན། adhipati pratyaya/ fundamental condition 4. ་མ་ཐག་ན།

samanantara pratyaya/ immediate condition.


Paroksa/ Hidden phenomenon; obscure phenomenon. A phenomenon that cannot initially be cognized by a direct perception but can only be understood by an inference generated in dependence upon a correct reason, e.g.

impermanence of a vase.


Paroksa dharma/ The secret transmission. Oral transmission of certain doctrines handed down by Lamas only to ripe and deserving disciples.


Ekaksana/ Momentary. An impermanent thing—the definition of impermanence.


Ksanikaprayoga/ The momentary training; the training of a single-instant; the yoga of the last moment before enlightenment. The seventh of the eight topics (see dngos-po brgyad), exclusive to the path of Arya Bodhisattva.


Catvari ksanika prayoga dharmah/ The four topics that

characterize the momentary training. 1. མ་པར་ན་པ་ད་ག་ར་པ། vipaka ksanika prayoga/ the fruitional or matured momentary training 2. མ་པར་མ་ན་པ་ད་ག་ར་བ། avipaka ksanika prayoga/ non-fruitional or immature momentary training 3. མཚན་ད་ད་པ་ད་ག་ར་བ། alaksana ksanika prayoga/ momentary training lacking characteristics 4. གས་་ད་པ་ད་ག་ར་བ།

advaya ksanika prayoga/ non-dual momentary training.


He who sees the three times; the gods. Metaphorically used for the gods who see the three times (past, present and future) through clairvoyance.


Sabhaga hetu/ Congruent cause; equal-state cause. A cause that subsequently produces something of similar type to itself; one of the six types of causes (see rgyu-drug).


Sad sampanna bhaga/ The six fortunate possessions; six excellent riches. Excellent: 1. དབངག isvara sampanna bhaga/ power and wealth 2. གགས། rupa sampanna bhaga/ physical form 3. དཔལ། dhanya sampanna bhaga/ glory 4. གས་པ། kirti sampanna bhaga/ fame or reputation 5. ་ས། jnana sampanna bhaga/ wisdom 6. བན་འས། virya sampanna bhaga/ enthusiastic perseverance.


Kaya niyata/ Certainty of body; certainty of physical form. The feature of a Buddha's Complete Enjoyment Body (sambhogakaya), who is adorned with the 32 major marks (see mtsan bzang-po sum-cu rtsa-gnyis) and 80 minor marks (see dpe-byed bzang-po brgyad-bcu).


Panca kaya/ The five bodies of a Buddha. A. The five bodies

of a Buddha. 1-3. (see sku-gsum) 4. ་་ད་ svabhavakaya/ Nature Truth Body 5. ་འར་་་ avikara vajrakaya/ Immutable Varja Body. B. In some Nyingma tantra these are listed as: 1-3. (see sku-gsum) 4. ་འར་་་ avikara vajrakaya/ Immutable Vajra Body 5. མན་པར་ང་བ་པ་ abhisambodhikaya/ Fully Enlightened Body.


Dvi kaya/ The two bodies of a Buddha. 1. གགས་ mpakaya/ Form Body 2. ས་ dharmakaya/ Truth Body.


Thangka painting; scroll painting. Traditional Tibetan Buddhist art of painting Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, deities and various mystical representations upon a canvas.


The union of body and mind. The unity of the illusory body and the clear light mind of a yogi.


A. Dead body. B. Relics. С A stupa containing relics or remains of a holy being.


Incarnate lineage. The lineage of successive incarnate lamas or a single incarnation who is such a succession.

Kaya rddhi pratiharya/ Physical miraculous activity. One of the three miraculous activities of a Buddha (see cho-'phrul rnam-gsum) by which sentient beings are tamed and lead to the righteous path.


Catvari kaya/ The four bodies of a Buddha. 1. ་་ད་

svabhavakaya/ Nature Truth Body 2. ་ས་ས་ jnanakaya/ Wisdom Truth Body 3. ངས་ sambhogakaya/ Complete Enjoyment Body 4. ལ་ nirmanakaya/ Emanation Body.


The three bodies of a Buddha. 1. ས་ dharmakaya/ Truth Body 2. ངས་། sambhogakaya/ Complete Enjoyment Body 3. ལ་། nirmanakaya/Emanation Body.


Taking the three bodies of a Buddha as paths. The tantric practice of taking death as the dharmakaya, the intermediate state of rebirth as the sambhogakaya and the rebirth as the nirmanakaya of a Buddha in one's meditation practice.


Abhyakhyana/ Depreciation; underestimation. The assertion of the existence of something that does not exist conventionally, or to under rate somebody's qualities below deserving limits. For instance, asserting the non-existence of the law of causality.


Pandava/ The Pandavas. 1. ལ་ར་བན་པ། Yudhisthira 2. འགས་། Bhlmasena 3. གས་ད། Nakula 4. ད་བ། Arjuna 5.

་བཅས། Sahadeva.


Tri sarana/ The three objects of refuge; the three protectors-Buddha Dharma and Sangha.


Sarana dana/ The generosity of giving protection; the way of giving protection to somebody afraid of or in a crucial situation. One of the three types of giving (see sbyin-pa rnam-gsum).


Tri saranagrahaka upasaka/ a lay person ordained by refuge precepts. A Buddhist layman who has taken formal refuge or vow of precepts to accept the Three Jewels as the ultimate object of refuge for one's life-time. One of the four nominally ordained lay persons (see dge-bsnyen btags-pa-ba bzhi).


The Avalokitesvara of Kyidrong. According to a common belief among Tibetans, the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo once emanated himself in the form of a Gelong and came to Nepal, where he fell a sandal tree in which he is said to have found four self-born images of Avalokiteshvara. The Kyidrong Phagpa is one of them.


Catvari paryanka/ The four cross-legged positions. 1-3. three vajra cross-legged positions (see next) 4. བ་ང་་ལ་ང་། cross-legged position of non-dual bliss and void.


Tri paryahka/ The three vajra cross-legged positions of the energy channels, wind and drops ་ང་ག་་་་ལ་ང་གམ། Synonymous with rdo-rje skyil-krung gsum.

་ད་ །

Praja/ Sentient being; living being. Lit: nine-fold births refering to all beings for they take rebirth from the desire realm within the three realms; the form realm within the three realms; and from the formless realm within the three realms.


Ayatana/ Sources of perception; the senses and their respective objects.


Dvadasa ayatanani/ Twelve sources of perception. A. 1-6. Six outer sources of perception (see yul-drug) B. 7-12. Six inner sources of perception (see dbang-po drug).


Sad ayatana pratityasamutpada/ The interdependent link of six sources of perception; the link of six cognitive faculties. The fifth link in the twelve linked chain of interdependent origination; the period of time when the six sense powers of a foetus first emerge although they are still unable to distinguish objects of sense.


Catvaro yonayah/ The four types of birth. The four types of sentient beings differentiated according to the way they are born. 1. མངལ་ས། jarayu jah/ those born from a womb 2. ང་ས། anda jah/ those born from an egg 3. ད་གར་ལས་་བ།

sarhsveda jah/ those born from heat and moisture 4. ས་ས། upapaduka jah/those born miraculously.


Jati/ The birth-state; birth. One of the four states of existences of a being (see srid-pa bzhi) in genial; for human beings, the very moment of conception in the mother's womb.


Utpattinih svabhavata/ One of the three lackings of identity. Because all phenomena are generated, or come into being in reliance upon causes and conditions, not only does a multicoloured rope lack a snake's existence, but also, it's inherent existence as a rope, as it is the product of many threads wound together. Therefore, it lacks inherent existence.


Janma nirmanakaya/ The Emanation Body of a Buddha by birth. The way a Buddha takes an emanated form of a god, animal, bridge and living beings in order to tame sentient beings.


The ultimate teachings lacking birth. One of the five teachings (see gsung lnga) of a Buddha according to Nyingma tradition. This refers to the inexpressible reality itself which forms the basis or root of all meanings. Consequently, it is also called the ultimate teaching of the unborn truth body (chos-sku skye-med don-gyi gsung).


Ajata mahasukha/ The unborn great bliss. This refers to the state of liberation or state beyond suffering.


Upapattibhava/ The state of birth or existence. One of the four states of existence, e.g. the consciousness that has just connected to the conception taken place in the womb.


A non-Buddhist by birth. Those who hold the wrong view that phenomena exist truly by way of their own accord.


The three types of persons (see skys-bu chung-ngu, spyes-bu'-bring and skyes-bu chen-po).


Adhama purusa/ Person of small scope. A practitioner who merely seeks a higher state of rebirth impelled by fear of the lower rebirths.


Visesakadhama purusa/ The superior person of small scope. A practitioner who has generated disgust of the expenence of this life and has produced an uncontrived or natural interest in a better future life through contemplating the difficulty and significance of finding a human rebirth endowed with leisure (see dal-ba brgyad) and endowments (see 'byor-ba bcu), and impermanence.


Adhama purusa marga/ The paths of a person of small scope. The intent or wish for, primarily, seeking a higher rebirth within cyclic existence (samsara) for the sake of oneself alone.


Uttama purusa/ Person of great scope. A practitioner with

great spirit who voluntarily seeks to place all sentient beings throughout the expanse of space in the state of complete enlightenment (Buddhahood), and who therefore is able to work extensively for the sake of others.


Uttama purusa marga/ The paths of a person of great scope. All paths of the greater vehicle (Mahayana) that are conjoined by resolute intent (lhag-bsam), the sixth of the seven-fold causes and result (see rgyu-'bras man-ngag bdun) transmission.


Anta purusa/ The person of small scope (same as skyes-bu chung-ngu).


Madhyama purusa/ Person of middling scope. A practitioner who wishes himself or herself to be free of the sufferings of cyclic existence and seeks to achieve the state of liberation.

Madhyama purusa marga/ The paths of a person of middling scope. All those paths that are conjoined with a wish primarily to achieve the state of liberation for one's own sake by being disgusted with the marvels of cyclic existence (samsara).


Catvari yampurusa/ Four categories of a person (on the paths). 1. ན་གས། srotapanna/ Stream-winner 2.ར་ང་། sakrdagamin/ Once-returner 3.ར་་ང་། anagamin/ Never-returner 4. ད་བམ། arhat/ Foe-destroyer.


The stages of paths of the three types of persons and the texts that explain these paths.


Pauruseya phala/ Fruit produced by a person. The commonly shared environment and the general conditions of life in this universe as experienced by an individual being, who is dependent upon them.


Jataka/ Life stories (jatakas); rebirth stories. Accounts of Bodhisattva practices that Buddha encountered in his previous lives; a geniune examplary teaching.


Kheda/ Attitude of disgust. A subdued state of mind which is disgusted with the uncontrolled cycle of birth, sickness and death that ultimately desires liberation, thus transforming into renunciation.


Dosa and guna/ Faults and good qualities; merits and demerits.


Kyopa Jigten Gonpo (1143-1217). The founder and one of the foremost masters of the Drikung Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


Class monitor in a monastic university.


A regular class in a monastery where students recite the texts by heart at an assembly after they have memorized them.


Kesonduka/ A false appearance of falling hair. An example of what a person with a cataract seems to see with distorted non-conceptual sensory perception.


Full-length prostration.


The small aeon. According to the Abhidharma tradition, a small aeon refers to the extent of time it takes for the human life-span to increase from ten years of age up to a maximum of eighty-thousand at a rate of only one year every century, as well as to decrease down to a minimum often years of human life span at the same rate, i.e. one year every century. This comes to billions of human years.


Mahakalpa/ The great aeon. According to Abhidharma tradition, every cycle of eighty small aeons comprises one great aeon. This comes to trillions of human years. A great aeon consists of eighty intermediate aeons divided into twenty aeons of formation, persistence, dissolution and vacuity.


Asamkyeya kalpa/ An incalculable aeon. One sixtieth of a great aeon, i.e. the sixty digit number of years in calculation. Thrice this limit of calculation becomes the three great countless aeons (skal-chen grangs-med gsum).


Obstructions. Obstructions caused either by an object, time or nature that do not allow, the visual perception of something.


The three-fold obstructions. 1. ས་་བལ་ན། obstruction by time, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to a duration of time 2. ལ་་བལ་ན། obstruction by object, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to distant location of the object of perception 3. རང་བན་ནམ་་་བལ་ན། obstruction by nature or identity, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to the inherent subtlety.

Kalpa/ An aeon; world age.


The two aeons. 1. ན་བལ། The aeon of light (sgron-bskal), referring to that period when the doctrine of Buddha flourishes. 2. ན་བལ། The aeon of darkness (mun-bskal), referring to that period when the doctrine of Buddha does not flourish.


The two-fold aeon. Following the further degeneration of the three-fold aeon, it is believed that people will observe only two of the ten virtuous activities; this period is known as the two-fold aeon and is equivalent to eight hundred and sixty-four thousand human years.


Antara kalpa/ The intermediate aeon. According to the Abidharma tradition, two small aeons make an intermediate aeon. This comes to billions of human years.


The aeons that falls within eighteen intermediate periods. This comprises the three aeons known as the aeon of starvation, the aeon of sickness and the aeon of weapons.


Krtayuga/ The perfect aeon; the excellent aeon. According to the Abhidharma tradition, it is explained that after the origination of human beings in this universe for a long period the system of private ownership did not exist and the people were perfectly pure in their moral conduct committing no non-virtues, i.e. they upheld all of the ten virtuous activities. This period is known as the perfected aeon and is said to be equivalent to one million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand human years.


The earliest aeon. This refers to the fortunate aeon (bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan) during which human beings lived to the age of ten thousand years, and were nourished by natural oil from the ground and unharvested crops such as rice seedlings.


Treta yuga/ The three-fold aeon. Following the degeneration of the perfected aeon, it is said that people will observe only three of the ten virtuous activities; this period is known as the three-fold aeon. This period is equivalent to one million two hundred and ninety-six thousand human years.


The four periods of an aeon: 1. the fortunate (see bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan) 2. the three-fold (see bskal-pa gsum-ldan) 3. the two-fold (see bskal-pa gnyis-ldan) 4. The corrupt age (see rtsod-idam-gyi dus).


Utpattikiama/ The generation stage practice. The tantric practice of transforming appearance, sound and wisdom respectively into a deity, mantra and wisdom of that particular meditalional deity in order to purify the four types of birth along with their latencies.


The subtle generation stage practice. Meditation on the implements of a deity, i.e. the subtle vajra meditative concentration.


The gross generation stage practice. Tantric meditation on the face and arms of a deity.


A limit of calculation. The fifty-fifth fraction of the sixtieth limit of counting according to the Abhidharma tradition.


Complementary fire-puja. A commitment of performing the rite of fire-puja at the conclusion of a retreat on a particular deity in order to purify the omissions and commissions one may have made in the course of meditation on that deity.


Opponent: another view point. Proponents of a philosophical position other than one's own or other than those held by the author of a philosophical treatise, who introduces his opponent's views by the phrase 'kha-chig', then proceeds to refute them.


An oral will. An oral testament given, especially at the time of death, describing how one's affairs are to be handled.


The four surpassing concentrations on colors. One of the eight surpassing concentrations, in which a yogi visualizes the four colors blue, yellow, white and red as radiant and luminous through the power of meditation and thus gains control of magical hallucinations.


Welcoming the day through reciting words of auspiciousness. This refers to the custom of greeting everybody with the words, "Good luck and happy New Year. May you be prosperous forever," thereby offering and accepting bits of chang, and phye-mar, i.e. sweet ground roasted barley.


Avadya/ Misdeeds. All wrong doings, non-virtues and negative activities prone to produce pain and suffering as their consequences.


The two types of misdeeds; two kinds of non-virtues. 1. བཅས་པ་ཁ་ན་མ་་བ། pratiksepana savadya/ proscribed misdeed 2. རང་བན་་ཁ་ན་མ་་བ། natural misdeed.


Avadyavarana/ The obscuration from misdeeds. The ten non-virtues and other wrong doings. These are also called karmic obscurations (las-kyi sgrib-pa).


The four great rivers coming from the four directions of Mt. Kailash. 1. ག The Ganges from the opening of a rock like an elephant to the east; 2.  the Sindhu from the opemng of a rock like a peacock to the south; 3.པ[k+Shu]།| the Pakshu from the

opening of a rock like a horse to the west, which is also known as the Yarlung river, and 4. ་། Sita from the opening of a rock like a lion to the north.


Saptanga sarhbhukta/ The seven features of divine embrace; the seven features of Buddhas in sambhogakaya form. 1. ངས་ད་གས་པ་ཡན་ལག sambhoganga/ complete enjoyment 2. ཁ་ར་་ཡན་ལག sambhuktaiiga/ kissing 3. བ་བ་ན་་ཡན་ལག

mahasukhanga/ great bliss 4. རང་བན་ད་པ་ཡན་ལག abhavahga/ non-inherent existence 5. ང་ས་ངས་་གང་པ་ཡན་ལག sarhpurnakarunahga/ completely overwhelmed by compassion 6. ན་་ཆད་པ་ཡན་ལག anacchedariga/ uninterrupted contuinity 7. འག་པ་ད་པ་ཡན་ལག anirodhahga/ non-cessation.


Lapana/ Flattery. One of the five means of wrong livelihood (see log-'tso Inga), getting someone to give you something by flattering him or her.


Monastic house. A smaller community within a monastic univeristy in which monks from one geographical area live.


Dhatu/ A. A locality, region, domain or realm. B. A family or caste. С Elements or nature. D. Cause or seed. E. Spheres, faculty or senses.


The white and red constituents; semen and blood.

Panca dhatu/ The five elements. A. Generally the: 1. ས། bhu/

earth 2. ། water 3. ། tejas/ fire 4. anila/ wind 5. ནམ་མཁའ akasa/ space. B. In medical tantras and astrology these are identified as: 1. ང་། vrksa/ wood 2. ། tejas/ fire 3. ས། bhu/ earth 4. ག loha/ iron 5.  jala/water.


The natural qualities of the five elements. The earth element has five qualities—sound, touch, taste, form and smell; the water element has four—sound, touch, taste and form; the fire element has three qualities—sound, touch and taste; the wind element has two qualities—sound and touch; and the space element has only one quality—being capable of producing sound.


Astadasa dhatu/ The eighteen spheres of perception. 1-6.

དགས་པ་ལ་་ཁམས་ག the six objects as the bases 1. གགས།

rupa/form2.  sabda/sound 3.  gandha/ smell 4. ། rasa/ taste 5. ག་། sprastavya/ tangible object 6. ས། dharma/ phenomena 7-12. ན་དབང་་ཁམས་ the six sense powers as the reliance (see dbang-po drug) 13-18. བན་པ་མ་ས་་ཁམས་ག the six consciousnesses that rely upon senses (see rnam-shes tsogs-brgyad, 1 -6).


The six elements." 1-5. (see khams-lnga) 6. མ་ས vijnana/ consciousness.


Human beings possessing six elements. According to Vajrayana teachings the rebirth of human beings is superior for tantric practices due to the fact that human being possesses the six elements (see khams-drug).


Catvari dhatu/The four elements (see khams-lnga, 1 -4).


Traidhatu/ The three realms. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ the desire realm 2. གགས་ཁམས། rupa dhatu/ the form realm 3. གགས་ད་ཁམས། ашра dhatu/ the formless realm.


Traidhatu nava bhumi/ The three realms and nine levels. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ desire realm 2. བསམ་གཏན་དང་། prathama dhyana/ first concentration 3. བསམ་གདན་གས་པ། dvitiyadhyana/ second concentration 4. བསམ་གཏན་གམ་པ། tritiyadhyana/ third concentration 5. བསམ་གཏན་བ་པ། caturthadhyana/ fourth concentration 6. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས། akasantya/ infinite space 7. མ་ས་མཐའ་ཡས། vijnanantya/ infinite consciousness 8. ་ཡང་ད akirhcanya/ nothingness 9. ད་ bhavagra/peak of cyclic existence.


Pratijnabhiksu/ A nominal bhiksu; an insincere monk. A person who claims to be a monk without having received monastic vows or by having lost the vows through transgressing any of the root vows.


Semen and menstrual blood; semen and egg. Male and female substances.


The three principal disciples of Atisa the Great. They are ་ན་བན་འས་ང་ང་། Khuton Tsondru Yung Drung, ག་གས་པ་ས་རབ། Ngog Legpe Sherab, and འམ་ན་ལ་བ་འང་གནས། Dromton Gyalwe Jungne.


Catvari bhara/The four burdens. 1. ང་་ར། skandha bhara/ burden of aggregate 2. བན་འས་་ར། virya bhara/ burden of effort 3. ན་ངས་པ་ར klesa bhara/ burden of delusions 4. དམ་བཅ་ར

pratijna bhara/ burden of pledges.

ངས་པ། ངས་གས།

Stambha/ Conceit; pride; arrogance; haughtiness.

The three chapters of total comprehension. This refers to the first three durations of the ten sets of five hundred years being the life-span of Buddha Sakyamuni's doctrine. These three are known as ད་བམ་པ་ the chapter of Arhats,ར་་ང་པ་། the chapter of Never-returners and ན་་གས་པ་། the chapter of Stream-winners.


Cruel-minded; nasty; conniving.

Vaira/ Grudge. Stubbornly holding a grudge and seeking to take revenge.


The surrounding mountains. According to Abhidharma this refers to the iron mountains surrounding the outskirts of the four cardinal directions. The outer circumference of this is said to be three crores six lakhs twenty-six thousand and twenty five (3,602,625) yojanas.


Vaisnava/ Visnu worshippers. A propounder of non-Buddhist tenets who follow Visnu, asserting a permanent and partless


Catvari dhatu/ The four elements (see khams-lnga, 1 -4).


Traidhatu/ The three realms. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ the desire realm 2. གགས་ཁམས། dhatu/ the form realm 3. གགས་ད་ཁམས། arupa dhatu/ the formless realm.


Traidhatu nava bhumi/ The three realms and nine levels. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ desire realm 2. བསམ་གཏན་དང་། prathama dhyana/ first concentration 3. བསམ་གཏན་གས་པ། dvitiyadhyana/ second concentration 4. བསམ་གཏན་གམ་པ། tritiyadhyana/ third concentration 5. བསམ་གཏན་བ་པ། caturthadhyana/ fourth concentration 6. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས། akasantya/ infinite space 7. མ་ས་མཐའ་ཡས། vijnanantya/ infinite consciousness 8. ་ཡང་ད། akirhcanya/ nothingness 9. ད་། bhavagra/ peak of cyclic existence.


Pratijnabhiksu/ A nominal bhiksu; an insincere monk. A person who claims to be a monk without having received monastic vows or by having lost the vows through transgressing any of the root vows.


Semen and menstrual blood; semen and egg. Male and female substances.


The three principal disciples of Atis'a the Great. They are ་ན་བན་འས་གང་ང་།

Khuton Tsondru Yung Drung, ག་གས་པ་ས་རབ། Ngog Legpe Sherab, and འམ་ན་ལ་བ་འང་གནས། Dromton Gyalwe Jungne.


Catvari bhara/ The four burdens. 1. ང་་ར། skandha bhara/ burden of aggregate 2. བན་འས་་ར། virya bhara/ burden of effort 3. ན་ངས་པ་ར། klesa bhara/ burden of delusions 4. ^*r wg*| pratijna bhara/ burden of pledges.

Stambha/ Conceit; pride; arrogance; haughtiness.

The three chapters of total comprehension. This refers to the first three durations of the ten sets of five hundred years being the life-span of Buddha Sakyamuni's doctrine. These three are known as «Я'Ч&гча-пед me chapter of Arhats, 3**г&ча-Щ the chapter of Never-returners and j^SW4*^ the chapter of Stream-winners.

Ff4l ]

Cruel-minded; nasty; conniving.

Vaira/ Grudge. Stubbornly holding a grudge and seeking to take revenge.

The surrounding mountains. According to Abhidharma this refers to the iron mountains surrounding the outskirts of the four cardinal directions. The outer circumference of this is said to be three crores six lakhs twenty-six thousand and twenty five (3,602,625) yojanas.


Vaisnava/ Visnu worshippers. A propounder of non-Buddhist tenets who follow Visnu, asserting a permanent and partless

self. The practice of vase-like meditation and meditation on the syllable OM is asserted as their path of liberation.


The ten emanations of Visnu. 1. ཉ། matsya/ a fish 2. ས་ལ། kacchapa/ a tortoise 3. ཕག་ད། varaha/ a wild pig 4. ་ང་། narasirhha/ human-lion 5. ་མ་ཎ། rama candra/ the God Rama 6. ་ང་། vamana/a dwarf 7. ནག་། krsna/the God Krishna 8. པར་་་མ། rsi parkurama/ the Saint Parku 9. ་་བ་པ། Sakyamuni/ Buddha Sakyamuni 10. ཀ་། Krkici/ the son of a Brahmin.


Vyapti/ Pervasion. A logical relationship e.g., if "X" is pervasive with "Y," then all instances of "X" are necessarily "Y," but all "Y" are not necessarily "X."


Asta vyaptidvara/ Eight types of pervasion. A logical relationship, in which the eight requirements of congruency for two things are mutually inclusive. ན་བ་གས།1.if it is "X" it is "Y" 2. if it is "Y" it is "X" ནབ་གས། 3. if it is not "X" it is not "Y" 4. if it is not "Y" it is not "X" ད་བ་གས། 5. if there is "X" there is "Y" 6. if there is "Y" there is "X" ད་བ་གས།

7. if there is no "X" then there is no "Y" 8. if there is no "Y" then there is no "X".


Sarhskara dhuhkhata/ Pervasive suffering. The most subtle suffering inherent in the very nature of the five contaminated aggregates which, like a magnet, attract suffering directly or indirectly.


Mula vyapti/ Four positive pervasions. 1. ས་བ subsequent

pervasion (see rjes-khyab) 2. གབ། counter pervasion (see ldog-khyab) 3. འགལབ། contrary pervasion ('gal-khyab) 4. ར་བ། downward pervasion (see thur-khyab).


Spharanalambana/ Pervasive object. One of the four meditative objects (see rnal-'byor-gyi dmigs-pa bzhi) of a yogi practising mental quiescence meditation (zhi-gnas) in which the suchness that pervades all existents is taken as the object of developing samatha.


Catvari spharanalambana/ Four objects of pervasion. The pervasive objects of mental quiescence are: 1. མ་པར་ག་པ་དང་བཅས་པ་གགས་བན། savikalpa/ conceptual pervasive object 2. མ་པར་ག་པ་ད་པ་གགས་བན། nirvikalpa/ nonceptual pervasive object 3. དས་་མཐའ། vastvanta/ extreme of existence 4. དས་པ་ངས་་འབ་པ་དགས་པ། krtyanusthana/ perfectly established purpose.


The pervasive wind energy. One of the five principal winds (see rtza-ba'i rlung lnga) located at the heart, it spreads liquids such as blood throughout the body, and is responsible for the movements of the body and limbs.


Disturbing the householder's faith; an act of placing bad impressions about the Sangha community in the eyes of householders.

Six ornaments of a throne; six adornments of a throne. A. 1. ་ང་། an eagle 2. ་གངས་ཀ་ཅན། a water-spirit (naga) with multiple hoods behind the head 3. ་ན། a crocodile-like sea

monster (makara) with a criss-cross ornmental pattern on its body 4. མས་པ་་ང་། a fine looking youth wearing tree

leaves as garments 5.་གས་ཤ་རལ་ཅན། a large unicorn-like animal having a mane of flesh and a single horn 6. ང་་་ན་ན། an elephant adorned with ornaments and holding a vase in its trunk B. 1. ང་ sirhha/ a lion 2. ང་ན། hastin/ an elephant 3. ་མག asva/ a supreme horse 4. ་། mayura/ a peacock 5. ཤང་ཤང་། garuda/ a garuda bird 6. ད་་། vira purusa/ a strong man.


Discourse; teaching; explanation; transmission.


Lineage of a teaching. A transmission of the lineage of a teaching in which a scriptural text is explained word by word from written commentaries and oral tradition.


Oral transmission. A discourse in which a textual transmission is given by the recitation of a text, often with a brief explanation.


The eight great transmissions; the eight great teachings. A.ག་ན་ད་ན་བད། The eight great transmissions on the Great Seal (mahamudra): 1. ་མ་་གམ་་ད། teaching on guru devotion and the three bodies of a Buddha 2. མས་ང་་ད། teaching on love and compassion 3. ་འས་ན་འལ་་ད། teaching on causality and dependent origination 4. ་ན་བད་་གས་པད། the drop of nectar-like five-fold instructions on the Great Seal 5. ན་ག་ས་ར་་ད། teaching on simultaneous brith and unification 6. ་་ས་ག་་ད། teaching on the six yogas of Naropa (see na-ro chos-drug) 7. ས་བད་མ་མས་་ད། teaching on subduing the eight worldly concerns (see

'jig-rten chos-brgyad) 8. གསང་ད་ག་མ་ད། teaching on the reversed method of meditation on secret mantra doctrine. B. ལམ་མ་ད་ན་བད། The eight great texts on the Graded Path (lam-rim): 1. ལམ་མ་ཆན་། the extensive text 2. ལམ་མ་འང་། the midddling text and 3. ལམ་མ་་་། the short texts by Tsong Khapa 4. ལམ་མ་གར་ན་མ། Refined Gold by the Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso (1543-1588) 5. ལམ་མ་འཇམ་དཔལ་ཞལ་ང་། Instruction from Manjusri by the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682) 6. ལམ་མ་བ་ལམ། Convenient Path by the first Panchen Lama, Lobsang Choegyan (1570-1662) 7. ལམ་མ་ར་ལམ། Qmck Path by the Second Panchen Lama, Lobsang Yeshi (1663-1737) 8. ལམ་མ་གས་གང་ང་། Essence of Element Sayings by Dakpo Ngawang Dakpa.


Hasta/ Cubit. 1. The length measuring from the elbow to the main joints of the little finger with the hand in a fist or the length of measurement from the elbow to the tip of middle finger. The former is called the short cubit and the latter the full-length cubit. 2. According to Vinaya, dividing one's body into seven equal proportions, a cubit equals the length covered within two parts of the whole.


Taking a bath. One of the three requirements before a disciple is prepared to enter the mandala during an initiation. A disciple visualizes taking a bath from the water of the ritual vase. This is symbolically done by sipping, rinsing and spitting water just before entenng the hall of mitiation. The other two requirements are making prostration and offering a mandala to the master.


Taking a three-fold bath. A practice of Kriya tantra.་ས་ཡན་ལག་་ས། Taking the outer bath by washing the five limbs of the body, ནང་་ས་་ང་དག་པར་ད་པ། taking the inner bath by purifying the root downfalls and གསང་བ་ས་མཚན་ག་དག་པར་ད་པ། taking the secret bath by casting away all negative conceptual thoughts and imaginations.


Anapatrapya/ Inconsideration; indifference to blame. Lack of concern for the consequences of actions done to others or the lack of any sense of embarassment.


Apatrapyaadhana/ The wealth of sense of concern. One of the seven \vealths of the Aryas (see 'phags-nor bdun). Avoiding committing wrong doings because of sense of embarrassment in regard to others. In other words, one tries to protect the wholesome deeds and avoid committing wrong-doings. This is analogous to the precious minister.


Bhrkuti/ Wrinkles of wrathfulness. A sign of wrath on the nose or brow of a tantric meditational deity.


Khrophu Kagyud Tradition. A lineage of the Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism coming from Phagmo Drupa's disciple Rinpoche Gyaltsab and his younger brother Kunden Repa, through Khrophu Lotsawa, Jampa Pel and others.


Krodha/ Wrath; aggressiveness.


Ten wrathful deities; the ten protectors. 1. གན་་གད། Yamantaka 2. གཞན་ས་་བ་པ། Aparajita 3. ་མན། Hayagriva 4. བད་་འལ་བ། Amrtakundalin 5. ་ག་བ། Acala 6. འད་ལ། Takkiraja/ Kamaraja 7. དག་ན་ཅན། Niladanda 8. བས་་། Mahabala 9. གག་ར་འར་བར། Usmsacakravartin 10. གད་མས་ལ་། Sumbharaja. According to Guhyasamaja these are the ten wrathful deities of the four directions, four intermediate directions, zenith and nadir.


Eleven wrathful deities. 1-10. (see above, khro-bo-bcu) 11. ་་ས་ག Vajrapatala.


The eight terrifying laughs of a wrathful deity. གས་པ་གད་་ཧ་ཧ། Ha Ha as the threatening; དས་པ་གད་་་། He He

as the pleasing; ག་པ་གད་་་། Hi Hi as the elegant; and ལ་ས་གན་པ་གད་་་། Ho Ho as the outshining laugh.


The manner of being in a crowded assembly. One of the manners of visualizing the merit field (tshogs-zhing) in which one visualizes the principal deity in the center surrounded by other masters and disciples forming a circle of a crowded assembly.


Upadhyaya/ An abbot or abbess. The head of a monastery or the principal master from whom monastic vows are received.


Upadhyaya parampara/ The abbot lineage. A. The ordination

lineage of monastic vows. B. The lineage of abbots of a monastery, also called 'abbot lineage' (mkhan-rabs).


A. The master and his disciple. B. The Abbot and Assistant Abbot. According to the Vinaya tradition a spiritual master who fulfills the three qualities of being: 1. pure in the observance of moral discipline as the foundation of all qualities 2. learned in the ritual and rites explained in the Vinayapitaka scriptures 3. extremely compassionate towards the sick and friendless.


Six characteristics of the abbot and assistant abbots in general. 1. ལམས་དང་ན་པ། purity of moral discipline 2. འལ་བ་་ག་ས་པ། knowledge of monastic code 3. ནད་པར་ང་བ་བ། kindness towards sick people 4. ནང་འར་དག་པ། purity of close disciples 5. ས་དང་ཟང་ཟང་ས་ཕན་འགས་པ། benefiting others with dharma teachings and giving material aid 6. ས་་འམས་པ། knowledge of the proper time to give teachings.


A universal meditative concentration free of being biased or sectarian in nature.


Dakini/ sky-goer; sky-walker. Female celestial beings capable of flying through space, residing in a pure land or within cyclic existence. In tantras dakinis are the class of female deities embodying the wisdom aspect of a practitioner who has attained the uncommon siddhi. A goddess born in the pure land of a Buddha is also known as Dakini.


Panca dakini/ The five families of dakinis. 1. ཤར་་་མཁའའག

Vajra dakini to the east 2. ་ན་ན་མཁའ་འ Raina dakini to the south 3.བ་པད་མ་མཁའ་འ adma dakini to the west 4. ང་ལས་་མཁའ་འ Karma dakini to the north 5. དས་སངས་ས་མཁའ་འ Buddha dakini in the centre.


The Heart Drop Doctrine of Dakini. A secret Nyingma transmission of Guru Padmasambhava given to Khado Yeshe Tsogyal that was later discovered by Padma Ledrel Tsal from a treasure (i.e. Terma).


Khasarpana/ A. A practitioner who utilizes the sky as the realm of existence. B. A dakini.


Khasarpana siddhi/ The Siddhi of Khechari field. One who has either attained the eight worldly siddhis (see 'jig-rten pa'i dbang-phyug brgyad), one of the eight common siddhis (see thun-mong gi dngos-grub brgyad), or has the capability to travel into the celestial Khechari fields such as the land of six gods of the desire realm (see 'dod-lha rigs-drug).


The three cycles of Khasarpana dakini teachings of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. 1. ་་མཁའ་ད། Naro Khacho 2. ་མཁའ་ད། Indra Khacho 3. ་ཱི་མཁའ་ད། Metri Khacho.


The Lesser Khasarpana. Those practitioners who utilize space or fly in the sky of the form realm, six gods of the desire realm (see 'dod-lha rigs-drug), human world or otherwise being uncertain in terms of their destination.


The Greater Khasarpana Those practitioners who possess the following eight qualities: 1. ལ་་རབ་་་་ད་དང་། who can transform their body into a size as tiny as dust particles 2. ས་ཡང་བ་ད་དང་། who has a light body 3. འག་ན་གམ་་མཐའ་དག་བ་པར་ད་ད་དང་། who can fly throughout the three realms of existence (see khams-gsum) 4. སངས་ས་་ན་ཏན་འབ་པ་དང་། who are capable of attaining the qualities of a Buddha 5. ་ས་་ང་བ་གསལ་བ་དང་། whose primordial wisdom is penetrative 6. བན་པ་དང་། whose primordial body is stable 7. ་་ཐམས་ཅད་བདག་ད་་དབང་་ར་པ་དང་། who has the power of control over all creatures 8. འད་དར་ར་བ་བཅས་ན་ཏན་བད་དང་ན་པ་མཁའ་ད། who fulfills all wishes.


Khasarpana ksetra/ The Dakini Land.


The lord of the sky, garuda bird.


Khasarpana goddess.


The hungry ghosts travelling in the sky, e.g. the malignant spirits and dwarves (Vrang) of the human world.


Panditalarhbana/ The object of the wise ones. One of the four objects of calm-abiding (samatha) meditation (see rnal-'byor gyi dmigs-pa bzhi). One who has the wisdom to judge his or her objects of meditation with respect to the aggregates, the spheres, the sources of perception, the links of dependent

arising, and those that are and are not suitable to be taken as the object for developing calm abiding meditation.


Раnса panditalarhbana/ The five qualities of a master-scholar. 1. མནག་་ས་པ། extensive hearing & study 2. ན་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over meaning 3. ་་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over diction 4. ས་པ་ག་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over definite words 5. ན་དང་མ་མཐའ་དངས་པ་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over interpretation of the previous and latter contexts.


The three activities of a master-scholar. 1. འཆད་པ། preaching 2. ད་པ། debating 3. མ་པ། wnting.


Learned, pure, wise. A person who is knowledgeable in the sciences of learning, is morally pure with respect to the three gates of activity and unsullied by negativities, and has the pure spirit to benefit others.


Jnana/ Knowledge; wisdom; understanding; insight.


Two kinds of knowledge. 1. ་ལཏ་བ་ན་པ། yathavajjnana/ knowledge of all conventional phenomena 2. ་ད་པ་མ་ཀགཧན་པ། yavajjnana/ knowledge of all ultimate phenomen.


Three kinds of knowledge. 1. ག་ས། vastujnana/ the omniscient mind 2. ལམ་ས། margajnana/ the knowledge of paths 3. མ་མན། sarvajnana/the knowledge of bases.


The five knowledges. Same as the five wisdoms (see ye-shes Inga).


The thirty topics that characterize the three knowledges explained in the Ornament of Clear Realization (Abhisamayalankara). These constitute the ten topics that characterize the omniscient mind (see rnam-mkhyen mtshon-byed-kyi chos bcu), the eleven topics that characterize the knowledge of the paths (see lam-shes mtshon-byed-kyi chos bcu-bcig) and the nine topics that characterize the knowledge of the bases (see gzhi-shes mtshon-byed-kyi chos-dgu).


Meditation on the union of the three knowledges/wisdoms. Condensed, abbreviated meditation on the three wisdoms i.e. basic wisdom, path wisdom and omniscient wisdom.


The Khon lineage. The patriarchal lineage of the hierarchies of the Sakya tradition. It is said that a celestial being known by the name Yapang Kye (g.ya'-spang-skyes) tamed Kyareng Tragme (skya-rengs khrag-med), a demon, and accepted his wife Yadrag Silema (g.ya'-'brag si-le-ma) to his court as his bride who gave birth to a son. This being the result of combat between a demon and a celestial being the descendants of this lineage came to be known as Khon, the 'combat lineage'. The present lineage holder is His Holiness Sakya Trizin,. who is based at Rajpur, India.


The confession ceremony for pacifying disputes. One of the ceremonies of the monastic community held at irregular

intervals whenever there is a need to hold such an assembly to pacify a major dispute between Sangha communities.


The six qualities of the wheel of a universal monarch. These are: 1. ར་་འ་བ། speedy 2. གཞན་་འ་བ། migrant 3. མ་ལ་བ་ལས་ལ་བར་ད་པ། victorious over those uncaptured 4. ལ་བ་ལ་་འད་པ། controls those already captured 5. མ་བ་ལ་འཕར་བ། eliminates those above 6. དམའ་བ་ལ་འབབ་པ། debases those beneath.


The seven near precious articles of a universal monarch. These are: 1. རལ་་ན་་། precious sword 2. པགས་པ་ན་་། precious skin 3.མ་ན་་། precious householder 4. ཚལ་ན་་།

precious garden 5. ས་ན་་། precious garment 6. མ་ན་་། precious shoes 7. མལ་ཆ་ན་་། precious bedding.


Panca cakravartin/ The five universal monarchs. These are: 1. ང་ལས་། Mandhatr 2. མསཔ། Caru 3. ་མས་པ། Upacaru 4. མས་ན། Carumanta 5. ་མས་ན། Upacarumanta.


Certainty of disciples. A feature of a sambhogakaya Buddha who only teaches to a circle of Arya Bodhisattva disciples.


Panca bhadraparisadya/ The five ascetics. The group of five disciples who were the direct recipients of Buddha's First Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine at Varanasi. 1. ན་ས་་་། Ajnanata Kaundinya 2. ་ལ། Asvajit 3. ངས་པ། Vaspa 4. ང་ན། Mahanama 5. བཟང་ན། Bhadnka.


Catvari parisadyah/ The four types of followers of Buddha Sakyamuni. 1.མ་པ་་་གས། male and female householders 2. རབ་ང་་་གས། novice monks and nuns 3. ད་ང་ཕ་མ་གས།

fully ordained monks and nuns 4. ད་བན་ཕ་མ་གས། ordained layman and laywomen.


Sampanna parisadLa/ The perfect retinue. One of the five excellences (see phun-sum tshogs-pa lnga); the fact that a Buddha is being encircled by Bodhisattvas who have attained the spiritual grounds and the knowledge bearers (tantrikas).


Sarhsara/ Cyclic existence (samsara). The vicious beginningless cycle of rebirth, fraught with sufferings of birth, sic jiess, aging and death, arising from ignorance as contrast to the state of peace, liberation.


The practice of sarhsara. The practice of forbearance and willingly accepting the pains and sufferings within cyclic existence.


A. The household of sarhsara, family life. B. the queen's



The painting of the wheel of life traditionally depicted on the wall of the portico of a monastery.


The enemy of sarhsara. A. The wisdom realizing selflessness.

B. The state of liberation.


The ocean of sarhsara. The immeasurable and unlimited suffering that seems to have no beginning and no end of its own.


The continuity of sarhsara. The continuity of this aggregate propelled by karma and delusion that knows no beginning.


Samsara dvara/ The door of sarhsara. Karma and delusion.


Sarhsara bandhana/ The bindings of sarhsara. The karma and delusion that binds us within samsaric life.


Sarhsara duhkhata/ The sufferings within samsara. The sufferings of birth, old age, sickness, death and of hunger, thirst and the like.


The leader of sarhsara. The truth of origin of suffering; the karma and delusion that spearheads every experience within samsaric life.


Samsara mula/ The root of sarhsara. The six root delusions that bind us to sarhsara; desire-attachment, hatred-anger, pride, ignorance, deluded views or philosophy, and doubt.


Samsara marga/ The paths of sarhsara. A. The twelve links of interdependent origination (see rten'brel yan-lag bcu-gnyis). B. The non-virtuous activities.


The three paths within cyclic existence; the circle of three paths. 1. ན་ངས་པ་ལམ། klesa marga/ the path of delusions (

that give rise to accumulation of karmas 2. ལས་་ལམ། karma marga/ the path of karma that give rise to sufferings 3.་ག་བལ་་ལམ། duhkhata marga/ he path of suffering that give rise

to continuous generation of karmas and delusions.


Рanca cakra/ The five channel wheel. 1-4. (see 'khor-lo bzhi) 5. གསང་གནས་་བ་ང་འར་། the wheel of sustaining bliss at the secret organ.


Catvari mahacakra/ The four great wheels. 1. མན་ར་ར་བ་ལ་ན་གན་པ། living in a harmonious environment 2. ས་་དམ་པ་ལ་བན་པ། relying upon a holy or spiritual person 3. ན་ལམ་བཏབ་པ། making prayers 4. བད་ནམས་བསགས་པ། having accumulated merits. This is also called the four wheels of the god and men (lha-dang mi-rnams-kyi 'khor-lo bzhi).


The great wheel of four-fold blessings according to the completion stage practice of tantra. 1. ས་ན་བས། blessings of body 2. ངག་ན་བས། blessings of speech 3. ད་ན་བས། blessings of mind 4. ་་ན་ད་་ན་བས། blessings of the suchness.

The three-fold wheels. 1. ག་པ་ས་བསམ་་འཁར་། the wheel of study through reading, listening and contemplation 2. ང་བ་བསམ་གཏན་་འར་། the wheel of abandonment through concentration 3. ་བ་ལས་་འར་། the wheeel of service through activities.


Catvari cakra/ The four channel wheels 1. ང་ཁར་ས་་འར་།

3the wheel of great bliss at the crown 2. %^та'^'ЭТ* Щ %t wheel of enjoyment at the throat 3. >4*Tprwa|W^ Pthe wheel of phenomena the heart 4. 4^TqWTai^ |)the wheel of emanation at the navel.

г;рд;'гл!ч&'Ц'Ц|ад| The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine (see below).


Tri cakra/ A. The three-fold wheels (see above 'khor-lo rnam-gsum). B. The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine, (see below).

Prathama dharmacakra/ The first turning of the wheel of doctrine. The first teaching at Dear Park, Sarnath, in which Buddha Sakyamuni expounded the Four Noble Truths and set forth the basis of the Hinayana philosophy that phenomena have a truly eixstent nature.

Madhya dharmacakra/' The second turning of the wheel of doctrine. The teaching at Vulture Peak (Grdhrakuta) in which Buddha Sakyamuni taught the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, the teaching which is the basis of the Middle View philosophy, introducing the doctrine that all phenomena lack a truly eixstent nature.

Antya dharmacakra/ The third turning of the wheel of doctrine. The teaching at Vaishali in which Buddha Sakyamuni taught the Sutra of Clear Discrimination, the

teaching laying the basis of the Mind-Only School and introducing the doctrine that imputed phenomena lack a truly existent nature, but dependent and thoroughly established phenomena are truly existent.


Cakravartin/The universal monarch. The monarchs wielding wheels in their hands. These monarchs appear only during the time when the human life span stretches between infinite to eighty thousand years.


The three wheels. A. མན་ཆ་མདའ་་མང་གམ། The arrow, sword and spear B. The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine (see 'khor-lo gsum) С ད་པ་་དསང་། ་བ་ལས།་་བ་ལ་གམ། The three circles of an activity, e.g. the agent, the activity and the goal D.ས་ངག་ད་གམ། The body, speech and mind.


The purity of the three circles. The Bodhisattva's practice at the seventh Bodhisattva ground of sealing all the three-agent, activity and goal—as lacking inherent existence in nature.


The lack of conceptual imagination of the three circles. The wisdom that is free of any conceptual recognition of the three—agent, activity and goal—as having any inherent identity of their own, and knows these as being empty or free of inherent existence.


The three modes of yoga; the yogic practice of the triple

ways. 1. ང་བ་་འར་། the yoga of taking all appearances as

the body of a Buddha 2. ་གས་གང་་འར་། the yoga of taking all sounds as the speech of a Buddha 3. ན་ག་གས་་འར་། the yoga of taking all thoughts as the mind of a Buddha.


A compiled treatise. A treatise that is a compilation of fragments on a particular topic from all sutras, e.g., the Ornament of Discourses (mahayanasutralamkara/ mdo-sde-rgyan) or the Compendium of Precepts (siksasamucchaya/ bslab-btus).


The cause or condition of deceptive cognition. A. The ultimate cause of deceptive knowledge, e.g. mistaking all- that is selfless or non-inherently existent as having self or inherently existence. B. The temporary cause of deceptive perception, e.g. misjudging things through defective vision.


The four causes of deceptive perception or knowledge. 1. འལ་ནས་ལ་ད་པ། deception caused by the venue, e.g. seeing trees as running while one is journeying in a boat 2. འལ་་ན་ལ་ད་པ། deception caused by sense faculty, e.g. seeing falling hairs by a person with cataract 3. འལ་་ལ་ལ་ད་པ། deception cause by the object, e.g. seeing a wheel of sparks from swinging a flaming fire-brand or torch in a circle 4. འལ་་་མ་ཐག་ན་ལ་ད་པ། deception caused by immediate conditions, e.g. seeing the surroundings like a ball of fire when a person is in outrageous anger or wrath.


False appearance; deceptive appearance. The mode of appearance of seeing things as different from their actual mode of abidance.


One who has released all deceptions. A person who has realized emptiness through releasing all misconceptions.

Bhranta jnana/ A. Misconception; misunderstanding. Wrong ideas and ways of judging things because of one's misunderstanding or recognition. B. Deceptive cognition. An awareness that is deceived with respect to the object that appears to it (snang-yul), synonymous with apparent direct perception (see mngon-sum ltar-snang).


Resolution by the majority. One of the seven ways of pacifying quarrels and arguments (see rtsod-pa zhi-byed-kyi chos-bdun) within the Sarigha community according to the Vinaya rules. If any dispute could not be resolved through the eight appellate procedures (see mngon-sum brgyad kyis zhi-ba), it is then decided by throwing tooth sticks, and whichever of the sides gets the majority of the sticks is considered the winner.


Pudgala/ A person. Any person, man or creature imputed upon any of the five aggregates. Lit: ups and downs, meaning such beings have both merits and demerits occasionally growing (gang-ba) or waning (zag-pa/ 'jig-pa).


Dvi pudgalatmagraha/ Two kinds of grasping at the self of a person. 1. གང་ཟག་་བདག་འན་ན་ས། sahaja pudgalatmagraha/ innate grasping at the self of a person 2. གང་ཟག་་བདག་འན་ན་དཏགས། parikalpita pudgalatmagraha/ intellectual grasping at the self of a person.


The basis of imputation of a person. The five aggregates comprising form, feeling, recognition, perception and consciousness.


Pudgalasayabhipraya/ Determining the interest of a person. A type of interpretative teaching of Buddha, e.g. the teaching, highlighting the importance of the practice of generosity as the best, in which Buddha's basic intention is to teach the equal importance of the practice of six perfections.


Individual preparation. A ritual and rite for the Sahgha community preparing for their three months rainy season retreat.


The human whispered lineage. The lineage of the three inner yogas according to the Nyingma tradition—Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga transmissions passed to successive disciples stemming from Acarya Padmasambhava and the great scholar, Vimalamitra.


Pudgala nairatmya/ Selflessness of person. In its highest sense it is the lack of inherent existence of person. According to the Vaibhasika, Sautrantikas, Cittamatrins and Svatrantikas

selflessness of person is either the non-existence of a permanent, single, independent person or the non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person. According to Prasahgika the selflessness of person is either non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person or nonexistence of an inherently existent person.


Suksama pudgalanairatmya/ Subtle selflessness of person. According to Vaibhasikas, Sautrantikas, Cittamatrins and Svatantrikas it is the non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person, and according to Prasahgika it is the non-inherently existent person.


Sthiila pudgalanairatmya/ Coarse selflessness of person-According to the Vaibhasika, Sautrantikas, Cittamatrins and Svatantrikas the coarse selflessness of person is the nonexistence of a permanent, single, independent person, and according to Prasahgika it is the non-existence of self-sufficient substantially existent person.


Pudgalatmagraha/ Grasping at the self of person. The misconception of the self of person as being truly existent. The perverted conception of a person being inherently existent.


Twenty-three impersonal, non-associated compositional factors; phenomena that are neither form or consciousness nor a person. 1. བ་པ། prapta/ attainment 2. འ་ས་ད་པ་མས་འག asamjnasamapatti/ meditative absorption without discrimiantion 3. འག་པ་མས་འག nirodhasamapatti/

meditative absorption of cessation 4. འ་ས་ད་པ་བ། asaminata/ one without discrinative awareness 5. ག prana/ life-force 6. གས་མན་པ། nikayasabhaga/ similar category 7. ་བ། jati/ birth 8. ་བ་། jara/ aging 9. གནས་པ། sthiti/sustenance 10. ་ག་པ། anitya/impermanence 11. ང་་གས། namakaya/ collection of names 12. ག་་གས། padakaya/ collection of words 13. ་་གས། vyanjanakaya/ collection of letters 14.

་་་་ད། prthagjanata/ state of being an ordinary person 15. འག་པ། pravrtti/ engagement 16. ་ར་གནས་པ། pratiniyama/ distinct existence 17. ལ་འར། yoga 18. Java/ rapidity 19. ་མ།

anukrama/order/system 20. ས། kaia/time 21. གནས།

desa/ place 22. ངས། samkhya/ number 23. གས་པ། bheda/ group.


Catvari pudgala/ Four types of persons; four categories of persons. 1. ན་པ་ནས་ན་པར་འ་བ། person moving from darkness to darkness 2. ན་པ་ནས་ན་པར་འ་བ། person moving from darkness to light 3.ང་བ་ནས་ང་བར་འ་བ། person moving from light to light 4. ང་བ་ནས་ན་པར་འ་བ། person moving from light to darkness.


Mt. Kailash. Also called the holy mountain (gangs rin-po-che) located in the district of Purang in Ngari region of western Tibet, and is venerated by Bonpos, Hindus and Buddhists alike. It is located ai a height of 6656 meters above sea к Д and is the source of the river Ganges. After every cycle of twelve years in the Horse year, a grand ceremony of special pilgrimage takes place.


The wooden stick used for beating the wooden gong used in a monastery to call the community for a congregation. Also called gandi-the'u.


Gandi/ Wooden gong. A long gong of wood, beaten as a bell to call the congregation of monks and nuns to bi-monthly ceremony, work, mourn at the demise of a fellow monk, and for other emergency matters.


Nava natakabala/The nine features of dance. 1. ག་པ། lasya/ charming 2. དཔའ་བ། vira/ heroic 3. ་ག་པ། asubha/ ugly 4. ག་ལ།

ugra/ aggressive 5. བཞད་གད། hasita/ smiling 6. krodha/ wrathful 7. ང་། karunika/ compassionate 8. མས་པ། adbhuta/ frightening 9. ་བ། santi/ peaceful.


Dancing, drawing and chanting. The three-fold trainings of the monks—performing monastic dance, learning how to draw or build a mandala and chanting of prayers.


The path of significant purification. According to Nyingma tradition, this is the third ground of a Yogi referring to the third level of the Path of Preparation (second of the five paths), where all manifest delusions obstructing the actualization of the clear light mind on the Path of Seeing (third of the five paths) are dispelled.


The eight manifestations of Guru Rinpoche. 1. ་་་། Guru Sakya Senge 2. ་་པ་སཾབྷ། Guru Padmasambhava 3. ་་་མ་ད་ར། GuruNyimaOdzer 4. ་་་་ག Guru Senge Dradog 5. ་་་་་ད། Guru Dorje Drolo 6. ་་མ་ས་་། Guru Tsokye Dorje 7. ་་པ་ལ་། Guru Padma Gyalpo 8. ་་་ན་མག་ད། Guru Loden Chokse.


Guru Padmasambhava. An Indian pandit of the eighth century, and an incarnation of Buddha, who introduced the tantric form of Buddhism into Tibet and is revered by ail traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, especially the Nyingma tradition.


Samnahapratipatti/ Achievement through armour. A Bodhisattva's practice of carrying out all the six perfections within the practice of each perfection. Synonymous with 'Bodhisattva wisdom' (byang-sems kyi mkhyen-pa).


Samnaha virya/ Armour-like effort. One of the three types of efforts or enthusiastic perseverence (see brtzon-'grus rnam-gsum) with which a practitioner would happily endure suffering in order to help liberate others from suffering.


The six goddesses of putting on the armour. These are 1. ་་ཕག་། Vajravarahi 2. གན་་མ། Yamini 3. ངས་ད་མ། Mohini 4. ང་ད་མ། Samcalini 5. ག་ད་མ། Samtrasini 6. ཙ་ཀ། Candika.


Gomi Upasaka. A layman who in addition to observing the eight precepts of the one day vows (see bsnyen-gnas yan-lag brgyad) receives permission to shave his head and wear robes if he so chooses.


Pancordhoa-bhagiya-klesa/ Five fetters with respect to the higher realm. 1. གགས་་འད་ཆགས། rupa raga/ longing desire

of the form realm 2. གགས་ད་པ་འད་ཆགས། arupa raga/ longing desire of the formless realm 3. ད་པ། auddhatya/ mental agitation 4.ང་ལ། manas/ egotistic pride 5. ངས་པ། avidya/ deluded ignorance.


The five constant fetters of the higher realms (see above, gong-ma'i cha-mthun lnga).


The four pure meditative absorptions of the higher (form and formless) realm. 1. གནས་པ་ཆ་མན། aid to existence 2. ཉམས་པ་ཆ་མན། aid to degeneration 3. ད་པར་ཆ་མན། aid to regeneration 4. ས་འད་ཆ་མན། aid to definitive discrimination.


The five pure states of gods in the higher realm (the form and formless realms). Synonymous with the five pure states (see gnas-gtsang lnga).


The meditative absorption of the higher realm, i.e. the meditative absorptions of the form and formless realms.


The lord of the higher realm. This may mean: A. Brahma, the lord of the form realm B. The sensory faculties within the higher realms.


The hard-fleshy foetus. The fourth of the five stages of foetus development of a human being in the womb of a mother during its fourth week when the foetus is just able to resist pressure.


Nilambaradhara/ The one with blue robes. This may mean: A. Sky B. Vajrapani С Saturday (Saturn) D. Mahabala (stobs-bzang) the brother of Visnu (khyab-'jug).


Sudarsana/ The excellent experience. The sixth state of the fourth level of concentration. The gods in this state enjoy ecstatic bliss of body and mind and see the supreme dharma (chos-kyi mchog). One of the five pure states of gods.


Upward-moving wind energy. One of the five energy winds (see rtza-ba'i rlung-lnga) that controls swallowing, speaking and breathing, and seated in the centre of the chest.


A. Ordinary person B. Inferior one С Lethargic.


The eighteen major texts. Eighteen major texts of Buddhist studies in the Sakya monastic universities. 1. ་ར་ཐར་པ་མ། Individual Liberation Sutra (pratimoksa sutra) 2. འལ་བ་མ་་བ། Root Discipline Sutra (vinaya sutra) 3. མན་གས་ན། Ornament of Clear Realisation (abhisamayalamkara) 4. མ་་ན། Ornament of Discourses (mahayanasutralamkara) 5. ད་་མ། Sublime Continuum (uttaratantra) 6. དས་མཐའ་མ་འད། Clear Distinction Between the Middle and Extremes (madhyantavibhaga) 7. ས་དང་ས་ད་མ་འད། Clear Distinction Between Phenomena and their Reality (dharmadharmatavibhaga) 8. ད་འག Guide to Boddhisattva's Way of Life (bodhicaryavatara) 9. ད་མ་་བས་རབ། Root Wisdom (mula madhyamaka karika) 10. བ་བ་པ། Four Hundred Stanzas (catuhsataka) 11. ད་མ་འག་པ། Entering the

Middle Way (madhyamakavatara) 12. མན་པ་ན་བས། Compendium of Knowledge (abhidharmasamuccaya) 13. མན་པ་མད། Treasure of Knowledge (abhidharmakosa) 14. ཚད་མ་ན་བས། Compendium of Valid Cognition (pramanasamuccaya) 15. ཚད་མ་མ་འལ། Commentary on Valid Cogntion (pramanavarttika) 16. ཚད་མ་མ་ས། Discernment of Valid Cognition (pramanaviniscaya) 17. ༐ད་མ་གས་གར། Treasure of Valid Cognition (pramanayuktinidhi) 18. མ་གམ་རབ་ད། Distinction Between the Three Vows (trisamvarapravedha).


Sakya Lama Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1216). A great master of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, said to have taken many previous births as Indian and Tibetan Mahasiddhas. He composed many works including commentaries to the Cakrasamvara tantra, Hevajra and so forth.


The six causes of defamation. 1. ན་་འད་པ། gambling 2. འས་པ་ལ་བ་བ། witnessing public fair 3. ་། laziness 4. ཆང་འང་བ། taking intoxicants 5. ག་གས་བན་པ། associating with non-virtuous friends 6. ནཚན་་ང་་འ་བ། wandering about at night.


Inference by notion. An inferential cognition based on popular convention. For instance, the idea infering that 'that with rabbit' can be called 'moon'. One of the three inferential cognitions (see rjes-dpag gsum).


Valid notion. Something that needs no explanation for it is obvious to all.


The exclusion by notion. A term used in Buddhist logic studies. Any expression or assertion that is absolutely contradictory to common notion, e.g. to call a vase a moon or to state that a human skull is a clean substance.


Asta sitanaraka/ Eight cold hells. 1. ་ར་ཅན། arbudah/ blistering 2. ་ར་ལ། nirarbudah/ broken blister 3. ་ཐམ། atatah/ chattering teeth 4. ཨ་་ར་བ། huhuvah/ 'a-chu' sneezing 5. ་ད་ར་བ། hahavah/ 'kye-hud' crying 6. ད་པལ་ར་གས་པ། utpalah/ utpala-Ике splits (on petals) 7. པད་མ་ར་གས་པ། padmah/ lotus-like spilts (on petals) 8. པད་མ་ར་ན་་་གསཔ། mahapadmah/ big lotus-like splits (on petals).


Sarhkhya/ The Enumerators. Propounders of non-buddhist tenets also called Kapilas, who assert that all objects of knowledge can be enumerated into twenty-five categories of phenomena (see she-bya nyer-lnga). They also assert that the Fundamental Principle which is partless, permanent and the agent of all actions, pervades all phenomena. There are two main schools of Samkhyas—the theistic and the non-theistic.


A curved knife. A curved knife with a vajra handle on the lateral face. A ritual implement held by a tantric deity.


Siddhanta/ Tenets; pholosophical theory. The study of philosophical positions and principles of the classical Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools of thought.


The two schools of philosophy. 1. ནང་པ་བ་མཐའ་་བ། school of Buddhist philosophy and 2. ་ལ་པ་བ་མཐའ་་བ། school of non-Buddhist philosophy.


The four schools of philosophy; the four classical schools of Buddhist philosophy. 1. ་ག་་བ། Vaibhasika 2. མ་་པ། Sautrantika 2. མས་ཙམ་པ། Cittamatra 4. ད་མ་པ། Madhyamika.


The set of actualized results. Birth, aging and death are the set of actualized results in the twelve links of interdependent origination.


Indivisible substances of simultaneous existence. Two separate substances that exist and are produced simultaneously; therefore their origination, sustenance and disintegration takes place at the same time. These two are both substances, and the appearance of one necessitates the appearance of the other, e.g. vase and its colour.


Substances of simultaneous existence. The simultaneity of different, reversed entities—the production, sustenance and disintegration of which takes place at the same time, and are necessarily substances.


The conduct of a Mahasiddha. One of the four ways of utilizing tantric realizations. An adept having actualized the feat of utilizing the sky through tantric practices, complements this with practices of the six perfections

according to tantra, and finally gains a state of three-fold vajra conduct of body, speech and mind of a deity.


A lord of actualization; Mahasiddha. One who has attained supreme realizations of either or both the Sutra and tantra traditions.


Kumbhanda/ A monstorous demigod somewhat like a vampire in western mythology; a kind of spirit.


Entering a corpse. The practice of entering a corpse. An exalted tantric practice through which a yogi having gained control of his energy winds and mind purposely abandons his body and transfers his consciousness into another serviceable corpse. This enables him to maintain his life even after the break up of his original body in order to fulfil the purpose of other sentient beings. The great yogi Dharma Dhode, the son of Lama Marpa, is said to have demonstrated this practice.


The four great releases or liberations. A transmission of rDzogs-chen practice in which four ways of releasing Rigpa (intutive mind) into dharmakaya are explained. These are: 1. ་ལ། Primordial release 2. རང་ལ། self-release 3. གར་ལ། bare release 4. མཐའ་ལ། limitless release.


The six continents. According to Kalacakra tantra these are: 1. ་བ་ང་། moon continent 2. ད་དཀར་་ང་། white light continent 3. ་ཤ་ང་། kusha grass continent 4. འམ་་ང་། probable human continent 5. ང་ང་་ང་། crane continent 6. ག་་ང་། agitated continent. These are also called the six

domains of riches because although the mountains, oceans and continents within the cool ranges do not get light from the sun and the moon, human beings survive by rays of light emanated from their bodies and enjoy as much wealth as the gods do.


The seven continents. 1-6. (see above, gling-drug) 7. འཛམ་ང་ན་། jambu dvlpa/ the world we live in.


Asta ksudradvipah/ The eight sub-continents. 1-2. ས་དང་ས་འཕགས། Deha and Videha around the east. 3-4. ་ཡབ་དང་་ཡབ་གཞན། Camara and Apara Camara around the south 5-6. ག་ན་དང་ལམ་མག་འ

Satha and Uttaramantrina/ around the west 7-8. ་ན་དང་་་ན་་། Kurava and Kaurava around the nonh.


The four continents. 1.ཤར་ས་འཕགས་། Purvavideha to the east 2. ་འཛམ་་ང་། Jambudvipa to the south 3. བ་བ་ལང་ད། Avaragodaniya to the west 4. ང་་་ན། Uttarakuru to the north.


The seven principles of sounds and chanting 1. ག་ས་་་ད་ར་ག drag-skyes like the sound of a peacock 2. ང་ང་བ་ང་ད་ས་མ། drang-srong like the sound of a mendicant 3. ས་འན་ས་་ར་་ད། sa-'dzin-skyes like the sound of a goat 4. བར་མ་ང་ང་ག་བན། bar-ma like the sound of a crane 5.་ན་་ག་ན་ས་། ་ག་ད་ན་ག་་། lnga-ldan like the sound of a kucoo during the spring 6. ་གསལ་་ད་་ར་འར། blo-gsal like the sound of a horse 7. འར་ཉན་ང་་་་། 'khor-nyan like the sound of an elephent.


Gitopama cittotpada/ The song-like bodhicitta. The Bodhisattva motive of enlightenment associated with primordial cognition possessed by the Bodhisattva on the tenth stage, surpassing the practice of primordial wisdom.


Scapegoat. A clay or dough effigy of a person consecrated and sent away as ransom to appease harmful spirits which causes sickness or interference.


The introductory teachings. One of the twelve scriptual categories (see gsung-rab yan-lag bcu-gnyis); teachings given by Buddha to specific people. For instance, the sutra that prescribes the act of stealing as a proscribed misdeed because of the behaviour of Nor-can, the son of a potter.


Adventitious defilement; incidental stains. Usually refers to all obscurations that temporarily obscure the pristine mind.


Nature truth body that is pure from adventitious stains. For instance, the noble truth of cessation within Buddha's mental continuum.


Pratisedha/ A negative phenomenon. An object which is realized through the explicit elimination of an object of negation. For instance, a non-vase thing.


Pratisedhya/ An object of negation. An object of refutation, or that which is to be disproved in a logical argument.


The two objects of refutation. 1. ལམ་་དགག་། marga pratisedhya/ refutation on the path of practice 2. གས་པ་གགག་། yukti pratisedhya/ refutation through logical analysis.


Pratisedhya dharma/ The object of refutation; antithesis. That which is to be refuted in a logical argument, the opposite of the subject and the predicate taken together in a logical syllogism.


Catvari pratisedhyanta/ The four extremes to be refuted. 1. ད་པ་མཐའ astyanta/ extreme of existence 2. ད་པ་མཐའ། nastyanta/ extreme of non-existence 3. གས་ཀ་མཐའ། ubhyanta/ extreme of being both 4. གས་ཀ་མ་ན་པ་མཐའ།

advyanta/ extreme of being neither.


Pratisedhyatman/ The self to be refuted. The self to be refuted, the direct opposite of the selflessness to be explicitly negated when one realizes the true selflessness.


The two kinds of self to be refuted. 1. གང་ཟག་་བདག pudgalatman/ self of a person 2. ས་་བདག dharmatman/ self of a phenomenon.


Pratisedhyarthasamanya/ Meaning generality or generic image of an object to be refuted.


Pravarana/ The ceremony of lifting the restrictions. Lifting restrictions particularly laid down for individual monks

during the three month rainy season retreat; the last day of the rainy season retreat.


The basis of negation. For instance, the vase being the basis of negation upon which the conception of that vase being a permanent phenomena is refuted or expelled.


Refutation, establishment and responding to an assertion. A traditional scholarly means of refuting the stand of others, through establishing one's own position and responding to the criticism of one's own position. A systematic debate in the study of Buddhist logic should fulfill these three essential factors.


Tusita/ A. The Heaven of Joy. The Tusita Buddha field; the pure land where the future Buddha, Maitreya would give teachings, also called the joyous field of virtue and mental happiness (dga'-ldan yid-dga' chos-'dzin); one of the six heavens of the gods of desire realm. It is also known to be the heaven for Bodhisattvas obstructed by a single birth from attaining Buddhahood. B. The Ganden monastery founded by JeTsong Khapain 1408.


The Mahamudra of the Gelug tradition. A transmission of developing calm abiding and penetrative insight meditation by taking one's mind as the object of meditation in the Gelug tradition as a means to finding the right view through meditation.


The holder of Ganden throne; the successor to the throne of Je Tsong Khapa


Immeasurable joy. One of the four immeasurables (see tsad-med bzhi). A meditation on joy in which one takes immeasurable sentient beings as one's object of meditation and wishes them never to be separated from a genuine Happiness free of suffering.


The four joys. The joys experienced through the flow of melting regenerative fluid in stages from crown to secret organ in the highest tantric practices. 1. དགའ་བ། mudita/joy 2. མག་དགའ། pramudita/ great joy 3. ད་དགའ visesa mudita/ exalted joy 4. ན་ས་་དགའ་བ། sahaja mudita/ innate joy.


Pntisarhbodhyanga/ The perfect joy as a limb to enlightenment. One of the seven limbs of enlightenment (see byang-chub yan-lag bdun), the contentment and benefit that is physically and mentally received by the joy of reaching the first Bodhisattva ground.


The miraculous cathedral of four-fold joy. Another name of the Lhasa cathedral. The name was given due to jubiliance shown by man, gods, nagas and spirits at the beginning of the building of the Lhasa cathedral.


A monk disciplinarian. The monk in charge of enforcing the monastic rules and regulations.


Upasaka/ Ordained lay person. A layman or laywoman who has taken any or all of the five precepts—not killing, not lying, not indulging in sexual misconduct, not stealing and not taking intoxicants.


The three fully fledged lay persons. 1. ངས་གས་ད་བན། а full

fledged ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death while remaining as a householder e.g. Marpa, the great translator. 2. ཚངས་ད་ད་བ་ན། a full fledged ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death and leading a

life of celibacy e.g. Candragomin. 3. ་་ད་བན། a full fledged ordained lay person observing all the eight vows of a one day vow holder (see bsnyen-gnas yan-lag brgyad) until death and who wears robes.


The four nominal ordained lay persons. 1. བས་འ་ཙམ་་ད་བན། a lay person ordained merely through seeking refuge in the three jewels 2. ་གག་ད་་བན། an ordained lay person observing only one of the four root vows 3. ་གས་ཙམ་བང་བ་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing only two of the four root vows 4. ་གམ་ཙམ་བང་བ་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing three of the four root vows.


The six kinds of ordained lay persons (upasaka). 1. བས་འ་ད་བན། an ordained lay person (merely) by having taken refuge in the three jewel 2. ་གག་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing only one of the five vows 3. ་དག་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing only two of the five vows 4. ཕལ་ན་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing three of the five vows 5. ངས་གས་ད་བན། a full-fledged ordained lay

person observing all the five vows 5. ཚངས་ད་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death, and leading a life of celibacy.


Emptiness of virtue and non-virtue. The lack of inherent existence of both virtue and non-virtue in their ultimate sense.


Sahgha/ The holy community; the supreme assembly; the Sahgha One of the three objects of refuge conventionally represented by the community of monks and nuns (above three or four) devoted to study and practice of the teachings of Buddha, and ultimately, the Sahgha comprises those on and above the path of seeing (Aryas).


The debate courtyard or the main assembly hall of a monastic community.


Creating a schism in the Sahgha community. Causing disunity in the monastic community with at least four people on each side. Such an act constitutes one of the five heinous crimes (see mtsams-med lnga).


The three schisms within a monastic community. 1. འར་་དན། schism by a defection, i.e., by way of diverting devotion to a non-Buddhist teacher and precepts during the presence of Buddha Sakyamuni himself or his hierarchies 2.ས་་དན། schism by behavior 3. འགས་ང་་དན། schism by dispute.

Vimsatih sahgha/ The twenty Sahgha members. The twenty

exemplary Sahgha members comprising 1-5. ན་གས་་། the five stream-winners 6-8. ར་ང་གམ། the three once-returners 9-18. ར་་ང་བ། the ten never-returners 19. ད་བམ་གས་པ། the enterers into Arhatship 20. བ་་་་རང་སངས་ས། the rhinoceros-like solitary realizer (see bse-ru lta-bu'i rang sangs-rgyas).


A Sahgha of different orders. The Sahgha members belonging to different schools within the same tradition.


The five Mahasanghika schools. 1. ཤར་་་་་པ། Purvasaila 2. བ་་་་། Aparasaila3. གངས་་་་། Himavata 4. འག་ན་ལས་འདས་པར་་བ་།

Lokottaravadin 5. ག་པར་་བ་། Prajnapativadin.


The two honourable classes of Sahgha. 1. རབ་ང་ད་འན་་། the ordained monks 2. ས་དཀར་ང་་ཅན་་། the tantrikas bearing matted hair knots on their head, as were honoured by King Tri Ralpa Chen, who spread two silken scarves bound to his head and let a member of each class of Sahgha be seated on these scarve cushions as a mark of his respect and devotion to them.


The honoured Sahgha, referring to the community of monks and nuns who hold moral disciplines as laid down in the Vinaya teachings.


The four-fold Sahgha members. A group of four fully ordained monks already on the paths of attainments or a gathering of four fully ordained monks in their ordinary state

having received their Biksu ordination by means of four-fold requests.


The three Saiigha members. 1. ་་་་ད་འན། the ordinary fully ordained Saiigha member—a group of four or more ordinary saiigha members who have all received their full ordination of a Biksu by means of four-fold requests 2. བ་པ་ད་འན། Saiigha member on the path of a trainee—any Saiigha member who is on or above the stream-winner's path, up to the path leading to Arhatship 3. ་བ་པ་ད་འན། Sangha member on the path of no-more learning—a person who has already attained the state of an Arhat.


The five prayers of Gelug tradition. 1. བཟང་ད་ན་ལམ། Prayer of Good Deeds 2. མས་ན། Prayer of Buddha Maitreya 3. ག་འཐའ་མ། Prayer of Beginning and the End 4. བ་ན Prayer of the Blissful Fields 5. ད་འག་ན་ལམ། Prayer of the Deeds of a Bodhisattva.


Dasakusalani/ The ten virtues. 1. ག་གད་ང་བ། pranatighatad virati/ abandoning the act of killing 2. མ་ན་པར་ན་པ་ང་བ། adattadanad virati/ abandoning the act of stealing 3. ག་གམ་ང་བ། kamamithyacarad virati/ abandoning the act of indulging in sexual misconduct 4. ན་ང་བ། mrsavadat prativirati/ abandoning the act of telling a lie 5. ་མ་ང་བ། paisunyat prativirati/ abandoning the act of slandering 6. ག་བ་ང་བ།

panisyat prativirati/ abandoning the act of using harsh words 7. ངག་འལ་ང་བ། Sarhbhinna pralapat prativirati/ abandoning the act of indulging in idle gossip 8. བབ་མས་ང་བ། abhidhyayah prativirati/ abandoning the act of being coveteous 9. གད་མས་ང་བ། vyapadat prativirati/ abandoning the act of harming others 10. ག་་ང་བ། mithyadrsteh

prativirati/ abandoning upholding wrong views or philosophies.


Eka dasa kus'alani/ Eleven virtuous mental factors. 1. དད་པ། sraddha/ faith 2. ་ཚ་ས་པ། sense of shame 3. ལ་ད་པ། apaltavyam/ sense of dread of blame 4. འད་ཆགས་ད་པ། alobha/ lack of desire 5. ་ང་ད་པ། advesa/ lack of hatred 6. ག་ག་ད་པ། amoha/ lack of stupidity 7. བན་འས། virya/ virtuous effort 8. བག་ད། apramada/ conscientiousness 9. ན་ངས། prasrabdhi/ suppleness 10. བཏང་མས། upeksa/ equanimity 11 མ་པར་་འ་བ། ahirhsa/ not harming others.


Dvadasa kusalavi/ The twelve virtues. 1. ་་ད་་ད་བ། svabhavakusala/ natural virtue 2. འལ་བ་ད་བ། sambandhakusala/ associate virtue 3. ས་་འལ་བ་དབ།

anubandhakusala/ concordant virtue 4. ན་ང་་ད་བ། samutthanakusala/ motivated virtue 5. ན་དམ་་ད་བ། paramarthakusala/ ultimate virtue 6. ་བས་བ་པ་ད་བ། upapattipratilambhikakusala/. virtue aquired by birth 7. ར་བ་ད་བ། prayogakusala/ virtue acquired through learning 8. ཕན་འགས་པ་ད་བ། upakarikusala/ beneficial virtue 9.ང་་འན་པ་ད་བ། parigrahakakusala/ fully acquired virtue 10. གན་་ད་བ། pratipaksakusala/ antidotal virtue 11. ་བར་་བ།ི་ད་བ། upasamakusala/ fully pacified virtue 12. ་མན་་ད་བ། nisyandakusala/ virtue congruent to its cause.


The two virtuous suchnesses; the two wholesome realities. 1.

གང་ཟག་་བདག་ད། pudgalanairatmya/ selflessness of a person 2. ས་་བདག་ད། dharmanairatmya/ selflessness of a phenomenon.


The three root virtues. 1. འད་ཆགས་ད་པ་ད་བ་་བ། alobha/ root virtue devoid of desire 2. ་ང་ད་པ་ད་བ་་བ། advesa/ root virtue devoid of hatred 3. ག་ག་ད་པ་ད་བ་་བ། amoha/ root virtue devoid of mental stupidity.


The two mental virtues; the two virtuous minds. 1. ས་བ་་ད་བ། virtuous mind by birth 2. ར་ང་་ད་བ། virtuous mind by training.


Kalyanamitra/ Spiritual master; spiritual friend; religious teacher; a Guru.


Dasa kalyanamitra guna/ The ten qualities of a spiritual master; the ten requisites of a Mahayanist teacher. l. ག་པ་ལ་མས་་བབ་པས་ལ་བ། being humble due to his higher training of morality 2. ག་པ་ང་་འན་་བབ་པས་་བ། being calm due to his higher training of concentration 3. ག་པ་ས་རབ་་བབ་པས་་པར་་བ། being pacified due to his higher training of wisdom 4. ང་་ན་ཏན་ས་ག་པ། being rich in oral transmission 5. ང་པ་ད་གས་པ། having realized emptiness 6. བ་མ་ལས་ན་ཏན་ག་པ། being more learned than his students 7.་མཁས་པ། being skillful in preaching 8. བ་བ་དང་ན་པ། being compassionate 9. བན་འས་དང་ན་པ། being hard working 10. ་ངལ་ང་པ། having no regrets or lamentation.


Nine attitudes of relying on a Guru/ spiritual master. 1. ་མཛངས་པ་་་མས། attitude Uke that of a wise son 2. ་་་་མས། vajra-like attitude 3. ས་ག་་་མས། attitude like the

foundational ground 4. ར་ག་་་་་མས། attitude like the surrounding mountain 5. ན་གག་་་མས། attitude like that of a servant 6. ག་པ་་་མས། attitude like that of a staircase 7. ་་་་མས། attitude like that of a watch-dog 8. ག་དར་་་ནས། attitude like that of a broom 9. གས་བཟང་་་་མས། attitude like that of a good friend.


The eleven virtuous levels of thought (see dge-ba bcu-gcig). These eleven levels of thought accompany a perfect virtuous state of mind.


Sramana/ A practitioner of virtue. A general name for any person ordained as a novice monk or nun, or a fully ordained monk or nun or the whole Sahgha, who have vowed to attain the state of liberation by means of observing the precepts of the individual liberation vows (pratimoksa) in his or her endeavour to eliminate delusions and pacify sufferings within samsara.


The four precepts of a monk; the four principles of a monk. 1. ག་ཡང་ར་་ག་བ། akrustena na pratyakrostitavyam/ not to scold another although being scolded 2. ས་ང་ར་་་བ། rositena na praiirositavyam/ not to become angry when incited to anger 3. བགས་ང་ར་་ག་པ། tadite na prativaditavyam/ not to hit another in return when being hit 4. མཚང་ས་ང་ར་མཚང་་འ་བ།

bhanditena na pratibhanditavyam/ not to reveal another's faults when he does so.


The four fruits of a trainee. ན་་གས་པ་འས་། the fruit of a Stream-winner 2. ར་ང་བ་འས་། the fruit of a Once-

returner 3. ར་་ང་བ་འས་། the fruit of a Never-returner 4. ད་བམ་པ་འས་། the fruit of an Arhat.


The fruit of a trainee. The path of thorough liberation which is compositional and the truth of cassation that is a non-compositional attainment.


Mula kusala/ The root of virtue. Any wholesome act or practice such as of giving and honouring that results in happiness and benefit.


Sramanera/ A novice monk. A monk observing thirty-six precepts according to the pratimoksa vows (dge-tsul-gyi blang-'das so-drug).


Dasa sramanera prahatavya dharma/ The ten precepts of a novice monk; the ten limbs of abandonment for a novice. 1. ག་གད་ང་བ། pranatighatad virati/ to avoid taking life 2. མ་ན་པར་ན་པ་ང་བ། adattadanad virati/ to avoid stealing 3. ་གཙང་ད་ང་བ། kamamithyacarad virati/ to avoid engaging in sexual misconduct 4. ན་ང་བ། mrsavadat virati/ to avoid telling lies

5. ས་ར་ང་བ། madyapana virati/ to avoid taking intoxicants

6. གར་གས་ང་བ། nataka virati/ to avoid dancing, etc. 7. འང་གས་ང་བ། malaya virati/ to avoid wearing garlands, etc. 8. མལ་ན་་མ་ང་བ། ucchaiayana mahasayana virati/ to avoid using high and luxurious beds and seats 9. ས་ན་ཁ་ཟས་ང་བ། vikata bhojana virati/ to avoid taking untimely food 10. གར་དལ་ན་པ་ང་བ། jataruparajata virati/ to avoid accepting gold

and silver.


The thirty-six precepts of a novice monk. 1. ་གད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid killing a human being 2. to ད་འ་དང་བཅས་པ་བག་པ་ང་བ། to avoid harming living beings 3. ད་འ་དང་བཅས་པ་ད་པང་བ། to avoid using water containing living creatures 4. ད་འ་གད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid killing animals 5. མ་ན་པ་ན་པ་ང་བ། to avoid stealing 6. ་གཙང་ད་ང་བ། to avoid indulging in sexual misconduct 7. ན་་བ་ང་བ། to avoid telling lies (about superhuman attainment) 8. ག་ད་ར་འབས་ང་བ། to avoid accusing a bhiksu or novice groundlessly of a defeat (pham-pa) 9. བག་ཙམ་་ར་༔བས་ང་བ། to avoid deprecating a bhiksu or novice by insinuation 10. ད་འན་འན་འད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid creating schism in the Sahgha community 11. ་ས་གས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid following such a faction 12. མ་པ་བན་འན་པ་ང་བ། to avoid disturbing the householders' faith 13. ས་བན་་ན་ང་བ།

to avoid knowingly telling a lie 14. ས་ར་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid making false accusations as a favour to a friend 15. འ་བ་ང་བ། to avoid despising a Sarigha steward 16. ཟས་ང་་ར་ར་བ་འབས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accusing a monk of teaching Dharma for material gain 17. ག་མ་ར་བ་འབས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accusing a bhiksu groundlessly of commiting a remaindertransgression 18. བབ་པ་་ང་བ། to avoid not listening to the advice of an elder 19. འས་ན་འབས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accepting food that is more than one's share 20. ཆང་འང་བ་ང་བ། to avoid taking liquor 21. ་གས་ང་བ། to avoid singing 22. གར་གས་ང་བ། to avoid dancing etc. 23. ལ་་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid playing musical instruments 24. ན་གས་ང་བ། to avoid wearing ornaments 25. ་དང་ཁ་ག་འཆང་བ་ང་བ། to avoid using colourful costumes 26. ས་ག་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid using aromatic scents 27. ང་བ་གས་ང་བ། to avoid wearing garlands, etc, 28. ་ན་་མ་ང་བ། to avoid using luxurious seats and beds 29. ར་འག་པའམ་ཉལ་བ་ང་བ། to avoid sleeping or sitting upon luxurious seats and beds 30. ་གང་ག་་་ན་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid using high thrones or beds more than a cubit in height

31. ར་འག་པའམ་ཉལ་བ་ང་བ། to avoid sleeping or sitting upon high thrones or beds more than a cubit in height 32. ་་ཁ་ཟས་ང་བ། to avoid eating food after noon 33. གར་དལ་ན་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accepting and keeping gold and the like 34. མ་པ་གས་འཆང་བ་ང་བ། to avoid maintaining a layman's way of life 35. རབ་ང་་གས་ངས་པ་་ང་བ། abandoning a monk's way of life 36. མཁན་ར་གལ་བ་བཏབ་པ་ལས་མ་ཉམས་པ། to avoid refusing service to one's abbot and teachers.


The collection of virtues. The collection of merits (bsod-nams kyi tshogs) and the collection of insights (ye-shes kyi tshogs).


Bhiksu/ A fully ordained monk. A monk observing two hundred and fifty-three vows according to the Mulasarvastivadin tradition according to Tibetan monastic discipline.


Panca bhiksu/ The five types of fully ordained monks (gelong/ bhiksu). 1. ང་བ་ད་ང་། bhiksuta iti bhiksu/ an alm

seeking bhiksu 2. ང་་ད་ང་། sariijnabhiksu/ a bhiksu in name 3. ཁས་འ་བ་ད་ང་། pratijna bhiksu/ a nominal bhiksu 4. གལ་བ་ལས་་ད་ང་། jnapati caturtha karmano pasampanno bhiksu/ a bhiksu by four-fold request 5. ན་ངས་དང་ལ་བ་ད་ང་། bhinnaklesatvad bhiksu/ a bhiksu who is free of delusions.


The precepts of a fully ordained monk. The five classes of vows to be observed—the class of defeats, remainders, abandoning downfalls, propelling downfalls and faults, comprising all the two hundred and fifty-three precepts.


The precepts of a fully ordained nun. The three hundred and sixty-four vows classed as eight defeats, twenty remainders, thirty-three abandoning downfalls, one hundred and eighty propelling downfalls, eleven individual confessions and one hundred and twelve faults.


Siksamana/ A probationary novice nun. One of the seven types of individual liberation vow holders, who is a novice nun on two years probation before being ordained as a Bhiksuni, observing the six root dharmas (see rtsa-ba'i chos drug) and the six auxiliary dharmas (see rjes-mthun gyi chos drug) in addition to her novice vows.


The mind treasure teachings. Those cycle of teachings revealed spontaneously from within by a highly realized master and recorded in writing. This kind of teaching is particularly renowned in the Nyignma tradition of teaching Buddhism.


Abhipraya/ A. Thought, idea or view point. B. Honorific for mind. С The essential point. D. Permission.


Catvaro bhipraya/ The four interpretative Sutras primarily stressing the basic intention of Buddha 1. མཉམ་པ་ད་ལ་དངས་པ། samatabhipraya/ determining the samenesses 2. ན་གཞན་ལ་དངས་པ།

arthantarabhipraya/ determining some other

meaning 3. ས་གཞན་ལ་དངས་པ། kalantarabhipraya/ determining some other time 4. གང་ཟག་་བསམ་པ་ལ་དངས་པ།

pudgalantarabhipraya/ determining the interest of a particular



The teaching through symbolic gestures. One of the five ways of imparting teaching (see gsung lnga) by a sambhogakaya Buddha who transmits teachings to his circle of disciples through physical gestures and the meaning is understood by the disciples, A special lineage of transmission as asserted by the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


Complete fulfillment of the thought. One of the four objects of pervasion (see khyab-pa'i dmigs-pa bzhi). The experience of self-transformation from this impure body to a pure body as a result of repeated training of complete attention and familiarity with the chosen object of calm-abiding (zhi-gnas) and pene ative insight (lhag-mthong) meditation.


Monastery; monstic univerity; a hermitage.


A. A recluse. B. A hermit. С Gonpawa, a master of the Kadampa tradition.


Arhat drstiprapti/ Foe-destroyer by correct view; the intelligent Foe-destroyer.


Arhat sraddhadhimukta/ Foe-destroyer by devotion; faith; the less-intelligent Foe-destroyer.


The seven Arhats. The seven early Indian masters who were responsible for the compilation of the seven treatises on knowledge (see mngon-pa sde bdun). They were: 1. ཀ་། Katyayana 2. དག་བས། Vasumitra 3. མ་་་ད། Brahmin Devotsava 4. ་་། Sariputra 5. ་གལ་་། Maudgalyayana 6. གས་་ Mahakausthila 7. གང་། Purna.


The two types of Arhats. A. In regard to their degree of abandonments: 1. ས་རབ་ས་མ་པར་ལ་བ། onе who is liberated by means of the wisdom path 2. གས་ཀ་ཆ་ལས་མ་པར་ལ་བ། one who is liberated by means of both the wisdom and method paths. B. In regard to their status: 1. ཉན་ས་ད་བ་མ་པ། sravaka arhat/ the hearer Arhat 2.ང་ལ་ད་བམ་པ། pratyekbuddha arhat/ the solitary-realizer Arhat.


Six types of Foe-destroyers. 1. ངས་་ཉམས་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer liable to degeneration 2. འ་བར་མས་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer wishing to die 3. ས་་ང་བ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer protecting his state of realization 4. གནས་པ་ལ་་བད་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer immutably abiding in his state of realization 5. གས་པ་ས་་ར་བ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer destined to generation of realization 6. ་འགས་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer never liable to transformation.

The three types of Arhats. 1. ཉན་ས་ད་བམ། sravaka arhat/ the hearer Arhat 2. རང་ལ་ད་བ་མ། pratyekabuddha arhat/ the solitary-realizer Arhat 3. སངས་ས་ད་བམ། buddha arhat/ the Buddha Arhat.


The state of a Foe-destroyer; Arhatship. The state of liberation or the 5th path of no-more learning, attained by Arhats after perfecting training of the 4th path. According to Lower Vehicle it is the culmination of four stages of perfection—the Stream-winner, Once-returner, Never-returner and Arhatship, and according to the Higher Vehicle, it is either the state of liberation or the state of omniscience.


The last aggregate of an Arhat. The aggregate of an Arhat who has attained nirvana with remainder (see lhag-bcas myang 'das) as asserted by the schools of Buddhist philosophy of and below Svatantrika Madhyamika.


Arhatphala/ The fruit of an Arhat. One of the four fruits of a trainee (see dge-sbyong-gi 'bras-bu bzhi). One who has released himself or herself of all the abandonments of the three realms to be eliminated on the path of meditation, and thereby has overcome all the foes of the four devils (maras) (see bdud-bzhi).


Arhatphalanisraya/ Abider in the fruit of an Arhat. One of the eight persons of enterer and abider amongst the Twenty Sarigha members. A person belonging to the lower vehicle who has eliminated all the nine delusions to be abandoned on the peak level (srid-rtse) of existence.


Enterer in the path of an Arhat. One of the eight persons of enterer and abider amongst the Twenty Sangha members. One who is engaged in the act or process of eliminating all the

delusions covering the first concentration stage up to the peak level of existence.


Vighna/ Expelling the interfering forces. A rite performed at the beginning of a mandala ritual and initiation, when all those forces interfering with the performance of a mandala ritual and initiation are given sacrificial cakes (gtor-ma) and sent away from the place by way of emanating wrathful deities through generating divine pride.


Alatacakra/ A fire-wheel. A circle of fire formed by swinging a flaming fire-brand or torch in a circle thereby creating the illusion of a flaming wheel.


Pleasing services. The offering of services such as washing dishes, shoe-shining and the like by an individual monk to the Sangha community of which he is a member, for having committed a breach of any of the thirteen remainders (lhag-ma).


The monk who does the invocation rite of a dharma protector in a monastery.


The four classes of guests; the four classes of guests of offering. 1. དནམག་་་མན། the Three Jewels as the guest of honor 2. མན་་ན་ཏན་་མ། the lords of protectors as the guest of qualities 3. འ་ག་ང་་མན། the six classes of beings as guests for compassion 4. གན་གས་ལམ་ཆགས་་མན། the spirits and malignant forces as guests of karmic retribution.


Viraddhavyapti/ Contrary pervasions. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is not the predicate in the given logical syllogism. One of the four positive pervasions (see khyab-pa rnal-ma bzhi). This pervasion is also called correct contrary pervasion fgal-khyab rnal-ma).


Viparyaya viruddhavyapti/ Wrong contrary pervasion. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is not that which is not the predicate, Synonymous with subsequent pervasion (see rjes-khyab).


Two types of contradictions. A, By means of their reverse identity there are two: 1. ན་ག་་གནས་འགལ། ekatrasthita viriiddha/ contradiction not abiding simultaneously, e.g. hot and cold 2. ཕན་ན་ང་འགལ། anyanyaparihara viriiddha/ contradictions canceling each other, e.g. is and isn't. B. By means of their manner of contradiction there are two: 1. དས་འགལ། bhava viriiddha/ direct contradiction, e.g. permanent and impermanent 2. བད་འགལ། avedhavirfiddha/ indirect contradiction, e.g. pillar and vase.


Viriiddha vipaksa/ Contradictory dissimilar factor. An opposite factor of the predicate in a logical syllogism.


Four types of contradictions, (see above, 'gal-ba gnyis A, 1-2 and B, 1-2).


Three types of contradictions. 1-2 (see A. 1-2 above) 3. ཚད་མ་ད་འགལ། contradiction by valid cognition.


A personal god or inhuman force. A god or inhuman force believed to be the personal protector of an individual inseparable from oneself like the shadow of one's body.


Panca deva/ Five personal gods or inhuman forces. I.ལ་། desa deva/ the local god 2. ་། purusa deva/ the male god of a man 3. ་། stri deva/ the female god of a woman 4. ད་། s'atru deva/ the enemy combating god 5. ག་། prana deva/ the life-force god.


Nirodha satya/ The noble truth of cessation. The total pacification of all karmas and delusions through application of the path within oneself.


Dvadasa nirodha satya/ The twelve types of truth of cessation.

1. མཚན་ད་་འག་པ། laksana nirodha/ characterised cessation

2. ཟབ་པ་འག་པ། gambhira nirodha/ profound cessation 3. ད་འག་པ། samketa nirodha/ symbolic cessation 4. ན་དམ་པ་འག་པ། parartha nirodha/ ultimate cessation 5.ངས་་མ་ག་པ་འག་པ། aparipurna nirodha/ unperfected cessation 6. ངས་་གས་པ་འག་པ། paripurna nirodha/ perfected cessation 7. ན་ད་འག་པ། salahkara nirodha/ adorned cessation 8. ན་ད་འག་པ། analankara nirodha/ unadorned cessation 9. ག་བཅས་འག་པ། avas'esa nirodha/ residual cessation 10. ག་ད་འག་པ། nirvasesa nirodha/ non-residual cessation 11. ད་པར་་འཕགས་པ་འག་པ།་

visesta nirodha/ exalted cessation 12. མ་ངས་པ་འག་པ། prayaya nirodha/ nominal cessation.


Catvari nirodhah satya guna/ Four attributes of the noble truth of cessation. 1. འག་པ། nirodha/ cessation 2. ་བ། santa/ peace 3. ་མ་པ། pranita/ excellence 4. ས་འང་། nihsaranam/ renunciation.


Sadasa nirodha satyakara/ The sixteen aspects of the noble truth of cessation. These are the aspects of internal emptiness and so on of the sixteen emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug).


Sapta nirodha satya prahatavya/ Seven abandonments of the path of cessation. These concern the objects of elimination having actualized the truth of cessation within this desire realm, which are: 1. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 2. འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 3. ང་། pratigha/ hatred-anger 4. ང་ལ།

mana/ ego/ pride 5. ་མ། vicikitsa/ doubt 6.ག་ mithya drsti/ wrong views holding wrong philosophy as right.


Nirodhasamapatti/ The meditative absorption in cessation. A state of meditation achieved in reliance upon the meditative absorption at the peak level of cyclic existence (srid-rtse), in which a yogi can remain for many aeons through stopping all gross feelings and perceptions. Synonymous with the emancipation of cessation ('gog-pa'i rnam-par thar-ba).


The unchangeable path. According to Nyingma teachings it

refers to the first ground attained on the level of the first yogic stage.


Viparinamaduhkhata/ The suffering of change. The fact that all happiness in cyclic existence changes to dissatisfaction and suffering. One of the three types of suffering (see sdug-bsngal gsum).


The four great feasts. The feast offered in Cut-ritual (gcod) practices. 1. དཀར་འད། the white feast 2. དམར་འད། the red feast 3. ་འད། the multi-colored feast 4. ནག་འད། the black feast.


Kaukrtya/ Regret; contrition. A secondary mind necessary for confession of negativities. One of the four changeable mental factors (see gzhan-'gyur bzhi).


Actualizing causes. Craving, grasping and becoming are the actualizing causes in the twelve links of interdependent origination, for these are responsible for activating, at death, the seeds of karmic instinct implanted in one's mind which determine one's next rebirth.


Gati/ Migrators; sentient beings. Generally classified into two categories: 1. the unfortunate beings (ngan-'gro) 2. the fortunate beings (bde-'gro).


The six types of beings; the six types of migrators. 1.  deva/ gods 2. ། manusya/ human beings 3. ་མ་ན། asura/

demigods 4. དལ་བ། naraka/ hell beings 5. ་གས། preta/ hungry ghosts 6. ད་འ། tiryak/ animals.


Coarse mental agitation. In the practice of single-pointed concentration, losing one's focal object after having held it for any penod of time is recognized as coarse mental agitation.


Subtle mental agitation. In the meditation to develop single-pointed concentration, when one part of the mind wanders to an object of attraction, and away from the focal object of meditation (even if not completely lost).


The seven codes of translation. The convention of translation followed by the Tibetan translators. 1. ག་འ་་འག་པ་ག་་། there must be a corresponding number of words per sentence 2. ག་ང་་འག་པ་ཤད་་། the number of full stops must

correspond to the number of sentences 3. ག་ན་་འག་པ་[???ལུ]་། the number of chapters must correspond to the number of subjects 4. ་་ཀ་་འག་པ་བམ་་ངས་་། each volume must contain a set of verses 5. བམ་་་འག་པ་བམ་་གངས་་། there must be a constitent number of volumes within a set 6. མཐའ་་འལ་བ་་ག་་་། there must be clear, consistent margins 7. ག་བམ་་འག་པ་གང་ག་་། there must be an identifying title on each volume.


Vaipulyatantra/ The lineage of extensive deeds. The lineage of teachings and practice coming from Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu mainly emphasizing the method aspect of Buddha's teachings.


Asta mada/ Eight types of Haughtinesses. Eight types of conceited delight. l. གས་བཟང་བས་གས་པ། conceited delight by family or lineage 2. གགས་ས་གས་པ། conceited delight by physical qualities 3. ལང་ས་གས་པ། conceited delight by youthful feature 4. ནད་ད་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being free of sickness 5. ར་ས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being wealthy 6. དབང་ད་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being powerful 7. བ་ག་ས་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being knowledgeable in arts and sciences 8. མང་་ས་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being a scholar.


Krosa/ Five hundred armspans. A measurement of length equal to 500 fathoms or armspans; the distance of about 1 kilometer, the reach of hearing or five hundred bows' length.


Carvaka/ The Hedonists. A proponent of non-Buddhist tenets who assert the non-existence of past and future lives and that the mind arises adventitiously from the body as light is kindled from the lamp.


The ornamented Foe-destroyer. A Hearer of lower intellectual capacity who is mainly concerned with the practice of mental quiescence meditation, who, when he attains the state of Arhatship is free both from the obscurtions to liberation and obscurations to meditative absorption, and also attains the six extra-sensory perceptions or clairvoyances.


The six ornaments and two excellences. The eight great Indian masters. 1. ་བ། Nagarjuna 2. འཕགས་པ་། Aryadeva 3.

གས་ད། Asanga 4.དག་གན། Vasubandhu 5.གས་ང་། Dignaga 6. ས་གས་ Dharmakirti 7. ན་ཏན་ད། Gunaprabha 8 ་ད། Sakyaprabha.


The six adornments and implements. 1. ས་པ ད་ན། human skull crown 2. མལ་ན། necklace 3. ན་ན། ear-ring 4. ག་། bracelets and anklets 5. ་ལ་ཁ jewel sash worn across shoulder (se-ral-kha) 6. ག་པག jewel net sash worn as a girdle or lower garment.


Analankararhat/ The unornamented Foe-destroyer. A hearer of higher level intellectual capacity who is mainly concerned with the practice of special insight meditation and, who, on attaining the state of Arhatship does not attain extra-sensory perceptions or clairvoyances.


The four ornaments; the four adorments. 1. ལ་མས་་ན ornament of moral discipline 2. ང་་འན་་ན། ornament of meditative concentration 3. ས་རཔ་་ན། ornament of wisdom 4. གངས་་ན ornament of retentive power.

The four great kings. The gods or evil spirits included in the category of the first level of gods in the desire realm 1. 4*fi" i^WW Karotapanayodeva W|W^W Maladhara 3.

The ten prophetic dreams of Krkiraja; the ten apocalyptic

dreams of King Krki. The dreams that correspond to various negative occurences in Buddha's teachings after his passing away. 1. ང་་་ས་ར་ང་ནས་ན་ང་མག་མ་་ལ་གས་པ། an elephant's body is outside but his tail is caught in the window 2. ང་་་ཕལ་པས་ས་་ང་་་ད་པ། 'an ordinary elephant is driving away a superior elephant 3. ་གཙང་པ་ས་པ་་ག་ས་་གཞན་ལ་་གཙང་བ་བད་པ། a monkey covered with excrement is spreading it on other monkeys 4. ་གག་ས་་གས་ལ་དབང་བར་བ།

a monkey is giving initiation to a group of monkeys 5.ཙན་དན་ལ་་ང་་དང་ང་ཕལ་པ་མ་་མས་པ།

the sandal-wood tree is counted equal with other trees 6.་་གང་དང་་ག་་གང་བ་བ། a bowl of pearl is exchanged for a bowl of barley flour 7. བག་ལག་ཁང་་་འར་ན་ད་པ་་ག་དང་འས་་ན་ས་འར་བ།


steal the flowers and fruits from around the temple 8. གཙང་ང་ད་་ང་བ་ན་པས་མ་པ་ས་ས་ལ་གས་ང་་འང་་ས་པ།

man dying of thirst finds clear water in a well but is unable to drink it 9.་་མང་་་ས་་བཅད་ནས་ད་པ། gathered in many groups are quarreling with each other 10རས་ ག་གག་་བ་བད་ས་བས་པས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ཆ་ཚང་བ་་བ་ང་་བ་རས་ུག་མ་ཉམས་པ།

piece of cloth is shared among eighteen people yet each receives the whole cloth and the original remains intact.


The king-like Bodhimind. The bodhicitta associated with the five extra-sensory perceptions possessed by a Bodhisattva on the three pure levels of the path—the eighth, ninth and tenth grounds.


Rajagrha/ A holy Buddhist place to the east of Bodhgaya. It is believed to be the place where Raja Bimbisara's palace stood during Buddha's time. Buddha taught many sutras here, and the first Buddhist Council was also held here.


Panca jina/ The five families of Buddha. 1. མ་པར་ང་མཛད། Vairocana, white 2. མབད་པ། Aksobhya, blue 3. ན་ན་འང་ གནས། Ratnasambhavi yellow 4. ད་དཔག་ད། Amitabha,red5. ན་ད་བ་པ། Amoghasiddhi, green. When Buddha ལ་བ་་་ འཆང་། Vajradhara, deep blue in colour, is added on top of this list, it becomes the six Buddha families.


Eight great festivals connected with Buddha Sakyamuni. 1. ་ལབས་པ། His descent from Tusita heaven 2.མས་་ཞགས་པ། His entenng of mother's womb 3. ་བམས་པ། His birth 4. རབ་ང་ང་བ། His renunciation of worldly life and becoming a monk 5 སངས་ས་པ། His attainment of complete enlightenment 6. ས་འར་བར་བ། His turning the wheel of doctrine 7. ཆོ་འལ་ བན་པ། His performance of miracles 8.་ངན་ལས་འདས་བ། His passing into parinirvahi


The seven precious royal emblems. 1. འཁོར་ལོ་རིན་་ཆེ། cakra ratna/ precious wheel for power and authority 2. ནོར་བུ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། mani ratna/ precious jewel for marvelous property 3. བན་མོ་ ན་པོ་ཆེ། stri ratna/ precious queen, as the queen 4.ན'་རིན་་ཆེ། mantri ratna/ precious mimster as the minister of state 5.ང་པོ་ ན་་ཆེ། hastin ratna/ precious elephant for power and courage

6. ་མག་ན་པོ་། asva ratna/ precious horse for strength and

discipline 7. དམག་དཔོན་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། senapati ratna/ precious military commander as the military force of a Universal Monarch.


The maturing Buddha nature; the transformational Buddha nature. The Buddha nature enlightened and developed through

sincere practice, that ultimately transforms into the form body of a Buddhi


Hetupratyaya/ Causes and conditions; causal condition.


Hetu sarana/ Causal refuge. The Buddhi Dharma and Sarigha in those who have already developed them. Buddhists accept them as their examplary objects of refuge.


The two types of causes. A. By nature: 1. ར་ལེན་་། upadana

hetu/ the fundamental cause 2. ན་ག་ད་ན། saha bhu hetu/ imultaneously arisen cause. B. By way of giving rise to results: 1. དས་་། bhava hetu/ direct cause 2. བད་། sambandha hetu/ indirect cause.


Nisyandaphala/ The results corresponding to its cause. The fruits of a karmic action experienced or ripened with its nature corresponding to its cause. This has two: 1. ས་པ་་མན་་འས་ བུ། the rruits corresponding to its actions, e.g. the fact that a person who may have been a sinner in the past life has the natural urge to do similar actions in this life. 2. ང་བ་་མཐུན་ི་ འས་། the fruits corresponding to its experience, e.g. the fact that a person who practices generosity in this life would become rich in his future life.


Sad hetavah/ The six types of causes; the six causes. 1. ད་། karana hetu/ acting cause 2. ན་ག་འང་བའི་། sahabhu hetu/ simultaneously arising cause; innately born cause 3. ལ་མཉམ་་། sabhaga hetu/ equal-state cause 4.མངས་ན་་། sarhprayukta hetu/ concomitant cause 5. ན་འའི་། sarvatraga

་་་འན་པ། a

hetu/ ommpresent cause 6. མ་ན་་། vipaka hetu/ ripening cause.


The adamantine cause. The primordial reality abiding within the mental continuum of sentient beings which is qualified by three basic features: 1. unchangeable 2. self-awarness 3. the great and supremse bliss.


the seven-fold cause and effect precepts. A lineage of meditation for cultivating the mind of eniightenment. 1. མར ཤེས། recognizing all sentient beings as one's mother 2. ིན་ན། being mindful of their kindness 3. ན་གཟོ། repaying their kindness 4. ད་ང་་མས་པ། heart-warming love 5. ང་། compassion 6. ག་བསམ། resolute intention 7. ང་བ་་མས། mind of eniightenment


Presumption or correct belief that is based on reason. One of the five types of presumptions resulting from some reason that is either incorrect or, if correct, not understood.


The causal form. Forms that retain the entity of elements. These comprise earth or soil, water or liquid, fire or warmth, and wind.


Tantra/ A. Tantra; classification of Buddha's teachings concerning the speedier method of attalning Buddhahood. B. Mental continuum; mind stream.


The four ways of explaining a tantric text. 1. ན་ག་ང་ས་ནམ་

མཁ་དངས་འཇལ་ར་བ། presenting the summary of the text in the manner of a garuda bird floating in the sky 2. དས་་ས་ག་་ངས་ལ་མང་བ་ར་བཅད།

explaining the body of text in the manner of a lion leaping in the forest 3. ག་་ན་རུས་ལ་ས་འ་བ་ར་བཤད། འSI་བ་ར་བཤད། explaining the meaning of the words literally in the manner of a tortoise's gait 4. མན་ངག་་ན་་ག་བར་ལ་བས་པ་བན་བ་བ།

passing the transmission in the manner of pearls woven on the string.


Two classes of tantri 1. ཕ་ད། father tantra 2. མ་ད། mother tantra.


The upper and lower tantric college of Gelug tradition. Tsong Khapa's disciple Jetsun Sherab Senge established Ihe lower tantric college in 1433, and the upper tantric college instituted by his disciple Neying Jetsun Kunga Dhondup in 1474 in Lhasi


Sad tantrapitaka/ The six classes of tantra. 1. ་ད། kriya tantra/ action tantra 2. ད་ད། carya tantra/ performance tantra 3. ལ་འར་ད། yoga tantra 4. ཕ་ད། pita tantra/ father tantra 5. མ་ད། mata tantra/mother tantra 6. གས་ད་ད། advayatantra/ non-dual tantn The first are known as the three outer classes of tantra and the latter three as the three inner classes of tantra.


Sapta tantra pitaka/ The seven classes of tantri According to Atisa's Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment these are: 1. ་བ་ད། kriya tantra/ action tantra 2. ད་པ་ད། carya tantra/ performance tantra 3. ག་པ་ད། savitarka tantra/ conceptual tantra 4. གས་ཀ་ད། ubhya tantra/ dual tantra 5. ལ་འར་ད།

7 ་ན་འལ་ག

mental quiescence meditation; the stage at which one increases one's attention on the object of meditation.


The seven regular confession practices. 1. f ག་པ་བཤགས་པ། papadeSana/ confession of non-virtues 2. gས་ས་ཡ་རང་བ། anumoda/ rejoicing in virtues 3. ན་དམ་Sང་བ་་མས་བSJད་པl paramarthacittopada/ generating the ultimate mind of enlightenment 4. SJབས་ས་འf བ། Sarana/ taking refuge 5. Iན་ སམས་བlད་པ། pranidhrcittopada/ generating the aspiring mind of enlightenment 6. འ£ག་མས'བ$jད་པ། prasthanacittopada/ generating the engaging mind of enlightenment 7. བt་བ། parinarna/ dedicating the virtues.


ns nb

The causal principle. The reality of mind that abides unchangeable like space withrn the minds of sentient beings and Buddhas. According to sUtras this refers to the Tathagata essence—the naturally abiding buddha nature. In the lower tantras this is known by various names like the suchness of self (bdag-gi de kho-na nyid), the mind of eniightenment and the mind of Samantabhadra (kun-tu bzang-po'i sems). According to the highest yoga tantra this principle is known as the union of E-VAM (e-vam zung-'jug).



Hetuyana/ Causal vehicle. The common vehicle known as the perfection vehicle, the slower path of practice for the attainment of Buddhahood.

n3 n3

Sad pratityasamutpada/ The six causal interdependent principles. The elements of the outer natural phenomena— earth, water, fire, wind, space and time.

yoga tantra 6. ལ་འར་ན་་ད། mahayoga tantra/ great yoga tantra 7. ལ་འར་་ན་ད་པ་དl anuttarayoga tantra/ highest yogatantri


Catvari tantra pitaka/ The four classes of tantn 1. ་བ་ད། kriya tantra/ action tantra 2. ད་པ་ད། carya tantra/ performance tantra 3. ལ་འར་ད། yoga tantra 4.ལ་འར་་ན་ད་པ་ད། anuttarayoga tantra/ highest yoga tantri


The three types of lineages. 1. གང་ད། family lineage 2. ་ད། reincarnation lineage 3. བ་ད། disciple lineage.


The three integerations; the three principles. A. ན་ཆགས་གསུམ། The three regular principles of practice at a teaching session: l.ག་འཚལ། making prostration 2. མ་འདོན་པ། reciting a sUtra 3. བ་བ་ད་པl making dedication. B. ས་་པ་ལམ་འས་ར་ད་གམ་ང་ལ། The integration of the actual path and fruit practice according to Sakya tradition, being the secret mantra vajrayana practice drawn into three principles: 1. ན་ག་་ད་ ལ་འར་འདས་དར་ད་་་བ་ང་བ། maimaining the view of the inseparability of sarhsara and nirvaha within the fundamental mental continuum (kun-gzhi rgyu-rgyud) as the causal principle. 2. ལས་ཐབས་ད་ལ་དབང་བ་དང་འལ་བ་ལམ་བམ་པ། meditating on the paths connected to the fourfold initiations


upon one's body as the method principle. 3. མཐར་ག་འས་འི' ད་ལ་་་་ས་་ན་ཏན་འཆར་བ། artaining the qualities of the five bodies and five primordial wisdoms at the end as the resultant principle.


་n> n5

Continual fixation. The second of the nine stages of mental fixation or placement (see sems-gnas dgu) in the practice of


The causal initiations. Those stages of initiations that are given to prepare a disciple to become a ripe receptacle, otherwise known as the initiation to ripen a disciple who is not yet ripe.


The four guardian goddesses. In the secret mantra mandalas the four gates or entrances of the mandala: 1གས་་མ། ArikuSi 2.ཞགས་པ་མ། 3. གས་ག་མ། Srrikhala 4. ལ་་མ། Ganta.

The three gates of activity. ལས་ངག་ད་གམ། Body, speech and mind.

The nine levels of delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.lམ་ང་་འང་ང་གམ་་ར་་འང་ང་གམ་་

ས་པ་ར་ད། The great, middling and small levels of delusiors of each of the great, middle and small delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.


The ten delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. According to Abhidharmakosa there are four of the desire realm, three of the form realm, and three of the formless realm.


The sixteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. This follows the tradition of Abhidharma-samuccaya (see sgom-spang nyon-mongs bcu-drug).


Bhavanaheyavrttigrahyakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of objects of cultivation to be eliminated on the path of meditation.

Sodasa bhavananeyaklesa/ The sixteen delusions (which are obscurations to liberation) to be abandoned on the path of meditation. འད་པ་སས་བས་་་ག kamadhatu kleSa/ Six of the desire realm: 1. འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 2. Ffi། krodha/ anger 3. ང་ལ། mana/ pride 4. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 5. འག་། satkayadrsiti/ view of the transitory collection 6. མཐར་། antagrahadrsti/ extreme view. གགས་' སས་བས་་་་། pafica rupadhatu klesa/ Five of the form realm: འད་ཆག་་raga/ desire-attachment 2. ང་ལ། mana/pride3. མ ག་པ། avidya/ignorance 4.འག་། satkayadrsti/ view of the transitory collection 5. མཐར་l antagraha drsti/ extreme view. གགས་ད་སས་བས་་l panca arUpadhatu kleSa/ Five of the formless realm: L འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 1 ང་ལ! mana/ pride 3. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 4. འ£ག་། satkayadrsti/ view of the transitory collection 5. མཐར་། antagrahadrsti/ extreme view.


Bhavananeyaprajnaptigrahakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of imputed existence to be abandoned on the path of meditanon,

Bhavananeyanirvittigrahyakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of objects of elimination to be abandoned on the path of meditation.


Bhavanaheyadravyagrahakakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of substantial existence to be abandoned on the path of meditation.


The four hundred and fourteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. This list includes all delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation within the three realms and nine levels (see khams-gsum sa-dgu). These are འད་པ་ མ་ང་་བ། the fifty-four of the desire realm, གགས་ཁམས་་མ་ང་བ་དང་བ་། hundred and eighty of the form realm, གགས་ད་ཁམས་་མ་ང་བ་དང་བད་། one hundred and eighty of the formless realm.


Six functions of the path of meditation; six benefits of the path of meditation. 1. མས་ན་་་བ། peacerul mind 2. ཐམས་ ཅད་ལ་འད་པ། self-disciplined and humble 3. ན་ངས་པ་གས་ ལས་ལ་བ། victory over defilements 4. ་ནང་་གད་པས་བབ་ད་པ། no occasion for attack from internal and external evils 5.ང་བ་ར་་བ་པ། ability to achieve eniightenment 6.རང་གང་་ གནས་པ་ས་གས་་ད་ང་མད་པ་ན་ད་་འར་བ། the worthiness of being worshipped wherever one abides.


The eight marks of irreversibility on the path of meditation. 1. ་བ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of production 2. འགག་པ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of stopping 3. ་བད་ད་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of reality 4. ས་རབ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of objects of knowledge 5.ད་པ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of knowledge 6. profundity of practice 7. གས་ད་ལ་ཟབ་པ། prorundity of non-duality 8. ཐབས མཁས་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of skillful means.


Bhavanamarga murdhaprayoga/ The peak training on the path of meditation. A path of practice within the continuum of a Bodhisattva on the path of meditation which is a direct antidote to the seed of eliminations to be abandoned on the path of meditaiton


T)vadasa mayopama/ The twelve examples of illusory nature; the twelve similes to prove lack of true existence of a conjurer's display. 1. ་མ nraya/ an illusion 2. ་། udakacandra/ a reflection of the moon in the water 3. ག་ར། pratibhasa/ hallucination 4. ག་། marici/ a mirage 5. ་ལམ། svapna/ a dream 6. ་བན། pratiSabda/ an echo 7. ་ཟ་ང་ར། gandharvanagara/ the city of smell-eaters 8. ག་འལ། indrajala/ a magic play 9. འཇའ་ན། indracapa/ a rainbow 10. ག vidyut/ a bolt of lightening 11. ་ར། budbud/ a water bubble 12. ་་ནང་་གགས་བན། pratibimba/ a reflection m a mirror.


The sixty-four arts. The thirty skills of arts and crafts (see bzo-rig-gi sgyu-rtsal sum-cu), the eighteen arts of music (see rol-mo'i sgyu-rtsal bco-brgyad), the seven principles of songs and chanting (see glu-dbyans-kyi nges-pa bdun), and the nine features of dance (see gar-gyi nyams-dgu), all rooted in the ancient Indian culture.


lm types of illusory body. 1. ན་བ་་་ས་་། sarhvrti mayakaya/ the conventional illusory body 2. ན'དམ་པ་་ས་་།|pammartha mayakaya/ the ultimate illusory body.


The seven types of illusory body. The seven different illusory bodies: 1. ད་་མ། exemplary illusory body 2. ང་བ་་་མ། appearance illusory body 3. ་ལམ་£་མ། dream illusory body 4. བར་་་མ། illusory body of the intermediate state of rebirth 5. ་གསལ་་མ། clear light illusory body 6. ལ་པ་་མ།emanation illusory body 7. ་ས་་མ།wisdom illusory body.


The eleven types of sound. 1. ཡད་་ང་བ་། pleasant 2.ད་་་ང་བ་། unpleasant 3. གས་ཀ་ན་པI neither pleasant nor unpleasant 4. ན་པ་། conjoined sound 5. མ་ན་པ་། unconjoined sound 6. མ་ན་པ་། neither conjoined nor unconjoined 7. འག་ན་་གས་པ། popular sound 8. བ་པས་བན་པ། philosophical expression 9. ན་བགས་པ། imputed sound 10. འཕགས་པ་ཐ་ད་བཏགསཔ། utterances pronced by Aryas 11. འཕགས་པ་མ་ན་པ་ཐ་་ད་བཏགས་པ། utterances pronounced by non-Aryas.


The delightful sound-like Bodhimind. The mind of enlightenment associated with the gaiety of dharma possessed by the Bodhisattva on the tenth level.


The suchness of sound. An action tantra meditation practice. A practitioner concentrates and analyses the sound of a mantra into its subtler and subtler forms and finally places his or her mind within the non-conceptual level of experiencing the suchness of sound at its final stage. This helps a meditator to produce the wisdom of penetrative insight meditation (vipasyana).


Logical sound. An expression or statement that fits the popular convention, e.g. the statement, 'sound is permanent'.


Illogical sound. An expression or statement that does not fit the popular convention, e.g. the statement, 'sound is impermanent'.


The conceptual cognition of sound generality (see sgra-spyi) and meaning generality (see don-spyi). For instance, the idea of conceptual cognition of a vase in the mind of a person learned in conventions.


Sound generality. Generic image based oniy on hearsay about an object, e.g. the image of a sound in one's mind having heared the expression, 'vase'.


Sabda pramana/ Valid cognition based on verbal indication. It is the sound generality based entirely on hearsay and not on previous direct apprehension of the object such as through sense consciousness,*etc. It is permanent and is the appearing object to a conceptual mind that apprehends the object.


Concentration on sound. One of the four types of recitation of mantra in meditation (see bzlas-brjod yan-lag bzhi). The practice of reciting the mantra according to performance tantra. This involves concentrating on the mantric syllables visualized upon a moon disk as self-resounding.


Sabda deva/ The sound deity. One of the six types of deities in action tantra. This involves meditation on the mantric syllables visualized in the mandala as self-resounding and emitting and drawing rays of light.


Suchness abiding upon sound. A practice of meditation on the suchness of concentration according to action tantra. This involves meditation on all the mantric syllables visualized as encircling the moon disk at one's heart along with the moon disk itself as producing sound similar to one's ritual bell, and thus maintaining concentration upon it. A basis for developing caim abiding meditation.


The five types of obscurations. According to some traditions these are: 1. འད་ཆགས། kamacchanda/ desire-attachment 2.གས་པ། styana/ mental sloth 3. གད་དང་འད་པ། nindra kaukrtya/ sleep and regret 4. གང་བ། viksepa/ mental distraction 5. ་་མམ། vicikitsa/ doubt.


The two obstructions; two obscurations. 1. ན་ངས'པ་བ'པ། klesavarana/ delusive obscuration to liberation 2.ས་་བ་པ། jnanavarana/ obstructions to omniscience.


The two types of Bodhicitta completely free from obscurations. 1. Bodhicitta like a flowing river (see chu-bo་i rgyun lta-bu'i sems-bskyed) 2. Cloud-like Bodhicitta (see sprin lta-bu'i sems-bskyed).


The four types of obscurations. A. ལམ་་དགག་་བ་པ་བ། The

four obscurations of the paths: 1. འད་ན་་བ་པ། obscurations of the desirous ones 2. ་གས་པ་བ་པ། obscurations of the hedonists (tirthikas) 3. ཉན'ཐོས''དམན'བ། obscurations of the

•v «v

hearers (Sravakas) 4. རང་ལ་'དམན'བ! obscurations of the

V Ov

solitary realizers (pratekyabuddhas). B. 1. ན་བ།

-་N »v

klesavarana/ delusive obscurations 2. ས་བ། jnanavarana/ obscurations to omniscience 3. ཆགས་བ། saragavarana/ obscurations of attachment 4 ག་བ།sapratigavarana/ impeding obscurations. C. 1. ལས'་བ་པ། karmakavarana/ karmic obscurations 2. ན'མངས'པ་བ་པ། klesavarana/ delusive obscurations 3. ས་་བ་པ། jnanavarana/ obscurations to omniscience 4.མས་འག་་བ་པ། samapattyavarana/ obscurations to meditative absorption.


The three obscurations. A. 1-2. (see sgrib-pa gnyis, above) 3. ལས་་བ་པ། karmakavarana/ karmic obscuration. B. 1. ཆགས་པ་བ་པ saragavarana/ obscuration to attachment 2. གས་པ་བ་པ།


sapratigavarana/ impeding obscuration 3. དམན་པ་བ་པ། hinavarana/ obscuration to the lower.


The nine obstructing stains. l-3 ག་གམ་་བག་ལ་ཉལ་བ་གམ། the three poisonous delusions in their latent state 4. ་དག་་ན་ནས ང་བ་ག the six secondary delusions (see rtsa-nyon-drug) arising from the three root delusions 5. མ་ག་བག་ཆགས་་ས། the instinctive level of ignorance 6. ག་དམན'་མང'ང'། the abandonments on the path of seeing of the lesser vehicle 7. the abandonག་ན་་མ་ངments on the path of meditation of the lesser vehicle 8. མ་དག་ས་བན། the abandonments on the seven impure levels of Bodhisattvas 9. དག་པ་ས་གམ་་

ང་། the abandonments on the three pure levels of Bodhisattvas.


The practice lineage. The lineage of reclusive lamas and their disciples who mainly do intensive meditation in isolated places and seldom give public teachings or compose texts.


ffirming perception; assertive perception. All direct perceptions affirming their objects of knowledge as they are as a whole without being specific with respect to different aspects of their object, e.g. the direct perception with regard to a vase.


^adhana/ The method of accomplishment (sadhana). The text of practice aimed at the actualization of reality through meditation. It involves an entire system of visualization, recitation, rituals and meditation concerning a deity or the cycle of deities.


Things of the same production and reverse identity. For instance, the idea or thought that the sound of a bell and flute are same with respect to their being produced from solid things.


X Positive phenomenon. A phenomenon that can be understood without having to understand what is opposite to it or, in general, without recourse to conception, e.g. a vase. B. Practice; accomplishment; achievement; attainment; realization.


l་he eight Kagyad deities. The eight deities of the Nyingma tradition primarily of the generation stage practice of tantra. These are: 1. འཇམ་དཔལ་། 'jam-dpal sku 2. པ་གང་། pad-ma gsung 3. ཡང་དག་གས། yang-dag thugs 4. བད་་ན་ཏན། bdud-rtsi yon-tan 5. ར་བ་ིན་ལསl phur-pa phrin-las 6. མ་་ད་གཏོང་། ma-mo bod-gtong 7. དམོད་པ་ག་གས། dmod-po drag-sngags 8.འག་ན་མད་པ། 'jig-rten mchod-bstod. The first five are transworldly deities and the latter three worldly deities.


The five paths of meditation of achievement, with respect to its:liམ་ལམIང'། nature2.འས'་ད་པར། fruits 3. ད་ལས་་ད་པར། function 4. གནས་བས་་ད་པར། temporary features 5. མཐར་ཐུག་་ད་པར། ultimatefeatures.


The three great accomplishments; the three great objectives of a Bodhisattvi 1. མས་དཔའ་ན་། mahasattva/ great being 2. ོང་བ་ན་པོ། mahaprahana/ great abandonment 3. གས་པ་ན་། mahadhigama/ great insight.


The offering of practice. The practice of offering one's own Dharma practices and collection of virtues as an object of offering. The best offering one can make to those worthy of making offerings.


ibe activity of practice. One of the four ways of utilizing realizations (see spyod-pa'i sgo-bzhi) according to action tantra in which one transforms articles of offering, body and resources into gods of desire realms and Vidyadharas or dakinis of the same rank.


The symbolic mandali A mandala arranged on an altar made of gold or metal bases or otherwise upon which the fivefold heaps of precious stones or grains are created and visualized as the five Buddha families. Such a mandala primarily syrabolizes the deities as objects of worship.

བ་པ་དགས་པ་བ་གག The eleven objects of accomplishment; the eleven objects of the Bodhisattva paths. 1. ང་་ད་བ། virtuous objects to be cultivated 2. དོལ་་་དགེ་བ། non-virtuous objects to be abandoned 3.ང་མ་བན་པ། unspecified objects which are neither 4. འག་ན་པ། worldly objects 5. འག་ན་ལས་འདས་པ། transworldly objects 6. ཟག་བཅས། contaminated objects 7. ཟག་ ད། uncontaminated objects 8. འས་ས། composite objects 9. འས་མ་ས། non-composite 10. ཐུན་ང་བ་ན་ཏན། common qualities ll.ན་ང་མ་ན་པ་ན་ཏན། uncommon qualities.


Samaropa/ Overestimation; exaggeration; superimposition; hypostatization. Exaggerating the meaning or significance of the mode of abidance of a phenomenon without any basis; taking something as existing in a certain way when it does not actually exist in that way.


The four types of lamps. The paths that allow direct perception of the eniightened body of the inseparable reality and awareness at the actual stage of rDzogs-chen meditation following the leap-over system (thod-rgal). These are: 1. ང་ ཞགས་་་ན་མ། the distant water lamp 2. ག་པ་དངས་་ན་མ། the lamp of reality of awareness 3. ཐག་ལ་fང་པ་fན་མ། the lamp of emptiness of drop 4. ས་རབ་རང་ང་་ན་མ། the lamp of self-born wisdom.


The Torma ritual of the eigth. A religious ceremony of the four-faced Mahakala held on the 8th of the 3rd Tibetan month. The ceremony involves offering of sacrificial cakes through invocation rites and rituals to Mahakala and all other dharma protectors.


The six lineages or transmissions. The six lineages of transmissions according to the Oral (bka'-ma) and Treasure (gter-ma) lineages in Nyingma tradition. These are: 1. ལ་བ་ དགོངས་པ་བུད་པ། Buddhals intention lineage 2. ག་འན་བ་ བད་པ། Vidyadhara's symbolic lineage 3. གང་ཟག་ན་ང་་བད་པ། disciple's whispered lineage 4. བཀའ་བབ་ང་བན་་བད་བ། the commissioned prophetic lineage 5. ན་ལམ་དབང་བར་་བད་་པ།

V «v

the lineage of prayers and empowerment 6. མཁའ་འ་གཏད་་བད་པ། the lineage protected by dakinis. The first three lineages are common to both the Oral and Treasure transmissions whereas the latter three are unique to the revealers of treasure teachings.


The five types of lineages. The five lineages of Buddhism


according to the way it spread in India. 1. འལ་བ་བད་པ། the vinaya lineage 2. གསང་གས་་བད་པ། the secret mantra lineage 3. ་ན་ད་བད། the extensive Dractice lineage 4. ཟབ་་་བད། the profound view lineage 5. ང་་ན་བད། the essential meaning lineage.


The three types of lineages. A. According to the graded path teaching tradition of Sutrayani these are: 1. ཟབ་་་བད། the profound view lineage 2. ་ན་ད་བད། the extensive practice lineage 3. ཉམས་ན་ན་བས་་བད། the blessed practice lineage.

B. According to the secret mantra teaching tradition of the Nyingma school, these are: 1. རིང་བད་བཀའ་མ། the distant oral lineage 2. ཉེ་བད་གཏེར་མ། the close treasure lineage 3. ཟབ་མོདག་ ང་་བད་པ། the profound pure vision lineage.


Interpretive sUtras for the purpose of encouragement. For instance, the sutras in which Buddha taught those of weak aptitude that, 'enlightenment can be achieved through striving hard in the accumulation of two types of merits'.


The ten heinous crimes. An enemy of the Buddha Dharma who has committed ten serious non-virtues and is therefore an object to be captured and killed. 1. སངས་ས་བན་པ་ག་པ། destroying the Buddha's teaching 2. དཀོན་མག་དབུ་འཕང་ད་པ། disparaging the three jewels of refuge 3. ད་འན་་འ་ར'འོག་པ། appropriating the wealth of the Sarigha community 4. ཐེག་ ན་ལ་ད་པ། disparaging the Mahayana 5. ་མ་་ལ་བ་བ། threatening the body of a guru 6. ་་ན་གས་ན་འན་པ། causing disunity amongst vajra friends 7. བ་པ་ལ་བར་་གད་པ། hindering the practice of Dharma 8. དམ་ག་མ་པ་དང་ལ་བ། dropping the spiritual pledges 9. བ་བ་ང་་གཏན་ནས་ད་པ། lacking compassion 10. ལས་འས་ལ་ག་པར་་བ། holding wrong views or philosophy.


The obscured unspecified phenomena. The delusive unspecified phenomena. The delusions within the form and formless realms that are obstructions to attaining Arya paths, and hence hinder actualization of uncontaminated paths, and are not non-virtues because these do not give rise to suffering or misery, therefore these become unspecified phenomena. For example, the innately born self or ego.


Accomplishment ceremony. A grand tantric ceremony involving the creation of a mandala, offering of services, and performance of the ritual and rites of generating oneself into a deity, generating the deity in front and into the vase, etc.


Sadhya/ The thesis; that which is to be established. The subject and the predicate in a correct logical syllogism taken together as that which is to be proved.


Sadhyadharma/ Predicate. That which is to be proved in relation to the subject in a given logical syllogism, e.g. 'impermanence' as the predicate when the given syllogism is, 'Take sound, it is impermanent because it is a functional thing'.


I; self; me. Mahayatia philosophical systems do not assert the existence of an independent, self-existent, unchanging self, because if such a self were to exist, a person would be unchanging and would be unable to purify himself of fettering passions etc, and attain Buddhahood. What is accepted is a relative, impermanent, changeable, conscious-entity self, which is the continuation of one's former life, to this and future lives and is also the basis for the ripening of karmi


Sapta mana/ The seven kinds of pride; the seven prides. 1. ང་ ལ། mana/ pride, a feeling of arrogance or superiority; one of the six root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug). 2. ཆེ་བའི་ང་ ལ། mahamana/ exalted pride, the feeling of superiority amongst the equals. 3. ང་ལ་ལས་ང་ང་ལ། manatimana/

exaggerated pride, a puffed-up feeling that you are higher than the extremely high 4ང་མ་པ་ང་ལ། asmimatia/ egotistic pride, a feeling that you are the oniy one who can do some specific thing correctly; more philosophically, the pride that mistakeniy appropriates any of the five aggregates as the T. 5. མན་པ་ང་ལ། abhimana/ presumptuous pride, a feeling that you have realized something, or that you know something, when actually you do not. 6.ང་ཟད་མ་པ་ང་ལ། Unamana/ modest pride, a feeling that though you may be equal with your friends you are a ་little better than them. 7. ག་པ་ང་ལ། mithyamana/ perverted pride, a feeling of pride in your unwholesome habits and qualities.


The divine pride and vision. A basic requirement of tantric practices in which one tries to counteract one's ordinariness by generating divine pride of being the deity of the respective practice, and visualizing both oneself and the surroundings as the celestial mansion or abode.


The mere 'I'; the conventionally existent T representing the person at a relative level.


The eight sound sources. 1. ་ག་པ། uvular 2. མན་པ། guttural 3. ན། palatal 4. tongue 5. ། nasal 6. ། dental 7 ་ alveolar 8. མ། labial.


Durgati dukha/ The sufferings of the unfortunate beings. The miseries and suffering encountered by the three types of beings in the lower realms. The suffering from heat and cold for hell beings, the suffering of hunger and thirst for hungry

ghosts, and the suffering of becoming a beast of burden and exploitation for animals.


Black magic. The art of casting spells and curses on others.


The ten states of bad rebirth. 1-8. states of the eight hot and cold hells (see tsha-dmyal brgyad and grang-dmyal brgad) 9.་གས། hungry ghost state 10. ད་འ animalstate.


Ahanikara/ Ego-grasping; self-grasping; self-preoccupation. The concept of taking the mere T upon oneself as the truly existent T or 'self.


The extreme of ascetic practice; the extreme practice of self-mortification by depriving the body of the means of living. One of the extremes of living to be avoided by monks.


The three cycles of relaxation. The three famous texts of practice composed by Longchen Rabjampa, a Nyingma master of the fourteenth century. 1. ■སེམས་ད་ངལ་ག། Relaxation of the Suchness of Mind, relaxation through meditation on the suchness of mind 2. ་མ་ངལ་ག། Relaxation ofthe Illusions, relaxation through pacifying lllusory appearances 3. བསམ་གཏན་ངལ་ག། Relaxation of Samadhi, relaxation through meditation on concentrations.ས་ན་་མ།

Nitartha sUtra/ Definitive teachings. Those teachings of Buddha acceptable as they are which do not require

interpretation, or those that concern mainly teachings on ultimate truth.


The definitive vajra and bell. The bliss and void.


The subtle life-sustaining energy wind (srog-'dzin phra-ba).


The three indispensable faculties; the three necessary faculties. 1. ག་་དབང་། faculty of life-force 2. ■དབང་། faculty of mind 3.བཏང་མས་དབང་། faculty of indifferent feeling.


The five certainties; the five definite features ofa Sambhogakaya Buddhi 1.གནས་ས་པ། certainty of place; that they always reside in the richiy adorned Buddha-field called 'Heaven-below-non' 2. ་ས་པ། certainty of body; they are always adorned with thirty-two major and eighty minor marks (see mtshan bzang-po sum-bcu rta-gnyis & dpe-byed bzang-po brgyad-bcu) 3. ས་ས་པ། certainty of time; that they will live for as long as sarhsara is not emptied of sentient beings 4.ས་ས་པ། certainty of teachings; that they always teach the greater vehicle doctrine 5. འར་ས་པ། certainty of disciples; that they always teach to a circle of Arya Bodhisattva disciples.


Niscaravayu/ The definitely running wind energy. The wind energy for the cognitive faculty of touch. One of the five secondary energy winds (see yan-lag-gi rlung lnga).


Niryana/ Renunciation; wish to be liberated. A thought of definite release from cyclic existence wishing freedom from the cycle of unending sufferings within sanisara. A prime necessity for carrying out a pure Dharma practice.

The definitely occuring achievement The path existing at the last three pure levels of the Bodhisattva grounds.


The eight definitely occuring achievements; definitely occuring achievement to: 1. ཆད་་་བ་གམ་་ངེས་པར་ འང་བ། the three great objectives 2. མཉམ་པ་ད་་ས་ པར་འང་བ། the samenesses 3. སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་་ན་

་■ས་པར་འང་པ། attain the purpose of all sentient beings 4. འབད་མེད་ན་བ་་ངེས་པར་འང་བ། effortless achievement 5. མཐའ་ལས་འདས་པར་ངེས་པར་འང་བ། the state beyond extremes 6. ཐོབ་པ་མཚན་ད་་ངེས་པར་ འང་བ། the actuality of achievement 7. མ་མན་་ངེས་ པར་འང་བ། omniscient knowledge 8. ལམ་་ཡུལ་ཅན་་ ངེས་པར་འང་བ། objects of the path.


Fictitious renunciation. Temporarily produced sense of renouncing worldly life that does not last.


Catvari nirvedhabhagiya/ The four levels of the path of preparation. 1.ད། usman/ heat level 2. ་མོ། murdha/ peak level 3. བཟོད་པ། ksanti/ patience 4. ཆོས་མཆོག lankikagradharma/ supreme Dharma.


Nirvedhariga/ Level of the path of preparation. One of the seventy topics of the perfection of wisdom training; the path of preparation at the level of aspirational Bodhicitta.


NihSreyasa hetu/ The cause of definite goodness. The wisdom paths: primarily the wisdom understanding selflessness as cause for attainment of either liberation or full enlightenment.


Svabhava/ A. The natural feature; natural identity. B. The mode of abidance of phenomena.


The natural virtue. The eleven virtuous secondary mental factors (see dge-ba bcu-gcig).


The natural non-virtue. The six root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug) and the near delusions (see nye-nyon nyi-shu) that are mental factors responsible for producing all negative behaviours.


Svabhavatavyakrta/ The natural unspecified phenomena. Those classes of phenomena that are neither virtuous nor non-virtuous by their nature. For instance, the elements, aggregates and sources of perception.


Svabhavakaya/ The two types of nature truth body. The two bodies of a Buddha being totally pure of two stains: 1. རང་ བཞིན'མ་དག་གི་ངོ'་ད་། the natural truth body 2.་ར་

མ་དག་གི་ངོ་་ད་ the truth body free of adventitious defilements. In other words, these are the emptiness of a Buddha's mind and the truth of cessation within the continuum of a Buddha


The five features of a nature truth body. These are: 1. འས་ མ་ས་པ། non-compositional 2. དེར་མེད་པ། inseparable 3. མཐའ་གས་ངས་པ། free of tw0 extremes 4. ིབ་པ་ གསུམ་ལས་ོལ། free of three obscurations 5. རང་བཞིན་ ས་འོད་གསལ་བ། luminous by nature.

ངོ་བོ་ད་་ན་ཏན་་། The five qualities of nature truth body. These are: 1. གཞལ་་ ད་པ། incognizable 2. ངས་ད་པ། infinite 3. བསམ་་


inconceivable 4. མཉམ་པ་ད་པ། incomparable 5. ་མས་དག་པ། pure of stains.


Svabhava sunyata/ The emptiness of own nature. The lack of inherent identity of the reality of form and sound etc.


The three identityless phenomena; the three identitylessnesses. 1. མཚན་ད་་བོ་ད་མེད་པ། laksana nihsvabhavataV identitylessness of characteristics 2. ་བ་ངོ་བོ་ད་ད་པ།

utpatti n.ihsvabhavata/ identitylessness of production 3. དོན'དམ་པ་ངོ་་་ད་པ། paramartha nihsvabhavataV identitylessness of ultimate phenomena


The three natural existents. 1. ན་་བགས་པ་་་ད།

parikalpita svabhava/ imputed phenomena 2. གཞན་་དབང་་་་ད།

paratantra svabhava/ dependent phenomena 3.

ཡོངས་་བ་པ'ངོ་བོ་ད། parinispanna svabhava/ thoroughly established phenomena; ultimate phenomena.


The five-fold marvels of this world's treasure holders. These are the five supreme worlds of this continent: 1. དས་་་གར་་་གདན་་བ་པ་ང་། Bodhgaya of India in the centre, the land of Buddha Sakyamuni 2. ཤར་་་ནག་་་་་འཇམ་དཔལ་དངས་་ང་། Mt. Waute of China in the east, the land of Manjusri 3. ་ན་རི་་་ཏ་ལ་ན་རས་ གགས་་ཞིང་། Mt. Potala in the south, the land of Arya Avalokitesvara 4.བ་ན་་ན་མཁའ་འ་ང་པད་མ་འང་ གནས་'ཞིང་། Ogyan Dakini land in the west, the land of Padmasambhava 5. ང་ན་ཤམ་བྷ་ལ་ས་ལ་གས་ན་་ང་། Shambhala in the north, the land of Dharmaraja Kulikas.


The real fundamental cause. That cause which is responsible for producing its own substantial continuity as its result. For instance, a log of wood becomes the fundamental cause for producing coals from its burning.


The eight spiritual feats; the eight types of higher attainments. 1. རལ་ི། invisibily from a sword 2. རིལ་བུ། pills 3. ག་ ན། eye-lotion 4. ང་མགས། swift footedness 5. བཅུད' ལེན| elixir/extracting the essence 6. མཁའ་ད། walking in space 7. མི་ང་བ། invisibility 8. ས་ག walking underground. When the list concerns nine feats the feat of subduing and benefitting other is added.


Two types of attainments; two actual attainments. 1. མཆོག་གི་

དས་གབ། supreme higher attainments 2. ཐུན་མོང་གི་དངོས་ བ། common higher attainments.


Two types of direct contradictions. 1. ཕན་ན་ངས་འགལ། direct contradiction cancelling each other, e.g. is and is not 2. ་ག་མི་གནས་འགལ། contradiction not abiding simultaneously, e.g. hot and cold.


Sajnatkarana/ Direct cause; actual cause. A cause which generates its result directly, i.e. in the immediate next moment, e.g. fire as the cause of smoke.


Vastubalanumana/ Inferential cognition based on evidence.


V'astu/Thing; impermanence; functional phenomenon. དས་་བད།

Asta padartha/ The eight topics of the Ornament of Clear Realization (abhisamayalamkara). 1. མ་མེན། sarvajnana/ the omniscient mind 2. ལམ་ཤེས། margajfiana/ the knowledge, of the paths 3. གཞི་ཤེས། vastujnana/ the knowledge of the basis 4. མ་གས་ར་བ། sarvakarabhisarhbodha/ the complete training of all aspects 5. ་་ར་བ། mUrdhaprayoga/ the peak training 6. མཐར་ས་ར་བ། anupurvaprayoga/ the serial training 7. ད་ཅིག་མ་ས་། ksanikaprayoga/ the momentary training 8. འས་་ཆོས་ phalam dharmakaya/་ the resultant truth body.


Bhava sunyata/ The emptiness of things; the emptiness of the five aggregates. One of the four summarising types of


emptiness added to the sixteen to make up twenty types of emptiness (see stong-pa nyid nyi-shu).


Abhava sunyata/ The emptiness of non-things; the emptiness of impermanent phenomena, e.g. emptiness of nirvana. One of the eighteen emptinesses.


Abhava svabhava sunyataV The emptiness of reality of that which lacks true existence. One of the sixteen emptinesses.


Mula nama/ A real name. Any term or name initially given by an arbitrary designator to denominate a thing unmistakenly, e.g. the term 'vase'.


Proponents of true existence. School of Buddhist and non-Buddhist philosophy asserting the truly existent nature of phenomena


The object of the extreme of existence. One of the four objects of pervasion (see khyab-pa'i dmigs-pa bzhi). The assertion or acceptance of a limit of existence either of conventional reality or ultimate reality. For instance, the statement that all phenomena are included in the four noble truths and not otherwise. Or to say that all phenomena lack inherent existence and if not there is no other way of their existence.


Abhava svabhava purva prayoga/ The serial training in the entitylessness of phenomena The Bodhisattva path from the

Mahayana path of accumulation upto the moment preceding the last instant of the path of meditation.


The six constituents of a womb-born human of this world. ས་པ། asthi/ bone 2 ང་། majja/ marrow and 3. ཁུ་བ། Sukra/ regenerative fluid obtained from father 4. ཤ maihsa/ flesh 5. གས་པ། tvak/ skin 6. ག rudhira/ blood obtained from mother. According to some other systems these are 1. prthivi/ earth 2.  aba/ water 3.། teja/ fire 4. vayu/ wind 5. ། nadi/ energy-channels 6. ■ག་། sukra/ essential drops.


The five stages of growth in the womb; the five stages of foetal development in the womb. 1. the oral-

shaped foetus 2. ར་ར་། the viscous foetus 3.ར་ར་། the soft fleshy foetus 4. འང་འར། the hard fleshy foetus 5. ར་་་། the five protuberances—the two legs, two arms and head.


Pratyaksa/ Manifest phenomena Obvious phenomena that can be cognized directly by sensory perception.


The ten factors. The ten directly present factors for conducting a ceremony of full ordination. 1. ན་པ་མན་འར། accepting the teacher 2. སངས་ས་མན་འར། accepting the Buddha 3. ས་མན་འར། accepting the Dharma 4. མཁན་་མན་འར། accepting the abbot 5. དན་མན་འར། accepting the assistant abbot 6. པར་གས་པ་འད་པ་མན་འར། wishing to receive ordination 7. ་ད་མན་འར། the presence of monk's articles 8. ངས་་དག་པ་མན་འར། the performance of

the ordination ceremony 9. གལ་བ་མན་འར། requesting the ceremony 10. ལས་མན་འར། activity (of monks).


Higher status; superior rebirth. The attainment of a more fortunate rebirth such as a fully endowed human being's or a god's. One of the two basic human aims for making progress on the spiritual paths to Buddhahood.


Longing faith. Aspirational faith longing to attain one's desired spiritual goal.


A. The two abhidharmas: 1. དོན་དམ་པ་ས་མན་པ། paramartha abhidharma/ the ultimate abhidharma, e.g. the uncontaminated wisdom understanding emptiness 2. བར་བཏགས་པ་ས་མན་པ། sarhketikabhidharma/ the nominal abhidharma, e.g. the contaminated wisdom understanding emptiness and the Abhidharma texts. B. The two Abhidharma texts: 1. མན་པ་ན་བས། Compendium of Knowledge (abhidharmasamuccaya) by Arya Asariga 2. མན་པ་མད། Treasure of Knowledge (abhidharmakos'a) by Acarya Vasubandhu.


The seven treatises on phenomenology. The seven principal treatises of the Mulasarvasti-vadin school of philosophy. These are: 1. ཀ་ས་མཛད་པ་་་ས་ལ་འག་པ། Entering the Wisdom by Katyayana 2. དག་གན་ས་མཛད་པ་རབ་ཏ་པ། Thorough Discernment by Vasumitra 3. མ་་་ད་ས་མཛད་པ་མ་ས་་གས། Collection of Consciousnesses by Brahmin Devotsava 4. ་་ས་མཛད་པ་ས་་གས། Dharma Aggregates by Sariputra 5.


Treatise on Imputation by Maudgalyayana 6. གས་པོ་ཆེས་ མཛད་པ་འ་བ་མ་ངས། Enumeration of Migrators by by Mahakausfhila 7. གང་ས་མཛད་པ་ཁམས་་གས། Collection of Spheres by Purna.


Abhidharma pi|aka/ The basket of teaching on knowledge (abhidharmapitaka). That category of Buddha's teachings which reveals mainly the instruction on higher training of wisdom.


Formative existence. An epithet of the intermediate state of rebirth.


Sad abhijna/ The six extra-sensory perceptions; the six clairvoyances; the six extraordinary knowledges. 1. ་འལ་

་མངོན་ཤེས། rddhi vidhi jnana knowledge of miracles 2. ་ག་་མན་ས། divyam caksu/ knowledge of the divine eye 3. འི་་བའི་མངོན་ས། divyaim srotra jnanam/ knowlege of the divine ear 4. གཞན་མས་ས་པ་མན་ ཤེས། paracitta jnanam/ lmowledge of other's thoughts 5. ོན་ གནས་ས་ན་་མན་ས། pijrva nivasanusmrti jnanam/ knowledge of recollecting past lives 6. ཟག་པ་ཟད་པ་མངོན་ ཤེས། asrava ksaya jnanam/ knowledge of the extinction of contamination.


The teachings through enlightened energy or blessings. One of the five teachings (see gsung-lnga) of a Buddha. According to the Nyingma tradition this refers to the simultaneous and natural establishment of all sounds within their source of

reality that knows no cessation, also called the blessed teachings from intuitive awareness.


A. The five modes of enlightenment; a generation stage practice of visualizing a deity. 1. ་བ་ལས་ང་བ་པ། enlightenment from moon 2. ་མ་ལས་ང་བ་པ། enlightenment from sun 3. ས་ན་ལས་ང་ཆུབ་པ། eniightenment from the seed syllable 4. ག་མཚན་ལས་ང་ བ་པ། enlightenment from the deity's implements 5. གས་པ་ལས་ང་བ་པ། enlightenment from the entire entity of the body. B. The process of generating oneself into a My enlightened deity: 1. ་བ་་ལོང་ཡེ་ས་ལས་ང་བ་པ། visualizing the moon as the mirror-like wisdom of a Buddha 2 ་མ་མཉམ་ད་་ས་ལས་ང་ཆུབ་པ། visualizing the sun as the wisdom of sameness of a Buddha 3. ས་བོན་དང་ག་ མཚན་ར་ོགས་་ས་ལས་ང་བ་པ། visualizing the seed syllable and implements of a deity as the wisdom of individual discrimination 4. ཐམས་ཅད་འེས་པ་་བ་ཡེ་ ས་ལས་ང་བ་བ། visualizing the combination of all (moon, sun, seed syllable and implements) as the wisdom of accomplishments 5. ་ཛོགས་པ་ས་དིངས་ཡེ་ས་ལས་ང་ བ་པ། visualizing the full-fledged body of a Buddha as the wisdom of reality.


The four direct perceptions. 1. indriya pratyaksa/ sensory direct perception 2. citta pratyaksa/ mental direct perception

3. svasaniveda pratyaksa/ direct perception of self-awareness

4. yogi pratyaksa/ yogic direct perception.


Pratyaksa bhranta hetu/ Deceptive direct perception. A direct perception that is affected by a deceptive cause.


Paricchinna pratyaksa/ Subsequent direct perception. A direct perception following the original or the first instance of direct cognition.


Pratyaksabhasa/ Apparent direct perceptions. A direct perception that is mistaken with respect to its appearing object (snang-yul), e.g. the inferential understanding cognizing sound as impermanent.


Seven apparent direct perceptions. 1. འལ་བའ་ག་པ། the distorted thought 2. ཀན་བ་པ་ག་པ། the conventional thought 3, ས་དཔག་ག་ག་པ། the inferential thought 4. ས་ དཔག་ལས་བ^ང་བ་^ག་པ། tne thought suiting from

inferential cognition 5. ་ན་པའ་ག་པ! the recollecting

thought 6. མངན་འདད་་ག་པ། the speculative thought 7. f f

ག་མད་ལག་པ! non-conceptual wrong perception.


Taiinira pratyaksabhasa/Blurreci apparent direct perception.


Absent-minded direct perception; inattentive direct perception.


The ten phases of five hundred years each. This refers to five thousand years being the life span of Buddha Sakyamuni's teachings divided into ten phases of five hundred years each. These are: 1. ད་བཅམ་པ་དང་། the Arhat period 2. ར་' འང་བ། the period of the Never-returner 3. ན་གས་་ འ3ས'-ཐབ-པ^་^ས་ང་ད་ཆད'པ-འ]་གསམ། the

period the Stream-winners—all known as the three phases of realization. 4. ག'མཐང'དང'| the wisdom period 5. ང་ང་ འ^ན| the period of meditative concentration 6. ཆ^ལ'§མས' ་བ་པ་ལ་གམ། the period of moral discipline known as the three phases of three trainings. 7. མངན་པ་དང་། the period of the knowledge 8. མད'^| the period of discourses 9. འ་ལ་བ^་ལང་ག་ལའ་གམ། the period of monastic discipline known as the three periods of oral transmission 10. ་^ད་ལ་མ་ད་པར་རབ་བ^ང་་གས་ཅམ་འ^ན་པ་ལའ། the period of corrupt moral discipline in which oniy a corrupt view, corrupt philosophy and corrupt monastic discipline shall survive.


The five-fold transmission on Mahamudra. A lineage of transmission of the Mahamudra practice for beginners, as formulated by the great Kagyud master Drigung Kyopa Jigten Gonpo (1143-1217). 1. ང་བ་་སམས'3མ'པ| meditation on bodhicitta 2. རང་ལས་ར་་^མ་པ། meditation on one's body as that of a deity 3. 8་མ'ར'3་་མ'པ| meditation on guru devotion 4. ་ག་པ་་བ་§མ་པ| meditation on the non-conceptual view 5. བ§་^ན་ས་^ས་འདབས་པ། dedication at the end.


The Early Spread; the Early Propagation. The early spread of Buddhism in Tibet beginning from 7th century and its propagation during the reign of the three religious kings of Tibet until the eclipse of Buddha's teaching during the reign of King Lang Darma.


Mantra; words of power; incantation; mind-protector. Formulae of words chanted as powers; very often thrs word 'sngags' is used as a synonym for tantra.


The four distinguishing features of Tantra. 1. མ་^ངས་པའ་ 0ད་པར| clear and unconfusing 2. ཐབས་མང་བ'[3ད་པར| manifold methods 3. དཀའ་བ་ད་པ་|3ད་པར། easier to practice 4. དབང་པ་་བའ་[3ད'པར། requires sharp intellect.


Mantrayana/ The Mantrayana. The secret mantra vehicle meant for persons of highly sharp faculty who aspire to taking the results as a path and simultaneous actualization of both the causes and results of one's practice.


The four states of tantric experience. 1. ག^ད་སད་པ་གནས་ awaking state 2. ^་ལམ་་གནས་^བས། dream state 3. ག9ད་མ3ག་ག་གནས'$་བས" state of deep sleep 4. བཞ་པ་ གནས་^བས། the fourth state (old-aged stage).


The three classes of mantra; three types of mantra incantation: 1. གསང་གས། secret mantra symbolizing the union of both method and wisdom paths 2. རག་གས། wisdom mantra symbolizing the method aspect of the paths 3. གཟངས་^གས། retention (dharani) mantra symbolizing the wisdom aspect of the paths.


Mantra sarhvara/ The tantric vows (see rta-ltung bco-bryag andnyes-byed zhi-cu zhe-drug).


■ - — >3

The seven limb practices of the tantric tradition. 1. ག་འཚལ་ པ། prostration 2. མད་པ། offering 3. བཤགས་པ། confession 4. ས་ས་ཡ་རང་། rejoicing 5. |བས''འབ།

taking refuge 6. ངབ་མག་་་ཏ་མས་བ^ད་པ། generation of the mind of eniightenment 7. བ་བའ་ཡན་ལག dedication.


Tantric graduate. A geshe who has also earned a tantric degree from any of the two tantric colleges in the Gelug system of monastic education.


Purvanivasa/ The prior existence. The period of existence between the second moment of connecting to one's new life in the womb and death.


Parinama bhavana rrrarga/ The path of meditation on dedication. The Mahayana path of meditation which transforms 'root of virtues' of self and others for the attainment of complete enlightenment.


-s Cv.

The twelve paths of meditation on dedication. 1. དག་བའ་ཅ"

བ་^ས་ས/བ་བ་བ་བ། thorough dedication of the roots

of virtue 2. དགས་ད་མ་པ-ཅན་་བ་བ། dedication free

from the apprehension of a truly existent nature 3. ན་ཅ་མ་

ལག་པ་མཚན་?ད་ཅན'§་བ'བ། dedication marked by the

absence of wrong views 4. དན'དམ་པརང་་?ད་ས་དབན་

པའ་བ་བ། dedication devoid of an ultimate truly existent

nature 5. སངས་-^ས་དང་བསད་ནམས་རང་བཞན་ན་པ་བ་

བ! dedication recollecting the Buddha, merits and the

ultimate nature 6. ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པ་བ་བ། dedication that

is skillful in means 7. མཆན་མ་མད་པའ་བ་བ། dedication

without signs 8. སངས་3ས་་^ང་ཞང་ད3ས'པ་ཞས་་བ་

བ་བ། dedication enjoined or permitted by the Buddhas 9. [1,^ས་^ས^་ད་^་^^གས་པ་པ|་པ1 dedication beyond the

three realms 10. བསད་ནམས་ན་་འང་བ་བ་བ་ང་ང་།

lesser dedication giving rise to great merits 11. བསད་ནམས་ ཆན-་འངབ-བ|་བ་འ§ང་། middling dedication giving

rise to great merits 12. བསད་ནམས་ཆན་་འང་བ་བ་བ་ ཆན'པ| great dedication giving rise to great merits.

Hand drum. A small drum usually identified with the ones held in the hands of a god or goddess as their implement.


Akimcanyayatana/ The domain of nothingness. One of the four means of emanation within the formless realm; the domain of concentration within the formless realm where a person remains fixed to the idea that there exists nothing other than consciousness because of not seeing anything, and thus remains fully absorbed in it as one's object of meditation.



Slightiy hidden phenomena; slightly obscure phenomena, e.g. impermanence.


VidambanaV To blame; reproach; scoff at. Also refers to a sense of competetiveness.


Neither being one nor many. A logical way of analyzing the mode of existence of phenomena that cannot be beyond being one or many.



Digambara/ Jain; Lit: the Naked Ones. Proponents of non-Buddhist tenets who assert that all objects of knowledge are included in nine categories: 1. ་§ག prana/ life-force 2. -་ཟག་པ! astrava/ contamination 3. ་^མ་པ! sariwara/ vows 4. ངས་པར' "3|་བ1 avasyajara/ old-agedness 5. འཆང་བ! bandhana/ bindings (delusions) 6. ལས| karma 7. ་^ག'པ| akalyaha/ non-virtue 8. བསད་ནམས། punya/ merits 9. ཐར་པ! moksa/ liberation. They believe that liberation can be attained through resorting to practices of asceticism such as going naked, not speaking and so forth.


Cutting-off ritual. The practice primarily common to the Zhi-byed tradition of Tibetan Buddhism formed by Phadampa Sangye. The term is derived from the nature of the instructions on'which this practice is based; that love, compassion and bodhicitta sever selfishness; the view of emptiness severs the root of cyclic existence (sarhsara); and the common practices sever the four demonic forces (see below).


་** *

The four demonic forces of the cutting-off ritual. 1. ཐགས' བཅས། obstructive forces 2. ཐགས་མད! non-obstructive

forces 3. དགའ་|ད| joyous forces 4. ^མས་ད! haughty forces.


Subsequent cognition; re-cognition. An awareness which is not a new correct perception or conception, but apprehends what has already been apprehended in its stream of cognition, e.g. the second moment of visual perception of a vase.


Pratiksepana savadya/ Proscribed non-virtue; declared misdeed; misdeed by decree. For instance, actions such as eating after noon, drinking intoxicants, etc., that are declared to be non-virtuous for monks and nuns by Buddha, although these do not constitute non-virtue by nature.


The misdeed by nature and proscription (see bcas-pa'i kha-na matho-ba and rang-bzhin gyi kha-na ma-tho-ba).


Rasayana/ The art of elixir, extracting the essence. An austure practice by which a practitioner temporarily avoids eating gross food and sustains himself by regularly consuming consecrated pills and engaging in meditation.


The prayer festival on the 15th. The celebration of Buddha's defeat of the six non-Buddhist teachers (see mu-stegs-kyi ston-pa drug) on the 15th of the first Tibetan month. Tsong Khapa marked this event as the Great Prayer Festival.


Bhagavat/ The Victorious Conqueror, Supramundane Victor; Buddhas.


Krtrima/ Artificial; contrived. A temporary artificial state of mind generated or created within an enthusiastic virtuous state of mind.


Akrtrima karuna/ Natural compassion; uncontrived

compassion; spontaneous compassion.


A. Iron house or fort. B. A wrathful tantric propitiation ritual of throwing sacrificial cake with nine or sixteen edges invoking Yamaraja Chagkhar.


Part and partless; divisible and indivisible. ^་^མ་པ་^་^མ།

Sarhbhagiya vicikitsa/ Evenly balanced doubt. An indecisive wavering evenly balanced between correct and incorrect conclusions; one of the three types of doubt (see the-tsom gsum).


Parts and that consisting of parts; pair and one of the pairs. <£གས'པ་བ*|0]་པ།

Aeon of formation. The twenty intermediate aeons covering the jjesod of time since the formation of the outer world until the birth of one inhabitant in the realm of the hell-without-respite.

The five types of freedom from attachment. The five different aspects of being free of attachment. 1. གས་གཅག་ལ་ཆགས' 3ལ'བ1 freedom from being attached to one aspect 2. མཐའ' དག་ལ་ཆགས་བ^ལ-བ། freedom from being attached to all 3. གས-པ-ཆགས་བ^ལ་བ། freedom from being attached to realizations 4. གནན'པ'ཆགས'བ,ལ'བ| freedom from attachment of having subdued 5. ལགས་པར་^ན་པ་ཆགས' 3ལ་ བ| freedom from being attached to elegant teachings.


A leftover portion of food, squeezed between the fingers and offered to hungry ghosts; an after-meal rule of giving the remalnders to spirits that Buddha has prescribed for monks and nuns.


Uccheda drsti/ View of nihilism; nihilism. For instance, asserting the non-existence of the cause and effect, former and future lives, severence or exhaustion of existence at death, etc.


Uccheda sunyata/ Nihilistic emptiness. The emptiness upon realization of which rejects the existence of its base.


Ucchedanta/ The extreme of nihilism. A kind of belief that something validly exitent is non-existent


Cv Cv. ^-་

A. The four torrents. 1. ད་པའ་་བ། sarhsara/ torrent of

-X Cs. 1"

cyclic existence 2. ད་པའ་་བ། trs/ torrent of craving 3. མ་ རག་པ་ཆ/། avidya/ torrent of ignorance 4. ་བ་་།

drsti/ torrent of wrong view. B. The four big rivers. 1. ག^་། Ganges 2. པ§1 Indus/Sindhu 3.-^1 Brahmaputra/Pakshu ^སན^! Yamuna.


Bodhimind like a flowing river. The mind of eniightenment primarily in accord with the path within the mental continuum of a Buddha in his physical form.


The five types of water initiations. 1. '^'np^-g-ga-འ|ག'^འ་མ'པ1 vase initiation concerning the rites outside the mandala 2. དལ་འར་ག?ས་པར་་ཐམས་ཅད''བམ་པ། vase initiation of all the concerned deities within the mandala 3. གམ'པར་9ན'རང''མ་པ། vase initiation of the hearers and solitary realizers 4. བཞ་པར་ང་མས་་བམ་པ། vase initiation of the Bodhisattvas 5. ^་པར་སངས་^ས་་མ་པ! victorious vase initiation of the Buddha


Eight qualities of good water; a water possessing the eight sublime qualities. 1. བསལ་བ། sita/ cool 2. ཡང་བ། lagu/ light/ refreshing 3. ཞམ་པ། svaduka/ sweet/ tasty 4. འ£མ་པ།

Cv -v

komala/ smooth 5. དངས་བ། prasanna/ clear 6. ་ང་བ་མད་པ། niramagandha/ free of bad odour 7. འང་ན་མན་པ་ལ་བད་ བ1 kanthasukha/ soothing to throat to drink 8. འང་ན་་བ་ ལ'བད'བ1 udarasukha/ harmless to stomach to drink.


Seven types of water resources. 1. ཆ་ར་! rain water 2.

གངས་! snow water 3. '?3ང'ག'། river water 4. ་ག་ >»

ག་! pond water 5. @ན'པ'། well water 6. བ་ཆ/ཅན་་

cv cv

<§| salty water 7. ཤང'ག'ཅ"། water from the roots of trees.


Mahamana/ Pride of superiority. The feeling that one, in general, is equal to all, in general, yet, is superior in one particular respect.


The seven qualities of greatness; the seven superior features. 1. རགས་བ^ང་བ། good family 2. ག3གས་བ3ངབ། g00d physical features 3. ག^ན་འར་གཡག་འ་1མས་པ[ big circle

-V* -V

of kith and kin or attendants 4. འར་པ་ཆ་བ། wealthy 5. དབང་ཐང'བ། powerful 6. 'ཤས'རབ'ཆ'བ| great wisdom 7. ལས་^བས་དངན་པ། strong body.


Udanavarga/ Impersonal utterances of Buddha's teachings; the class of impersonal teachings. Those categories of Buddha's teachings uttered not for specific disciples but in general without being requested for the purpose of flourishing of the Buddha Dharma.


The five greatnesses; the five great qualities of space. 1. ག3གས་ད་པ། formless 2. ཐགས་པ་ད་པ། unobstructive 3. ག་པ། permanent 4. ་འར་བ། unchangeable 5. ་འ^་ ] བ། untransforming.

£ན་པ་«^་པ་=ད| 1

Maha sunyata/ The great emptiness; the emptiness of that which is great. Lack of true and independent existence of the ten directions. One of the sixteen emptinesses.


The seven greatnesses; the seven features of a true Mahayanist. 1. དགས་པ་ན་། great objective 2. བ་པ་

ཆན་པ། great practice 3. ཡ་ས་ན་པ། great wisdom 4. བ1ན་འ5སཆན་། effort 5. ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པ་ན་། great skill in means 6. ཡང་དག་བ་པ་ན་། great perfect accomplishment 7. ་^ན་ལས་ཆན་པ། great enlightened activity.


The three stages of generating a deity. The practice of meditation by means of visualizing a deity's seed syllable on a lotus, sun or other cushions, from which there arises the implements and the mantric syllable; the complete transformation of which then enables a person to generate the concerned deity complete with all features.


The day of great miracles. The celebration of Buddha's taming of devils and spirits from the first to fifteenth of the first Tibetan month. Je Tsong Khapa instituted the Great Prayer Festival during this period.


Catvari pratiharya/ The four miraculous ways; the four

C-v -s.

meditative concentrations according to yoga tantra. 1. ^ང་ང' འན་3་་འ3ལ། miracles of concentration 2. ན་ས་ 8བས་པ་་འ|ལ། miracles of blessings 3. དབང་བ^ར་ བའ་ཆ་འཔ^ལ། miracles of empowerment 4. མཆད་པའ་ཆ་ འ^་ལ། miracles of offering rites.


The three miraculous ways of a Buddha. 1. ^་|་འ|ལ་་ཆ་ འ^་| miracles of body 2. གང་ན་་་ཏ་བ^ད་པ་་འ^ལ། miracles of speech 3. ཐགས་ས་་བ^ན་པ་་འ^ལ། miracles of mind.


Dharma. A. Teachings of Buddha B. A phenomenon. &ས་་*།ང་པ་པ^།

The four legs of Dharma. The division of periods in view of


the life span of Buddha's teachings, which are: 1. £གས'6!ན| the perfected aeon (see bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan) 1 གམ་་^ན! the threefold aeon (see bskal-pa gsum ldan) 3. ག9ས'^ན1 the twofold aeon (see bskal-pa gnyis ldan) 4. ཅ^ད་་^ན! the quarrelsome aeon (see rtsod-ldan gyi dus).


Dharmayatana rupa/ The form of the source of mental faculty. The objects for generating the perception of mental faculty, e.g. fine particles and the physical body of a dream state.


The five types of forms of the spheres of phenomena. 1. བ^ས་པ་ལས-ར,-བ-ག3གས། compounded form 2. མངན་ པར་$1བས་«|ད་པ་ག3གས། occasionally manifesting form 3. ^ངདག'པར^ངས་པ་ལས་ང་བ་ག3གས! form arising from vows and precepts 4. ^ན་བ་་་་་གས་པ་ག^གས། imputed form 5. དབང་འར་བ་ག3གས། conjured form.


Dharma dhatu/ The faculty of dharma. One of the eighteen spheres (see khams bco-brgyad), feeling, recognition, perception, non-revelatory form and all non-compositional factors, i.e. non-functional phenomena,


Asta dharma dhatu asarhskrta/ The eight non-compositional factors of the dharma constituents. 1. དག་བའ'ད་བཞན'?ད| kuSala tattva/ the virtuous reality 2. ་ད་བ་ད་བཞན་^ད།

akusala tattva/ the non-virtuous reality 3. ལང་མ་བ་^ན་་ད་

©v Cv.

བཞན་^་་ད! avyakrtya tattva/ the unspecified reality 4. ནམ་ མཁའ! akasa/space5.ས་སར་བགས'འགག pratisamkhya nirodha/ the analytical cessation 6. ས་སར་བགས་ན་་ འགག་པ1 apratisamkhya nirodha/ the non-analytical cessation 7. མ-ག^་བ-འགག-པ། acaia nirodha/ the immutable cessation 8. འ^་ས་དང་ར་བ་འགག་པ། sarhjna vedana nirodha/ the cessation of perception and feeling.


Dharma nairatmya/ Selflessness of phenomena. In its highest sense it is the lack of inherent existence of phenomena other than persons. There are two types—the gross and subtle selflessness of phenomena.


Grasping at the self of phenomena. The misconception of phenomena as having true existence. It has two kinds: 1. innate grasping at the self of phenomena 2. intellectual grasping at the self of phenomena.


The four seals of Dharma (see lta-ba bkar-btags-kyi phyag-rgya bzhi).


Dharmadhatu jnana/' The primordial wisdom cognizing the reality of phenomena. The lack of inherent nature or the emptiness of the five aggregates.


Dharma ratna/ The Dharma Jewel; the doctrine. The true cessation and path within the mental continuum of an Arya; conventionally it is represented by the scriptures and books on the teachings of Buddha.


Dharmakaya/ The Truth Body; dharmakaya The foundation of all qualities, the source of the four kayas; the impersonal Buddha. It has two kinds—the natural truth body and the wisdom truth body of a Buddha.


Catvari dharmakaya dharmah/ The four topics or features of the Truth Body. One of the seventy topics of the perfection of wisdom teachings which are the four aspects of dharmakaya

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or a Buddha's being: 1. ང་བ་^ད་^ svabhavakaya/ nature truth body 1 ཡཤས་ཆས་^ jnanakaya/ wisdom truth body 3. ལངས་^། sarhbhogakaya/ complete enjoyment body 4. fp'Sj rrirmanakaya/ emanation body.


The sixteen faculties of dharma spheres. According to the Compendium of Knowledge (abhidharmasamuccaya) these are: 1-5. ས་་|་མད་པ་ག3གས་་£། the five types of I forms of the spheres of phenomena (see chos-kyo skye-mched-pa'i gzugs-lnga) 6. ཆར་བ། the aggregate of feeling 7. འད་ཤས། the aggregate of recognition 8. འ^་ད! the aggregate of perception 9-16. འདས་མ་ས'བ*་ད། the eight types of non-compositional factors (see 'dus-ma byas brgyad).


The seven faculties of dharma spheres. According to the Treasure of Knowledge (abhidharmakoSa) these are: 1. ཆར་ བ་པང་། the aggregate of feeling 2. འ^་ཤས་་པང! the aggregate of recognition 3. འད་ད་3'3ང'པ1 the aggregate of perception 4. མ་པར་རག་§ད་ན་པ་ག3གས། non-revelatory form 5-7. འདས་མ་ས་གམ། the three non-compositional factors (see 'dus-ma byas gsum).


The three kinds of Dharma robes. 1. ས་གས། ^་གས། 'chogo'—the yellow upper robe which can be worn by all monks and nuns 2. ་^མ་^ར! 'namja'—yellow upper robe worn only by fully ordained monks 3. མཐང་གས། 'tharigo'— monks' and nuns' lower robe.


Dharmaraja ASoka/ The Indian king Asoka, 3rd century B.C., who came into contact with Buddhist teachings after repenting the widespread slaughter and misery he had caused in numerous wars. In the later part of his life, he became a devout Buddhist and propagated Buddha's teaching far and wide.


The equal taste of eight worldly concerns (see 'jig-rten chos-brgyad). The fact that one has freed oneself of these concerns and thus makes and does not effect one's way of life.



Panca dharmah/ Five phenomena; five features. 1. མང'| nama/name2.^^I nimitta/marks 3.མ་ག vikalpa/

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conceptualization 4. ད་བཞན'9ད། tathata/ reality 5. མ་ག' ཡཤས། akalpanajnana/non-conceptual wisdom.


Abhidharma/ The knowledge. The set of teachings and treatises concerning the training of higher wisdom and the study of metaphysics and cosmology.


Dharmin/ Subject. Subject of the proposition in a dialectical syllogism standing for a subject on which the thesis is

established, e.g. 'sound' is the subject when the thesis 'sound is impermanent' is to be proved in a correct logical syllogism.


The statement expressing the subject. A statement in which the subject of concern for both the speaker and listener is presented as the basis of discussion, e.g. the statement, 'sound is a thing'. Here 'sound' is shown as the basis of a (functional) thing but does not exclude other qualities of sound such as its being impermanent and an object of knowledge.


A statement expressing quality. A statement in which the subject of concern for both the speaker and listener is presented as the quality of discussion, e.g. the statement, 'impermanence of sound'. This statement not only distinguishes impermanence of sound from the impermanence of others, such as a vase or pillar, but also excludes discussing the qualities of other phenomena within the topic of discussion.


Dharmata/ Intrinsic nature; suchness; empty nature.


The reasoning of common sense. One of the four types of reasoning (see rigs-pa bzhi). Well-known common notions that are naturally accepted as true, e.g. rivers always flow downward and fire blazes upward.


Sarvadharma SunyataV The emptiness of all phenomena The lack of true existence of outer and inner phenomena, i.e. the

fact that these being impermanent, miserable, empty and lack self-identity are non-inherent in nature.


Humans possessing seven features. The qualities of human beings living in this world during the first aeon. 1. བས་'|་ བ! they were born miraculously 2. £་ལ"དཔག'མད་བ་པ། enjoyed an immeasurable life-span 3. དབང་པ་ན་ཚང་བ། possessed perfect sense faculties 4. རང་ལས་འད་ས་།་བབ་པ། had self-illuminated body 5. མཚན'བ3ང་ས'མཐན'ས' བ3ན་པ1 possessed similitudes of the major and minor marks of a Buddha 6. ^རགས-པ-ལ-མ-བ^ན-པ^དགའ-བ^ས' ས་འ་བ། lived on the food of joy without eating gross food 7. |་འ|ལ་ས་ནམ་མཁའ་ལ་འཔར་བ། miraculously flew in the sky.


Dharma smrtyupasthana/ Close contemplation of phenomena. The meditation on the emptiness and selflessness of the thoroughly purified and negative aspects of phenomena.


Dasa dharmacaryah/ The ten spiritual trainings; the ten monastic trainings. 1. ཡ་ག་འབ/བ། lekhana/ writing 2. མཆད་ པ་འབལ་བ། pujana/ worshipping 3. ^ན་པ་ག^ང་བ! danam/ generosity 4. ཆས་^ན་པ། sravanam/ hearing Dharma 5. འ£ན་པ། udgrahanam/ memorizing 6. 3ག་པ! vacanam/ reading 7. འཆད་པ། prakasana/ preaching 8. ཁ་^ན་ད་་བ! svadhyayanamA recitation 9. ཆས་་དན་སམས་པ། dharmartha cintana/ contemplation on Dharma 10. ཆས་^' དན་^མ-པ། dharmartha bhavana/ meditation on Dharma.


Dharma skandha/ A heap of doctrine. One heap of Buddha's doctrine constitute a set of teachings which contains the

complete instructions to counteract one of the eighty-four thousand delusions.


Caturasiti sahastrani dharma skandhah/ The eighty-four thousand heaps of doctrine. The entire teachings of Buddha incorporated into four groups of antidotes against four thousand delusions. 1. འདད་ཆགས'་ག?ན'ར'?ས'§'ག་ ^ང་! twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to desire-attachment 2. ཞ^ང་་ག^ན་ར^ས་^་ཆག་-?ང'| twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to hatred-anger 3. ག'མག་ག་ག?ན་ར་|ས་0་ག་§ང| twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to closed-mindedness 4. དག'གམ་ན'མང'བ་ག?ན'ར'?ས་§'ག་•?ང'|twenty-one thousand heaps of doctrine as antidotes to all the three root delusions in equal proportions. j

ས་དངས! I

Dharmadhatu. The sphere of reality. &ས'ག3ངས|

Retention of Dharma. The power of memorization and retention of an unlimited number of words, phrases and mystic formulae (mantra) for an infinite period of time having only heard them once.


The three higher supreme initiations. The latter three initiations of the highest anuttarayogatantra that ripen a disciple's mental continuum having entered into the mandala. 1. གསང་དབང། secret initiation 2. ས-རབ^ས--དབང། wisdom initiation 3. ག་དབང་། word initiation.


Catvari uttama dharman/ The four supreme qualities. 1. 3ན་

CV •** *** -V cv

3་མཆག་ཐས་པ། study as the supreme ornament 2. བད་བའ་ མཆག་སམས་བ|ད། generating the mind of enlightenment as the supreme happiness 3. ནར་་མཆག་|ན་པ! generosity as the supreme wealth 4. གས་་མག་"བ|'བ། sincerity as the supreme friend.


Asta stupah/ The eight types of stupas. 1. བད་གགས་མད་ ན། Tathagata stUpa 2. ང་བ་མད་ན། Bodhi stupa 3. ས་འར་མད་ན། Dharmacakra stupa 4. ་འ^ལ' མཆད་ན། Pratiharya stupa/ miracle stupa 5. ་བབ་མཆད་ ན1 stupa of descent from Tusita field 6. དན་(|མ'མཆད' ན། stupa for pacifying a schism among the sangha commuhity 7. མ་^ལ་མཆད་ན། Vijayani stupa/ victory stupa 8. •ར་ངའདས་མཆད་ན། Parinirvana stupa.


Puja/ A. Worship service. B. Offerings to the gods and divinities. C. The material and immaterial medium of offerings.


The eight-fold offerings. 1. མཆད་ཡན། water for the mouth 2.ཞབས་བསལ། water for the feet 3. ་^ག flower 4. བདག་


^ས། incense 5. མར་མ། lamp 6.5་ཆབ! scented water 7. ཞལ་-ཟས། fbod8.w*l music.


Two types of offerings. Offerings made to the object of refuge

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has two: 1. -ཟངཟ་་ང་ག་མཆད་པ། offering of material goods 2. བ་པ་མད་པ། cffermg of practice; or 1. དངས་འར་་ མད་པ། offerings actually arranged 2. ^ད་ས་^ལ་པ' མཆད་པ། offerings made in the imagination.


Catvari pujah/ Four types of offerings. A. 1. འ་མཆད་པ། outer offering 2. ནང་་མད་པ། inner offering 3. གསང་བ' མད་པ! secret offering 4. ད་་ན'?ད'་མད'པ! offering of suchness, B. The four religious festivals of offerings instituted during the reign of King Mune Tsanpo: 1. 'སར' འདལ་བ་མད་པ། offering of Vinayapitaka at Lhasa 2. fl' འབ^ག་ལ-མན-པ-མད-པ། offering ceremony of Abhidharmapitaka at Tradrug 3-4. བསམ'^ས'ལ-མད་^དང་ ང་བ་^་་མ^ད་པ! offering ceremony of Sutrapitaka and enlightenment at Samye.


The offering articles; the objects of offering to be made to the three objects of refuge.


Dasa pUja dravyah/ The ten objects of offering; ten kinds of offering. The set of ten different offerings made to deities. 1. ་?ག puspa/flowers 2. 3ང'བ1 mala/garlands 3. བ་ག་ §ས། dhupa/ incense 4. §ག'པ1 vilepanam/ scent 5.3'མ1 cUma/food 6. ན་བ-་ཟའ། vastra/cloth 7.3ན| alam/ornament 8. གདགས! chattram/ umbrella 9. $ལ'མཚན། mangala dhvaja/ victory banner 10. བ'དན[ palaka/ flags.


A concealed non-virtue; concealment of non-virtues deliberately in an attempt to show one's purity.


Alpa mrtyu/ The small death. The death that occurs within the life of an intermediate state being (bar-do) at the completion of each week.


Coarse interferences from the lord of death. This refers to the death incurred through force of karma and delusion.


Subtle interferences from the lord of death. This is the severence of the life-force (srog) within the continuum of an Arya.


Tri cyutihetu/ The three causes of transmigration; the three causes of death. 1. ཆ^ད་པ། ayuksaya/ exhaustion of life-


span 2. བསད'ནམས'3ད'པ། punyaksaya/ exhaustion of merits 3. ལས་-་ཟད་པ། karmaksaya/ exhaustion of karma.


The five signs of imminent death for a god. 1. ལས་^་འད་དང་ བ3ག་གདངས་9མས་པ| they lose lustre and brightness of their body 2. ^ན་ལ་^ད་པར་་འདད་པ། they dislike to sit on their cushions 3. '་7ག་ག་3ང'བ་?ང'པ| their garlands fade away 4. གས་?ང་ཞང་་མ་ཆགས་པ། their robes are worn out and smell bad 5. ལས་ལ་ལ་ཆ/འང་བ། their body is covered with sweat.


The clear light of death; the subtle mind that manifests at death following the experience of the stages of dissolution of the elements and the gross minds of a person.


The three types of death-experience; the three levels of thought at death. 1. དག་བ་འ་མས། virtuous state of mind 2. ་ད་བ་འ་མས། non-virtuous state of mind 3. ལང་མ་བ^ན་པ་འཆ མས། indifferent state of mind.


The death state. The state existing during the last moment of death or during the period of experiencing the clear light of death.


Bandhana muktatman/ The self that binds and from which we must be free. The truly existent self, misconceived to be the real self; the cause of uncontrolled rebirth in cyclic existence, freedom from which is the attainment of liberation.


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Yavat/ All that exists; all conventional things; refering to all phenomena other than emptiness.


Yatha/ A thing as it is; thatness; refering to the ultimate truth—emptiness which is other than the conventional aspect of all phenomena


Yatha yavat/ All that exists; innumerable; infinite; without exception.


The Jonang school. A school of Tibetan Buddhism akin to the Kagyud tradition instituted by Taranatha and his followers. During the 11th century the view of Other Emptiness (gzhan-

stong) was asserted by Yomo Mikyod Dorjee, and a monastic institution for the study and preservation of this philosophy was established at Jonang by Kunpang Thugje Tsondru, and later Dolpo Sherab Gyaltsen became a propounder of this philosophy.

Atisa Dipankara Sri Jnana (982-1054). The celebrated Buddhist Pandit from Bengal, who came to Tibet in 1042 and lived there for a number of years. He was one of the principal figures during the revival of Buddhism in Tibet in the 11th century. He passed away in Nyethang near Lhasa His Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment (bodhipathapradipa) was the source of the 'lamrim' tradition in Tibet.


The venerable Mikyo Dorje image. An image of Buddha Sakyamuni believed to be similar to him in his eighth year of age that was brought to Tibet during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo by his Nepalis wife, Bhrikuti. In the past it was housed at Ramoche temple.



The venerable Sakyamuni image. An image of Buddha Sakyamuni believed to be similar to himself in his twelfth year of age that was brought to Tibet during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo by his Chinese wife, Kongjo, as her dowry. Presently it is housed at Lhasa Tsuglag Khang.


Ralnbow body. A yogic way of dying whereby one's body transforms into rays of light without leaving any trace of his physical body.


The winter debate session at Jangphu monastery courtyard situated to the south-west of Lhasa in which monks of each of the three largest Gelug universities of Central Tibet gather.


Astau lokikadharmah/ The eight worldly concerns; the eight concerns for an ordinary person to be happy and unhappy about. 1.?ད་པ'དང་1 labha/gainl*"?^! alabha/ loss 3. ^ན་པ་དང་! yaSa/ reputation 4. མ་་^ན་པ། ayasa/ infamy 5. བ-^ད་པ་དང། prasarhsa/praise 6. ད་པ། ninda/ degradation 7. བད་བ་དང'1 sukham/ pleasure 8. ་བད་བ། duhkham/ misery.

འ|ག་་*ན་^ང་འ|ག་^ན་0]ས་འ^ས་པ་^ང་ མ།

The worldly and transworldly protectors of Dharma. The Dharma protectors who have and have not attained the level of an Arya possessing direct insight into emptiness.


Sapta loka/ The seven worlds; the seven realms of existence. A. 1-6. འབ་རགས'§ག་'འ1ག'ན། sad jagati/ the realm

•■VCv Cv *V

of six migrators (see 'gro-ba rigs-drug) 7. བར་དའ་འ^ག་ན། antarabhava loka/ the realm of the intermediate state of rebirth. B. 1-3. ངན་སང་་གནས་གམ། tri durgati avastha/ the realm of three lower beings (hell, animal and hungry ghosts) 4-5. འདད་པ་་་ག?ས་་འ1ག་ན། manusya deva loka/ the realm of gods and human beings of the desire realm 6-7. ག3གས་ག3གས་ད་་་འ£ག་ན། rupa arupa dhatu loka/' the realm of gods of the form and formless realms.


The eight mundane powers. These are similar to the eight

qualities of the great Vajrayogini. 1. ག^གས་ན"-}པ/པ! extremely subtle body 2. ཡང'བ| light body 3. ཤན'5'ཆ་བ།


huge body 4. གར་ཡང་ན་པ། enjoying freedom of movement 5. གསལ-བ-ར-ས-པ། luminous body 6. དབང་'9ད| completely luminous 7. དབང་བ|ར་བ་9ད། conquering others or magnetic 8. གང་^་འདད་པར་གནས་པ། enjoying freedom of residence.


Asta laukika margah/ The eight worldly paths; the eight


mundane paths. 1-4. བསམ་ག5ན་བཞ། catvari dhyanah/ the four types of meditative concentrtion (see bsam-gtan gyi snyoms-'jug bzhi). 5-8. ག-ཟགས་ད་བཞ། catvari arupa samapattayah/ the four types of formless meditative absorptions (see gzugs-med snyoms-'jug bzhi).


Nava lokottara margah/ The nine types of transworldly paths. ལམ-བདན---ར^-^པ-འཔགས-^ད--ལམ། 1.4 བསམ-

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ག^ན'!'?མས་འཛག་བཞ། the four states of absorption of the form realm (see bsam-gtan gyi snyoms-'jug bzhi) 5-8. ག;གས་ད'1མས'འ་5ག'བཞ། the four states of absorption of the formless realm (see gzhugs-med kyi snyoms-'jug bzhi) 9 འགག་པ་^མས་འ|ག the absorption of cessation ('gog-pa'i snyoms-'jug) that retains the nature of the truth of the paths within the mental continuum of an Arya.


Satkayadrsti/ The view of the transitory collection; the wrong view of apprehending the collection of the five aggregates (see phung-po lnga) as the T or 'mine', and hence the basis of all misconceptions or ego graspings.


Virhsat satkayadrsti/ The twenty views of the transitory

collection. 1. ག|གས་བདག"7་་བ། view of grasping at form as being the self 2. ག|གས་བདག་གར་་བ1 view of grasping at form as being mine 3. གཟགས་ལ་བདག་རང་བཞན་ས་ཡད་ པར་^་བ། view of grasping at form as possessing the self 4. ^ག་ལ་ག^གས་-རང་བཞན་^ས་ཡད་པ་ར་^་བ། view of grasping at form as abiding within the self. ད་བཞན་ཆར་བ། འ^ས། འད་ད། མ་པ^་ས་པ་པང་་ལའང་ད་བ་^ན'

9'བ'བཞ་བཞ'3'?་ཤའ1 Similarly for sound, smell, taste and touch—grasping them as the self, as being mine, as possessing the self and as abiding within the self, makes twenty.


Dvi sahaja satkayadrsti/ The two innate graspings of the view of transitory collection; the ignorance of grasping at T and T possessor' within the minds of all sentient beings. 1. ངར་ འ1ན,་བདག'འ1ན'དང། ahanikara/ grasping at self 2. ང་

eves.es cv,

<པར'འཛན'པའ'བདག་འཛན། mamakara/ grasping at mine འ1ག'པ་ན^་ག^།

Tri nasa/ The three types of destruction. 1. མཆན'ཆའ"འ£ག་ པ། destruction by weapons 2. ནད་རམས'་འ£ག་པ། destruction by sickness 3. མ་གའ་འ^ག་པ། destruction by famine. Or 1. ་འ1ག་པ། destruction by fire 2. ་འ^ག་ པ། destruction by water 3. -|ང་ག་འ£ག་པ1 destruction by wind.


Tlie three peak immune states of existence. The second, third and fourth concentration states that are immune to the cosmic destruction caused by fire, water and wind elements.


The eight fears. 1. ང་5ལ་ང་་འ£གས་པ། fear which is

like a lion, analogous to pride 2. ག་མག་3ང'་འ1གས་པ། fear which is like an elephant, analogous to ignorance 3. ཞ'

"v CV CV

^ངམའ་འ(=གས་པ། fear wmcri js like a fire, analogous to hatred 4. ^ག་དག་|ལ་་འ1གས་པ། fear which is like a snake, analogous to jealousy 5. ་ངན'3ན་'འ£གས'པ| fear which is like a thief, analogous to wrong view 6. སར་!'' ་3གས'གས་་འ1གས'པ། fear which is like one chained with irons, analogous to miserliness 7. འདད་ཆགས་་བའ' འ{=གས་པ། fear js jike a raging river, analogous to desire 8. ཐ་མ'ཤ་3་འ1གས'པ། fear which is like a cannibal, analogous to doubt.


The five fears; the five types of fears encountered by Bodhisattvas on the path of accumulation and the path of preparation. 1. འབ་ད་པ་འ1གས་པ། fear of not finding livelihood 2. ་བགས་པ'འ1གས་པ། fear of not being praised 3. འར་3'འ1གས'པ[ fear of not finding followers 4. འཆ'བ'འ|གས-པ། 0f death 5. ངན'འ་འ1གས་པ| fear of falling into lower rebirth.


Craving for freedom from fear; yearning for freedom from fear and disgust, e.g. the fear of parting from this body at death.


Mipham Jamyang Nyamgyal Gyatso (1846-1912). A great scholar of the Nyingma tradition. He is well known for his learnedness and mastery of all the ten sciences of learning (see rig-gnas bcu). His treatises on Buddhist philosophy have been adapted as the syllabus of study in many Nyingma colleges.


The three entrances; the threefold commitments. 1. བ་^ན་པ' ལ'འ5ག-པ-§^བས'འ། taking refuge in the three jewels is the entrance into Buddhism 2. ཐར་པ་ལ་འ^ག་པ་^་ངས་ འབང] renunciation is the entrance to the state of liberation (nirvana) 3. ཐག'ཆན་ད'འ;ག་པ་§'མས་བ|ད། generation of the mind of enlightenment is the entrance to the greater vehicle path (mahayana).

Prasthana bhavana/ Formal meditation; stabilized meditation. A practice of meditation in which a meditator single-pointedly fixes his or her mind on an object without examining the aspects of the object analytically.


Prasthana pratipatti/ Achievement through engagement; achievement through training. A Bodhisattva path which is mainly concerned with the training of enthusiastic perseverance applied either in the causal or resultant practices of the greater vehicle within the Peak Training (see rtse-mo'i sbyor-ba).


་^, **

Nine achievements through engagement; nine achievements through training. Achievement through engagement in: 1. བསམ་ག^ན་ག^གས-མད-ལ-འག-པ-འག-^པ། the

meditative concentration and absorption within the formless realm 2. པར་§ན་^ག་ལ་འག་པ་འག་|བ། the six perfections 3. མཐངལམ་དང་^མ་ལམ་ལ་་འག་པ་འག་ བ། the path of seeing and meditation 4. ཚད་མད་བཞ་ལ་

འ|ག'པ་འ|ག་བ1 the four immeasurables 5. བདན་5]བ་་ དམགས-པ་མ^ལ་འག-པ་འ^ག་པ། the absence^

apprehension of true existence 6. འཁར་གམ་མ་པར་དག་

པ་ལ་འ|ག'པ'འ|ག'བ། the threefold purity 7. ཆད་་་' བ་གསམ་ལ-འ|ག་པའ་འ|ག་|བ། the threefold goals 8. མངན'ཤས'5ག'ལ'འ1ག་པའ་འ1ག'བ1 the six extra sensory perceptions 9. མ་མ|§ན་ལ་འག'པ་འ|ག་|བ། the omniscient mind.


The threefold practices of entering, abidance and awakening. A special feature of meditation without signs according to action tantra. 1. པང་སགས་་ས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་མ་པར་ དད'ད'|'ད'ད'གས'པ་ན'འ|ག'པ། entering into realizing all phenomena as lacking inherent production by way of applying analysis 2. ་ག་པ་་བམན་^་ར་པ་ན་གནས་

པ། abiding within non-conceptual realization of reality 3. ད' ལས་མ་^གས་པ་འ་བ་^མས་ལ་^ང་་ཆན་་ག་པར-

འ5ག་པ་ན'ང'བ1 awakening with the special meditation on great compassion for those without such a realization.


Prasthana cittotpada/The committed Bodhicitta; the venturing mind of enlightenment. The mind of eniightenment that is committed in the Bodhisattvas' practices as opposed to being commited oniy in spirit.

^!ག་པ་§=-་པ། J

The activity of entering into practice. One of the four ways of utilizing realizations (see spyod-pa'i sgo-bzhi) according to action tantra, in which one attempts to transform oneself into a proper receptacle of initiations by means of observing the precepts connected to the respective deity after having received the initiation of that deity.

Definition; nature; meaning. An explanation of a point which gives a partial explanation of the object defined.

Tsong Khapa (1357-1419). The founder of the Gelug order of Tibetan Buddhism known for his revival of the Kadampa tradition. He also elucidated the most subtle meanings of smra and tantra in innumerable discourses and his collected works comprise 18 volumes. His teachings and those of his two main disciples Gyaltsab-Je and Khedrub-Je remain in the heart of the Gelug tradition.

The five foremost masters of the Sakya tradition. 1. ས་ཆན' *[ན་དགའ་1ང'། Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158) 2.1' བཅན'བསད-ནམས་|'། Sonam Tzemo (1142-1182) 3. ་ བཅན-གས'པ'9ལ-མཚན། Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1216) 4. ས་5་པ|་^ཀན་དགའ་3ལ་མཚན། Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen (1112-1251) 5. འ་མགན་ས་^ལ་འཔགས་པ། Dragon Choegyal Phagpa (1235-1280).


Khedrub Je's five visions of his master Je Tsong Khapa 1. 3ང'-དཀར^ག་ལ་བས-པ། riding on a white elephant 2. ནར'བ'མ་ག'སགས་ས་^ས་པ་|་གཅག་་^ང་ད་བ3གས་ པ། seated on a throne adorned with jewels and so forth 3. ང་དཀར་ཞག་ལ་བས་པ། riding on a white snow lion 4< ^ག'འ|གས'ས^ང-བ^ག-ལ-ཆབས-པ། riding on a

terrifying tiger 5. |ན་དཀར་་པང་་གཅག་ག་དས་་ན་ པ! resting amidst a huge mass of white clouds.


The four great deeds of Je Tsong Khapa. 1. དགའ་་^ན་་!' དལ'འར/བབམད། the construction of a mandala and

་་^* cs.cs.es.

making grand offerings at Ganden monastery 2. ^ང་་^འ་ མས་པ་ཞག་གསས། renovation of Maitreya's statue in Zingchi 3. ་སར་་འ^ལ་ན་ལམ། the great prayer festival

at Lhasa 4. ག9ལ་་ལང་་ར/ཆན'མ| the great religious ceremony ofNyal.


Subsequent pervasion; second logical mark. The pervasion in a correct logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is necessarily that predicate. There are two types of this pervasion called the ས་(3བ'ལ'མ| positive and 1ས'0བ་ ན་ཅ་ལག reversed subsequent pervasions.


Anurupa dharma/ Similitudes; approximate features. A quality or feature to be included in a particular category while not being exactly synonymous with that category, e.g. the qualities of an Arya Bodhisattva on the last moment of the tenth level which are similar to those of a Buddha


Subsequent given name. A way of giving a name to anything or any person after its existence for reasons of similarity or relationship or otherwise, e.g., to call a puppy a tiger or sunrays the sun.


The concluding rite or ceremony. The concluding rite following a ceremony of accomplishment of a rite of a mandala This can be of various forms such as: performing a fire ritual of peace; increasing activity to please the deity and to redress any omission or duplication of a ritual; worshiping and making offering to the mandala and giving sacrificial cakes to the directional protectors of the mandala; making prostration and apology to the mandala; bidding the wisdom being (see ye-shes-pa) to their abode and dissolving the pledge being (see dam-tsig pa) into oneself and dismantling

the sand powdered mandala; and simply dedicating the virtues and chanting verses of auspiciousness.


The experience of emptiness like an illusion at the pcst-meditation stage. The experience of all that is seen, heard about or recollected like that of an illusory feat after arising from meditative equipoise on emptiness at an actual session.

Panca anusmrtayah/ The five recollections. A set of five Kadampa precepts. 1. |བས་གནས'^་མ་ན་པ། recollecting


one's spiritual master as the object of refuge 2. ལས་འ་རང་ བཞན་ན་པ། recollecting one's body as being a divine body 3. ངག་བས་བ^ད་་རང་བཞན་ན་པ། recollecting one's speech as being mantra 4. འ་བཐམས་ཅད་པ་མརས་པ། recollecting all sentient beings as one's mother 5. སམས་^་ གནས'ལགས་§ང་པརས་པ། recollecting the reality of mind as being empty.


Anumana/ Inferential cognition; inferential understanding. A direct conceptual understanding of an obscure phenomenon, generated in reliance upon a correct reason, e.g. the cognition of the impermanence of a vase. There are two types of inferential cognition: 1. རངདན་་ས་དཔག svarthanumana/

-r -v

inference for self 2. གཞན་དན་£ས་དཔག pararthanumana/ inference for others; or 1. ས་དཔག་ཡང་དག the correct inference 2. ས་དཔག་ར་^ང་། the imperfect inference.


Anumana paricchinna jnana/ Subsequent inferential cognition. A non-new understanding of an obscure phenomenon that is the continuity of understanding, or the continuing subsequent understanding originally generated by a previous inferential

cognition, e.g. the second instant of inference understanding impermanence.


Anumana pramana/ Valid inferential cognition. The fresh, new inferential understanding of an obscure phenomenon, e.g. the first moment of inferential cognition of the impermanence of a vase generated by reason of its being a product.


Three types of inferential cognition. 1. དངས་^བས་ས་དཔག inference through cogent evidence 2. གས་པ་ས་དཔག inference through popular convention 3. ཡད་ཆས་ས་དཔག inference through conviction in valid scriptures.


Gradual dissolution. A generation stage practice of tantra in which a practitioner meditates on the gradual dissolution of the mandala into clear light and finally into oneself.


Anujna vacana/ The approved teachings; authorized teachings. The introductory words that occur at the beginning of a sUtra such as, 'Thus I have heard, once the Blessed One was dwelling ...' which were spoken by Ananda and others. These words were spoken because of an injunction by lord Sakyamuni Buddha to introduce the actual body of the sutra in this way after or subsequent to his passing into parinirvana.



Panca anusmrtayah/ The five recollections; the five points of constant recollection according to the Kadampa tradition (see rjes-dran lnga).


Dasanusmrtayah/ The ten recollections. 1-6. (see rjes-su dran-pa drug, below) 7. དབགས་་ནང་|་བ'ས་'ན'པ1 the moment of breath 8. |བ་ས་་ན་པ| birth 9. འ་བ་ས' སན་པ! death 10. ལས་'མ'པ་ས་'ན'པ1 forms of Hie bedy.


Sad anusmrtayah/ The six types of recollection. The six things to be constantly remembered by all Buddhists. Recollection of: 1. 3་མ'£ས་་ན་པ! guru-anusmrti/ the spiritual master 2. སངས་^ས་ས་་ན་པ། buddhanusmrti/ the Buddha 3. ས་ས་་ན་པ། dharmanusmrti/ the Dharma 4. དག' འདན་ས་་ན་པ། sahghanusmrti/ the Sarigha 5. ཚལ" §མས་ས་ས་ན་པ། silanusmrtV moral-discipline 6. ག?ང་ བ་ས་་ན་པ! tyaganusmrti/ giving.


The two types of paths of meditation on admiration. A. 1. ^བས-ལ,མཁས'པས་དག་པ'5,པ,ལ-ས,ས་,15'-རང,བ།

admiring the roots of virtue by skillful means 2. དམགས་པས་ དག་པ་3:་བ་ལ་ས་ས^-རང'བ། admiring the roots of

■v* Cv —s

virtue by the non-apprehended view, B. 1. ན་ཛབ་པའ་£ས་ ས་^་རངཔ^མ-ལམ། the conventional path of meditation on admiration 2. དན་དམ་པ་ས་ས་3་རང'བ་§མ་ལམ། the ultimate path of meditation on admiration.


Tri parivartana/ The three transformations; the three alterations. The three tranformations a new monk or nun is supposed to undertake at their ordination. 1. གས་དང་ཆ' ^གས་བ|་པ། jAsa parivartana/ changing their way of life 2. ^སམ་པ་བ་བ། jsaya parivartana/ changing their thought 3.

cv -v

མང'བ£'བ། nama parivartana/ changing their name.


Musitasmrtita/ Forgetfulness. Technically it is a secondary mental factor responsible for the slackening of attention to virtuous objects and causing distraction; one of the five hindrances to mental quiescence meditation (see ngyes-pa lnga).



Abhidhana sabda/ Expressive sound. Synonymous with sound that reveals meaning to sentient beings, e.g. the expression 'impermanence'.


Anabhilapya/Inexpressible; incommunicable; e.g. emptiness. བ|^་མ^་པ་པ^ག

Anabhilapyatman/ An inexpressible self; a self that is neither substantially one with nor different from the five aggregates, neither permanent nor imprmanent as propounded by the Vaiputriya, a sub-school of Vaibhasika and many other non-buddhist philosophers.


The literal teachings of expression. One of the five teachings (see gsung-lnga) of a Buddha according to the Nyingma tradition. The way a Nirmanakaya Buddha teaches various disciples, the meaning simultaneously being understood by each according to their own language.


Sravaka/ A Hearer. Originally, those disciples of Buddha who actually listen to Buddha's teachings and also propagate these to others. Their goal is to achieve nirvana for themselves. The four noble truths and the twelve links of independent origination are their primary fields of study and practice.


Sravaka yogi pratyaksa/ The yogic direct perception of a Hearer. The knowledge and wisdom of a Sravaka trainee on the Hearers' path of seeing and meditation cognizing the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths (see mi-rtag sogs bcu-drug).

9ན'^ས''01མ་ས་པ་^མ'ས| The path-wisdom which understands the Hearer path. The

Bodhisattva wisdom that understands the impermanence or emptiness of any or all of the four noble truths.


Sapta Sravakabhumayah/ The seven Hearer levels; the seven stages of a Hearer. 1. རགས''ས| gotra bhumi/ the level of


family 2. བ3ད་པའ'ས| astamaka bhumi/ the level of the

-V cv

eighth 3. མཐང་བའ་ས། dars'ana bhumi/ the level of seeing 4. ས^བ་པ-ས། tanu bhumi/ the level of narrow 5. འདད་ཆགས' དང་3ལ'བའ་ས! vigata raga bhumi/ the level free of desire 6. ས་པ་^གས་པ་ས། kitavi samaya bhumih/ the level of actualizing deeds 7. དཀར་་མ་པར་མཐང་བ་ས། Sukla vidarsana bhumi/ the level of seeing white dharma


The ten close Sravaka disciples of Buddha Sakyamuni. 1. ར་བ! Sariputra 2. མའ་འགལ་3་1 Maudgalyayana 3. ' འད་^ང་ཆན་! Mahakas'yapa 4. ན་དགའ་! Anandai -|-གཅན-འ|ན། Rahula 6. ཀ་^་བ! Katyayana 7. མ་ འགགས་པ། Aniruddha 8. གང་! Purna 9. རབ་འ་ར! SubhUtilO.r^'W Upali.


Astadasa Sravaka nikayah/ The eighteen schools of Hearers. The eighteen schools branched from the four main schools of Hearers (see nyan-thos rtsa-ba'i sde-pa bzhi). 1-7. ཐམས་ཅད་

•V cv -v

ཡ་ད'|འ'^'པ'བ*ན1 seven schools of Mulasarvastivadin tradition (see gzhi thams-cad yod-par smra-ba'i sde-bdun) 8-12. པལ་ཆན་^'པ'21'། five schools of Mahasarhghika tradition (see dge-'dun phal-chen gyi sde-pa lnga) 13-15. གནས་བན' པ་^་པ་གམ། three schools of Sthavira tradition (see gnas-brtan-sde-pa) 16-18. མང་ས་བ^ར་བ་^་པ་གམ། three ' schools of Sammitiya tradition (see mang bkur sde-pa gsum).


Blurred experience. Unclear yet multi-faceted appearances. 9མས'^གས|

Experiences and insights; spiritual realization gained through proper meditation practices.


The three degenerations. A. That of: 1. ཆ^'0མས་9མས'པ| sila vipanna/ moral discipline 2. ^'བ'9མས་པ| drsti vipanna/ view 3. ཆ་ག་9མས'པ| acara vipanna/ rites. B. The three


degenerations of monks' and nuns' precepts, i.e. from: 1.0མ་ པ^གས་§ང་བ་ལས་?མས་པ| giving up the householder's way of life 2. རབ་^ང་ག^གས་འཆང་བ་ལས^མས་པ! accepting the tradition of a monk or nun 3. མཁན་པར་གསལ' བ་བ^བ་པ་^ས་^མས་པ། having reqUeSted the abbot for



The lineage of blessed practices. According to the Lam-rim tradition of Je Tsong Khapa this lineage originates from Buddha Sakyamuni to Manjusri to Santideva and so on. In tantric tradition, particularly of the Kagyud tradition this lineage begins from Buddha Vajradhara to Tilopa, Naropa, Dombhipa, AriSa and so on.


The yoga of sleep. A practice of yoga in sleep state usually carried out during the middle phase of dawn by laying down in the manner of a lion's resting position. In the secret mantrayana practice it means going to bed and sleeping within the recognition of the clear light of emptiness.


Catvari mula sravaka nikayah/ The four main schools of Hearers. 1. ཐམས་ཅད་ཡད་པར^་བ་! Mulasarvastivadin

—V OS. -"S.

tradition 2. པལ་ཆན་པའ་^། Mahasarhghika tradition 3. གནས་བན་པ་^། Sthavira tradition 4. མང་ས་བར་བ' *il Sammitiya tradition.


མ0ན'|ན^པ'^་ཅ'ས'པདན། 9ན'^'དང་ ^ན་མང-པ^མ་པ་ས་པ^ན}*

The thirty-seven features of the omniscient mind common to Hearers and Solitary Realizers. 1-4. ན་པ'*?'བར་བཞག་པ་ བཞ། catvari smrtyupasthanah/ the four close contemplations (see dran-pa nye-bar bzhag-pa bzhi). 5-8. ཡང་དག་པར་^ང་བ་


བཞ1 catvari samyak prahanah/ the four perfect abandonments (see yang-dag spong-ba bzhi). 9-12. ་འ^ལ་

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་*ང'པ་བཞ| catvari rddhipadah/ the four limbs of miracles (see rdzu-'phrul-gyi rkang-pa bzhi). 13-17. དབང་པ'1^'! pancendriyani/ the five faculties (see dbang-po lnga). 18-22. ^བས'^] panca balani/ the five powers (see stobs-lnga). 23-29. ང་བ་་ཡན་ལག་བདན། sapta bodhyarigani/ the seven limbs of enlightenment (see byang-chub yan-lag bdun). 30-37< ^པགས་ལམ་^ན-ལག་བ^ད། astaryariga marga/ the eight noble paths (see 'phags-lam yan-lag brgyad).


Spiritual songs. Songs of spiritual transformation revealing a meditator's experience and insight.


The eight features of dance. 1. §ག'པ| charming 2.5ག'ལ!

Cs. —s OS.

aggressive 3. དཔའ་བ། heroic 4. ་^ང་£། compassionate 5. མ་ |ག་པ| ugly 6. ^་་ད'^1 smiling 7. མ.ད་པ1 magnificent 8. འ£གས་རང། frightening.


Adityopaniacittotpada/ Trie sun-like bodhrcitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of power possessed by Bodhisattvas on the ninth level.


The kinsman of the sun. An epithet of Buddha Sakyamuni derived from a legend concerning his ancestry.


The fourteen divisions of daylight. 1. |'རངས'ཤར་བ| first light 2. ^་མ་མ་ཤར་ཅ་མ། just before sun rise 3. |'མ'ཤར'བ། the first glimpse of the sun 4. ^་མ་བ^ད་ཆ་ཅམ་ཤརབ། one eighth of the sun risen 5. ^་མ་བཞ་ཆ་ཅམ་ཤར་བ། one fourth of the sun risen 6. '§'དས། morning 7.5ང'ག་ གང་ཅམ། late morning 8.3ང'ག noon 9. §'§'5ས། late afternoon 10. ^མ་བཞ་ཆ་^མ་ལས་པ། one fourth of the sun remaining 11. |'མ'བ$ད་ཆ'ཅམ'ལས'པ། one eighth of the sun remaining 12. ^་མ་མ་^བ་ཅམ། last glimpse of the sun 13, ?'མ'5བ་པ། sunset 14. ?་མ་5བ-ནས^ར་མ-མ'ཤར ཅ་མ--དས། sunset to first starlight.


Pratyekanaraka/ The occasional hells. The hells surrounding the hot and cold hell realms that experience happiness and suffering during day and night alternatively.


Six sessions throughout the day and night. 1. ་51 morning 2.?ན་3ང'| afternoon 3. twilight 4. ད| late evening 5.ནམ'3ང| midnight 6. ཐ་རངས། pre-dawn.


Connecting to rebirth. The instant that consciousness

collapses into the parent's mixture of sperm and blood in the womb of a mother during rebirth. The instant of conception in the womb.


The sixteen neighbouring hells. The four hell states on each of the four directions of the hell without respite are known as the sixteen neighbouring hell states. These are namely: 1. མ'མ་ མར| kukulam/ the fiery embers 2. ར་མ^གས་་འདམ།

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kunapam/ the swamp of filth 3.3'འ'ཐང'| ksuradhara/ the razor-filled path 4. རལ'་ཚལ| asidhara/ the forest of sword-leaves .•


The close lineage of treasure teachings. The great Acarya Padmasambhava and other accomplished masters have left many holy religious texts hidden under rocks and mountains with their prophesied instructions of trie time, and the persons who would collect them and spread those teachings far and wide in future. This lineage exclusive to the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism is known as the close lineage treasure teaching.


DvadaSa upaklesah/ The twenty secondary afflictions; the twenty approximate delusions. The twenty delusions that arises in dependence upon the six root delusions (see rtsa-nyondrug). LETབ1 krodha/ anger 2. འན་འ1ན། upanaha/ malice 3. འཆབ་པ) mraksa/ concealment 4. འ^གཔ། pradasa/ outrage 5. ^ག་དག irsya/ jealousy 6. སར'^1 matsaryam/ miserliness 7. gl maya/ceceit 8. གཡ། sathyam/ dishonesty 9.3གས'པ། mada/ haughtiness 10. མ'པར་འ£་ བ| vihimsa/ harmful intent 11. ང་ཚ་མད་པ། ahrikyam/ non-embarrassment 12. །5ལ་མད་པ1 anapatrapyam/ non-consideration 13. མ་དད་པ། asraddhyam/ lack of faith 14. W

ft -v

ལ། kausidyam/ laziness 15. བག་མད། pramada/ non-conscientiousness 16. བ་^ད་ངས! musitasmrtitaV forgetfulness

17. ཤས་བཞན་མ་ཡན་པ། as am praj an yam/ non-introspection

Ov V

18. ང་བ། nimagna/ dullness 19 གད་པ' auddhatyam/ agitation 20. མ་གཡང་། viksepay/ mental wandering.


Upadanam/ The four compulsive acquisitions; the four negative acquirements by the force of delusions in a person. The hundred and eight delusions are included in these four. 1. འདད་པ་^་བར་ལན་པ། that of desire 2. ་བ་^་བར་ལན་པ། that of view 3. བདག'7་བ་9་ བར་ལན་པ། that of the view of self 4. ཆ;ལ་@མས་དངབ5ལ་(5གས་མག་འ1ན། that of holding wrong moral conduct as superior.


The five secondary heinous non-virtues; the five approximate heinous crimes; the five secondary crimes of immediate retribution. 1. མ་ད་བཅམ་པ་ན་^ང་བ། disrobing an ordained female Foe-destroyer 2. ང་མས་་་ངས་ནས' གསད་པ། killing a Bodhisattva knowlingly 3. §བ་པ་གསད'པ! killing a trainee 4. དག་འདན་་འད་^་འ^ག་པ།

•v -v ov

misappropriation of SaHngha property 5. མཆད་ན་བཤགས་ པ། destroying a stUpa.


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The seven semi-precious possessions. 1. ཁང་བ^ང་རན་པ^ཆ།

Ov V "\

harmya/ precious mansion 2. མལ་ཆ་རན་པ་ཆ། sayana/

cv -v* -v

precious bedding 3. མ་རན་པ་ཆ། pula/ precious shoes 4. རལ་|རན་་ཆ། khadga/ precious sword 5. གས་རན་་།

Cv S -v

civara/ precious clothing 6. པགས་པ་རན་པ་ཆ། carman/

, Ov S ~v

precigps skin 7. ཆལ་རན་པ་ཆ། vana/' precious forest. ་བ་^ས་&ན་བ^ད།

Astopaputrah/ The eight close disciples of Buddha

Sakyamuni. 1. འ^མ་དཔལ་དངས། Manjusri 2. ག་ན་ད་། Vajrapani 3. ^ན་རས་ག^གས། Avalokitesvara 4. ས་ཡ་^ང་! Ksitigarbha 5. བ་པ་མ་ལ' Sarvanirvarana Viskambhin 6. ནམ་མཁ་^ང་། Akasagarbha 7. མས་པ! Maitreya 8. ན་་བ་་ཟང་། Samantabhadra


Samantaka/ The preparatory stage. A preparatory virtuous state of concentration within the sphere of the form and formless realm that directly generates an actual state of meditative concentration of either the form or formless absorption. There are eight types of preparatory meditative concentrations.


The substantial cause. That cause which gives rise to the result that abides in its own substantial continuity or subsequent similar type, e.g. the clay from which a pot is made is the main substantial constituent of it.


Panca dosah/ Five faults; five hinderances to mental


quiescence meditation. 1. ལ'ལ| kausidyam/ laziness 2. གདམས་ངག་བད་པ། upadesa sariipramosa/ forgetting

Cs. ■v' -W

instructions 3. ང་^ད! dullness and agitation 4. མངན་པར'

Ov ~v

འད་མ་ད'པ། abhisamskara pratipaksa/ non-application of


antidotes 5. མང ན་པར་འད ་$ད་པ། anabhisarhskara ■»

pratipaksa/ over-application of antidotes.


The forty-six faults; the fourty-six secondary transgressions of Bodhisattva vows. |ན་པ་དང་འགལ་བ་བ5ན'ན། Seven associated with the perfection of giving 1. དཀན་མཆག་གམ་ ལ་^་གམ་ས་་མད་པ། not making offerings to the Three Jewels every day by means of body, speech and mind 2,

འདད^པ་མས^ས^་^མ^བཛད-པ-སགས^ད^ས-ས-འག-པ! indulging in worldly pleasures such as in talking by means of attachment 3. བ3བ་པ^ན་པ་མས'དང'ཡན་་?ན་ ཅན་ལ་3ས་པར''ད་པ[ being disrespectful to the senior trainees and those who are knowledgeables 4. ཆས་སགས་་ ཆག-དན-ས-པ-ལ-ན-ད-ལན--འདབས-པ། not giving

answers to those who ask questions relating to Dharma 5. དད་ པས་མན་5་ས་པ་ན་'རང'བ'ད'བཞན'བདག་གར''ད་ པ| declining an invitation without good reason extended in good faith 6. གར་ལ་སགས་པ་པལ་ཡང་ཞན་པ་ད་པ་ལན' པར-གསངས-པ-ལས-ལན'པར,་མ-ད'པ། refusing t0 accept

offerings of gold and the like when it is said to be permissible to accept them with a mind free of attachment 7. ཆས་འདད་ པ'ལ'|ན'པར'མ་ད'པ། not giving Dharma to those who desire it. ཆ;ལ'0མས་དང'འགལ་བ་ད3'ན། Nine associated with the perfection of morality 1. ཆ;ལ'0མས་འཆལ་བ་ཡལ་ བར་འདར་བ། neglecting those who have broken their moral commitments 2. པ་རལ་དད་པ་^ར་^་གམ་བ^ན་པར་^བ་ པར་མ་ད་པ! not using one's three gates of activities to

effect trainings that cause others to generate faith 3. [བར-་་བ་ར་ བ'སགས'མས'ཅན-'གནས'^བས་་དན'ལ'་བ་ཆང་ངར'

ཡང་མ་བཅ"ན'པ། not making efforts to benefit others in order to help others even to the extent of carrying their luggage and the like 4. |ང'བ5ར'བཅས་ན་་དག་ད'པས'་བ'ངན་པ་1ག་ §ར་1ག་5བ་སགས་ས་བཞན'་ད་པ། refusing to do negative actions even though it is taught that these are free of negativities when motivated by compassion 5. འཆ་བ་ལག་པ' དང'5'ལན'པ། practicing wrong livelihood 6. §'གམ་འཆལ'

CV •v'

ཞང་རབ''$1ད་པ། indulging in frivolous activites by body, speech and mind 7. དགས'པ་ད'པར་འར་བ་|མ་པ་ན་ གཅག'པས-བད'པརམས'པ། thinking without good reason that a Bodhisattva can attain enlightenment solely by being in the midst of samsaric household life 8. གས་པ་མ་ཡན་པ་་ §ང་བ1 not avoiding a bad reputation 9. ^ན་མངས་དང་བཅས་

^•ས་བ^ན'5་འས-པར:མ-ད་པ། not helping someone to avoid a situation when you know others do it forced by their negativities. བ^ད་པ་དང་འགལ་བ་བཞ་ན། Four associated with the perfection of patience 1. ག'བ་ལ་ལན་5' གཤ་བ་ལ་སགས་པ་བཞ! the four such as retaliating a harm with harm and so on (see dge-sbyong gi chos-bzhi) 2.0ས'པ'


མས'ན'«1ལ'བར'དར'བ། neglecting to apologize those who were incited into anger by oneself 3. པ'རལ་'ཤད'ས'ཆགས་ པ'9ང'བ| not accepting others' sincere apologies 4. གཞན' £ས་པ-མས་ས-ས་ས་*ག་པ། letting oneSeif be

carried out by anger against others. བ5ན'འ3ས་དང་འགལ་བ་ གམ་ན། Three associated with the perfection of effort 1. 1 |ད-བ^ར,-འདད-པ-ར་འཁ^མས-|ད-པ། gathering a

circle of followers out of desire for profit or reputation 2. ལ་ ལ་ལ-སགས་པ-ས-ལ-མ^ར-བ^ལ་བར-མ-ད-པ། not

trying to eliminate habits such as laziness that are obstacles to the practicing Dharma 3. གཞན་ངས་པ་སགས་་ར་མ་ཡན་ པར་ཆགས'པས'§-'ག*7མ-ལ-བ^ན་པ1 indulging in gossips out of attachment other than in conversation to help others བསམ་ག^ན་དང་འགལ་བ་གམ་ན། Three associated

Cv -v CV, CV Cv

with the perfection of concentration 1. ་-ཏངང་འཛན་་དན་མ་ འལ་བ། not making efforts to find the meaning of concentration 2. བསམ་ག^ན་^་བ་པ་^་^ང་བར་ད-པ། not overcoming the five obstacles to concentration (see nyes-pa lnga) 3. བསམ'ག^ན་|ར་ན་|ངས''བད་བ'ལ་ཡན་^ན་ 5'བ'བ| being attached to the taste or ecstatic suppleness of the meditative concentration ས་རབ'དང་འགལ་བ་བ$ད་ན།

•v cv

Eight associated with the perfection of wisdom 1.^ན་ཐས་་!!' ཐག་པ་§ང་བར་ད་པ། abandoning the Lower Vehicle 2. རང་ ཚལ་ཐག་ཆན་་^ད་བཞན་ད་ལ་བ^ན་པ་དགས་པ་ད་པར་

བ5ན་་ན་པ་པ་རལ་3་བ^ན་བཅས'ལ་བ5ན'པ| putting a great effort in studying the doctrine of the Lower Vehicle and other subjects even though they serve no significant purpose for one has already embarked on to the study and practice of

the Greater Vehicle 3. དགས་པ་དབང་ས་བ£ན་པར་ད་ ང་'ལ'་4ན^ན-5'བ^-བ^-དགའ-བ། although it is necessary to study other subjects for good reasons, but being engrossed in them with pleasure 4. ཐག་པ་ཆན་པ་^ང་བརད་ པ^་ད་ལ་-བ^ན-པ། not making effort in the study and practice of the Greater Vehicle teachings and abandoning them 5. བག་ད་^མ་ས་བདག་ལ་བ^ད་ཅང་གཞན་ལ་ད་པ། praising oneself and criticising others with negligence 6. ཆས' ་དན་5་འ'བར་་ད་པ། making no effort to study or practice Dharma 7. ད་ལ་ད་ཅང་ཡ་ར་མག་'བ|ང་ནས་

~v , CV 1*

ད་ཅམ་ལ་ཡད་ན་པ། neglecting the study and practice of Dharma and prefering to read other non-Dharma materials 8. མས-ཅན་དན'§ད'དང་འགལ'བ'ལ'བཅ་ག?ས། Twelve

associated with not giving assistance and care to others. གཞན་ དན་ལས-^མས^ས-པ-པ^། of these there are four for not

giving assistance to others, which are: 1. གཞན་་དགས་པའ་ དན་ཅ་«1ང་ར.ང་བ་གས་ས་འབར,་མ་ད-པ། not going t0

the assistance of those seeking help for their purpose 2. ནད་


པ!འ་རམ^/བ^ངབ། neglecting to offer service to the sick

3. གཞན''ལས'§ག་བལ་ལ'བར་5ས་བཞན་་ད་པ1 not acting to dispel sufferings of others although one is capable of giving help 4. ས་བཞན་5་བག་ད་པ་ལ་རགས་པ་་§ན'པ། not helping others to overcome their bad habits knowingly. ག^ན་ལ'པན'-འདགས'པ^ས-པ-§ག six faults for not

benefiting others: 1. པན་བད་པ'ལ'ལན'5་པན་་འདགས་པ། not returning help of those who benefit oneself 2. གཞན་3' སམས'མ,་ངན'|ས'ག5ང་བ་སལ་བར'་ད་པ| not relieving the distress of others 3. ནར་འདད་པ་ལ'ར'§་་ད་3ང་ལ་

•** Ov Cv -v

ལས་|ན་པར་མ་ད་པ། not giving material help to those who seek charity out of laziness even though one lack miserliness

4. རང་འརམས་-གནས་^བས་་དན་་ད་པ། not

giving assistance to one's disciples to fulfill their temporary benefits 5. ས་དང་་བཐན་བད་པ་གཞན་་|་དང་མཐན་


པར་མ་འ^ག་པ། not acting in accordance with the

inclinations of others when these do not contradict Dharma 6. ས'ལ'འ^ག'པ-དགས-པ'ད'པས-«1ན^ན'དང-བ^གས-པ-|-

Cs. -s

བར་མ་ད'པ| not praising the good qualities of others unless there is a special purpose of turning their mind to Dharma ངན-པ-ཆར་-གཅད-པ-^ས-པ-ག^ས། Two faults for not subduing an evil person. 1. པ་རལ་་^ན་དང་འཆ་མས་པར་ -བ-^བ-ས-ཚར--གཅད-པ། not subduing others with wrathful actions when it is harmonious to their evil conduct 2. ཛ-འ^ལ-དངབ^གས-བལ-སགས-པ--ད-པ། not performing

miracles and threatening actions, or so on.


The six causes of generating delusions. 1. ན| basis 2. དགས་པ། object 3. འ་་འ^། public gatherings 4. བཤད་པ| speaking 5. གམས་པ། familiarity 6. ཡད་ལ་ད་པ། mental reflection.


KleSavarana/ Delusive obscurations. Obstacles to liberation primarily preventing liberation from cyclic existence. There are two types : 1. fན་་^བ་^ན་བ^གས! prajnapti klesavarana/ the intellectually acquired obscuration to liberation 2. ?ན་བ་^ན'|ས1 sahaja klesavarana/ innately acquired obscuration to liberation.


KleSa/ Defilement; delusion; affliction. A mental state that produces turmoil and confusion thus disturbing mental peace and happiness.


The three causes of generating delusions. 1. ^ན་མངས་པའ་ བག་ལ-^ལ-བ-མ^ངས-པ། non-elimination of latent delusions 2. ?ན་མངས་|བ་ཡལ^'བར་གནས་པ། close association

with the object prone to generate delusions 3. ཚལ་བཞན་མ་ ཡན་པར་ཡད་ལ་ད་པ། entertaining wrong thoughts.


Panca klesah/ The five types of delusions. 1. ན་§ར། constant fetters (see kun-sbyor gsum or dgu) 2. པ/3ས། subtle increase (phra-rgyas) 3. འཆང་བ། bindings 4. ?'9ན། near delusions 5. ^ན་ད^ས! ever-binding factors (see kun-dkris bzhi).


The three contacts of a delusive mind. 1. མ་རག་པ་རག་པ། contact with ignorance 2. གནད་མས་'རག་པ། contact with harmful intention 3. ས་་ཆགས་པ་རག་པ། contact with attachment.


DaSalpakleSabhUmikah/ Ten mental attitudes of the minor delusions (see 1-10 nye-nyon nyi-shu). These are called minor because of being weaker by nature of their accompanying mental factors, weaker by nature of abandonment and weaker by nature of the primary mind which is their basis.


Sad mahakleSa bhUmikah/ Six mental attitudes of the major delusions. 1. མ་དད་པ! asraddya/ lack of faith 2. ལ་ལ| kausldya/ laziness 3. ག་མག moha/ ignorance 4. ང་བ། nimagna/ mental cloudiness 5. ་^་ད་པ! auddhatya/ mental agitation 6. བག་མད་པ། pramada/ unconscientiousness.


The two delusions. 1. ^ན་མངས་^ན་བ^གས། intellectually acquired delusions 2. 9ན'མངས་ན་|ས། innately born delusions.


The five delusive poisons; the five poisonous delusions. 1. འདད་ཆགས། desire-attachment 2. ང་£3 hatred-anger 3. མ' རག་པ། ignorance 4. ང་§ལ། pride 5. ་^ག་དག jealousy.


Object for eliminating delusions. One of the four objects of a Yogi (see rnal-'byor gyi dmigs-pa bzhi) meditating on the development of mental quiescence meditation in which a meditator either sees the lower concentration levels as grosser and the higher as subtler or takes either of the sixteen features of the four noble truths (see mi-rtag sogs bcu-drug) as his or her object of meditation for developing samatha.


The six stains of delusions. The six stains or gross thoughts that arise in reliance upon delusions. 1.11 deception 2. གཡ། dishonesty 3.3གས་པ1 conceit 4. འག་པ། outrage 5. ན' འ^ན། grudge 6. མ་འ། harmfulness.


The ten functions of delusions. 1. ཅ"བ'བན'པར'ད་པ1 it stabilizes the root of delusion 2. ན་གནས་པ་ར་ད་པ། it

cv -v

keeps the continuity of delusion 3. ཞང་ད་བ་པར་ད་པ! it establishes its own goal 4. ་མཐན་པར་བ་པར་ད་པ། it establishes results similar to itself 5. ལས?^ད་བམན་པར་ བ་པར་ད་པ! it establishes karmicaily linked existence 6, རང'གས^ངས'ས-འ1ན'པརད-པ། it treasures its own collection of delusions 7. དགས་པ་ལ་ཀན་^་^ངས་པརད་ པ། it makes its objectives unclear 8. མ'པར་ཤས་པའ་|ན་

cv -v

འ9ད'པར'3ད'པ། it leads to the continuity of consciousness 9 ད-བ-གས-ལས་ག^བར-ད-པ། i{ misdirects oneself from wholesome activities 10. ཁམས་ལས་་འདའ་བ་ཚལ་

ས་འ1ངབ'དན'ད-[3བ་པར་ད་པ། it multiplies as a binding force without transcending the delusive realms.


The three paths of delusions. 1. ^ན་མངས་པ་ལམ། path of delusions 2. ལས་་ལམ། karmic path 3. |་བ་ཀན་ནས་9ན་ མངས་པ་ལམ། path of rebirth.


The three delusions. 1. «^ན་མངས་པ་^ན་ནས་བ^ང་པ་^ན་ མངས། klesasarhklesa/ delusions arising from other delusions 2. ལས་་ཀན་ནས་བ^ང་པ་?ན་མངས། karmasaihklesa/ delusions arising from karma 3. ་བ་ཀན་ནས་བ^ང་པ་ ཉན་མངས། utpattisaniklesa/ delusions arising from birth.


Klesa manas/ The deluded mind. One of the eight groups of consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tshogs-brgyad). It is recognized as an obstructive unspecified primary consciousness (sgrib lung-ma bstan) that takes the foundation or fundamental consciousness (see kun-gzhi rnam-shes) as its object and maintains ego-grasping with respect to it until the person has attained the Arya path.


Klesa vijnana/ The deluded consciousness; the afflicted mind. It is one of the eight types of consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tshogs-brgyad) asserted by the Cittamatrin school of thought. The deluded mind is an obstructed and unspecified conceptual consciousness that takes the foundational consciousness as its focal object and grasps at it as being a substantially existent self, etc.


The extremely secret teachings. This name is given to the

collection of mdo-sde za-ma tog, snying-po yi-ge drgug-ma, spang-skong phyag-rgya, and a golden stUpa found from a casket that fell from the sky during the reign of King Lha Thothori Nyan Tsan (5th century A.D.), the 27th officially recognized king of Tibet. This is considered the beginning of Buddhism in Tibet.


Nidra prabhasvara/ The clear light of sleep; the clear light mind of sleep state. The practice of activating the subtle mind during sleep; a part of completion stage yoga of tantra.


Ubhaya s'Unyata/ Non-duality or separate simultaneous sources between the consciousness and its object. It can also mean the non-duality of bliss and void.


Ubhaya tathata/ The reality of non-duality; the thatness of non-duality.


Ubhayabhasa/ Dualistic appearance; mundane appearance. The duality of the object of apprehension and the consciousness that apprehends it.


Advaya tantra/ The non-dual tantra. That of anuttarayoga tantra in which equal emphasis is placed on the development of the mind of clear light and the illusory body.


Advayaka ksanikaprayoga/ The momentary training in non-duality. The final instant of the path of meditation of a Bodhisattva's training during which he or she realizes the

non-duality of the object and object-perceiver directly within a single instant of time.


Nivasita sarigha/ The permanent resident monk. A monk who has been staying at the same monastery ever since his admission in that monastery.



The primordial wisdom; the naturally abiding intutive mind or awareness, also called the basic wisdom.


Catvari pratipaksabalani/ The four opponent forces; the four strong antidotes. 1. ན་^བས! force of reliance 2. ག?ན་

■vev *v

པའ་^བས། force of overcoming misdeeds through antidotes 3. མ་པར་ན་འན་པ་^བས། force of repentence 4. ?ས་ པ་ལས་^ར་ག་པ་^བས། force of not repeating the misdeeds.


Asta pratipaksasamskarah/ The application of eight antidotes. Eight antidotes applied to eliminate the five faults to mental quiescence meditation (Samatha). 1-4. ལ་ལའ་ག^ན་པར་དད' པ| འ^ན་པ། £ལ་བ། ཤན'|ངས། faith, aspiration, enthusiastic perseverance and ecstasy as antidotes to laziness. 5, གདམས-ངག་བད་པ་ག་^ན-ར་ན-པ། mindfulness as

an antidote to forgetting the instructions (losing object of meditation) 6. ང་^ད་་ག?ན'ར་ཤས'བཞན| alertness as an antidote to mental dullness and agitation 7. མངན་པར་འད་ 'ད'པ'ག?ན་ར་འད'ད་པ| application of antidotes to counter their non-application 8. མན་པར་འད་ད་པ'ག?ན་ པར་འད་མ་ད་པ། non-application of antidotes to counter their application.


Pratipaksabhisandhi/ Interpretive surras concerning antidotes. For instance, the sUtra which says, 'father and mother are to be killed\ taught to king Ajatasatru in order to calm his regrets temporarily and to teach him to eliminate ignorance and karma ultimately.

ག9ན'པ'གས'3་ག^ས| 1

Pratipaksa vastujnana/ The knowledge of basis categorized as an antidote. The sixth of the nine topics that characterize the knowledge of the basis; a Mahayana path that is a superior path of wisdom and method identical with the basic wisdom within the continuum of a Mahayanist Arya. This wisdom exists from the path of seeing to the path of no more learning.

གན་བ་དག་བ་བད། I

Asta pratipaksa kusalani/ The eight antidotal virtues. Antidotal virtue through: 1. མ'པར་ན'འན'པ་ག?ན་པ1

cv cv -v -"V

overcoming negative forces 2. གཞའ'ག9ན་པ! counteracting

CV CV -N -V*

one's virtuous forces 3. ཐག'ས,ང་བའ་ག9ན་པ| prolonging one's virtuous forces 4. མ་པར་གནན་པ་ག^ན་།

Cv "S f

subduing the negative forces 5. ^ལ་བའ་ག^ན་པ། separating

•V* CV CV ~V -V*

from negative forces 6.9ན'བ'3'ག9ན'པ1 counteracting the obstructions to liberation 7. ཤས'§བ''ག9ན་།

-V* CV

counteracting the obstructions to omniscience 8. ^ང་བའ' ག9ན་ པ! elimination of negative forces.


Sravasti/ The capital of the kingdom of Kosala, where Buddha Sakyamuni passed 25 rainy seasons. It is called the place where Buddha defeated the Heterodox teachers through




The equalizing wind; the equally abiding energy wind. One of the five energy winds in the body (see rtsa-ba'i rlung lnga) that controls the digestive process of assimilation of nutrition and separation of waste materials located at the third stage of the stomach. This wind is also called the fire-dwelling wind (me-gnas-kyi rlung).


The five samenesses; the five universal qualities of all Bodhisattvas. 1. བདག'གཞན'མ9མ'?ད| both self and other are equal 2. པན་གནད་མ^མ་^ད། both self and others are equal in wishing to be benefitted and not wishing to be harmed 3. འ£ག་ན'ས་བ3ད་མ?མ་9ད། both self and others are equal in having the eight worldly concerns (see . 'jig-rten chos-brgyad) 4. ད'ཞ'མ9མ་?ད1 both the cyclic existence and the state of liberation are the same.


The ten samenesses; the ten samenesses of all phenomena as: 1, མཆ་ན-f ད-མད-པ-མ^མ-པ-^ད། asvabhava samata/ lacking truly existent features 2. མཚན་མ་ད་པ་མ^མ་པ' ཉད། alaksana samata/ lacking truly existent signs and marks 3.མ^་བ^་ལས་|-བ-ད-པ'མ^མ'པ^ད། ajati samata/

lacking production from the four extremes—self, others, both and neither both. 4. མ་|ས་པ་མ^མ'པ་^ད། ajalaka samata/ being unproduced 5. དབན་པ་མ^མ་པ་^ད། Sunya samata/ being empty 6. གདད་མ་ནས་མ་པར་དག་པ་མ^མ་པ་?ད། adhisuddha samata/ being primordially pure 7. ^ས་པ་མད་པ་


མཉམ་པ་^ད! nisprapaiica samata/ lacking conceptual elaboration 8. ^ང་བ་དང་དར་བར་་བ་ན་པ་མ^མ་པ་^ད།

anupadeyaheya samata/ not being objects of cultivation and elimination 9. ས་ཐམས་ཅད་1}་ལམ་དང་! ག་གཡར་དང་། གཟག-ས-བ^ན-དང་། §ལ་པ-་ར་མ^མ་པ-?ད། svapna


maya udakacandra pratibimba nirmanopama samata/ being like a dream, hallucination, moon in the water, reflection and emanation 10. དས་་དང་དས་་མད་པ་མ9མ་བ་?ད| bhava-abliava samata/ being a thing or non-thing. The first seven indicate the subtle selflessness of phenomena and the eighth, subtle selflessness of person, whereas the last two show emptiness pertaining to both.


Samatabhipraya/ Interpretative sutra determining the samenesses; e.g., the sutra. 'I shall be Buddha Maitreya at that time', in which the basic intention of Buddha was to reveal that all the Buddhas are equal in having attained the three equal states (see mnyam pa nyid gsum).


The three samenesses; the three equal states of all Buddhas. 1. གས་བསགས-པ-མ^མ-པ-f ད། equal in terms of having accumulated merits 2. ས^་ཐབ་པ་མ^མ་པ་^ད། equal in

f -v

terms of having attained the Truth Body 3. གཞན་དན་ད་པ' མ9མ་པ་^ད| equal in terms of working for the welfare of others.


The wisdom of meditative equipoise. A wisdom of single pointed concentration in the process of directly eliminating or having eliminated its respective object of abandonemt. In general there are two: 1. བར་ཆད་མད་ལམ། the uninterrupted path 2. མ་ལ་ལམ། the path of thorough liberation.


The Ancient School; the Nyingma Tradition. A first major school of Tibetan Buddhism introduced in Tibet by Guru Padmasambhava, the great Indian mahayogi who came to Tibet in the 8th century.


^ - Ov ~v

The nine vehicles of the Nyingma tradition. 1. ^ན'ཐས'3'ཐག' པ! the Hearers' vehicle 2. རང་^ལ་་ཐག་པ། the Solitary Realizers' vehicle 3. ང་མས་་ཐག་པ། the Bodhisattvas' vehicle 4. '་§་^'3ག་པ| the action tantra vehicle 5. |ད་ |ད''ཐག'པ! the performance tantra vehicle 6. ཡ་ག་ཐག་ པ! the yoga tantra vehicle 7. མ'^'ཡ'ག"ཐག'པ! the mahayoga tantra vehicle 8. -^་ན་ཡ་གའ་ཐག་པ! the anuftarayoga tantra vehicle 9. ^་་ཡ་ག་ཐག་པ། the atiyoga tantra vehicle.


The whispered lineage. A lineage of secret teachings transmitted only to the closest disciples through direct communication with their root teacher or meditational deity.


The four types of whispered lineages. 1, ཆས་གང་ལང་དང' བཅས་པ! having received oral transmissions of every teaching one has received 2. ལང་མན་ངག་དང་བཅས་པ། having all oral transmissions with instructions from the teacher 3. མན་ངག་བ^ད་དངན་པ། having all instructions coming through the proper lineage 4. བད་པ་ན་&བས་དང' ན'པ1 having all lineages blessed.


Kaliyuga/ The degenerate age; the decadent period.. The period when the tradition of Buddha's teachings are no longer pure and the world situation makes it difficult to practice properly. This also refers to the period of the universe when the lifespan of human beings is declining from one hundred to ten years.


Panca kasayah/ The five dregs; the five degenerations. 1. <£' ^གས་མ! ayuh kasaya/ degenerated life-span 2. ?ན'མངས་

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^གས་མ! klesa kasaya/ degenerated delusions 3. སམས་ཅན'


^་གས་མ། sattva kasaya/ degenerated persons 4. •་ས་^གས་ མ1 kalpa kasaya/ degenerated time 5. ་བ་^གས་མ! drsti kasaya/ degenerated view.


The eight channels initially formed at the heart. 1. དབ་མ། the central channel 2. ར'མ| the right channel 3.5ང'མ| the left channel 4. ཤར'§'གམ་^ར'མ1 the triple circle of the

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east 5. ་^འ་འདད་མ། the desirous one of the south 6. ནབ'3'


བདད་བལ་མ! the one free of hindrance of the west 7. ང་ག'


§མ་མ! the householder of the north 8. གམ་མ། the fiery j one.


The three types of compassion. 1. 3ws*74'*W'-;*i«|',f

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པའ'་|ང'£| compassion merely observing sentient beings 2. ས-ལ-དགས-པ-^ང། compassion observing the doctrine 3. དགས་ད་ལ་དགས་པ་^ང་། compassion observing the lack of true existence.


Karuna na Samesthiti marga jnana/ The knowledge of the path which through compassion does not abide in the extreme of peace. The path of Mahayana Aryas categorized as negating the extreme of peace for the sake of sentient beings. It exists from the first level of a Bodhisattva up to the state of Buddhahood.

ང་བ'1^! I

The five essentials. 1.བ'རམ1 molasses 2. ཞན་མར། molten

butter 3. |ང་1| honey 4. ལ་མར། sesame oil 5. ལན་-^། salt.


The three essential practices. 1. ཆ^འདར་ཡ་དམ་^མ་བ! meditation on one's deity in this life 2. འ་ཁར'འ'བ'§མ་པ| meditation on consciousness transference at death 3. བར་དར་ བ^་^མ་པ། practising merging with the three bodies of a Buddha in the intermediate state.


Samapatti/ Meditative absorption. The state of single-pointed concentration within the form and formless realm in which a person's primary mind and secondary minds are fuliy absorbed in its object of meditation.


The two types of meditative absorptions of serial advancement: 1. འགག་པ་^མས་འག nirodha samapatti/ the meditative absorption of cessation 2. འ་་ཤས་མད་པའ' ^མས་འ་^ག naivasamjna na sarhjfiayatana/ the meditative absorption without-perception.


The four types of meditative absorptions. The single-pointed meditative absorptions within the four states of the formless realm. 1. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས་^་མཆད། akasantya samapatti/ meditative absorption of infinite space 2. མ་ཤས་ མ^འ་་ཡས་§་མཆད| vijnanantya samapatti/ meditative

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absorption of infinite consciousness 3. ཅ་ཡང་མད་པའ་^" *ཆད། akincanyayatana samapatti/ meditative absorbtion of nothingness 4. ད་1་?མས་འག ^ད་ན་ད་ན|'


*་ཆད། bhavagra samapatti/ meditative absorption of the peak of existence, neither with perception nor without non-perception.


The nine types of meditative absorptions. 1-4. ག3གས་ཁམས་ ་བསམ-ག^ན-བ^! བསམ་ག་^ན-བ^ meditative

absorptions of the four states of concentration within the form realm 5-8. ག-་ཟགས་ད་་? མས་འ|ག་བཞ1 catvari aruparMu samapatti/ meditative absorptions of the four states of concentration within the formless realm 9. འགག་པའ་་^མས་ འ^ག nirodha samapatti/ meditative absorption of the cessation.

པ^ན'|པ་«|ན'01ག་བ^| The four limbs of the approaching retreat. The ways of being


in retreat. 1 བ་^ན་པ! approaching through visualizing a

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symbolic being 2. ^་བར་བ་^ན་པ། the near achievement of a

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wisdom being 3. བ'པ1 actual achievement 4. བ་པ་ཆན་པ། the great achievement.


The eight precepts of an upasaka. Vows to be observed by a one day vow holder. 1 §ག་གཅད་0ང"བ| pranatighatad virati/ not killing 2. མ'ན་པར'ལན'པ'!]ང་བ1 adattadanad virati/ not stealing 3. མ'ཆངས'|ད'3ང'བ1 kamamithyacarad virati/ not indulging in sexual activity 4. བ^ན'«1ང'བ| mrsavadat virati/ not telling a lie 5. ཆང་^ང་བ! madya panam/ not taking intoxicants 6. གར'སགས'21ང་བ| gana nataka virati/ not singing and dancing 7. ^'འ་ཁ་-་ཟས་^ང་བ། not taking a meal after noon 8. མལ'^ན་ཆ'མཐ'1|ང་བ| not using high and luxurious seat or bed.


The types of retreat practices; the four types of close practices. 1. ལས''བ^ན'པ| kaya-asevita/ close practice of body, by being in retreat for a definite time 2. ངས་^་བ་^ན་ པ! sanikhya-asevita/ close practice of numbers, through

chanting a specified number of mantras 3. མཆན་མ་བ^ན་ པ[ laksana-asevita/ close practice of signs, through visualizing and dissolving oneself into the wisdom being 4. སམས་བན་་3་བ-|ན་པ| cittadrdha-asevita/ close practice of conviction, by accomplishing the gross level of the generation stage practices.


/ The concentration mandala. The single-pointed concentration of visualizing the entire mandala.


The five faults in the development of concentration (see- {nyes pa lnga}).


The miracles of meditative concentration. One of the four miracles according to yoga tantra meditation (see- {cho 'phrul bzhi}). This involves meditation through visualizing Vairocana in the centre, Aksobhya to the east, Ratnasambhava to the south, Amitabha to the west, and Amoghasiddhi to the north encircled by four Bodhisattva each of their own family.


The requirements for developing meditative concentration. The virtuous forces indispensible for achieving calm abiding meditation.


The three meditative concentrations. A. According to the generation stage practice of mahayoga tantra in the Nyingma tradition these are: 1. ་བན་ད་་ང་་འན། / meditative concentration of suchness 2.

རབ་་ང་བ་ང་་འན། / the all-apparent meditative concentration 3. ་ང་་འན། / the causal concentration. B. According to the generation stage practice of yoga tantra and above, the three yogas of the generation stage in general are: 1. དང་་ར་བ་ང་་འན། the initial preparatory meditative concentration 2. ལས་ལ་ག་་ང་་འན།

the supramundane activity meditative concentration 3. དལ་འར་ལ་ག་་ང་་འན། the supramundane mandala meditative concentration.


/ The concentration being. The visualization of a seed syllable or implement at the heart of the wisdom being in the deity one has visualized.


The miniature fire balls. Flaming small dough balls thrown into one's mouth during the course of a Vajrayogini initiation.


The four entrustments. The first four of the ten innermost jewels of the Kadampa tradition (see- {bka' gdams phugs nor bcu). The four are entrusting yourself to: 1. ་གས་ས་ལ་གཏད།

the Dharma as the simplest way of thought 2. ས་

གས་ང་ལ་གཏད། poverty as the simplest way of practising Dharma 3. ང་གས་་ལ་གཏད། death as the extreme consequence of poverty 4. ་གས་ག་་མ་་ལ་གཏད། an empty cave as the simplest place to die.


The seven successors of the Buddha (see- {ston pa'i gtad rabs bdun}).


Lavish generosity. The practice of selfless and continuous giving to the needy with total openness.


The five great logical reasons. The five types of logical reasons to establish the middle way view. 1. གག་་ལ་་གཏན་ཚགས། the reasoning of either being one or many 2. ་་གགས་མ་གཏན་གས།

the reasoning called vajra prongs 3. དད་་འག་་གཏན་གས། the reasoning of existence and non-existence, and production and cessation 4.

་བ་་འག་་གཏན་གས། the reasoning negating birth from four alternatives.


/ The science of logic. One of the five major fields of study (see- {rig gnas che ba lnga}), i.e. the study of Buddhist logic.


The set of finalized discourse. One of the twelve scriptural categories (see- {gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis}) which explains the distinction of the individual and general category of phenomena, e.g. the set of discourse on knowledge.


/ Closed-mindedness; ignorance. An active misconception or a negative mental state obstructing (he knowledge of reality.


/ Psychic fire; inner heat. The fine radiant blood cells or drops in the nature of the fire element, obtained from one's mother, which abide within the navel channel-wheel; realized practitioners ignite this element and generate sublime bliss thus using it as a means to experience enlightenment.


The ignition and emission of psychic heat. The practice of meditation of igniting psychic heat or fire at the navel 'level and the emission of a drop or drops of bodhicitta from the short 'A' syllable visualized at the crown chakra.


/ The square cloth for wrapping the yellow robes of monks and nuns.


The treasure teachings. The extremely sublime secret texts of teachings hidden under rocks, trees, water etc., by Acarya Padmasambhava and others because of the lack of appropriate disciples at that time. These texts were concealed for the benefit of future disciples and contained instructions for the dakinis to guard and the appropriate discoverer to reveal these.


The treasure-like Bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment

(associated with the perfection of giving possessed by Bodhisattvas on the path of seeing.


Discoverer of treasure. Realized master-scholars who discover texts, images and mystic articles connected to a highly sophisticated cycle of teachings. Trhis tradition is very familiar to the Nyingma order of Tibetan buddhism.


/ Recollection of giving. The reflection on giving and the qualities of giving.


/ Ritual cakes; sacramental cakes. A component of an offering usually made of barley flour ({tsam pa}) and moulded buttier, symbolizing deities and their retinues or the spirits, etc. Tormas can be of different sizes ranging from the size of one finger to one or two feet or more.


A nominal name; alias. A name which is not the actual term originally formulated to designate a specific meaning or a thing, but a later (perhaps vulgar or common) secondary term designating the same thing, e.g. 'the rabbit bearer' ({ri bong can}) refering to the moon. There are two types of nominal names: 1. འ་བ་་མཚན་་ས་ནས་བཏགས་པ་ང་། nominal name because of similar features, e.g. calling a man a monkey 2. འལ་བ་་མཚན་་ས་ནས་བཏགས་པ་ང་། nominal name because of relationship, e.g. calling sunrays the sun.


The mere label of an "I"; the conventionally existent "I" or point of view of an 'I' that exists by mental labelling alone.


Designated phenomena; imputed phenomena. Phenomena that exists only in dependence upon the sound and concept that imputes them. For instance, time and person.

The three features of an imputed phenomena. 1. རང་ད་མན་་ན་པ།

being subject to definition 2. རང་་མཚན་ག་ང་་བ་པ།

that which exists upon its own examples 3. རང་་མཚན་ད་ལས་གཞན་པ་ས་གཞན་་མན་་་ད་པ། that which does not become a subject to be defined other than by its own definition.


The views of eternalism and nihilism. According to Prasangika Madhyamika this would be views asserting the true existence and total non-existence of phenomenon respectively.


/ Permanence; unconditioned phenomena which are not dependent on causes and conditions.


The extreme of eternalism. Belief that something which is not validly existent is existent, e.g. the inherent-existence of a thing.


/ <[1]> Signs; marks. <[2]> Reasons in the study of Buddhist logic.


The first mode of reasoning; the first mark of logical reasoning. The presence of the posited reason in the subject or

the pervasion of the subject by the reason in a given correct logical syllogism.


The second mode of reasoning; the second mark of logical reasoning. The pervasion of the predicate by the reason in a syllogism.


The third mode of reasoning; the third mark of logical reasoning. The non-pervasion of the negative of the predicate by the reason in a syllogism.


/The three wrong reasons. <1> མ་བ་པ་གས། / unestablished reason <2> འགལ་བ་གས། / contradictory reason <3> མ་ས་པ་གས། / uncertain reason.


/ The three correct reasons. <1>

འངས་གས་ཡང་དག / correct reason of effect

<2> རང་བན་་གས་ཡང་དག / correct reason of nature 3.མ་དགས་པ་གས་ཡང་དག / correct reason of non-cognition.


The two types of correct reasons according to the disputants.

<1> རང་ན་་གས་ཡང་དག correct for one's own purpose <2> གན་ན་་གས་ཡང་དག correct reason for the other's purpose.


The two types of correct reasons according to the way they

are applied to the predicate. <1> བ་གས། positive reason <2> འགལ་གས། negative reason.


The three types of correct reasons according to the way they are established. <1> ན་བ་་གས་ཡང་དག that which establishes meaning <2> ཐ་ད་བ་་གས་ཡང་དག that

that which establishes only names.


The three types of correct reasons according to the thesis, <1>དས་བས་་གས། reason based on cogent evidence <2> གས་པ་གས། reasons based on renown <3> ད་ས་་གས།

reasons based on conviction.


The two types of correct reasons according to the way they are applied to the similar cases of the predicate. <1>

མན་གས་ལ་བ་ད་་འག་པ་གས། pervasive application to similar cases <2> ་ལ་ཆ་གས་་འག་པ་གས། dual application to similar cases.


Signs and reasonings. Science of reasoning, one of the basic texts for logical studies in monastic universities.


/ <[1]> Basis; support; that upon which something relies. <[2]> A dependent basis such as our rebirth. <[3]> Ritual objects, icons, images, offerings, deities and representations of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.


The seven faculties of reliance; the seven powers that the mind depends upon in order to produce a mental perception. <1-5>དབང་་གགས་ཅན་པ་་ the five physical faculties (see- {khams bco brgyad}, <[2]><1-5>) <6> ད་་དབང་། of consciousness 7. ག་་དབང་། the faculty of life


The two faculties of basis of sex. <1> ་དབང་ the male organ <2> ་དབང་། the female organ.


/ Interdependent origination; dependent co-origination. The meeting or coincidence of causes and conditions for creating a thing or a situation. In general, the twelve links of interdependent origination dealing with the cycle of rebirth, and in its highest sense it is the proof of all phenomena being dependent on each other and hence lacking inherent existence.


The basis and the dependent; the reliance and the reliant; the residence and the resident.


The twelve analogies for the twelve links of dependent

origination. <1>མ་ག་པ་་ན་་ང་བ་དང་འ། ignorace is analogous to a blind old woman <2>འ་ད་་མཁན་ག་དང་འ།

connecting karma is analogous to a potter moulding a pot <3> མ་ས་་དང་འ། consciousness is like a monkey looking out of a window <4>ང་གགས་ར་གག་པ་དང་འ།

name and form are analogous to a man rowing a boat <5> ་མད་ཁང་གསར་གས་པར་བ་པ་དང་འ།

of perception is analogous to a prosperous-looking house


ག་པ་་་འད་པ་དང་འ། contact is analogous to a man and woman embracing each other <7> ར་བ་ག་ལ་མདའ་བབ་པ་དང་འ། feeling is analogous to an arrow piercing an eye <8>ད་པ་ཆང་ས་ག་བ་དང་འ། craving is analogous to a drunken man <9>ན་པ་ས་ང་ག་པ་དང་འ།

grasping is analogous to a monkey picking fruits <10> ད་པ་ད་ད་མ་མ་དང་འ། existence is analogous to a pregnant woman <11> ་བ་་་བཙས་པ་དང་འ། birth is analogous to the birth of a child <12>་་་་འར་བ་དང་འ། aging and death is analogous to a corpse being carried to cremation.


/ The twelve links of

dependent origination. <1>མ་ག་པ། / ignorance <2> འ་ད་་ལས། / connecting karma <3> མ་ས།་/ consciousness <4>ང་གགས།

/ name and form <5>་མད /

sources of perception <6> ག་པ། /contact

<7>ར་བ /feeling <8>ད་པ། / craving <9> ན་པ། / grasping <10> ད་པ། / existence <11>་བ / birth <12>

< jara maranam>/ aging and death.


The four links of dependent origination. <1>འན་ད་་ཡན་ལག projecting causes being ignorance, connecting karma

and consciousness. <2>འཕངས་པ་ཡན་ལག projected results being name and form, sources of perception, contact and feeling. <3>མན་པར་འབ་པར་ད་པ་ཡན་ལག the materializing causes being craving, grasping and existence.

<4> མན་པར་འབ་པ་ཡན་ལག materialized results being birth, aging and death.


/ Dialectician; logician. Those who explain the hidden nature of phenomena through reasonings.


<Рапса tarkavada>/ The five schools of logic; the five schools of Hindu philosophy. <1>ངས་ཅན་པ། <2>ང་འན་པ། <3>་ག་པ།<4>ག་པ་ཅན་པ། <5>གར་་པ།


/ The eight topics of logicians; the eight topics of discussion in the Valid Cognition () text. <1>མན་མ་ཡང་དག། / correct direct perception <2>མན་མ་ར་ང་། / wrong direct perception

<3>ས་དཔག་ཡང་དག / correct inferential perception <4>ས་དཔག་ར་ང་། / wrong inferential perception <5>བ་ངག་ཡང་དག / correct argument <6>བ་ངག་ར་ང་། / wrong argument <7>ན་འན་ཡང་དག / correct refutation <8>ན་འན་ར་ང་། / wrong refutation.


/ <[1]> Rough investigation. <[2]> Conceptualization or imagination. <[3]> Chapter. <[4]> Conceptual awareness.


Conceptual awareness that conforms to reality, e.g. the correct inferential cognition apprehending the impermanence of sound.


Conceptual awareness that does not conform to reality, e.g, a wrong conceptual thought apprehending a rabbit with horns.


Distorted non-conceptual awareness, e.g. the mistaken eye consciousness to which a mountain appears blue.


Utterences of realizations (); parables. One of the twelve scriptural categories that explains a topic with illustrations and examples for easy comprehension.


The transmission of insights. One of the two kinds of Buddha's teachings that comprises insights and realizations gained through practice of the trainings.


The six qualities of Buddha's insight or realization from amongst the eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha. <1> འན་པ་ཉམས་པ་་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating aspiration <2> བན་འས་ཉམས་པ་་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating efforts <3>ན་པ་ཉམས་པ་་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating mindfulness <4>ས་རབ་ཉམས་པ་་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating wisdom <5>ང་་འན་ཉམས་པ་་མངའ་བ། non-degenerating meditative concentration <6>མ་པར་ལ་བ་ཉམས་པ་་མངའ་བ།

non-degenerating of thorough liberation.


The four reliances; the four correct reliances. The four principles to be followed when one embarks on a Buddhist path or teaching. <1> གང་ཟག་ལ་་ན་ས་ལ་ན། relying on teachings and not on the person <2>ག་ལ་་ན་ན་ལ་ན།

relying on meaning and not on the words <3>མ་ས་་ན་་ས་ལ་ན། relying on wisdom and not on an ordinary mind <4>ང་ན་ལ་་ན་་ས་ལ་ན། relying on definitive teachings and not on interpretive teachings.


/ The sixteen wrong views; the view that;

<1>བདག་འདས་པ་ས་ན་ང་བར་་བ། the self has existed in the past <2> བདག་འདས་པ་ས་ན་མ་ང་བར་་བ། the self id not exist in the past <3>


the self has both existed and not existed in the past


the self has neither existed nor not existed in the past

<5>འག་ན་ག་པར་་བ། the world is permanent

<6> འག་ན་ག་པར་་བ། the world is impermanent <7>འག་ན་ག་པ་དང་་ག་པ་གས་ཀ་ན་པར་་བ།

the world is both permanent and impermanent <8>འག་ན་ག་པ་དང་་ག་པ་གས་ཀ་ན་པར་་བ། the world is neither permanent nor not impermanent <9>

<9> བདག་མ་ངས་པ་ས་ན་འང་བར་་བ། the self will exist in the

future <10>བདག་མ་ངས་པ་ས་ན་་འང་བར་་བ། the self will not exist in the future


the self will both exist and not exist in the future

<12>བདག་མ་ངས་པ་ས་ན་འང་བ་དང་་འང་བ་གས་ཀ་ན་པར་་བ། the

self will neither exist nor not exist in the future

<13>འག་ན་མཐའ་དང་ན་པར་་བ། the world has an end

<14>འག་ན་མཐའ་དང་་ན་པར་་བ། the world has no end


the world has both an end and no end

<16>འག་ན་མཐའ་དང་ན་པ་དང་་ན་པ་གས་ཀ་ན་པར་་བ། the world has neither an end nor no end.


/ The twenty-eight wrong views.

<1>མཚན་མར་་བ། wrong view of truly existent marks

<2>བཏགས་པ་ལ་ར་འབས་་་བ། wrong view deprecating imputed phenomena

<3>ན་ག་ལ་ར་འབས་་བ། wrong view deprecating conceptualization

<4>་་ན་ད་ལ་ར་འབས་་་བ། wrong view deprecating suchness

<5> ངས་་འན་པ་་བ། wrong vjew of thorough

apprehension <6>ར་བ་་བ། the inconsistent wrong view <7>ཁ་ན་མ་་བ་ད་པ་་བ། wrong view without moral faults <8>ས་པར་འང་བ་་བ། wrong view of definite release <9>དབང་ཟ་བ་་བ། wrong view of power

<10>རབ་་འགས་པ་་བ། completely confused view

<11>ན་་ག་་་བ། perverted wrong view

<12>འལ་བ་་བ། multiplying wrong view

<13>འལ་བ་་བ། unaccepted wrong view

<14>ངན་ག་་བ། deceitful wrong view

<15>བར་བ་་བ། wrong view of devotion

<16>ངས་པ་བན་པ་བ། wrong view revealing ignorance

<17>བ་་བ། the fundamental wrong view 1

<18>་བ་ལ་་བ་མ་ན་པར་བ་བ། wrong view refuting the right view

<19>ར་བ་ལ་བ་་བ། wrong view rejecting the cause

<20>ས་འན་མ་ན་པ་་བ། view that is not an aid to liberation

<21>བ་པ་ལ་གས་པར་་བ། wrong view of the obstructions, etc.

<22>ག་པ་འལ་བ་་བ། wrong view multiplying the non-virtues

<23>འས་་ད་པ་་བ། wrong view lacking fruits

<24>ཆད་པས་བཅད་པ་་བ། the nihilistic wrong view

<25>ར་བ་འབས་པ་་བ། the deprecating wrong view

<26>བད་པ་མ་ན་པ་་བ། the inoffensive wrong view

<27>་བ་ན་། the great wrong view

<28>མན་པ་ང་ལ་་་བ། wrong view of

presumptuous pride.


The eight powerful glances; the eight yogic glances. The feats

gained as signs of perfecting the first stage of anuttarayoga tantra practices. <1>ང་ན་འས་་མ་ན་པ་་ངས་ས་པ་ཙམ་ས་ས་ལ་ང་བར་ད་པ།

the power to cast down

unripened fruits by a mere glance <2>མགས་ང་ན་་ས་པ་་ངས་ས་པ་ཙམ་ས་ར་་འག་པར་ད་པ།

the power to bend a straight tree by a mere glance


the power to collect fruits and flowers of a distant place <4>གས་བ་ན་པ་ད་འ་ག་་ས་ས་པ་ཙམ་ས་དབང་་འ་བར་ད་པ།

the power to control wild and fierce animals by a mere glance


the power to restore fruits that have previously been cast

down by oneself, by a mere glance

<6> མགས་ང་ར་་བག་པ་དག་་ངས་ས་པ་ཙམ་ས་ར་ན་་ར་བར་ད་པ།

the power to restore trees that have previously been bent down by oneself, by a mere glance


the power to send back fruits and flowers that have previously been collected infront of onself, by a mere glance

<8>གས་བ་ན་པ་ད་འ་བམ་པ་དག་་ངས་ས་པ་ཙམ་ས་ར་དགས་འན་པར་ད་པ། the

power to revive wild and fierce animals that have previously been killed by oneself, by a mere glance.


/ Beautiful; good-looking; beautiful to behold.


The four seals of Buddhist doctrine.


all products are impermanent

<2>ཟག་བཅས་ཐམས་ཅད་ག་བལ་བ། contaminated things are miserable

<3>ས་ཐམསཅད་ང་ང་བདག་ད་པ། all phenomena are empty and selfless

<4>་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་་བ། is peace.


/ The five views. The five views of deluded wisdom. <1>འག་གས་ལ་་བ།/ view of the transitory collection <2>མཐར་འན།/ extreme view 3. ་བ་མག་འན།/ holding wrong views as superior <4>ལ་མས་དང་བལ་གས་མཆོག་འན།/ holding bad ethics and discipline to be superior <5>ག་།/ perverted view.


<[1]> <1>་འས་་་བ། view of over estimation

<2>ར་འབས་་་བ། view of underestimation.

<[2]> <1>ག་། view of eternalism

<2>ཆད་། view of nihilism.


The five non-views. The five mental factors that are not views but are deluded minds. <1>འད་ཆགས། / desire - attachment

<2>ང་། / hatred <3>ང་ལ།/ pride <4>མ་ག་པ། / ignorance <5>་མ།/doubt.


/ Downfalls; A category of monk's precepts the transgression of which becomes a downfall.


/ The five classes of downfalls.

<1>ཕམ་པ།/ defeats

<2>ང་ད/ remainders

<3>/ propelling downfalls

<4>ར་བཤགས།/ individual confessions



The minor partial downfalls. The breach of one of the four factors constituting a transgression of a monk's vows.


The major partial downfalls. The breach of two or more factors constituting a transgression of a monk's vows.

The four doors of downfalls.

<1>་ས་པ། ignorance

<2>བག་ད་པ། unconscientiousness

<3>ན་ངས་མང་བ། disrespect <4>མ་ས་པ། excess of delusions.


The confession of moral faults; the sutra of confession in reliance upon the thirty-five Buddhas.


The wheel of emanation at the navel. The sixty-four petals of energy-channels located at the level of the navel like the upturned ribs of an umbrella branched out of the central energy-channel at the heart.


The preparatory rites. A part of the initiation ritual for empowerment preparing the ground for the actuai initiation ceremony. This entails preparatory rites for appeasing goddesses of the site chosen for initiation venue, preparatory rite concerning the deities of the practice, preparatory rites for the vase and preparatory rite for the disciples.


Taglung Kagyud tradition. One of the lineages of the Kagyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism stemming from the master Taglung Thangpa Chenpo.


The thousand offerings. The set of one thousand of each of

the five-fold offerings—flower, incense, butter lamp, scented


water and food traditionally represented by torma.


Sunyata/ Emptiness. The lack of inherent existence of phenomena; the highest view of reality in Buddhist philosophy.


/ The sixteen emptinesses.

<1>ནང་ང་པ་ད།/ the internal emptiness

<2>་ང་པ་ད།/ the external emptiness

<3>་ནང་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of both external and internal

<4>ང་པ་ད་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of emptiness

<5>ན་་ང་པ་ད།/the emptiness of the great

<6>ན་དམ་པ་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of the ultimate

<7>འས་ས་ང་ད།/ the emptiness of the collected phenomena

<8>འས་མ་ས་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of the uncollected phenomena

<9>མཐའ་ལས་འདས་པ་ང་ད།/ the emptiness of that beyond extremes

<10>ག་མ་དང་ཐ་མ་ད་པ་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of that without beginning or end

<11>ར་བ་ད་པ་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of that which is not to be abandoned <12>རང་བན་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptines of nature

<13>ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of all phenomena

<14>རང་་མཚན་ད་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of self-marks

<15>་དགས་པ་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of non-apprehension

<16>དས་་ད་པ་་་ད་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of the lack of truly existent identity.


/ The eighteen emptinesses. On the list of the sixteen emptinesses (see-ང་པ་ད་བ་ག) add:

<17>དས་་ད་པ་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of the lack of a thing

<18>་་ད་ང་པ་ད།/the emptiness of naturalness.


/ The twenty emptinesses. One top of the list of the sixteen emptinesses (see-ང་པ་ད་བ་ག) add:

<17>དས་་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of a thing

<18>དས་་ད་པ་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of the lack of a thing

<19>རང་་་་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of self-nature

<20>བཞན་་་་ང་པ་ད།/ the emptiness of other-nature.

These four are also separately called as the four emptinesses

(see- ང་པ་ད་ད།).


/ The emptiness of emptiness. The lack of inherent existence of emptiness itself.


The four empties; the four voids. The four empties or the sense of vacuity that arises in conjuction with the four states of subtle consciousnesses, viz. the mind of radiant white appearance, the mind of radiant red increase, the mind of black near-attainment and the clear light mind, respectively while experiencing the stages of dissolution at death. These are:

<1>ང་པ།the empty

<2>ན་་ང་པ། the extremely empty

<3> ཆེན་་ང་པ། the great empty

<4> ཐམས་ཅད་ང་པ། the all empty.


/ The empty aeons. The twenty intermediate aeons after the destruction of this universe and the formation of the next during which sentient beings are born either in the formless or form realm.


A state of vacuity. A state of expereincing an overwhelming sense of emptiness that a yogi experiences in his meditative concentration on emptiness.


The Three Thousand World Realms. According to the Abhidharma tradition, the first thousand world system refers to one thousand world realms each containing the four continents, the sub-continents, the sun, the moon and the planets. A thousand times the first thousand world realms makes the second thousand world realm, known as the Intermediate World Realm ({stong bar ma'i 'jig rten gyi khams}). A thousand times the second thousand world realms makes the third thousand world realms known as the Great Thousand World of the Three Thousand ({stong sgum gyi stong chen po'i 'jig rten gyi khams}).


The Upper Vinaya lineage. The lineage of ordination that comes from the Ngari region of western Tibet. Lha Lama Yeshi Od, the Ngari King invited the Indian Pandita Dharmapala, his disciple , and from whom Gyalwa Sherab of Zhang Zhung received ordination, who then passed the lineage to his disciples Paljor and Jangchub Senge. Thus this lineage came to be known as the Upper Vinaya lineage.


The Seven Successors of the Buddha.

<1> འད་ང་། <2> ན་དགའ་།

<3> ཤ་ན་ས་ཅན།

<4> ར་ས།

<5> ་་ཀ




The four great festivals of Buddha Sakyamuni.

<1>་ལ་ནས་བབ་པ་ས་ན། His descent from the Tusita god realm

<2> ས་འར་ས་ན། turning of the wheel of doctrine

<3> ་འལ་ས་ན། His day of victory through miracles

<4>སངས་ས་པ་ས་ན། His attainment of complete enlightenment.


/ The ten perfections of powers.

<1>བསམ་པ་བས།/ the power of intention

<2>ག་པ་བསམ་པ་བས།/ the power of resolute intention

<3>གངས་་བས།/ the power of retention

<4> ང་་འན་་བས།/ the power of concentration

<5> ཡང་དག་པར་འར་བ་་བས། / the power of perfect application

<6> དབང་་བས། the power of authority

<7>བས་པ་་བས། / the power of confidence

<8>ན་ལམ་་བས། / the power of prayers

<9>མས་པ་ན་་དང་ང་་ན་པ་བས། / the power of great love and compassion

<10>་བན་གགས་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་་ས་བས་པ་་བས།/the power of the blessings of all the Buddhas.


The five powers; the five forces. <[1]> The five powers within the thirty-seven limbs of enlightenment.

<1>/ the power of faith


/ the power of enthusiastic perseverance

<3> / the power of mindfulness

<4> / the power of concentration

<5> / the power of wisdom.

<[2]> The five forces according to the seven-point mind training

<1>དཀར་་ས་ན་་བས། / the power of the white seed <2> འན་པ་བས། / the power of intention

<3>ན་འན་པ་བས། / the power of repulsion

<4>མས་པ་བས། / the power of familiarity

<5> ན་ལམ་་བས།/ the power of prayers.


The ten powers (see- {de bzhin gshegs pa'i stobs bcu} or {byang chub sems pa'i stobs bcu}).


The six powers; the six forces. The six powers that are aids to the attainment of the nine stages of mental fixation (see- {sems gnas dgu}) in the training of mental quiescence meditation.

<1>ས་པ་བས།/ the power of hearing

<2>བསམ་པ་བས།< asaya bala>/ the power of contemplation

<3>ན་པ་བས།/ the power of mindfulness

<4>ཤརས་བན་་བས།/ the power of alertness

<5>བན་འས་་བས།/ the power of enthusiastic perseverance

<6>མས་པ་བས།/ the power of familiarity.


The eight sciences of examination.

<1> ས་ག་བགས་པ། the examination of earth

<2> ན་་་བག་པ། the examination of jewels

<3> ན་ང་བག་པ། the examination of trees

<4> ས་བག་པ། the examination of cloth

<5> ད་ད་བག་པ། the examination of women

<6> ་བག་པ། the examination of

horses <7>ང་་་བག་པ། the the examination of elephants <8>ས་་བག་པ། the examination of men.


The Twelve Dharma Protectors; the twelve sister-protectors of Tibet who have promised to protect the Buddha Dharma, belonging to the class of mother tantra.

<1>་་ན་གས་མ། Dorje Kundakma

<2>་་གཡབ་མ་ང་། Dorje Yamakyong

<3>་་ན་བཟང་མ། Dorje Kunzangma

<4>་་གས་་ག། Dorje Gegkyi-Tzo

<5>་་ན་གག་མ། Dorje Chen Chigma <6> ་་དཔལ་་མ། Dorje Pelgyi Yum

<7>་་ག་་ལ། Dorje Dragmo Gyai

<8>་་་་དཀར་། Dorje Lumo Karmo

<9>་་ད་ཁམས་ང་། Dorje Bodkham Kyong

<10> ་་ན་གག་མ། Dorje Men Chigma

<11> ་་གཡར་་ལ། Dorje Yarmo Sil

<12> ་་ག་ན་མ། Dorje Yudron Ma.


/ Ascetic practices. A term used to denote acts of penance involving religious practices; often associated with torturing one's body and exposing it to physical hardship for the attainment of spiritual goals. For a true Buddhist, these extreme practices are forbidden, however in tantric practice they are sometimes deemed necessary.


The six consciousnesses that rely upon sensory powers (see-{khams bco brgyad}).


The ground of basic reliance. According to the Nyingma teachings this is the second spiritual ground attained during the first yogic stage. Since all realizations at this stage becomes the basis or foundation for achieving the path of

preparation and others, it is knows as the ground of basic reliance.


The ground of reliance for exalted progression. According to the Nyingma teachings this refers to the sixth ground attained at the level of the path of seeing, whereupon a Bodhisattva, in reliance upon directly seeing the meaning clear light, progresses higher and higher in achieving the twelve thousand spiritual qualities. Therefore, the sixth ground is known as the ground of reliance for exalted progression.


The Tangyur; the commentarial canon. The collection of i Tibetan translations of early Indian commentaries to Buddha's teachings which runs into 225 volumes with slight variations between different editions.


/Treatises; commentanal works; commentarial texts.


The six types of imperfect commentanal works; the six classes of imperfect commentarial works.

<1>ན་ད་པ་བན་བས། the meaningless commentary

<2>ན་ག་པ་བན་བས། the misleading commentary

<3>ངན་ག་བན་བས། the deceptive commentary

<4>བ་ལ་་བན་བས། the uncompassionate commentary

<5>ས་པ་ར་ན་་བན་བས། that which stresses study

<6>ད་པ་ར་ན་་བན་བས། that which stresses debate.


The three types of perfect commentarial works; the three classes of perfect commentaries.

<1>ན་དང་ན་པ་བན་བས། the meaningful commentary


that which dispells suffenngs

<3>བ་པ་ར་ན་་བན་བས། that which stresses practice.


/ Teaching; doctrine. Teachings spoken by Buddha himself, or recorded into writing by later disciples in the form of commentaries. Technically, Buddha's teachings can be subsumed under two categories: the transmission of oral and recorded teachings (see- {lung gi bstan pa}) and the transmission of insights (see- {rtogs pa'i bstan pa}).


The Early Spread; the early period of Buddhism. The introduction of Buddhism during the Tibetan King Lha Tho-Tho-Ri Nyan-Tsen, and its steady spread until the irreligious King Lang Darma who destroyed it in the 10th century. This period of propagation of Buddhism in Tibet is known as the period of the early spread.


The Later Spread; the later period of Buddhism. The revival of Buddhism in the 12th century starting from the eastern and western part of Tibet after a setback during the reign of King Lang Darma is known as the period of the later spread in the history of Tibetan Budhism.


The protectors of the doctrine; the Buddhist protectors.


The four great praises; the four eulogies authorized by Je Tsong Khapa.

<1>ན་པ་ལ་བད་པ་ན་འལ་བད་པ། Praise of Dependent Origination, in praise of Buddha Sakyamuni

<2>མས་བད་གན་གན་མ། The Rapproachment, in praise of Maitreya


The praise of Ocean of Clouds, in praise of Manjusri 4. %**' ^3for^44^aftto'Z'4fc;\ Fulfilling the Wishes of Beings in the Three Realms, in praise of Vijayani.

The eulogies. The collection of writings of the Buddha, Bodhisattvas, masters and scholars in praise of any being or object of veneration.


/ Name; terms; jargon; convention.


<[1]> A glib person, only interested in words or literal conventions.

<[2]> One who was the first to give names to things, a name abbot.


/ The conventional truth. A phenomenon that is real only to an ordinary consciousness, i.e. to a consciousness other than the meditative equipoise of an exalted being (Arya).


A person possessing five features. According to the Vinaya

tradition these are:

<1>་ན་པ། being a person

<2>་ཤེས་པ། being able to speak

<3>ན་་བ། being able to understand the meaning of a language

<4>ས་པ་རང་བན་་གནས་པ། being in possession of a sound mind

<5>མ་ང་གས་ན་པ། being neither an eunuch nor a hermaphrodite.


The three features of a person.

<1>་ན་པ། being a person

<2> ས་པ་རང་བན་་གནས་པ། having sound mind

<3> འད་ཁམས་པ་ས་པ་ན་པ། living in the desire realm.


/ The four types of differences; the four separate existences.

<1> རང་ག་ཐ་དད་པ། separate self-reversed identity

<2> ་་ཐ་དད་པ། separate nature

<3> གས་ཐ་དད་པ། separate family or class

<4> ས་ཐ་དད་པ། separate substantial entity.


The five fetters with respect to the last realm (also called,

ཐ་མ་ཆ་མན་་ན་ར་་།); the five fetters that bind one in the desire realm.

<1-3>མང་ང་ན་ར་གམ། the three constant letters to be abandoned on the path of seeing (see- {mthong spang kun sbyor gsum}).

<4> འད་པ་ལ་འན་པ།/ admiration for sensual objects

<5> གད་མས། / malicious thought.


The five fetters with respect to the last realm (also called

ཐ་མ་ཆ་མན་་།); the five fetters that bind one in the desire realm.

<1-3>མང་ང་ན་ར་གམ། the three constant letters to be abandoned on the path of seeing (see- {mthong spang kun sbyor gsum}).

<4> འད་པ་ལ་འན་པ།/ admiration for sensual objects

<5> གད་མས། / malicious thought.


The ordinary death; natural death.


Compulsive attraction to ordinary appearances. The idea of oneself as an ordinary person which must be abandoned through generating divine pride in the practice of deity yoga in order to produce divine vision and pride.


/ The method mandala. The mandalas representing paths:

<1> དལ་མན་་དལ་འར། sand powdered mandala

<2> རས་ས་་དལ་འར། mandala painted on cloths

<3> མ་་དལ་འར། heaped up mandala (this could be just a heap of sand, grains, stones or metal erected for the purpose of representing a mandala).


/ The method vehicle. The tantric path is known as the method vehicle due its four special features (see- {gsang sngags kyi khyad chos bzhi}) that makes it superior in comparison to the perfection vehicle.


The twelve skillful means of a Bodhisattva.

<1> མས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ང་་དང་ན་པ། he is compassionate towards all beings

<2> རང་བན་་་བ་བན་མན་པ། he knows their nature as it is

<3> ་ད་ང་བ་མན་་ད་འད་པ། he aspires to attain supreme enlightenment

<4> འར་བ་་གང་བ། he does not release himself from cyclic existence

<5> ན་ངས་ཅན་མ་ན་པས་འར་བར་འར་བ། he is able to take repeated rebirths in cyclic existence because he is not under the sway of delusions

<6> འཚང་་འད་པས་བན་འས་འབར་བ། he strives hard for the attainment of Buddhahood

<7> ད་བ་་བ་ང་མས་ཚད་ད་པར་ར་བར་ད་པ། he transforms minor roots of virtue into immeasurable virtue

<8> དཀའ་གས་ང་ས་ད་་ན་་འབ་པར་ད་པ། he accumulates enormous virtue with little effort

<9> བན་པ་ལ་འན་པ་མས་་ང་་འམས་པར་ད་པ། he pacifies anger in those wishing to harm Buddha's doctrine

<10> བར་མར་གནས་པ་མས་བན་པ་ལ་འད་པར་ད་པ། he turns the minds of those indifferent to the doctrine

<11> གས་པ་མས་ན་པར་ད་པ། he matures the minds of those

engaged in the teachings

<12> ན་པ་མས་ལ་བར་ད་པ། he liberates those who are matured.


The knowledge of the basis near to the resultant mother due to skill in means.


The ten trainings in skillful means. The special qualities of a Bodhisattva on the three pure grounds—the eighth, ninth and tenth.

<1> བད་བ་ལས་ལ་བ་་ར་བ། victonous from the four demons (see- {bdud bzhi})

<2> མ་དམ་པར་་གནས་ང་ཐ་ད་་གནས་པ་ར་བ། abides in relative state and not in ultimate

<3> གཞན་ན་ན་་ན་ལམ་ས་འན་པར་ད་པ་ར་བ། projects the fulfilment of others' goals through the power of past prayers

<4> ན་ང་མ་ན་པ་་ར་བ། uncommon trainings

<5> ས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་བན་པར་རང་བན་ད་པ་ར་བ། apprehension of the lack of truly existent or the inherent nature of all phenomena

<6> བན་པར་་དགས་པ་ར་བ། lack of grasping at true existence

<7> མཚན་མ་ད་པ་ར་བ། grasping at signs of true existence

<8> ན་པ་ད་པ་ར་བ། lack of truly existent aspiration

<9> ན་་ག་བ་ལས་ལ་བ་གས་་་ར་བ། has four irreversible signs

<10> གས་པ་ཚད་ད་པ་ར་བ། has immeasurable insight into realizations.


The knowledge of the basis distant from the resultant mother due to lack of skill in means.


The union of method and wisdom. The union of the mind of enlightenment and emptiness as method and wisdom respectively.


School. One of the eighteen Hinayana schools. They assert all phenomena as included in the five categories (see- {gzhi lnga}), recite sutras in Sanskrit, their abbots are necessarily those belonging to the king's lineage, their multi-patched yellow upper shawl bears a wheel or lotus symbol, their Biksus bear surnames with bhadra or Hridhya, they assert the three times as substantially existent, and they propound that through meditation on the selflessness of person and the accumulation of merits for three countless aeons an individual gains full enlightenment. There are seven sub-schools of this tradition (see- {gzhi thams cad yod par smra ba'i sde pa bdun}).


/ Nirvana; state of liberation. Freedom from the sufferings of cyclic existence through overcoming the obscurations to liberation ({nyon sgrib}). A state of peace, and the primary goals of the Sravakas and Pratyeka buddhas.


The eight types of logical pervasion.

<1> ས་བ་ལ་མ། correct subsequent pervasion (see- {rjes khyab rnal ma})

<2> ས་བ་ན་་ག wrong subsequent pervasion (see- {rjes khyab phyin ci log})

<3> ར་བ་ལ་མ། correct downwards pervasion (see- {thur khyab rnal ma})

<4> ར་བ་ན་་ག wrong downward pervasion (see- {thur khyab phyin ci log})

<5> ག་བ་ལ་མ། correct counter pervasion (see- {ldog-khyab rnal ma})

<6> ག་ཁཡབ་ཕཡན་་ག wrong counter pervasion (see- {ldog khyab phyin ci log})

<7> འགལ་བ་ལ་མ། correct contrary pervasion (see- {khyab rnal ma})

<8> འགལ་བ་ན་་ག wrong contrary pervasion (see- {khyab phyin ci log}).


Prasaiigika School; the consequentialists. A school of Madhyamika philosophy regarded as the highest of all Buddhist schools of philosophy representing Buddha Sakyamuni's ultimate view of reality. This school asserts not only the lack of true existence of all phenomena but also their lack of inherent or natural existence and establishes dependent origination and emptiness as mutually inclusive. Nagarjuna followed by Buddhapalita and Candrakirti are considered the proponents of this school.


/ / Drop; essential drop, the seed for generating great bliss in the tantric practice of the male and female regerative fluid.


The white and red drops; the white seminal drops and red seminal drops of the father and mother respectively.


The three kinds of Buddha's teachings resulting from his

mental blessing. Teachings through:

<1> བསམ་གཏན་་ན་ས་བབ་པ་་བཀའ། the blessings of concentration

<2> ང་་ན་ས་བབས་པ་་བཀའ། the blessings of compassion <3> ས་ད་ས་ན་ས་བབས་པ་བཀའ། the blessings of / The Mind Mandala. The divine mandala visualized and retained in concentration meditation.


The five types of minds of a Buddha. According to the

Nyingma tradition these are:

<1> ་ག་ན་་གས། great non-conceptual mind

<2> མཉམ་པ་ན་་གས། the great balanced mind

<3> འ་བ་ལ་བ་གས། the mind for liberating sentient beings

<4> ་ད་་་གས། the indestructible adamantine mind

<5> མན་ང་་གས། the totally enlightened mind.


The three—heart, tongue and eye balls. Some of the highly realized masters leave their heart, tongue and eye balls untouched by fire at their cremation as a source of inspiration and devotion, symbolizing their blessings of body, speech and mind as relics for their followers.


The words of truth blessed by Buddha's mind. A type of teaching blessed by Buddha which can be heard from trees, sky, rays of lights, music, etc.


The six-session guru yoga. The practice of the generation and completion stage yogas, technically to be done in six sessions of a day—dawn, morning, afternoon, evening, early night and late night. In the Gelug tradition, it is often recognized as a text of daily commitment after having received initiation into the highest class of tantra.


The uncommon sambhogakaya mandala. A practice of mandala offering made to one's spiritual master visualizing him or her as being a Sambhogakaya Buddha residing within a fully adorned Buddha field surrounded by an infinite number of goddesses.


The four common transmissions.

<1>ག་ན་་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of Mahamudra

<2>ཕ་ད་་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of father tantra

<3>མ་ད་་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of mother tantra

<4> ད་གསལ་་བཀའ་བབས། the transmission of clear light.


/ The eight common powerful attainments; the eight common feats; the eight siddhis common to both Buddhist and Hindu traditions. According to Buddhist tantra, these are believed to be the external signs of maturing the completion stage practices.

<1> ལ་་དས་བ། siddhi of pills

<2>ག་ན་་དས་བ། siddhi of eye lotion

<3> ས་ག་་དས་བ། siddhi of travelling underground

<4> རལ་་དས་བ། siddhi of the sword

<5> ནམ་མཁར་འར་པ་དས་བ། siddhi of flying-in-the-sky <6> ་ང་བ་དས་བ། siddhi of invisibility

<7> འ་བ་ད་པ་དས་བ། siddhi of immortality

<8> ནད་འམས་པར་ད་པ་དས་བ། siddhi of healing sickness.


The three common vehicles. According to the Nyingma tradition these are:

<1> ཉམ་ས་་ག་པ། the Hearer's vehicle <2> རང་ལ་་ག་པ། Solitary Realizer's vehicle

<3> ང་མས་་ག་པ། the Bodhisattva's vehicle.


The common . A practice of mandala offering in which one visualizes all the excellent riches of gods and human beings, roots of virtues and resources in the form of the mandala articles and are offered to one's own spiritual master visualizing him or her as being a Nirmanakaya Buddha.


also དབང་ག་བད།

The eight common features of glory; the eight qualities or siddhis common to worldly feats.

<1> གགས་་བ་ན་ཏན། subtle physical form

<2> གགས་རགས་པ་ན་ཏན། gross physical form

<3> ཡང་བ་ན་ཏན། weighing little

<4> བ་པ་ན་ཏན། pervasive

<5> ཡང་དག་པར་བ་པ་ན་ཏན། perfect attainments

<6> རབ་ུཏ་གལས་བ་ན་ཏན། perfect luminosity

<7> བརཙན་པ་ན་ཏན། ever-firm

<8> འད་་འང་བ་ན་ཏན། fulfillment of all wishes.


also ན་ང་བ་དབང་ག་་ན་ཏན་བད།

The eight common features of glory; the eight qualities or siddhis common to worldly feats.

<1> གགས་་བ་ན་ཏན། subtle physical form

<2> གགས་རགས་པ་ན་ཏན། gross physical form

<3> ཡང་བ་ན་ཏན། weighing little

<4> བ་པ་ན་ཏན། pervasive

<5> ཡང་དག་པར་བ་པ་ན་ཏན། perfect attainments

<6> རབ་ུཏ་གལས་བ་ན་ཏན། perfect luminosity

<7> བརཙན་པ་ན་ཏན། ever-firm

<8> འད་་འང་བ་ན་ཏན། fulfillment of all wishes.


The common protection wheel. The meditation and visualization of a protection wheel common to all the four classes of tantra.


The four exclusive transmissions.

<1> the transmission of psychic heat

<2> the transmission of the illusory body

<3> the transmission of clear light

<4> the transmission of consciousness transference and the intermediate state yoga.


The eight uncommon features of glory; the eight qualities or siddhis uncommon to Tathagatas.

<1> ་ན་ཏན། quality of body

<2> གང་་ན་ཏན། quality of speech

<3> གས་་ན་ཏན། quality of mind

<4> འལ་་ན་ཏན། quality of virtuous energy.

<5> ་འལ་་ན་ཏན། quality of miracles

<6> ན་་འ་བ་ོུན་ཏན། quality of universal appearance

<7> གནས་་ན་ཏན། quality of abode

<8> ་འད་་ན་ཏན། quality of wish-fulfillment.


The thirty-nine qualities exclusive to the Omniscient Mind.

<1-10>བས་བ། / the ten powers (see- {de bzhin gshegs pa'i stobs bcu})

<11-14> ་འགས་པ་བ། /the four fearlessnesses (see-

{mi 'jigspa bzhi})

<15-18> ་ར་ཡང་དག་པར་ག་པ་བ། catvап pratidesaniyahi>the four specific perfect understandings (see- {so sor yang dag rig pa bzhi})

<19-36> ས་མ་འས་པ་བ་བད།/ the eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (see- {ma 'dres pa bco brgyad})

<37-39> མ་མན་ད་་མ་པ་གམ། the three exclusive qualities of the Omniscient Mind itself:

<1> རང་ང་་མ་པ། the aspect of suchness

<2> རང་ང་་མ་པ། the aspect of spontaneity

<3> སངས་ས་ད་་མ་པ། the aspect of the fully enlightened being himself.


Intervals between meditation sessions; post-meditational periods.


The four session yoga. The meditation practiced in the four sessions of a day:

<1>་རངས། early dawn

<2> ་། morning <З> ན་ང་། day time (afternoon)

<4> ད། dusk.


Downward pervasion. The pervasion that whatever is that predicate is the reason in a logical syllogism.


Correct downward pervasion. The pervasion that whatever is the predicate is the reason in a logical syllogism. Synonymous with downward pervasion (see- {thur khyab})


Wrong downward pervasion. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the predicate is not the reason.


The downward moving wind; One of the five principal energy-winds (see- {rtsa ba'i rlung Inga}) that control the lower sphincter muscles, holding and discharging faeces, urine, semen and menstrual blood.


/ The three types of doubt.

<1> ན་འར་་་མ། doubt inclining towards fact/ factual doubt

<2> ན་་འར་་་མ། doubt inclining away from fact/ non-factual doubt

<3> ཆ་མཉམ་པ་་མ། evently balanced doubt.


/ The Greater Vehicle. The Bodhisattva vehicle leading to full enlightenment and is superior in seven ways (see chen-po bdun) from the lower vehicles of the Hearers and Solitary Realizers. It has two types:

<1> ཕར་ན་ག་པ། the perfection vehicle

<2> གས་་ག་པ། the secret mantrayana vehicle.


/ The Mahayana path of meditation of achievement. The uncontaminated Mahayana path of meditation which is a cause for the attainment of the realizations of the first to the tenth level ofthe Bodhisattva's path.


/ The function of the

Mahayana path of meditation; the benefits derived through meditation on the Mahayana path of meditation.


The thirteen achievements of Mahayana; the thirteen trainings of the Mahayana path:

<1-4> ས་འད་ཆ་མན་བ། the four levels of the path of preparation (see- {nges 'byed cha mthun bzhi})

<5> མང་ལམ། path of seeing

<6> མ་ལམ། path of meditation

<7> གན་་བ་པ། achievement through antidotes

<8> ང་པ་བ་པ། achievement through elimination

<9> ་དག་ངས་་གགད་པ་བ་པ། achievement through forsaking discrimination between antidotes and abandonments

<10> ས་རབ་ང་བ་བ་པ། achievement through the unity of wisdom and compassion

<11> བ་མ་ན་ང་མ་ན་པ་བ་པ། achievement for uncommon practitioners

<12> གཞན་ན་་མ་་ད་པ་བ་པ། achievement through persistently working for the welfare of others

<13> ་ས་ལ་བ་་མངའ་བ་བ་པ། achievement through effortless wisdom.


The five eyes (see- {span lnga}) that are the cause for engaging independently in the Mahayana path of achievements.


The three aims of Mahayana achievements.

<1> མས་དཔའ་ན་། / greatness of thought

<2> ང་བ་ན་། /greatness of elimination

<3> གས་པ་ན་། /greatness of insights.


The eleven objects of observation of the Mahayana achievements.

<1> ད་བ། / wholesome phenomena

<2> ་ད་བ། / unwholesome phenomena

<3> ང་མ་བན། / unspecified phenomena

<4> འཇག་ན་པ། /

worldly phenomena

<5> འག་ན་ལས་འདས་པ། /transworldly phenomena

<6> ཟག་བཅས། / contaminated phenomena

<7> ཟག་ད། / uncontaminated phenomena

<8> འས་ས། / conditioned phenomena <9> འས་མ་ས། / unconditioned phenomena

<10> ན་ང་བ། / common qualitites

<11> ན་ང་མ་ན་པ། / uncommon qualities.


/ A Mahayanist Noble Being; a Mahayana Arya A practitioner of the greater vehicle on or above the path of seeing who has gained direct insight into emptiness.


/ Mahayana path of meditation of belief. The Mahayana path of meditation that is believed to be the source of fulfilling the purpose of self, others and both.


The Mahayana precepts or vows. An ordination of the Mahayana tradition normally accepted for twenty hours during special occasions in the presence of a master or an image of the Buddha, taken by both lay and ordained Buddhists. This entails generating the mind of enlightenment and pledging to follow the footsteps of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of the past in accordance with the ritual text of this ordination. On top of not eating meat, there are eight precepts to be observed (see- {bsnyen gnas yan lag bzhi}) conjoined with the motive of enlightenment.


The four wheels of the supreme vehicle; the four essential factors for a Mahayanist practitioner.

<1> མན་པར་ར་བ་ལ་ན་གནས་པ།

living in a conducive place

<2> ་་དམ་པ་ལ་བན་པ། relying upon a holy person

<3> ན་ལམ་བཏབ་པ། making prayers

<4> བད་ནམས་བསགས་པ། accumulating merits.


/ The ten qualities of a Mahayana spiritual master.

<1> ག་པ་ལ་མས་་བབ་པས་ལ་བ། in his higher training of discipline he is humble

<2> ག་པ་ང་་འན་་བབ་པས་་བ། his higher training of concentration he is peaceful

<3> ག་པ་ས་རབ་་བབ་པས་་བར་་བ། in his higher training of wisdom he has pacified his ego

<4> ང་་ན་ཏན་ས་ག་པ། he is rich in lineages and oral teachings

<5> ང་པ་ད་གས་པ། has realized emptiness

<6> བ་མ་ལས་ན་ཏན་ག་པ། he has higher qualities than his disciples

<7> ་མཁས་པ། he is skillful in teaching

<8> བ་བ་དང་ན་པ། he is compassionate

<9> བན་འས་དང་ན་པ། he is hard working

<10> འར་བ་ལ་་ངལ་བད་་བག་པ། he inspires aversion of cyclic existence.


The two vehicles.


<1> ག་ན། / the greater vehicle

2. ག་དམན། Hinayana/ the smaller vehicle. B. 1. ་ཕལ་་ན་པ་ག་པ། the causal perfection vehicle 2. འས་་གསང་གས་་ག་པ། the resultant mantra vehicle.


The nine vehicles; the nine paths (see- {rnying ma'i theg pa rim-pa dgu}).


Triyana/ The three vehicles; the three causal vehicles. 1.ན་ས་་ག་པ། sravaka yana/ Hearer's vehicle 2. རང་ལ་་

ག་པ། pratyekabuddha yana/ Solitary Realizer's vehicle 3. ག་ན་་ག་པ། mahayana/ Greater vehicle.


Hinayana/ Lower vehicle; the lesser vehicle. Path followed by Sravakas and Pratekya Buddhas which leads to the attainment of liberation from cyclic existence.


Dvi hinayana arhat/ The two Arhats of the lower vehicle. 1. the ཉན་ས་་་བ་པ། Arhat of the Hearer vehicle 2. རང་སངས་ས་་་བ་པ། Arhat of the Solitary realizer's vehicle.


Asta hinayana bhumayah/ The eight spiritual grounds of the lower vehicle. 1. དཀར་་མ་པར་མན་པ་ས། sukla vidarsana bhumi/ the ground of seeing virtuous dharma 2. གས་་ས། gotra bhumi/ the ground the family 3. བད་པ་ས།

astamaka bhumi/ the eighth ground 4. མང་པ་ས།

darsana bhumi/ the ground of seeing 5. བབས་པ་ས། tanu bhumi/ the ground of subtleness 6. འད་ཆགས་དང་ལ་བ་ས། vigata raga bhumi/ the ground free of attachment 7. ས་པ་གས་པ་ས། krtavi bhumi/ the ground of protecting deeds 8. ས་པ་གས་པ་ས། krtavi samaya bhumi/ the ground of realizing deeds.


The unchangeable phenomenon; the permanent existents.


Anavaragrasunyata/ The emptiness of that which is without beginning or end. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see stong-nyid bcu-drug), the emptiness of the beginninglessness and endlessness of cyclic existence.


Arya Asanga. The brother of Vasubandhu and the founder of the Cittamatrin school of thought. He was the pioneer of the lineage of extensive deeds (rgya-chen spyod-rgyud) and is famous for bringing the Five Wort ofMaitreya (see byams-chos sde-lnga) from Tusita heaven. His works include the Five Treatises of Asanga (see sa sde-lnga) and the Two Compendiums (see sdom rnam-gnyis).


Tangible objects; obstructive things.

Sruta cinta bhavana/ The threefold practice of study, contemplation and meditation.


A human from a remote place. To be born as a barbarian or among men dwelling in a country far from the place of the eight conducive factors (see dal-ba brgyad) preventing the practice of religion.


The two extremes. A. 1. ག་མཐའ། nityanta/ extreme of eternalism 2. ཆད་མཐའ། ucchedanta/ extreme of nihilism. B. 1. ད་པ་འར་བ་མཐའ། extreme of cyclic existence— samsara 2. ་བ་ང་འདས་་མཐའ། extreme of peace— nirvana С 1. ད་མཐའ། astyanta/ extreme of existence 2. ད་མཐའ། ananta/ extreme of non-existence. D. 1. བཟང་མཐའ།

extreme of good 2. ངན་མཐའ extreme of evil.


A. The four extreme beliefs in the inherent existence: 1. བདག་ལས་་བ། atmaja/ production from self 2. གཞན་ལས་

་བ paraja/ production from others 3. གས་ཀ་ལས་་བ། ubhayaja/ production from both 4. ་ད་ལས་་བ།

akaranaja/ production without causes. B. The four ends: 1. ས་མཐའ་འ་བ། death as the end of birth 2. འས་མཐའ་ལ་བ། separation as the end of meeting 3. བསགས་མཐའ་འཛད་པ། exhaustion as the end of accumulation 4. མ་མཐའ་ང་བ། downfall as the end of an elevated position. С The four extremes: 1. ད་མཐའ། extreme of existence 2. ད་མཐའ། extreme of non-existence 3. གས་ཀ་མཐའ། extreme of being both 4. གས་ན་་མཐའ། extreme of being neither.


Atyanta sunyata/ That emptiness of that which is beyond extremes. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug), the emptiness of reality free of the two extremes—the extreme of existence and non-existence.

The nine meditative absorptions existing in series. 1-4. བསམ་གཏན་་མས་འག་བ། catvari dhyana samapattayah/ the four types of meditative absorptions of the form realm (see bsam-gtan-gyi snyoms-jug-bzhi) 5-8. གགས་ད་་མས་འག་བ། a!Tq^l catvari arupa samapattayah/ the four types of meditative absorptions within the formless realms (see gzugs-med snyoms-'jug-bzhi) 9. འག་པ་མས་འག nirodha samapatti/ the meditative absorption of cessation.


Anupurva prayoga/ The Serial Training. A Bodhisattva's wisdom which through serial meditation upon the 173 aspects of the three wisdoms (the basis, path and resultant wisdom) gains firm understanding of these aspects.


Tridasa anupurva prayoga laksanani/ The thirteen topi charactesed by serial training. 1-6. ཕ་ལ་་ན་པ་་་མཐཏ་ས་ར་བ།

The serial training of the six perfections (see phar-phyin drag) 7-12. ས་་ན་པ་ག་་མཐར་ས་ར་བ། the serial training of the six recollections (see rjes-su dran-pa drug) 13. ་་ད་ད་གས་པ་ར་བ། the serial training understanding the lack of true entity.


The way in which Buddha finally attained Perfect Enlightenment. After accumulating merits for three countless aeons, he attained complete enlightenment in the celestial abode known as Akanista, the Heaven Beneath None, in the name of Buddha Indraketudhvaja (dbang-po-tog) and displayed his attainment of enlightenment at Bodhgaya. This is the view of the Descent into Lanka Sutra (lankavatara).


The extreme view. An extreme view of nihilism that takes the self from the view of the transitory collection (see ljigs-lta) as its object and apprehends it as being permanent or non-capable of connecting to subsequent rebirth. The function of such a view hinders the realization of the middle way path.


The ultimate elusory body. The attainment of the state of union of a no-more learner, i.e. the sambhogakaya being of a Buddha by means of severing the karma and delusion through the force of the spontaneously born wisdom of the clear light mind ('od-gsal lhan-cig skyes-pa'i ye-shes).


The three qualities of the ultimate result or fruit. 1. ་་་ཀ་

ནས་དག་པ་ག་ང་དར་ད། the inseparability of intuitive awareness and emptiness as the primordial nature 2.ང་བན་ན་ས་བ་པ་གལས་ང་དར་ད། the inseparability of clarity and emptiness as the spontaneous reality 3.

གས་་ན་ལ་བ་པ་ང་ང་དར་ད། the inseparability of appearance and emptiness as the all pervading compassion.


The five favourable conditions. The five-fold conditions required of someone wishing to accept ordination as a monk or nun. 1. ལ་མག་གམ་དང་མཁན་བ་བགས་པ་དང་།

the presence of the Three Jewels, abbot and masters as the object of receiving ordination and not forsaking vows already received 2. ག་་མ་ན་་ང་བ། having already made a personal request 3. གས་་དང་ཁ་་གས་ང་་ད་ཚང་བ། possession of all the necessary articles required of an ordained person, and having a shaved head and beard as the signs 4.


one's mind being conjoined with the thought of renunciation, as the motivation. 5. ་ག་ར་དས་མག་གམ་ཚང་བ། conducting the rituals in its entirety from the preliminary to the conclusion.


Sapta svargagunah/ The seven qualities of higher rebirth. 1. གས་་བཟང་བ། kulaguna/ better family-lineage 2. གགས་་མས་པ། rupaguna/ attractive physical features 3. ་ང་བ། cirayuroguna/ long life 4. ནད་ད་པ། arogaguna/ good health 5. ལ་བ་བཟང་བ། saubhagyaguna/ good fortune 6. ར་ག་པ། wealthy 7. ས་རབ་་བ། prajnaguna/ good wisdom.


The five paths bestowing peace in this life. 1.

ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས་་དས་ག་མས་འག the actual meditative absorption of infinite space 2. མ་ས་མཐའ་ཡས་་དས་ག་མས་འག the meditative absorption of infinite consciousness 3.


the actual meditative absorption of nothingness 4. ་་དས་ག་མས་འག the actual meditative absorption of the peak of existence 5. འག་པ་མ་ཐར། the actual meditative absorption of emancipation in cessation.


Drsti prapta/ One who has attained the correct view; a devotee by reason.


The three constant fetters to be abandoned on the path of seeing. 1. འག་་ན་བཏགས། satkaya drsti/ intellectual view of the transitory collection 2. ུལ་ལས་མས་དང་བལ་གས་་མག་འན། silavrataparamarsa/ holding bad ethics and discipline to be superior 3. ་མ་ན་ངས་ཅན། klistavicikitsa/ deluded doubt.


The nine conceptions of grasping at the objects of

engagement to be abandoned on the path of seeing. Grasping

at: 1. ག་ན་་ལམ་འས་་ལ་དགས་པ། the general

Mahayana paths and fruits 2. ག་བསན་ལསམ་་་་ལ་དགས་པ།

the nature of the Mahayana paths 3.


the power to

eliminate negative forces from the Mahayana paths 4. གཞན་ན་ད་པ་་ས་པ་ལ་དགས་པ། the power of the

persons who work for the welfare of others 5. གཞན་ན་་བ་འས་་ལ་དགས་པ། the results of benefiting others 6.

ཐག'ཆ>་§་རགས་ལ་དགས'པ། the Mahayana lineage 7. ཐག-ཆན-ལམ་་^ལ-ལ་དམགས་པ། the o5jects of {he

Mahayana paths 8. ལམ་་འ^ས་བ་རང་དན་ལ་དགས་པ།

the personal benefit which is the result of the paths 9. གཞན་ དན་་བ་ལས་ལ་དགས་ནས་བདན་བ་་?་ཞན་པ། ^ activi.

ties for benefiting others. The mode of grasping is conceiving those practices as being truly existent objects to. be cultivated.


The nine conceptions of grasping at the imputed objects to be eliminated on the path of seeing. The grasping at: 1. འ3ས་་ དན་ད-ག^ར་་་ཐབ་པ་ལ་དགས་པ། fruits wnich are

impossible to attain 2. ལམ་ལ་ན་ཅ་ལག་^་ཞན་པ་ལ་དགས་

པ། wrong apprehension of the paths 3. དགག་བ་བདན་པར་

འ|ན'པ'ལ'དགས་པ། truly existent negative and positive

phenomena 4. ས་ན་་ན་བདན་པར་འ1ན་པ་ལ'དགས་

པ! truly existent phenomena with or without qualities 5. གནས་ལག^1་་དན་བདན་པར;་འ|ན,པ-01-དམགས་པ། truly

"N ^ #S

existent conceptions of the mode of reality 6. ཐག་ཆན་་ལམ་ དང་-^ག^་བ་དམན་པ་^གས་^མས་པ་ལ་དམགས་པ། the

degenerated lineage of the lower vehicle which contradicts the Mahayana lineage 7. འབས་བ་་བ/ད་པར་ཅན་ལ་དན་ག^ར་ད་


པ་ལ་དམགས་པ! persons not interested in the superior fruits 8. མ་མ§ན་'§ར'5ན་་^མ^་ལན'ད་པ་ལ་དགས་པ།

persons lacking the practice of the perfection of wisdom that is a cause for producing omniscience 9. འགལ་^ན་བདད་ལ་ ^གས་པས་1ན་པ་ལ'དགས'ནས་བདན་བ་^་^ན-པ། those

being seized by demons which are obstacles to one's practice. The mode of grasping is conceiving the person imputed by these nine practices as being truly existent.


The nine conceptions of grasping at the objects of elimination to be abandoned on the path of seeing. The grasping at: 1.

^ན་-རང་་ལམ-འབ^ས་^གས་པ་དམན་པ་ལ་དམགས་པ། the lesser path; results and insights of the Hearer's vehicle 2. བདག་5ན་ཡངས'འ^ན་དམན'པ་ལ'དམགས'པ[ the lesser spiritual master who is the fundamental cause 3. གཞན་དན་ བ་པ་ཐབས་དམན་པ་ལ་དགས-པ། the lesser means of fulfilling other's .purpose 4. རང་དན་བ་པ་ཐབས་དམན་པ' ལ་དམགས་པ། the lesser means of fulfilling one's own purpose 5. རང་གཞན་ག^ས་ཀ་དན་བ་པ་ཐབས་དམན་པ་ ལ་དམགས་པ། the lesser means of fulfilling the purposes of both 6. ^ང་་དམན་པ་ལ་དགས་པ། the lesser objects of elimination 7. གས་པ་དམན་པ་ལ་དགས་པ། the lesser . insights or realizations 8. ལམ'0ད་པར་ཅན་མ་ཐབ་པས་9མས་ པ་ལ་དམགས་པ། the degeneration caused by the failure to attain superior paths 9. འབ,ས་་[3ད་པར་ཅན་མ་ཐབ་པས་ ^མ^-པ-ལ-དགས-ནས-བདན^བ-^^ན-པ། the degeneration caused by the failure to attain superior fruits. The mode of grasping is conceiving those as being the truly existent objects of elimination.



The nine conceptions of grasping at the substantial objects to


be abandoned on the path of seeing Grasping at: 1. ^ང་དར་ ལ་ཞན་པ། those to be cultivated and abandoned 2. དའ་^ན་ §ང་ལ་ཞན་པ། their motivation 3. ད'?ས'དགས'ལ་ཞན་པ། their faults 4. ད་དག་བདན་པར་ཞན་པ་ལ་དགས་པ། their truly existent nature 5. ད་དག་པདན་ད་ད་ཞན་པ་ལ་དགས་ པ! their lack of truly existent nature 6. བ་-ཏགས་པ་ཅམ་ད་^ན་ པ་ལ་དགས་པ! their mere imputation 7. ་མན་གས་ལ་ ཞན་པ་ལ་དགས་པ! their opposite aspects 8. ག^ན་་ལ་ (^ན-པ-ལ-དགས-པ། their antidotes 9. འབས་བ་མ་མ།ན་ ལས་^མས་པ་ལ་«ན་པ་ལ་དམགས-ནས'བ^ན་བ་^་(^ན་བ།

the degeneration from the resultant omniscient mind. The mode of grasping is by conceiving the persons engaged in those practices as being truly existent practitioners.


Darsana bhumi/ The stage of seeing. One of the seven stages of a Hearer (see nyan-thos-kyi sa bdun), the realization within the mental continuum of a person abiding on the level of fruit of the stream-winner, where the selflessness of person is cognized directly for the first time via a transworldly path.


Bhavana marga/ The path of seeing. The third of the five paths to enlightenment, where a practioner cognizes reality directly for the first time.


Asta bhavana marga dharmaksantayah/ The eight moments of forbearance of the path of seeing. These are the eight moments of wisdom of the path of seeing known as the uninterrupted paths (bar-chad med-lam, see mthong-lam shes-bzod skad-cig bcu-drug—the eight forbearances and subsequent forbearances connected to the four noble truths).


The eight moments of cognition of the path of seeing. These are the eight moments of wisdom of the path of seeing known as the path of thorough liberation (rnam-grol-lam, see mothong-lam shes-bzod skad-cig-ma bcu-drug—the eight cognitions and subsequent cognitions connected to the four noble truths).


The four conceptions to be abndoned on the peak training of the path of seeing. 1-2. ག|ང'ག་ག?ས། two conceptual

་2* -v

graspings at the object (see gzung-rtog gnyis) 3-4. འ£ན་ག་ ག9ས1 two conceptual graspings at the subject (see 'dzin-rtog gnyis).


SodaSa darSanamargaksah/ The sixteen moments of cognition and forbearance of the path of seeing. 1. ་|ག'བལ'ས'བ1ད[ duhkhe dharmaksanti/ forbearance with the reality of suffering 2. |ག་བལ་ས་ས། duhkhe dharmajnanam/ cognition of the reality of suffering 3. |ག་བལ་ས་བ3ད། duhkhe 'nvayaksanti/ subsequent forbearance with suffering 4 |ག་པ*101་ས་ས། duhkhe 'nyayajnanam/ subsequent cognition of suffering 5. ན'འང་ཆས་བ3ད། samudaye dharmaksar\ti/ forbearance with the reality of the origin of suffering 6. ན་འངཆསཤས] samudaye dharmajnanam/ cognition of the reality of the origin of suffering 7. ན'འ9ང' £ས-བ3ད། samudaye 'nyayaksanti/ subsequent forbearance with the origin of suffering 8. ན་འང་ས་ཤས! samudaye 'nvayajnanam/ subsequent cognition of the origin of suffering 9 འགག་པ-ས-བ1ད། nirodhe dharmaksanti/ forbearance with reality of the cessation of suffering 10. འགག་པ་ཆས' ཤས། nirodhe dharmajnanam/ cognition of the reality of the cessation of suffering 11. འགག་པ་ས་བ1ད། nirodhe 'nyayaaksanti/ subsequent forbearance with the cessation of suffering 12. འགག་པ་ས་ས། nirodhe anvayajnanam/ subsequent cognition of the cessation suffering 13. ལམ་ཆས' བཟད། marge dharmaksanti/ forbearance with the reality of the path 14. ལམ་ཆས་ཤས། marge dharmajnanam/ cognition of the reality of the path 15. ལམ་ས་བ1ད། marge 'nyayaksantih/ subsequent forbearance with the path 16. ལམ' ས་ས། marge 'nvayajnanam/ subsequent cognition of the path.


a _ a

Danasila. An Indian pandit of the eighth century born in Kashmir. He was invited to Tibet during the reign of King Trisong Deutsan and made considerable contributions in the translation of Buddhist texts into Tibetan.


The state free from the two delusions, obstructions to liberation and omniscience; Buddhahood.


Catvari parisuddhah/ The four punties; the four total purities of a Tathagata. A. 1. ལས་དག་པ། pure body 2. དགསཔ་དག་པ། pure objectives 3. མས་དག་པ། pure mind 4. ཡས་དག་པ། pure primordial wisdom. B. 1. གནས་དག་པ། pure abode 2. ལས་དག་པ།

pure body 3. ངས་ད་དག་པ། pure resources 4. ་ས་དག་པ། pure wisdom.


The three pure stages of Bodhisattva; the last three grounds of a Bodhisattva—the eigth, ninth and tenth, where he or she is totally free of pride.

དག་བའ་|ལས། I

PariSuddfTa mayakaya/ The pure illusory body. One of the practices carried out in the completion stage practice of tantra. Meditating upon the illusory nature of the entire residence and resident mandala.


The three principles of purification, completion and ripening. A feature explained in the Nyingma tantra where each step of the generation stage practice is qualified by these three basic principles.

དང་བ^གསབད^ལ། I

The way in which Buddha first generated the Bodhimind. A. According to the Hinayana tradition, Buddha Sakyamuni first generated the mind of enlightenment in the presence of Buddha Sakya Mahamuni (sha-kya thub-chen). B. According to Mahayana tradition, he first generated the Bodhimind while yoked to a chariot"in the hell realm; this follows the tradition of the sUtra called Repaying the Kindness.


The concentration of first union. One of the three concentrations of the generation stage practice. It is the first because the concentration of the principal male and female deities which become the origin or source of emanating all other deities of the mandala, take over the other two

concentrations in series, and the unity of method and wisdom is inseparably maintained by this practice.


The three types of faith. 1. ད་ས་པ་དད་པ། convinced faith 2. དང་བའདད་པ། pure faith 3. མངན་འད་་དད་པ། longing faith. དད་པ་བ།

The four types of faith. 1-3 (see above) 4. ར་་^ག་པ་དད་པ། the irreversible faith. དད་པ་^བས།

Sraddha bala/ The power of faith. One of the five powers of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see byang-phyogs so-bdun); an overwhelming faith in the three jewels free of any obstacles that oppose faith.


Sraddha dhanam/ The wealth of faith. One of the seven possessions of the noble ones (see 'phags-pa'i nor-bdun); the convinced faith in the law of causality which helps turning one's mind towards the dharma; analogous to a precious wheel.


Sraddhendriya/ Faculty of faith. One of the five faculties of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see byang-phyogs so-bdun); an overwhelming conviction in the four noble truths.


Sraddha bhUmi/ The ground of faith. The stage of a spiritual path where a practitioner is predominantly skillful in the practice of faith, efforts, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.


The six-fold supreme ways. The six fundamental ways of accomplishing the six perfections (see phar-phyin drug). These are: 1. ^ན་དམ་པ,3ང་བ་,མས་དང་8!ན,པ། maintaining the

v-་ «✓

mind of enlightenment as the fundamental basis 2. དངས་བདམ་ པ་|ན་གས'གས་-ར་བ'མ་ན་པར་ག^་ཐམས་^ད་ལ་འ|ག་པ། engaging in all six perfections in an unbiased manner as the fundamental approach 3. ད་5་་བ་དམ'པ་མས་*ན་ཐམས་*ད་་ན་5་|ད་པ། working for the welfare of all sentient beings as the fundamental beneficiary of one's practices 4. ཐབས་དམ་བའཁར་ གསམ་^མ་པར་་^ག་པ་ས་རབ་ས་ཟན་པ། conjoining all one's practices with the thought of purity of the three factors (see 'khor-gsum yongs-su dag-pa'i 'jug-sgrub) through skillful wisdom as the fundamental means 5. ངས་ས་བ^་བ་དམ་པ^་ད་ 3ང་བ་་བ|་བ། dedicating all one's virtues to the attainment of the sublime state of enlightenment as the fundamental dedication 6. ^མ་དག་དམ་བ|བ་གས་་དངས་གན་5་|ད་པ། applying antidotal forces against the two types of delusions (see sgrib-pa gnyis) as the fundamental purification.


The hundred supreme divinities. The one hundred deities according to Guhyasamaja meditation, visualized as the Victorious one's ལབ་ང^བདགགས^། five aggregates as the five Tathagatas; ཁམས་བ^་ཡམ་བ^། four elements as the four consorts; |མཆད་ག་སམསདཔའ་ག six sources of perception as the six Bodhisattvas; ཡལ་་་^^་མ་^་། five objects of perception as the five Vajra Dakinis. Each of these twenty is further visualized into a class of five deities each making a cycle of one hundred deities in all.


Panca samaya marhsah/ The five fleshes of commitment. 1. མའ་ཤ manusya mariisa/ human flesh 2. ^ང་པ་ཆའ་ཤ hasti

marhsa/ elephant flesh 3. བ་^།ང་་ཤ go mamsa/ ox flesh 4. |་ཤ kukkura manisa/ dog flesh 5. ་7འ་ཤ asva manisa/ horse flesh.


Sarnayasattva/ The commitment being. Generating oneself in the form of a deity according to the generation stage practice of tantra.


The threefold commitment beings. A. A type of Buddha Sakyamuni images known as Dam-tshig sum-bkod, three samayas or pledges related to a Buddha's body, speech and mind (see dam-tshig sems dpa\ ye-shes sems-dpa' and ting-nge-'dzin sems-dpa'). B. The three commitments to be observed: 1. །3་ལ་མ་ཉལ'བ། not sleeping on an elevated bed 2. ཆང་་འཐང་བ། not taking intoxicants 3. 3ག་3་འ་བ་མ་3་བ1 not consuming edible things made in the shape of the various implements of deities such as lotus, vajra, etc.


Pattarika/ Silk ribbons; tassels of silk threads that hang over the ears from a tantric ritual head-dress.


The eight leisures; the eight freedoms. A. Four freedoms from the four fetters within human existence: 1. ལག་^ཙན་མ་ཡན་པ། not holding wrong views 2. ^་^ར་^་བ་མན་པ། not born in a barbaric land 3. ལ་བ་བཀའ་ད་པ་ཡལ་་|བ་ན་པ། not born in a place where Buddha has not appeared 4.3ན་&་གས་ཙན་མ་ཡན་པ། not born as a mute or fool. B. Four freedoms from the four fetters of non-human existence: 1. དམལ་བར^་བ་མན་པ། not being a hell being 2. ་དགས་ས་་བ་ན་པ། not being a hungry ghost 3. 5ད་འར|བ་ན'པ། not being an animal 4. ་་ང་ར་་ བ་ན་པ། not being a long living god.

དལ་འར་^ན། 1

A fully endowed human rebirth. A human life which is characterized by the eight leisures (see dal-ba brgyad, above) and the ten endowments (see sbyor-ba bcu) thus making it suitable for practising Dharma.

དག་གམ། I

The three poisons; the three poisonous delusions. 1. འདད་ཆག་་ག raga/ desire-attachment 2. ^ང་། krodha/ hatred-anger 3. Ti མག moha/ closed mindedness.

དར་(3ད་*ས-བད། I

The eight adornments of an ascetic who dwells in a cemetery; the eight costumes of a cemetery Yogi. 1. མ་མགའ་དབ་ན། he is crowned with human skulls 2. མ་མགའ་ད་ཤལ། he wears a rosary of human heads carved in crystal 3.3ང་ན'!་པགས་པ1 ད་ག^ he wears an elephant skin as an upper garment l. ^ང་་^གས! གཡང་ག^། he uses the skin of a human being who has committed heinous non-virtues as his skin 5. ^ག་ག་སར་རས། his forehead bears three greased lines horizontally and vertically 6. ^ག'<2་གས་'ཤམ'ཐབས། he wears a tiger skin as his lower garment 7.0ག་'ཐག'ལ། he uses blood for the tilaka between his eyes 8. ཐལ་ཆན་་ཆམ་བ། his body is covered with ashes-.


Asta maha smasana/ The eight great cemeteries. 1. ཤར་་ག'} • ག The Fiery One to the east 2. ང་5'ཆང'ང་འ|གས་པ། The Wilderness to the north 3. 5བ་་£་འབར་བ། The Vajra Fire to the west 4. ར་ཀང་རས^ན། The Skeleton Bound to the south 5. ད°ང'8!ན་དག་ཏ་^ད་པ། The Terrific Laugh to the north-east 6. ར་བ^་ས་ཆལ། The Auspicious Garden to the south-east 7. བན་ལ་་མན་བག་། The Gloomy One to the south-west 8. •^ང་ད་ཀ་ལ་ཀ་ལ་!'|ག་པ། The One Pronouncing Ki-li Ki-li to the


Smsanika/ He who dwells in a cemetery; an ascetic dwelling in a cemetery. There are three types of such practitioners: the initial practitioner dwells in the remains of the former charnel ground, the intermediate in the temporary charnel ground and the advanced in the permanent charnel ground.


Kalacakra/ A tantric deity belonging to the highest class of tantra. When referred to it as a tantra, it can be understood as having three levels. 1. the outer Kalacakra comprising the universe 2. the inner Kalacakra comprising the system of energy channels, winds and drops of the inhabitants of the universe 3. the alternative Kalacakra comprising the residence and resident Kalacakra mandala and meditation on the energy-channel, winds and essential drops.


The eight precepts of a specific period (see bsnyen-gnas van-lag brgyad).


The four great festivals; the four holy occasions in Buddha's life. 1. དང་་ཡར་ངལ་ཆ་འཔ^ལ་ས་ན། the period when Buddha performed miracles from the .1st through 15th of the first Tibetan month 2. བ^པའབཙ^རམན་པར!གས་པར་སངས་ས་པ་ས་ ཆན། the day when Buddha attained full enlightenment on the 15th of the fourth Tibetan month. 3. ག་པ་བ&་ལ་ཆས་འརབར བའས་5ན། the day which Buddha turned the wheel of dotrine on the 4th of the sixth Tibetan month. 4. དག་པ་ར་གས་ལ་་ བབས་ས་^ན། the day which Buddha descended from Tusita heaven on the 22nd of the ninth Tibetan month.


The combination of three festivals. The 15th of the 4th Tibetan month celebrated as Buddha's entering into the womb of his mother for conception; complete enlightenment; and passing away into parinirvana.


The single instant of the end of time. According to Abhidharmkosa this is the period of time equivalent to one fraction of the sixty parts of a normal person's finger snap.


Kalantarabhipraya/ Determining another time. Interpretive sutra taught with reference to another time, e.g. the sUtra in which the Buddha taught, 'If you recite Sukhavati prayers you will immediately be born there', where the intention of the Buddha was that through proper practice of the precepts of the Buddha of the Blissful Realm, one may be born there in the future.


The four types of thatnesses; the four thatnesses of the Action tantra. 1. བདག་་་་ན་ད། thatness of self 2. ^གས་ད་ན་^། thatness of mantra 3. འ་ད་ཁ་ན་ཉད། thatness of the deity 4. བསམགཏན་་ད་་ན་ད། fatness of concentration.


DaSatattva/ The ten suchnesses (see nang-gi de-nyid bcu and also phyi'i de-r}id-bcu).


Itivrttika/ Legendary teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories of Buddha's teachings reaching its audience through legends.


Samanantara pratyaya/ Immediate condition. One of the four conditions (see rkyen-bzhi) which produce a cognition; that perception just preceding the actual understanding of an object.

Panca tanmatrani/ The five mere existents. According to the Sanikhya school of Hindu philosophy all phenomena are included into six categories. 1. གཟགས། rupa/ form 2. j sabda/ sound 3. ། garidha/ smell 4. ར། rasa/ taste 5. རག'3། sparsa/ object of touch.


The three suchnesses. According to The Compendium of Precepts (abhidharma-samuccaya), there is no difference in the suchness of all phenomena, however, due to the difference in their basis of existence there can be three suchnesses which are: 1. དག་བ་ད་བཞན་^ད། suchness of virtues 2. ་ད་བ་ད་བ^ན་ ད། suchness of non-virtues 3. ལང་མབ་^ན'3'་བ^ན་ད། suchness of the unspecified phenomena.


The four Tathagatas. 1. ལ་བ་རན་ཆན་མང་། Jinaratnabahulya 2. གཟགས་མས་དམ་པ། Jinasarupottama 3. ་འམས་^ས། Jinarupa-paryanta 4. འགས་བཐམསཙད་དང་་^ལ་བ། Jinasarkayavimuktasena.


Dasa tathagata balani/ The ten powers of a Buddha. 1. གནས་དང་ གནས་ན་མ།2ན་ཕ་^བས། sthanasthana jnana balam/ power of knowing right from wrong 2. ལས་་$མ་པར|ན་བམ0ན་པ་བས| karma vipaka jnana balam/ power of knowing the consequences of actions 3. ས་པ་§་1གས་མ་3ན་པ་བས། nanadhimukti jnana balam/ power of knowing various mental inclinations 4.

ཁམས་«་་1གས་མ5ན་པ་^བས། nana dhatu jnana balam/ power of knowing various mental faculties 5. དབང་^གསམ^ན་པའ་"^ indriya varavara jnana balam/ power of knowing various degrees of intelligence 6. ཐམས་ཙད་་འ་བ་ལམ་མ0ན་པ་|བ^། sarvatra gamam pratipaj jnana balam/ power of knowing the paths to all goals 7. ན་ནས་ན་ངས་པ་དང་^མ་པར་ང་བ་མ།ན་པ་ ^བས། saniklesa vyavadana vyutthana jnana balam/ power of knowing the ever-afflicted and purified phenomena 8. གནས་ས་ས'ན་པ་མ£3ན་པ'བས། purva nivasanusmrti jnana balam/ power of knowing past lives 9. འ་འ་བ་དང་་བམ^ན་པའ་ ^བས། cyutyutpatti jfiiuia balam/ power of knowing death and birth 10. ཟག་བཟད་བམ§ན་པ1བས། asrava ksaya jnana balam/ power of knowing the exhaustion of contaminations.


The meaning clear light. The transformation of the basic clear light mind into its final form through meditation; a completion stage practice of tantra


The two pledges concerning the Buddha Amoghasiddhi. 1. ^མ་པ་གསམ་2་བ5ས་ཕ་མ^་དག་བ^ང་བ་དམ་|ག safeguarding all precepts of the three vows 2. མཆད་པའ་དམ་ག pledges concerning the practices of offering and worship.


Two purposes; two goals. 1. རང་དན། the purpose of self 2. W ན། the purpose of others.


The two types of ultimate truths. A. 1. ^མ་་་་།ངས་པའན་དམ། the nominal ultimate truth 2. ནམ་^ངས་མ་ན་པ་དན་དམ། the real ultimate truth. B. 1. མ5ན་པའ'དན་དམ། the approximate ultimate truth 2. ན་དམ་དས། the actual ultimate truth. j


The three types of ultimate truth. 1. ན་ན་དམ་པ། arthaparamartha/ ultimate meaning 2. ཐབ་པ་དན་དམ་པ། praptaparamartha/ ultimate accomplishment 3. !|བ་པ་དན་དམ་པ1 siddhaparamartha/ ultimate practice.


Paramartha satya/ Ultimate truth. Generally referring to emptiness as opposed to the conventional phenomena.


Paramartha sUnyata/ The emptiness of that which is ultimate. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the emptiness of nirvana.


Paramartha saranam/ The ultimate object of refuge, i.e. the Buddha Sakyamuni.


The five characteristics of the ultimate truth; emptiness. 1. ^་་ད་པ། inexpressible 2. གས་སད་པ། non-dual 3. ^ག་འ ^ན་པ། not being an object of logicians 4. ར་གཅག་པ། single-taste 5. མཆན་ད་ད་པ། signiessness.


The ultimate protection wheel; meditation on the protection wheel by means of the primordial wisdom.


Arthasaptati/ The Seventy Topics. The seventy divisions of the eight realizations or topics (see dngos-po brgyad). 1-10. ^མ་མ།ན་མ^ན་ད-་ཆས-བཅ། the ten topics that characterize the omniscient mind (see rnam-mkhyen mtshon-byed-kyi chos-bcu) 11-21. ལམསམ1ན་ད་་ཆས་བཙ་གག the eleven topics that

characterize the knowledge of the paths (see lam-shes mtshon-byed-kyi chos-dgu) 22-30. ག^་ས་མཆ^ན་ད་་ཆས་དག the nine topics that characterize the knowledge of the basis (see gzhi-shes mthson-byed-kyi chos-dgu) 31-41. $མ་£གས་|ར་ བ་མ^ན་ད་་ཆས་བཙ་གག the eleven topics that characterize the training of the complete aspects (see rnam-rdzogs sbyor-ba mtshon-byed-kyi chos bcu-gcig) 42-49. ^་་ར་བམ^ན་ད་་ ཆས་བད། the eight topics that characterize the peak training (see rtse-mo'i sbyor-ba mtshon-byed-kyi chos-brgyad) 50-62. མཐར་ས་|ར,བ,མ!ན,ད,,£ས་བཙ་གསམ། the thirteen topics that characterize the serial training (see mthar-gyis sbyor-ba mtshon-byed-kyi chos bcu-gsum) 63-66. ^ད་ཙག་མའ^ར་བམཆན་ 3ད'3་4ས'བ^| the four topics that characterize the momentary training (see skad-cig-ma'i sbyor-ba mtshon-byed-kyi chos-bzhi) 67-70. འས,་ཆས,་མ1ན་ད་་ཆས་བ^། the four topics that characterize the resultant truth body (see 'bras-bu chos-sku mtshon-byed-kyi chos-bzhi).


Meaning generality; generic image. The image of an object in thought or idea, e.g. the vase as it would appear in the imagination.



Arthakriyasakti/ A functioning thing; effective phenomena. The class of phenomena that has the ability or power to effect changes. Synonymous to impermanence.


Arthantarabhipraya/ Determining another meaning; intending another meaning. Interpretive sUtra indicating another meaning, e.g. the sUtra, 'all phenomena lack inherent existence', to those who accept inherent existence as their basic philosophy.


Meaning retention; retaining the meaning. Spiritual power of retaining the meaning of teachings that are received from the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, e.g. the practice of the Bodhisat-tva levels and the ten perfections. This may also mean the power to retain the specific or general meaning of all that exists.


Anavakara sUnyata/ The emptiness of that which is not to be abandoned. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug); the lack of inherent existence of the reality of all phenomena which is neither to be abandoned nor discarded.


Dakpo Kagyud Tradition. The Kagyud tradition that comes from Marpa, Milarepa and Dagpo Lhaje (Gampopa); because this tradition flourished extensively during Dagpo Lhaje (1079-1153), the sun-like disciple of Milarepa, it is known as Dagpo Kagyud. A sub-school of Kagyud's mainstream.


Rsi/ A Sage (Rishi); Lit. 'the righteous one'. Ancient vedic masters and practitioners; Maharsi is used as an epithet for Buddha.


Dasa smrtiayah/ The ten mindfulnesses (see rjes-su dran-pa bcu).


Catvari smrtyUpasthanah/ The four close mindfulnesses; the four close contemplations. The four objects of mindfulness for mental quiescence meditation. 1. ལས་ན་པ་་བར་བ^ག་པ།

kaya smrtyUpasthana/ close contemplation of body 2. ^ར་བ་་^་ པ་་བར་བ།་-་།ག་བ། vedana smrtyUpasthana/ close contemplation of feelings 3. མས་ན་བ་བར་བ་^ག་པ། citta smnyupasthana/ close contemplation of mind 4. ཆས་ན་པ་་བར་བ^ག་པ། Dharma smrtyUpasthana/ close contemplation of Dharma.

དན་པ་་བར་བ^ག་པ་གསམ། The three mindfulnesses of a Buddha. 1. གལ^ས་པས་ཉན་བ་^ ཆགས་པ་མད་པ! he has no attachment towards those who listen respectfully 2. 3སཔས་་ཉན་བལ་2་ང་བ་ད་པ། he has no hatred towards those who do not listen respectfully 3. འསམར་འ|ག་པ་ ལ་གས་ཀ་ན་པ། he has neither attachment nor hatred to those who listen him with mixed feeling.


The False Aspect (Cittamatrin) School. A sub-school of the Mind Oniy school which asserts that the Buddha's primordial awareness is conjoined with the stains of dualistic appearence.


Sad gandhah/ The six types of smells; the six odours. 1. ་^ པ། sugandha/ sweet smell 2. ་ང་བ། durgandha/ bad smell 3.5' མཉམ་པ། samagaridha/ indifferent smell 4. ན་ས་་། sahaja gandha/ natural smell 5. |ར་བ,ང་ག་། samyojaka gandha/ artificial smeO 6.3ར་བ་ལསང་བའ། converted smell.

ད'མ'5ག ]

A. The six waste products of the body. 1. ་ཆན། excrement 2. ་། urine 3. ག་«|ག eye mucus 4. ^་བས། ear wax 5. མཆ་ལ་མ! saliva 6. ་^བས། snot. B. The six wrong attitudes to be discarded while listening to a teaching. 1. ང་ལ། pride 2. མདད་ པ| lack of faith 3. lack of interest 4. མ་པར་^ང

བ། distraction 5. ^གས་པ། mental sloth 6. གད་པ། despair.


Vimala bhUmi/ The Stainless Ground. The second of the ten Bodhisattva grounds (see sa-bcu) during which there is special practice of the perfection of moral discipline and self-control.


The three waste products. The three waste products of our body, 1. ཁ་ཟས་་བ་གས་མ་བཤང་བ། faeces as the waste product of gross food 2. ་བ་གས་མ་གན། urine as the waste product of liquids 3. ད་་གས་མ་ལ་ནག sweat as the waste product of the body's warmth.


The True Aspect (Cittamatrin) School. A sub-school of the Cittamatrins who assert that the primordial awareness of the Buddha is free from the stains of dualistic appearance.


Gandharva/ The smell eaters. The intermediate beings, categorized as belonging to the class of hungry ghosts, who sustain on the smoke of burnt offerings.


The three kind master-translators. The three great translators of the eighth century in Tibet during the reign of King Trisong Deutsan: 1. Jinamitra 2. DhanaSila 3. Zhang Yeshede.


The 6th of the 4th Tibetan month. The celebration of Buddha's turning of the wheel of doctrine of the four noble truths at Varanasi. One of the important Buddhist festivals.


Sad vargika/ The six close disciples of Buddha Sakyamuni,

who were punished by Buddha Sakyamuni for their breach of disciplines. 1. དགའ་། Nanda 2. ་དགའ་། Upananda 3. འ་ མགས། ASvaka 4. ནབས་། Punarvasu 5. འན་པ། Chanda 6. འཆར་ཀ། Udayi.


The fifteen types of arrogance. 1. ལ་མས་ས་གས་པ། arrogance of observing moral discipline 2. ས་པས་གས་པ། arrogance of being learned 3. པས་པས་གསཔ། arrogance of being proud 4. ད་པས་གས་པ། arrogance of finding wealth 5. བར་ས་གས་པ། arrogance of being respected by others 6. ག་ གནས་མཁས་པས་གས་པ། arrogance of being a scholar in the sciences of learning 7. དན་གནས་སགས་པ། arrogance of being a hermit 8. ངས་པ་ན་ཏན་ས་གས་པ། arrogance of the knowledge and trainings received 9. ་ད་ང་བས་གས་པ། arrogance of owning only a few material possessions 10. གགས་བཟང་བས་གས་པ། arrogance of possessing excellent physical features 11. ངས་ད་ས་གསཔ། arrogance of being rich 12. དབང་་བས་གས་པ། arrogance of being powerful 13. འར་གག་བཟང་བས་གས་པ། arrogance of having an excellent circle of followers and servants 14. བསམ་གཏན་མནས་ས་གས པ། arrogance of possessing meditative concentrations and extra-sensory perceptions 15. ་་གས་ས་བད་པས་གས་པ། arrogance of being praised by gods and nagas.


A basis of imputation, e.g. the five psycho-physical aggregates which are the basis for imputing 'person', T or 'self.


The mandala of threefold seats. The meditation of visualizing one's own physical aggregates, sensory faculties and sources of perceptions as a divine mandala of threefold seats in their

entirety. 1. ང་ཁམས་གགས་པ་གགས་མ་གདན། visualizing one's aggregates and sensory faculties as the seat for the male and female Tathagathas 2. ་མད་མས་དཔའ་མས་མ་གདན། visualizing one's sources of perceptions as the seat for the male and female Bodhisattvas 3. ཡན་ལག་་་་་གདན། visualizing one's limbs as the seat for the male and female wrathful deities.


UpadeSa/ Instruction. The essential spiritual communication—oral, written or intuitive, given by a guru to his disciple.


The exalted ground of reality. According to the Nyingma teachings this refers to the ninth ground attained at the fifth level of yoga when a trainee transcends all apprehensions of the activity and appearance of reality through his experience of the inseparability of the objective ultimate meahing clear light mind and the subjective divine body appearances.


N> N5

Blood lineage; a hereditary hierarch. The patriarchal or matriarchal lineage holder of an exalted being, e.g. the heirs of the Sakya tradition.


Adibuddha/ The primordial Buddha. The primordial Buddha, Samantabhadra. However, the basic primordial Buddha is recognized as the Tathagata essence within the mental continuum of all sentient beings.


The three evil forces. 1. ང'གན'གཟའ'དང''ར1 the planet of the upper world 2. བར་གན་བཙན་དང་ལ་པ། the mountain-gods of the

intermediate world 3. ག་གན་་དང་ས་བདག the nagas and earth-lords of the subterranean world.

བདག་ན། m

The fundamental condition. Something which is the main producer of a result but does not actually transform it into its substantial continuity, e.g. the eye sense power that generates

eye consciousness.

བདག་བད། a

Sadhana/ Self-generation. A tantric practice of generating oneself into a deity and carrying out incantations of mantras and then dissolving into the sphere of emptiness at the conclusion, etc., according to a ritual-text (sadhana).

བདག་་་ན'ད། r I

The suchness of self. One of the four suchnesses in action tantra meditation. In this meditation, also known as the pure reality deity of the right view, a trainee visualizes a deity within the understanding of one's mind being empty and clear and free of any elaboration and total pacification of all conventional appearances. Hence, his experience qualifies six features (see bde-gshegs snying po'i chos-drug).


The self-basis. In performance tantra it is the practice of self-generation in the form of a deity.


Relationship of identical nature, e.g. the relationship between a functional thing and an impermanent thing.


Self-empowerment; self-initiation. The practice of receiving initiation directly from the deity in the mandala without a

tantric preceptor; a lama before giving initiation to others receives self-initiation from the wisdom-beings and meditates himself being inseparable from the deity.


The ignorance of self-nescience. This refers to the ignorance that is the root of cyclic existence. The lack of knowledge of reality through which one sees one's aggregates as permanent, blissful, being the self, being solid and being the person contradicting the real nature of phenomenal status.

The two types of view of self. The two wrong views of self to be refuted through logical reasoning. 1. ཆས་་བདག་་་བ། dharma atmagraha/ the view of a self of person 2. གང་ཟག་ག་བདག་ ཏ་་^་བ། purusatmagraha/ the view of self of phenomena.

The twenty views of self; the twenty wrong views of self. 1. ག|གས་བདག་ཏ་་ བ། the view of form ^ self 2. གཟགས་བདག་དང2་ན་

པར་་^་བ། the view of self as possessing form 3. གཟགས་ལ་བདག་ད་ པར་་བ། the view of self as abiding in form 4. བདག་ལ་གཟགས་ད་ པར་་?བ། the view of form as abiding in self 5. ཆ*ར་བ་བདག་་་བ། the view of feeling as self 6. བདག་1ར་བ་དང་8|ན་པར་་བ། the view of self as possessing feeling 7. ^ར་བ་ལ་བདག་ད་པར་་བ། the view of self as abiding in feeling 8. བདག་ལ་1ར'བ་ད་བར་་བ། the view of feeling as abiding in self 9. འདསབདག་་^་བ། the view of perception as self 10. བདག་འས་དང་^ན་པར་་བ། the view of self as possessing perception 11. འས་ལ་བདག་ད་པར^་བ། the view of self as abiding in perception 12. བདག་ལ་འ་སད་པར་་ བ། the view of perception as abiding in self 13. འ་ད་བདག་ཏ་་ བ! the view of compositional factors as self 14. བདག་འ་ད་དང་ 2(ན་པར་་བ། the view of self as possessing compositional factors 15. འད་ད་ལ་བདག་ད་པར་^་བ། the view of self as abiding in compositional factors 16. བདག་ལ་འ་ད་ད་པར་་བ། the view

of compositional factors as abiding in self 17. ^མ་ས་བདག་་་ བ། the view of consciousness as self 18. བདག་$མ་ས་དང'2་ན་པར ་?བ། the view of self as possessing consciousness 19. ^མ་ས་ལ བདག་«་ད་པར་་བ| the view of self as abiding in consciousness 20. བདག་ལ་^མ་ས་ད་པར་་བ། the view of consciousness as abiding in self.


The twenty-five views of self; the wrong views of self (see 1 -20, bdag-lta nyi-shu, above) plus: 21. བདག་གཟགསལསག^ན་ད^ག the view of self as other than form 22. བདག་ཆར་བ་ལས་ག^ན་ད་་བ། the view of self as other than feeling 23. བདག་འ་ས་ལས་ག^ན་་ ་བ། the view of self as other than perception 24. བདག་འད3ད་ ལས་ག^ནད་་བ། the view of self as other than compositional factors 25. བདག་^མ་ས་ལས་ག^ན་ད་བ། the view of self as other than consciousness.


Adhipatiphala/ Environmental results. One's own experience of environment which is a result of one's previous actions in association with the community or surrounding in which one resides, e.g. the local fields which will not yield crops.


The stage of blessing oneself. The ritual and rite of purifying one's impure body and faculties, thereby blessing these into three vajras—vajra body, speech and mind.


Adhipatiphala/ The environmental result (see bdag-po'i 'bras-bu).


Nairatmya/ Selflessness. The view of selflessness or the lack of an identity of independently existing phenomenon. There

are two types: 1. གང་ཟག་་བདག་ད། purusa nairatmya/ the elflessness of person 2. ཆས་་བདག་མད། dharma nairatmya/ the selflessness of phenomena.


Nairatmya/ She the Non-ego (Anatma). The consort of Hevajra. Marpa's consort is also knwon by this name because of his spiritual association with the deity Hayagriva


The gross and subtle selflessnesses. The lack of an independent and self-suficient person and the lack of the inherent existence of a person.


Two types of graspings at the self; the conceptual misapprehension of a truly existent self of either a person or a phenomenon. 1. བདག་འན་ན་བཏགས། intellectual grasping at the self 2. བདག་འན'ན'ས! innate grasping at the self.


The five evil arrows; the five evil influences. 1. ཆགསཔར་ད་ པ་མདའ། that causing desirious attachment 2. ངསད་་མདའ། that causing ignorance 3. ང་ལ་་མདའ། that causing pride 4. འཐབ་ད་་མདའ། that causing conflict 5. གང་ད་་མདའ། that causing distraction.

བདད་དགའ་རབ་དབང་ག་་་ག་་མདའ་་^་། The five flower-arrows of the Lord of Desire; the five evil influences of lust. 1. གས་པར་ད་པ་མདའ། that causing arrogance 2. ངས་པར་ད་པ་མདའ། that causing ignorance 3. ན་ ་ངས་པར་ད་པ་མདའ། that causing strong ignorance 4. བལ་ བར་ད་པ་མདའ། that causing one to faint 5. མས་ད་པར་ད་པའ མདའ། that causing unconsciousness.


Pancamnani/ The five nectars; the five substances for preparing an inner offering in tantric practices. 1. ་ཆན། excrement 2. ་། urine 3. ར?| blood4.^I flesh 5. ་་ལ པ། white and red regenerative substances.


Catvari marah/ The four devils; the four evil forces. 1. ངཔའ བད། skandhamara/ the evil of the aggregates 2. ན་མངསཔ' བད། kleSamara/ the evil of afflictions 3. འ་བདག་་བད། | mrtyupatimara/ the evil of death 4. ་་་བད། I devaputramara/ the evil of the son of god (lust).

བ^ད་བ་་། 1

Catvari sUksma marah/ The four subtle evils; the four subtle hinderances. 1. ང་པའ་བད་་མ། skandha sUksma mara/the subtle evil of the aggregates, i.e. the aggregates caused by the | latency of ignorance and uncontaminated actions 2. ཉན་མངས པའ་བདད་་མ། kleSa sUksma mara/ the subtle evil of affliction, i.e. the latency of ignorance 3. འཆ་བདག་ག་བད་་མ! mrtyupati sUksma mara/ the subtle evil of death; i.e. inconceiveable death 4. ་་ཡ་བད་་མ། devaputra kleSa suksma mara/ the subtle evil of lust, i.e. those evils other than the first three.


Catvari sthula marah/ The four gross evils; the four gross hinderances. 1. ང་་བདད་རགས་པ། skandha sthula mara/ the gross evil of the aggregates, i.e. the contaminated aggregates 2. ན་ངས་པ་བད་རགས་པ། kleSa sthula mara/ the gross evil of afflictions, i.e. the six root delusions (see rtza-nyon drug) and


the twenty secondary delusions (see nye-nyon nyi-shu) 3. འཆ་ བདག་་བད་རགསཔ། mrtyupati sthula mara/ the gross evil of death, i.e. natural death through severance of the life force 4.

^་་^་བད་རགས་པ། devaputra sthula mara/ the gross evil of lust, i.e. the evil of Kamadeva.


The seven pure practices. 1. བཤགས་པ། confession 2. £ས་ས་ཡ་ «I rejoicing 3. ན་དམ་པ་ང་བ་་མསབད་པ། generating the ultimate mind of enlightenment 4. ^བས་འག taking refuge 5. 2ག'ས*སབ|ད་པ། generating the aspiring mind of enlightenment 6. འ|ག་སམས་བ^ད་པ། generating the engaging mind of enlightenment 7. བ|་བ། dedication.

«\ V t1 •v'


Sukhapala cakra/ The wheel of sustaining bliss. The channel wheel located at the region of the secret organ which has thirty-two petals spreading out from the central channel like the ribs of an umbrella spreading downwards.

Sugati/ Fortunate beings; happy migrators. Beings in the fortunate realm—humans, gods and demi-gods.


Mahasukha cakra/ The wheel of great bliss. The channel wheel located at the level of the third eye which has thirty-two petals spreading out from the central energy channel like the ribs of an umbrella spreading downwards.


Mahamudra/ The Mahamudra of great bliss. The Mahamudra meditation according to the Kagyud tradition known as the Mahamudra of the path of liberation (grol-lam phyag-rgya chen-mo)—the union of emptiness and the unchanging great bliss.


Sukhavati/ The Sukhavati Buddha field. The abode of Buddha Amitabha called the Buddha field of great bliss in the western direction.


The inseparability of bliss and void; the unity of great bliss, the method, and emptiness, the wisdom aspect. Also the Guru PUja rite and meditation in the Gelug tradition.


The eight Medicine Buddhas (see sman-bla bde-gshegs brgyad).


The six features of the Tathagata essence. 1. གཟང་འ£ན་ལ་སགས་ པའ་་^ག་པ་མད་པ། ^ng free r grasping ar subjective or objective phenomena 2. ^མ་པར་་^ག་པ་^ང་བ་ད་པ། being free of a non-conceptual appearances 3. ^ལ་་རབ་་གཟགས་ད་པ། being free of body of subtle particles 4. མཆན་མ་ག་བ་ད་པ། being free of disturbances from imaginative signs 5. ད་^མས་ས་^ང་པའམད་ དགག་^འདས-པ-རང་བ^འད-གས^་བ། being naturally clear because their emptiness transcends non-affirming negatives 6. རང་་ངབ་ས-ས་རང་ས་རག་པ་མ^ན་་^ན། experiencing the self-nature by intuitive awareness.


The two truths; the two divisions of truth. 1. ན'£བ་བན་པ། sanivrti satya/ the conventional truth 2. དན་དམ་བདན་པ། paramartha satya/ the ultimate truth.


The twelve aspects of the first three noble truths. 1. མད་པའ་^མ པ། aspect of non-existence 2. ་་བ་^མ་པ། aspect of non-

production 3. དན་པ་^མ་པ། aspect of isolation 4. ་བ£'བ་ནམ་ པ། aspect that cannot be repressed 5. གནས་མད་པའ་ནམ་པ། aspect lacking a base 6. ནམ་མཁའ་^མ་པ། aspect of space 7. བ£ད་དམད་ པ་-^མ་པ། inexpressible aspect 8. ང་ད་པ་^མ་པ། nameless aspect 9. འ་བད་པ་^མ་པ། non-going aspect 10. ་འ0ག་པ་ ^མ་པ། non-grasping aspect11. མ'ཟད'པའ'1མ་པ། inexhaustible

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aspect 12. 5་་བ་མད'པའ'ནམ་པ1 aspect without genesis. བདན་པ་བ།

Catvari satyani/ The four noble truths. 1. ^ག་བ^ལ་བན་པ། duhkha satya/ the truth of suffering 2. ཀན་འ^ང་བན་པ། samudaya satya/ the truth of the origin of suffering 3. འགག་པའ་ བན་པ། nirodha satya/ the truth of cessation 4. ལམ་་བན་པ། marga satya/ the truth of the path.


Catuh satya dharma cakra/ The Turning of the Wheel of the Four Noble Truths. The teachings given by Buddha Sakyamuni, after his enlightenment, on the four noble truths to the five ascetics at Varahasi in which Buddha introduced the nature, function and effect of each truth thereby elucidating the twelve aspects of the four noble truths.


Sutra; the Discourses. The classification of Buddha's teachings, other than his tannic teachings, dealing with the gradual way of enlightenment.


Thelutra, maya and citta. The three fundamental texts of generation, completion and rDzogs-chen tradition of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. 1. མདདགངསཔ་འས་པ། The Sutra Integrating Essential Thoughts 2. ད་|འལ་་}་བ་-་་ དཔལ་གསང་བ་^ང་པ| The Tantra of Illusory Ata^Mayajala tantra—Guhyagarbha tantra) 3. མས་མ་མ་་བཙ་བད། The

Eighteen Father and Mother Treatises on Mind (sems-mdo ma-bu bco-brgyad).

མ^་པ། J

Sautratitika School. A school of Buddhist tenets of the lesser vehicle relying mainly on the original discourses of the Buddha and not on their commentaries. This school asserts the existence of self-awareness (rang-rig) and the existence of an external entity (phyi-don).

Sutra pitaka/ Sets of discourses. That category of Buddha's teaching which consists chiefly of the instructions on higher training in meditative concentration.


Crossed-thread ritual. This signifies either offering to gods or giving ransom to the spirits. In the case of the latter it maybe I called the Demon-trap ritual (mas-stags).

འད་^ད་་པང་པ་རགས་་ས་་། The five phenomena on the level of the aggregate of compositional factors. 1. འ་3ད་3་ང་པ། the aggregate of compositional factors 2. ག^དས་་་^བ་་ས། the .basic wisdom of accomplishment 3. ^ང་ག་ཁམས། the element of wind 4. F དབང་། the tongue sense 5. རང$ད་་འས་པ་ར། the taste included within one's continuum.


The three types of compositional karmas. 1. བསད་ནམས་^ kuSala karma/ meritorious karma 2. བད་ནམས་མ་ན་པ་^

V -K

akusala karma/ non-meritorious karma 3. མགཡ་བའ་ལས། acala karma/ unfluctuating karma.


The five phenomena on the level of the aggregate of recognition. 1. འ་ཤས་་ངཔ། the aggregate of recognition 2. #'^གསས། the basic wisdom of analysis 3. ་ཁམས། the element of fire 4.$|་དབང་། the nose sense 5. རང་ད་་འདས་

ft ft.

པའ་5། the odours within one's continuum. (^ས་་།

The five attitudes. The five attitudes to be malntained while giving a discourse. 1. རང་ལ་^ན་པའ་འད་ཤས། thinking of oneself as a physician 2-5 (see chos-nyan pa'i skabs-kyi 'du-shes drug—2,4-6).


A. The six recognitions. 1. མཆན་བཙས་་-་་་ད་ཤས། laksana samjna/ recognition with signs 2. མཆན་མད་་འ་ཤས། anaudarika samjna/ recognition without signs 3. 3་<§ང་བའ་འད ^ anaudarika samjna/ limited recognition 4. '£་བའ་འདཤས། vistara samjna/ extensive recognition 5. ཆད་ད་པ་འས།

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aparimana samjna/' immeasurable recognition 6. ཙཡང་མད་པའ་ འཤས། akinicana samjna/ recognition of nothing whatsoever.

B. The six attitudes (see chos-nyan-pa'i skabs kyi 'du-shes drug).


The three types of wishes. 1. འད་འདད''འན'པ། wish to accomplish one's aspirations 2. མ་ལ་བར་འད་པའའན་པ། wish not to be separated from one's aspirations 3. ན'5'གཉར'བའ'འན་ པ། aspired wish to fulfill one's aspirations.


The yoga of wishing aspiration. One of the five yogas (see rnal-'byor lnga) according to the Nyingma tradition. This refers to the wish to attain the clear fight of emptiness and the

deity that has been visualized oniy at an imagination level on the path of accumulation.


The Root Sutra of Monastic Discipline (vinayamulasutra). An extensive treatise on monastic discipline that summarizes the essential meanings of the four Vinaya sUtras (see, next) by Acarya Gunaprabha who is renowned for his authority on Vinaya teachings.


Catvari vinayagama/ The four categories of scriptures on the monastic discipline. 1. འལ་བ་ལང་ག་་་་་། Basic Transmission on Monastic Discipline (vinaya vastu) 2. འལ་བ་^མ་འད། Distinguishing the Transmissions on Monastic Discipline (vinaya vibhariga) 3. འལ་བ་ན་གས། Minor Transmissions on Monastic Discipline (vinaya-agama) 4. འལ་བ་ག^ང་དམ་པ། The Sublime Teachings on Monastic Discipline (vinaya-uttama).


Saniskrta sUnyata/ The emptiness of conditioned phenomena. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the lack of inherent existence of the three realms produced from the collection of causes and conditions.


A saniskrta/ The eight types of uncollected phenomena; the

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eight permanent phenomena. 1-3. ད་བ^ན་ཉད་གསམ། the three suchnesses (see de-bzhin nyid gsum) 4-5. འ་ས་མད་པ་དང་།་ འགག་པ་་^མས་འ^ག་་དས་་མས་འགག་པ་གནས་^བས་གས། the two

moments of the cessation of the mind at the state of meditative absorption without .perception and the absorption of cessation 6-8. འདས་མ་ས་གསམ། the three uncollected phenomena (see 'dus ma-byas gsum).


Asaihskrta sunyata/ The emptiness of uncollected phenomena. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the emptiness of permanent phenomena which exist without depending on the collection of causes and conditions, such as the lack of truly independent existence of space.


The four types of uncollected phenomena; the four permanent phenomena 1. ས་སརབ^གས་འགག the analytical cessation (see so-sor brtags-'gog) 2. ་ར་བཏགས་ན་་འགག་པ། the non-analytical cessation (see so-sor brtags-min gyi 'gog-pa) 3. ནམ་ མཁའ། space 4. དབ^ན་ད། suchness.


The three types of uncollected phenomena; the three permanent phenomena according to Abhidharmakosa. 1. ས་ ས>བ<;གས་འགག the analytical cessation 2. ་ར་བ<5གས་ན་་ འགག་པ། the non-analytical cessation 3. ནམ་མཁའ། space (see above).


Kama dhatu/ Desire realm. One of the three realms of existence; the realm in which consciousness is preoccupied with desire for the five sensual objects and sustains on gross food. This realm includes the states of hell beings, hungry ghosts, animals, humans, demigods and the gods of the desire realm.


The twenty states of the desire realm. 1-8. ཆ་ད^ལ་བད། the eight hot hells (see tsha-dmyal brgyad) 9-12. ་3ང'དམ5བད། the four continents (see gling-bzhi) 13-18. འད་་གས་ག the six classes of gods within the desire realm (see 'dod-lha rigs-

drug) 19-21. ་གས་དང་ད་འ་གནས། hungry ghosts and



The six objects of abandonment within the desire realm, to be eliminated by the path of meditation. 1. མ་རག་པ། ignorance 2. འད་ཆགས། desire-attachment 3. F0 hatred-anger 4. ང་5°་1 pride 5. འ^ག་་^། view of the transitory collection 6. མཐར^། extreme view.


The thirty-two objects of abandonment within the desire realm, by the path of seeing. According to Abhidharmakok text there are: འད'པར་^ག་བན་3་ང་3་བ,1། ten related to the truth of suffering, ན་འབ,ང་་3ང་3་བན1 seven related to the truth of the origin of suffering, འག་བན'3་3ང་3'བན། seven related to the truth of cessation, ལམ་བན་་ང་་བད། eight related to the truth of the path.


The six objects of abandonment within the desire realm. The six types of delusions within the desire realm to be eliminated on the path of meditation (see 'dod-pa'i sgom-spang drug).



The five types of attachments. Attachment to: 1. ་ལ་ཆགསཔ། the outer 2. ནང་ལ་ཆགས་པ། inner 3. ^ག་བ^ལ་ལཆགས་པ། suffering 4. གཟགས་ལ་ཆགས་པ། form 5. འག་1གས་ལ་ཆགས་པ། the collection of the transitory phenomena, i.e. the aggregates of the bedy.


The four types of desire; the four ways of utilizing desire as the path in tantra. 1. གས་གས་འ|3ད་པ་འད་ཆགས། desire through looking 2. ལག་པ་བ*ངས་པ་འདད་*གས། desire

throughsmiling 3. གད་པའ་འདད་ཆགས། desire through touching 4. ^ ས^ད་4གས། desire through embracing.

The delusions within the desire realm. This includes the six root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug) and the twenty near-delusions (see nye-nyon nyi-shu).


The nine types of delusions within the desire realm; the nine delusions within the desire realm, to be abandoned by the path of meditation. The nine levels of delusion within the desire realm, categorized into three grades of strong, moderate and weak intensity for each of the three—strong, moderate and weak.


The eleven types of beings in the desire realm. 1. ཚ་དམ.ལ| hot heUs2.5FW cold hells 3.5 nagas 4. ་མ་ན། demigods 5. ^ humans 6-11. འད་་གས་ག the six classes of gods in the desire realm (see 'dod-lha rigs-drug).


The nine types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation (see 'dod-nyon skor dgu). This division is based on the principle of taking all those delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation as one delusion and then are divided into nine phases according to the process of their purification.

^ད་པ|མ་3ང་་3་£'བ། The fifty-four types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation. When each of the six delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation (see 'dod-pa'i sgom-spang drug) are divided

into nine phases such as strong, moderate and small, each of which are further divided into three phases as such, this comes to fifty four delusions.


The six types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned on the path of meditation. These are the six delusions within the desire realm: 1-4. འད་པ་^མ་ང་བ^། the four types of delusions within the desire realm (see 'dod-pa'i sgom spang bzhi) 5. འད་པ་ན་ས་་འག་། the innately born view of the transitory collection within the desire realm 6. མཐར་^། the extreme view.


The four types of delusions within the desire realm to be abandoned by the path of meditation. 1. མ་^ག་པ། ignorance 2. འད་ཆགས། desire-attachment 3. ང་3། hatred-anger 4. ང་ལ། pride.


Longing faith. One of the four types of faith (see dad-pa bzhi), the wish with respectful devotion to train on the paths leading to the attainment of unsurpassable enlightenment.


The wish granting boon. A result of secret mantra practice attained at the heat level of the path of preparation, whereupon one's body retains the equal-state with that of a deity, one is able to perform powerful knowledge-mantras (rig-sngags) and siddhis, and gains control of longevity.


A. The sensual objects: གཟགས'|་རག'3། form, sound, smell, taste and touch. B. The five articles representing the five sensual objects ་དག་་ར་མ1ན་པར་ད་པ་མཆད་£ས། 1. ་ང་།

mirror 2. པ་^ང་། guitar 3. ང་། conch-filled with water 4. ང་ འས། fruits 5. གསདར། five silken scarves.


The six classes of gods of the desire realm. 1. ལ་ཆན་རགས་བ^། catur maharajakayikah/ the four great Kings (see rgyal-chen rigs-bzhi) 2. སམ་ཙ་-^་གསམ། trayastrirhsah/ the gods of the heaven of Thirty-three 3. འཐབ་ལ། yamah/ the gods of non-combat 4. དགའ་2;ན། tusitah/ the gods of Tusita heaven 5. འལ་ དགའ། nirmaharatayah/ the gods enjoying emanation 6. W འལ་དབང་ད། paranirmitavasavartinah/ the gods controlling others' emanations.


The five signs of death for a god of the desire realm. 1. གས་ལ ་མ་ཆགསཔ། a bad smell is formed on his clothes 2. ་ཏག་་ང་ བ་ངས་པ། his flower garlands fade away 3. མཆན་15ང་་ལ་འ3ང་བ། sweat if formed in his armpits 4. ལས་ལ་་ང་བ། his body smells badly 5. ^ན་ལ་མ་དགའ་བ། he feels discontent with his usual seat.


The entity composed of eight components. The objects compounded of different entities within the desire realm, for instance, an atom particle comprises earth, water, fire and wind as well as form, sound, smell and contact.


The entity composed of six components. The atom particles within the form realm, which comprise form, touch and the four basic elements.

Vajra/ Diamond-hard; adamantine sceptre. A symbol of strength and indestructibility; also a tantric ritual object

consisting of a cylindrical axis from which two sets of curved spokes, generally five or nine in number, radiate.

Vajrabhairava; The Vajra Terrifier. A wrathful embodiment of Manjusi belonging to the highest yoga tantra.


Vajropama samadhi/ Diamond-hard like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of enthusiastic perseverance possessed by a Bodhisattva on the fourth ground.


Bodhgaya. The holy place where Buddha Sakyamuni achieved complete enlightenment under the Bodhi tree; a | major site for Buddhist pilgrims situated about five miles south of the town of Gaya in Bihar state, India.


The four diamond-hard seats; the four vajra seats. 1. བདག་་ གདན། ofselfl Wffil ofothers 3. |^'བ'གདན| of practice 4.གསང་བའགདན། of secret.

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Vajra brothers an'd sisters. Fellow disciples who have received initiation together from the same master.

^■དམལབ། ■

Vajra naraka/ Vajra hell. The hell of non-respite (mnar-med) destination for those who abuse the tantric path and break their tantric precepts or have committed any of the five heinous crimes (see mtshams-med lnga).


Vajra japa/ Vajra-recitation. A way of reciting mantras according to tantra


The four steps of vajra visualization. The meditation on the generation of a deity, in which one first meditates on emptiness and within this visualizes cushions of lotus, sun and so forth, then imagines rays of light coming out,of the cushions and the seed syllable, and withdrawing these back into emptiness, one then arises in the form of a deity bearing the syllables at three points of one's body—crown, throat and heart.


The three diamond-hard convictions (of the Kadampa masters). 1. ཐབས་མད་བ^། the conviction to reject objections to one's secluded practices by parents and relatives 2.[་་་ལ མད་^་£། the conviction to face embarrassment 3. ་ས་£དང་འ5|གས་པ། the conviction to abide by practices one has promised to do.


Vajrasattva. A tantric deity dedicated to purification and elimination of unwholesome deeds; appears both in peaceful and wrathful forms. •*> -\ •*>


Vajracarya. Tantric master who gives initiations and precepts.


Taxila. An ancient site situated in the kingdom of Kapila which extended from the present day Bamiyan in Afghanistan to Swat in north-west Pakistan. Taxila was a renowned centre of Buddhist learning in the 7th century.


Viprayukta sarhskara' Non-associated compositional factor. Impermanent phenomena being neither form nor consciousness, e.g. a person.


Caturdasa viprayuktasarhskarah/' The fourteen non-associated compositional factors. 1. ཐབ་པ། prapta/ attainment 2. མ་ཐབ་པ། aprapta/ non-attainment 3. ་^ལ་མཉམ། equal state 4. འདས་ད་པ། sambhaga/ non-perception 5. འདས་ད་པ་^མསའ་ཟག asarhjna samapatti/ absorption without perception 6. འགག'པ་་|མས"འ་|ག nirodha samapatti/ absorption in cessation 7. ས,ག life-force 8. ་བ། jati/ birth 9. ག་བ། jara/aging 10. གནས་པ། sthita/endurance 11.འ^ག་པ། anitya/impermanencell^] nama/ name 13. ཆག pada/ words 14. ཡ་ག vyanjana/ letters.


^ན་ན་འད་§ད་ར་བ། J

The twenty-four non-associated composition factors. 1-14 (see ldan-min 'du-byed bcu-bzhi, above). 15. ས་| ordinary person 16. འ^ག་པ། engagement or involvement 17. ས་སར་ངསཔ། specific discernment 18. འ3ར་འ3ལ། combination 19. མགསཔ། speediness 20. ་མ! ranks 21. ས། time 22. ཡལ། object 23. 5|ངས། number 24. ^གས་པ། collection.



The twenty-three non-associated compositional factors (see gang-zag ma-yin-pa'i ldan-min 'du-byed nyer-gsum).


The four interpretative sUtras (see dgongs-pa gtso-bo ston-pa'i ldem-dgongs-kyi mdo bzhi—the four interpretative sutras primarily stressing the intention of the Buddha).


Counter pervasion. The third logical mark or pervasion in a correct logical syllogism, stating that whatever is not the predicate is not the reason. Synonymous with the correct counter pervasion (see Idog-khyab rnal-ma, below).


Correct counter pervasion. The pervasion in a correct logical syllogism that whatsoever is not the predicate is not the reason.


Wrong counter pervasion. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatsoever is not the predicate is not that which is not the reason.


Nivrtti/ Reverse identity; isolated identity of the same thing. Apparently contradictory aspects of a thing having the same nature, e.g. the two faces of a coin which is a single entity with two distinct aspects.


The three types of reverse identity. 1. རང་ན་པ་^ག་ཆས། reverse identity of being itself 2. རང'མ'ན་པའ2|ག་£ས། reverse identity of not being itself 3. ་^ག་ཆས་ང་སམ་ཙམ་་བ། reverse identity of being neither.


Papavarana/ Evils; non-virtues and obscurations. Misdeeds acquired in the past lives or this life.


X> No

Duhkha duhkhata/ The suffering of pain. The literal and gross

sufferings sometimes called the double suffering, e.g. the feeling of sharp pain in the kidneys.


Asta duhkhatah/ Eight kinds of suffering. The eight sufferings that Buddha introduced while explaining the faults of the truth of suffering. 1. ་བ་^་ག་བ^ལ། jati duhkham/ suffering of birth 2. ^་བ་^ག་བ^ལ། jara duhkham/ suffering of aging 3. ན་བའ་^ བ་^ལ། vyadhi duhkham/ suffering of sickness 4. འ་བ་^ག་བ^ marana duhkham/ suffering of death 5. ^ག་བདང་ལ་བའ^ག་པ^ priya viprayogo duhkham/ suffering of separation from cherished objects 6. ་^ག་པ་དང་འད་པ་^ག་བ^ལ། apriya saniprayogo duhkham/ suffering of meeting with revolting objects 7. འད་པ་དས་་བཙལ་ང་་ད་པ་^ག་བ^ལ། ya(i apicchaya paryesamano na labhate tadapi duhkham/ suffering of not finding desired objects 8. ང་་་^ག་བ1་ལ་བ་ན་<1། saniksepanam pancoskandha duhkham/ the suffering of the five aggregates.


Sad duhkhatah/ Six types of suffering. The six miseries within

cyclic existence. 1. ངས་པ་ད་པ་^ག་བ^ལ། suffering of

uncertainty 2. མས་པ་ད་པ་^ག་བ^ལ། suffering of

dissatisfaction 3. ཡང་ནསཡང་དལས་འར་བའ^ག་བ^ལ། suffering of

discarding one's body time and again 4. ཡང་ནས་ཡང་ད་ཉང་མཆ^

|ར་བ་^ག་བ^ལ། suffering of frequent conception 5. ཡང་ནས་0'" ་མ^་དམན་དའ3ར་བའ^ག་བ^1 suffering 0f ^m cnange 0f

status 6. གས་ད་པ་^ག་བ^ལ། suffering of loneliness. ^ག་བ^ལ་བདན་པ་་^ད་ས་བ།

NO -

The four attributes of the noble truth of suffering. 1. མ་^ག་པ། anityam/ impermanence 2. «[ག་བ་^ལ་བ། duhkhita/ suffering/ misery 3. ་^ངཔ། sUnyam/ emptiness 4. བདག་ད་པ། anatmakam/



The four types of suffering. 1. ^་བ་^ག་བ^ལ། jati duhkham/

suffering of birth 2. ^་བ་^ག་བ^ལ། jara duhkham/ suffering of

old age 3. ན་བ་^ག་བ་^ལ། vyadhi duhkham/ suffering of

sickness 4. འཆ་བའ་^ག་བ^ལ། marana duhkham/ suffering of >• • • «-་



The three types of suffering. 1. ^ག་བ^ལ་་^ག་བ^ལ། duhkha duhkhata/ suffering of pain 2. འ^ར་བ་^ག་བ^ལ། viprinama duhkhata/ suffering of change 3. 5བ་པ'འ་ད་་^ག་བ^ལ། samskara duhkhata/ pervasive suffering.


The ten objects to be abandoned by the truth of suffering. The realization of the truth of suffering within this desire realm involves abandoning 1-5. ་བ་་^་། the five views (see lta-ba lnga) 6-10. Vམན་^་། the five non-views (see Ita-min lnga).


Emancipation of a beautiful form. This is a kind of concentration within the form realm cultivated by a Yogi visualizing himself as having a very attractive form and taking all appearances to be of the same taste; one of the eight emancipations (see rnam-thar brgyad).


Tripitaka/ The three baskets of teachings. The way in which Buddha's teaching is classified in general into three divisions according to their subject matter and trainings they describe. 1. འལ་བའ་་^་ 1་ད། vinaya pitaka/ the basket of teachings on moral discipline mainly emphasizes the training of ethics 2. མད་3འ་3་1་ད། sutra pitaka/ the basket of teachings in discourses mainiy emphasizes the training of concentration 3. མངན་པའ་་^་

1|ད། abhidharma pitaka/ the basket of teaching on knowledge mainiy emphasizing the training of wisdom.


The obeisance for identifying the three baskets of teachings (see above sde-snod gsum). All Vinaya texts begin with the line, 'obeisance to the all-knowing one'. All Sutrapitaka texts begin with the line, 'obeisance to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas', and all Abhidharmapitakas begin with the line, 'obeisance to the youthful Manjusri'.


The Two Compendiums. The two works of Asariga. 1. ཐག་ བ|ས། Compendium of the Greater Vehicle (Mahayanasani-graha) 2. མན་པ་་|ན་བས། Compendium of Knowledge (Abhidharmasamuccaya).



The four ways of losing vows (see ltung-ba'i sgo bzhi). ^མ་པ་^མ་གསམ།

Trisanivara/ A. The three classes of vows. 1. ས་ཐར་་^མ་པ། pratimoksa sanivara/ the individual liberation vows 2. ང་ མས་་^མ་པ། bodhicitta sanivara/ the Bodhisattva vows 3. གསང་^གས་་^མ་པ། mantra sanivara/ the tantric vows. B. 1. འད' པ་སས་བ^སཔ་་ཐར་^མ་པ། the individual liberation vows of those within the desire realm 2. གཟགས་་སས་བ^ས་པ་བསམ་གཏན་་ ^མ་པ། the concentration vows of those within the form realm 3. ཁམས་གསམ་ལསའདས་ང་འཔགས་པ་སས་བ་^ས་པ་ཟག་ད་་^མ་པ། the

uncontaminated vows of those at the level of an Arya's path transcending all those vows within three realms.


Symbolic negative phenomena, e.g. although emptiness is a

mere absence of a truly existent nature it is not a negative thing.


Catuhsanigraha/ The four compendiums; the four works of Asariga on the Yogacara tenet. 1. གཏན་ལ་དབབ་པ་བ^་བ། Compendium of Ascertainment (Nimayasanigraha) 2. ག^་བ^་བ། Compendium of Bases (Vastusanigraha) 3. ^མ་གངས་བ་^་བ། Compendium of Enumerations (Paryayasarhgraha) 4. -^མ་པར་ བཤད་པའ་བ|་བ། Compendium of Explanations (Vivarana-sanigraha).


Catvari sarhgraha vastuni/ The four means of conversion; the four means of assembling disciples. 1. མཁ་བ་|ན་པ། danam/ giving whatever is necessary 2. *ན་པར་|'བ! priya vadita/ speaking pleasantly 3. ན་མཐན་པ། samanarthata helping others 4. དན་^ད་པ། artha caryaV consistency between words and deeds.

The Collected Topics. The basic texts on the Buddhist study of logic. Chapa Choekyi Senge (12th century A.D.) and others formulated this study as a key for studying Buddhist logic taught in Valid Cognition (Pramaha). This text is studied in all the monastic universities of the Gelug order as a part of their basic curriculum.


The three summarized topics; the three basic wisdoms. 1. ཤས། vastu jnana/ the basic wisdom 2. ལམ་ཤས! marga jnana/ the path wisdom 3. ^མ་མ0ན། sarvajnana/ the omniscient wisdom.


a «

Sarvabuddhadakini. A mantra practice of a female deity, Vajrayogini, with its lineage coming from the great Naropa


a ^

The six doctrines of Naropa; the six yogas of Naropa There are two ways of listing these six yogas. A. 1. གམ་མའ'ནལ་འ3ར། candali yoga/ yoga of psychic heat 2. ད་གསལ། prabhasvara yoga/ yoga of clear light 3. f ་ལས1 mayakaya yoga/ yoga of illusory body 4. བར་ད། antarabhava yoga/ yoga of intermediate rebirth 5. འཔ་བ། sanikranti yoga/ yoga of consciousness transference 6. 21ང'འ1ག yoga of entering a corpse. B. 1. གམ་མ། yoga of psychic heat 2. འད་གསལ། yoga of clear light 3. Jལས། yoga of illusory body 4. ཟང་འ|ག yoga of the state of union 5. ^བ་བ། yoga of consciousness transference 6.5།ང'འ|ག yoga of entering a corpse.



Naropa A great Indian scholar and adept who, after serving as abbot of Nalanda, obtained the highest tantric teachings from Tilopa. His disciple, Marpa, took those teachings to Tibet and propagated the doctrine.


a _ a

Nalanda The great monastery of Nalanda in ancient Magadha in Bihar, India. One of the main places of pilgrimage for Buddhist devotees, also known as the birth place of Sariputra.


The four negative conducts. The four transgressions of the Bodhisattva vows. 1. ་3་མར་དབབར་བ། misleading the teacher 2. ག^ན་3་ད་བ་ལ་འད་'བ$ག་པ། leading others to regret their virtuous deeds 3. ཐག་ན་་9གས་པ'ལ་|ན་འགས་པ། disparaging those in the Mahayana doctrine 4. གཡ|། cheating others.


Vanaprastha/ A forest dweller. One who forsakes his home to seek freedom from suffering and dwells as an ascetic in the forest.


The three inner mandates. 1. '1vC
* • >• •

mandala/ conventional mandala 2. §་གའ་ད3ལ་འཁར། bhaga mandala/ the female genital mandala 3. ན་དམ'3ང་བ་སམས་་ དལ་འཁར། paramartha bodhicitta mandala/ the mandala of ultimate bodhicitta


Sad antarayatanani/ The six inner sources of perception (see dbang-po drug).


Sad antara dhatavah/ The six inner sense powers (see khams-bco brgyad B.)


The ten internal qualities; the ten inner qualities of a Vajracarya. 1. བ-|ང་འར་བ|མས་ནས་ར་བ1ག་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in dispelling interferences by means of meditation on the wheel of protection 2. འར་^ས་པ་ལས་ལ་བཏགས་བགས་|་ནས་ར་བ1ག་ ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in dispelling interferences by means of drawing mystic circles and tying them to the body 3. མ་དབང་ དང-གསངདབང-བ^ར-བ'0]་མཁས་པ། adept in bestowing the vase and secret initiation 4. ས་རབ་་ས་དང'དབང་བ^་བབ1|ར་བ་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in bestowing the wisdom and fourth initiation 5. དག་བའ་ བ^ང་མ-དང-^བ་།11་|ར་ད་བ-^མཁས་པ། ^pt in sending off and scattering the protectors of the enemy 6. གཏར་མ་ཆ་ག་ལ་མཁསཔ། adept in the practice of ritual cake offerings 7. བཟས་པའ་ཆ^ལ་ལ' མཁས་པ། adept in the practice of vajra recitations 8. ལབ་ན་ བ|བས་3ང་མ་འ3བ་ན་ག་1ག་་བར་5ག'3ལ་་ལས་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in

the means of aggressively reversed practice when unable to actualize the results through the usual order of practice 9. རབ གནས་་£་ག་ལམཁས་པ། adept in the consecration rituals 10. དལ འར་5བ་མ1ད་ལ་མཁས་པ། adept in the creation and worship of mandalas.


The intti nal demons. The mental adversities or demonic impulses created through imbalanced and disturbed attitudes of desire, hatred and closed-mindedness.


The inner distractions. One of the six distractions (see rnam-g-yeng drug). Mental sloth, agitation and clinging to the experience that are obstructions to generating concentration.


The three inner tantras. According to the Nyingma tradition, these are: 1. |ད་མ7་ག Mahayoga 2. ལང་^་་ག Annuyoga 3.མན'ངག་«་ཏ་ཡ་ག Atiyoga


Inner offering. An offering in mantrayana practice related to the secret initiation.

ནང་འག I

The initiations of entering into a mandala. The process of initiation of placing the disciples into the mandala of the deity by opening the curtain of the mansion. This involves entering the mandala from the eastern gate and making circumambulation of the deities, binding the disciples to oath, showing wisdom beings and stabilizing the disciples inseparable from the commitment being and wisdom being, throwing flowers by reciting verses of truth, and choosing the lord of the Buddha family and the offering of flowers for auspicious reasons and connection.

ནང1ང་བ་ད། I

Adhyatma sunyata/ Internal emptiness. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug); the lack of the true and independent existence of objects conjoined with consciousness, such as the cognitive eye power, and so forth.


Internal matter. Something which is composed of internal matter, e.g. such as the sense faculties.



The five initiations of inner yoga practice. The initiations that are gateways to mahayoga tantra practice in the Nyingma

tradition. For those with potentials to fulfill one's purposes: 1. ཉན་དབང་། initiation to listen 2. "Iམ་དབང་། initiation to meditation. For those with potentials to fulfill the goals of others; 3. འཆད་དབང་། initiation to teach 4. ན་དབང། initiation to perform the activities. For those with potentials to fulfill the goals of both self and others: 5. ་་ལ་པཀའ་རབ་འམས་་དབང་། the Vajraraja's precious word initiation.


A Buddhist. One who accepts the Buddha, Dharma and Saiigha as the ultimate objects of refuge and protection.


The Buddhist tenet. A philosophy that accepts the Three Jewels as the perfect object of refuge and the four seals of Buddhist doctrine (see lta-ba bkar-btags kyi phyag-rgya-bzhi).


The Nang Dzod scarf. A traditional offering scarf of a great quality depicting a design of auspicious symbols and writings.



Niguma; Yogini Niguma The principal lama and meditational deity of the master Khyungpo Naljor, the founder of the Shangpa Kagyud lineage.



The six doctrines of Yogini Niguma. The transmission of tantric practice that comes from Niguma. 1. གམ་མ་བད་$ད་རང་ འབར| self-ignition of bliss through the yoga of psychic heat 2. ^ས་4གས་3ང་རང་^། self-liberation from attachment and hatred through the yoga of the illusory body 3. ་ལམ'ང་འ0ལ་ རང་དག incineration of wrong conceptions through the yoga of dreams 4. ད་གསལ་གཏ མག་རང་གསལ། self-awakening from ignorance through the yoga of clear light 5. འ་བ་མ་བ^མས་སངས་

ས། full awakening without meditation through the yoga of consciousness transference 6. བར་ད་ལ་བ་ལངས་^། meditation on the Sambhogakaya Buddha through the yoga of the intermediate state of rebirth.



The eight types of inherent powers. The eight different powers of medicines rooted in their elemental composition. 1-2. |་བ་དང་|མ་བགས་ས་^་ནད་ལ་བ། heavy and oily, powerful for wind disease. 3-4. བལ་བ་དང་^ལ་བ་གསས་མ་^ས་ནད་ལ་བ། coolness and dullness, for Pe diseases. 5-8. ཡང་བ་དང་^བ་བཆ་བ་ ན་བ་བ5ས་བ^་པས་བད་་^ན་3་ནད་^་བ| lightness, roughness, hot and sharpness, for phiegm.



The seven secondary jewels; the seven secondary precious objects. 1. ལ་་^་ཆ། a king's ear ring 2. བཙན་་^་ཆ། a queen's ear ring 3.9ན་པའ་^་ཆ། a minister's ear ring 4. ནར་བ་མག་ གསམ། the three-eyed jewel 5. བས་རའ་ར,! a rhinoceros horn 6.3་ ར་^ང་། a coral branch 7.3ང་ན་མ'བ། an elephant's tusk.


A. The three principles. The principal psycho-physical discipline to be maintained in the leap-over (thod-rgal) system of rDzogs-chen meditation. 1. བཙའ་བལས་་གནད'་གསམ་3་བ3གས་ ^ངས་གསམ་ལས་་ག་བ། stillness as the principle of the body seated in the manners of three kayas 2. འ6ད'བདངས''གནད་| གསམ་་གཟགས་^ངས་^་འགལ་བ། guidance as the principle of absorption in reality immutable from the manner of looking into three kayas 3. ^་བ་^ལ་་གནད་ད་;ས་རག་་འལ་^ང་^་དལ་བར་ ^ད་པ། appearance as the principle of the object of meditation inseparable from primordial awareness and reality, and maintaining a gentle pace of the flow of energy wind. B. The three essential practices. 1. 3(ང་བ་མས་ས་|བ'པ། taking all

appearances as the (nature of) mind 2. w|"མར་|བ'པ| taking mind as illusory 3. |་མ་རང་བ^ན་ད་པར་|བ་པ།taking all illusories as lacking inherent existence.


A. Thunder and lightning B. An adamantine vajra, normally a discovered treasure-object of metal that has a soothing sound when beaten with a shadowy dark metal, unbeatable by other metals. Powerful for clearing hindrances and curing insanity.


The ten qualities of a resident teacher or guru. 1. བན་པ། he is stern/firm 2. མཁསཔ། he is wise 3. ལསཐ་མལད་གནསཔ། he abides in his ordinary physical form 4. ས་རང་བ^ན་་གནས་པ། he is constantly aware of his vows and commitments 5. ་^་དང་^ན་ པ། he is compassionate 6. བཟད་པ་དང་་^ན་པ། he is patient 7. ནང་ འར་དག་པ། he has a close circle of disciples 8. ཆས་ས་པན་ འགས་པ། he benefits others with teachings 9. ཟང་ཟང་ས་པན་ འགས་པ། he benefits others with material gifts 10. ས - གདམས་ པ། he gives instructions in time of need.


The eight stages; the eight stages of the dissolution of elements and minds at death according to tantra. 1-4. ས་་མ་ (5ང་། the earth into water, water into fire, fire into wind, wind into consciousness 5. དཀར་ལམ། consciousness into the mind of radiant white appearance 6. དམར་ལམ། radiant white into the the mind of radiant red 7. ནག་ལམ། radiant red into mind of black near-attainment 8. ^ང་བ། འད་གསལ། near-attainment into clear light mind.


The twenty-five occasions of mental impulses; the twenty-five principles. 1. བ་བ། sukha/ happiness 2. ^ག་བ^ལ། duhkha/ suffering 3. བཏང^མས། upeksa/ indifference 4. ང་ང། alpa/

weak 5. འང'1 madhya/ moderate 6. ཆན་པ། brhat/ strong 7. ^ བ། kusala/ virtuous 8. མ་དག་བ། akuSala/ non-virtuous 9. "pr བ^ན། avyakrta/unspecified 10. ཐས་པ། Sruta/ hearing 11. W པ། cinta/ contemplation 12. §མ'པ། bhavana/ meditation 13. ལ་^མས་་བ^བ་པ། Silaiiksa/ training in morality 14. ཏང་ང་^་ ་བ་^བ་པ! samadhi siksa/ training in concentration 15. ཤས*བ3་ བ3བ'པ། prajna siksaV raining in wisdom 16. ། bahya/ the external 17. ནང་། adhyatmika/the internal 18. གཟང་བ། grahya/ the object of perception 19. འན་པ། grahita/ the object perceiver 20. *5ང'བ། prahana/ the abandonment 21. གཉན་པ། pratipaksa/ antidotes 22. མངན་ར། pratyaksa/ manifest 23. 3ར། paroksa/hidden 24. དས། hetuhkala/causal 25. འས^ phalam kala/ resultant.


The four states; the four states of experiencing objects through the six-fold consciousnesses following the maturation of energy channels, energy winds and essential drops in the human body. 1. གད་འ^ག་་གནས་བས། deep sleep state 2. i\ 0་མ་་གནས་$་བས། dream state 3. སད་པ་གནས་བས། awakening state 4. ^མས་འག་ག་གནས་^བས། absorption in a dormant state.


The four periods of endurance of this universe. 1.1གས2!ན། the perfected aeon (see bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan). 2. བ་^ལ་བགསམ་-་་ན། the three-fold aeon (see bskal-pa gsum-ldan) 3. བ^ལ་བགས^། the two-fold aeon (see bskal-pa gnyis ldan). 4. ^ན་་བའ་་པ། the quarrelsome period.

གནས་འ^ར་མ^ར་^ན་པ་གསམ། The three types of perfect transformation. 1. ལ་སམས''གན«་་ འ3ར། attainment of cessation as the transformation of mind 2. ལམ་་གནས་འ3ར། the transformation of paths 3. ས་་གནས འ3ར། the transformation of wisdom. 1


Dausthulya/ The compulsive obtainment; taking unfortunate rebirth; bad rebirth. Being born in adverse circumstances.


The five points; the five points of one's body for visualization of the object of meditation. 1. |བ། crown 2. མགན་པ། throat 3. fl heart 4. ^'བ1 navel 5. གསང་གནས། secret organ


The five holy places. The five holy places in this universe for Buddhist followers. 1. ཡལ་དས་་གར་་་གདན། Bodhgaya of

<"V Cv -v -\

India in the centre 2. ཤར་་ར་བ་^་། the Five-peaked mountaln (Mt. Wu-te'i) in the east 3. ་་ཏ་ལ། Potala palace in the south 4. བ་་་-*7་ཡ་ན། Oddiyana in the west 5. 3ང་་ཤ"|་ལ། Sambhala in the north.


Sthavira; An Elder. A sehior monk who has completed at least ten years of training as a fully ordained monk, and h_ gained mastery over the theory and practice of a monk's discipline, and thus is authorized to give the novice and full ordination vows to others.


The sixteen Arhats; the sixteen saints to whom Buddha Sakyamuni entrusted his doctrine. 1. ཡན་ལག་འ3ང་། Arigaja 2. མཔམཔ། Ajita3.ནགས་ནགནས! Vanavasiri4.5ས་ན| Kalika5.^ ་་། Vajriputra 6. བཟང་། Bhadra 7. གར་་བའ། Kanakavatsa 8. if ར་་-^་གར་ཙན། Kanaka Bharadvaja 9. བ་་ལ། Bakula 10. ^ན་འན། Rahula 11. ལམ་ན་བ^ན། Cudapanthaka 12. ?ར་^་བད1མས་ན། Pindola Bharadvaja 13. ལམ་ན་བ^ན། Mahapanthaka 14.^1 Nagasena 15. |ད་ད། Gopaka 16. ་ 3ད་པ། Abheda.


Sthaviravada. The School of Elders. One of the four main schools of the Hinayana order. There are three sub-schools within this school which are: 1. $ལ་§ད་ཆལ་ན་གནས་པ། Jetavaniyah 2. འགས་ད་རལ་གནས་པ། Abhayagiri vasinah 3. གཙག་ལག་ཁང་ན་ན་གནས་པ། Mahaviharavasinah.


The hine objects of reliance. 1. ^ན་པ། teacher 2. ཆས། Dharma 3.ད་འན། Sahgha 4. ^བ་དན། acarya 5. མཁན་། abbot 6.3་མ1 one's master 7. གནས། residence 8. གང་ཟག person 9. ཡལ། environment.


Aeon of endurance. The period of twenty intermediate aeons since the formation of the universe until the beginning of its destruction. It begins with the rebirth of a being born in the most heinous hell reaim and lasts till the end of the teaching of the last of the thousand Buddhas to appear in this uhiverse.


Vatsiputriya school. One of the eighteen sub-schools of the Vaibhasika school of thought that asserts the existence of an inexpressible self, that is neither permanent nor impermanent; neither one nor separate from the five aggregates.



The unchanging ground. According to the Nyingma tradition this refers to the eighth ground attained at the level of the fifth yoga, where a Bodhisattva's absorption in the inseparability of primordial wisdom and reality is immutably established.


A. Yaksat harmful spirit; demons. B. A god of wealth.


Capturing, destroying and dispelling. The yogic practice of exorcism which involves f མནན་པ། capturing, གན་གསབ^གས་ པ། burning and གཏར་ཟར་འཔངས་པ། expelling an evil spirit who is harming the practice of dharma.


Avici hell; the hell without-respite. The hottest of the hot hells, migration to which is a result of committing any of the five heinous crimes (see mtshams-med lnga).


The nine types of grudges or ill-will. The feeling that one's enemy has harmed, is harming and would harm onself; has harmed, is harming and would harm their friends; and has helped, is helping and would help another enemy.


The one hundred and ten aspects of the omniscient mind. 1-37. ཉན་རང་དང་3ན་ང་བ་^མ་པ་ང་གས་་བན| the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment common to Hearers and Solitary realizers (see byang-phyogs so bdun) 38-71.3ང་མས'དང་5ན་མང་ བའ་^མ་པ་ས་བ^། thirty-four aspects common to Bodhisattvas (see byang-sems-dang thun-mongs-ba' i mam-pa so-bzhi) 72-110. ^མ་མ།ན་་3ན་ང་མ་ན་བ་^མ་པ་སདག thirty-nine aspects exclusive to the omniscient mind (see sangs-rgyas-kyi thun-mongs ma-yin-pa'i mam-pa so-dgu).

^མ་མ|ན་|ནམ་པ་སམ་3་ས'བ ང་སམས་དང^ན་

མང་བ་^མ་པ་ས་བ ང་^བ'སམས་དཔའ་ལ་05ད'པ'


The thirty-four aspects of the omniscient mind. 1 -3. ^མ་ཐར་! གསམ། tri vimoksamukha/ the three doors of emancipadon (see rnam-thar sgo-gsum) 4-6. ^ལ^མ་གསམ། tri nirmana marga/ the

three paths of emanation (see sprul-pa'i lam-gsum) 7-11. *^ང་ ^ས་བར་གནས་་ལམ^་། pafica drstidharma sukhathita/ the five paths bestowing peace in this life (see mthong-chos bde-gnas-kyi lam-lnga) 12-20. འ1ག་^ན་ལས་འདས་པ་ལམ་དག nava lokottaramarga/ the nine transcendental paths (see thar-gyis gnas-pa'i snyoms-'jug dgu) 21-24. ང་བ་ལམ་གསའ་་མ^། the four forbearances with the reality (chos-bzod bzhi) of the four noble truths (see mthong-lam shes-bzod skad-cig-ma bcu-drug).

*མ་མ0ན་| *མ་པ་ས་དག


Thirty-nine qualities of the omniscient mind (see sans-rgyas-kyi thun-mong ma-yin-pa'i rnam-pa so-dgu).


The ten topics that characterize the omniscient mind. 1. ་་^ས བད། the generation of the mind of enlightenment 2. གདམས ངག the Mahayana instruction 3. ངས་འད་ཡན་ལག་བ^། the four limbs of definite analysis of the Mahayana path of preparation 4. ^ག་ ཆན་|བ་པ་^ན་རང་བ^ན་གནས་གས། the naturally abiding Buddha nature that is the basis for achieving Mahayana path 5. ཐག་ཆན' |བ་པའདགས་པ། the objects of Mahayana paths 6. ཐག་ན་|བཔ་ ཆད་ད་་བ། objectives of the Mahayana paths 7. ག་ཆ་|བ་པ། achievement through armour-like practices 8. འ|ག་|པ། achievement through engagement in the Bodhisattva practices 9. གས་བ! achievement through the collection of merit and wisdom 10. ངས་འ3ང་§|བ་པ། the definitely arising achievement.

^མ་^ར་ར་གསམ། I

The twenty-three principles. According to the Sariikhya school of Hindu philosophy one is born in cyclic existence because of being ignorant of these principles. 1.
five mere phenomena (see de-tsam lnga) 19-23. འང་བ་?".] the five elements (see 'byung-ba lnga).


Nominally imputed phenomena. One of the two imputed phenomena (see kun-brtags gnyis), the generic image (see don-spyi) of thoughts and the clear appearances of nonexistent phenomena


Paryaya paramartha/ The nominal ultimate. There are two: 1. ^་་^མ་5།ངས་པ་ན་དམ། the nominal ultimate object, e.g. conglomerate matter of a vase 2. ཡལ་ཙན་་ནམ་གངས་པ་ན་དམ། the nominal ultimate object perceiver, e.g. the inferential understanding of emptiness.


The actual ultimate. There are two: 1. ཡལ་^མ་གངས་མ^ན་པའ དན་དམ! the actual ultimate object, e.g. the emptiness of true existence of a vase 2. ཡལ་*ན་་$མ་གངས་མ་ན་པ'ན་དམ། the actual ultimate object perceiver, e.g. the concentration of an Arya who comprehends that emptiness.


Vimuktimarga/ Path of thorough liberation. A path of single-pointed concentration in which the practitioner gains a cessation through abandoning the particular object of elimination.


Saihkalpa/ vikalpa A. Conceptual cognition; imagination B. Suspicion; superstition. C. Idea; thought.


The four conceptualizations; the four thoughts. A. གཟང་^ག་

གས། the two conceptions of grasping at objects. 1. ན་མངས གཟང་^ག grasping at deluded phenomena 2. $མ་3ང་ག!ང1ག grasping at purified phenomena B. འན་་7ག'གས། The two conceptions of grasping at the subject. 1. !ས་འན་^ག་པ། grasping at substantial phenomena 2. བཏགས་འ^ན་^ག་པ། grasping at imputed phenomena


The three doors of emancipation; the three types of concentrations for liberation. 1. ^མ་པར་ཐར་པ་^་ང་པ་ད། sUnyata vimoksamukha/ emancipation through emptiness 2. མཆན་མ་མད་པ། animitta vimoksamukha/ emancipation through signlessness 3. ^ན་པ་མད་པ། pranihita vimoksamukha/ emancipation through wishiessness.


The eight emancipations. A. གཟགས་་^མ་པར་ཐར་བགསམ། The three emancipations within the form realm: 1. གཟགས་ཙན་གཟགས་


ལ་བ་བའ་^མ་ཐར། emancipation of one with body looking at a form 2. གཟགས་ད་གཟགས་ལ་བ་བ་^མ་ཐར། emancipation of one without form body looking at a form 3. ^ག་པའ་^མ་ཐར། emancipation through beautiful form B. གཟགས་ད་་ནམ་པར་ཐར་ tnfl The five emancipations within the formless realm: 1. ནམ་ མཁའ་མ^ས་་ནམ་^ར། emancipation of infinite space 2. ^མ་ ཤས་མཐའ་ཡས་་^མ་ཐར། emancipation of infinite consciousness 3. ^ང་ད་་^ར། emancipation of nothingness 4. ^ད་^་ ནམ་ཐར། emancipation of the peak of existence 5. འགག་པའནམ་ ཐར། emancipation of cessation.


The six pledges concerning Vairocana. 1-3. ལ^མས^མགསམ ཉམས་ས་ལན་པ། practice of the three types of morality (see tshul-khrims rnam-gsum) 4-6. དཀན་མཆག་གསམ་ལ་^བས་ས་འག་བ། taking refuge in the Three Jewels.


The seven-fold posture of Buddha Vairocana; the seven physical disciplines to be maintained during a formal meditation in Buddhist practice. 1. ་^ང་བ^ལ་ང། sitting cross-legged 2. ལག'པ'མ9མ་བ(^ག hand in the gesture of equipoise— the right hand lying palm upward on the upturned left hand 3. 2|ལ་£ག་5ང་པ་བ3ང་བ། a straight back 4. མགན་བ^ང་ཟད་གག་པ། neck bent slightly forward 5. དངབགལ་^རབ^སཔ། ག་^་5རཔབ་པ། shoulders straight like a yoke 6. མག་3་་5ར་པབ་པ། eyes looking at the tip of the nose 7. ་3་5་ཡ་^ན་ལ་|ར་བ། tongue touching the upper palate.


The four absolute purities. 1. ཡལ་དག་པ། purity of object 2. ཡལ ཅན་དག་པ། punty of object perceiver 3. ག་པ་དག་པ། purity of thought 4. ས་པ་དག་པ། purity of mind.


The thoroughly moving energy-wind; the intensely moving wind. The energy-wind for cognitive faculties of hearing; one of the five secondary wind energies (see yan-lag-gi rlung lnga).


Panca viSuddha hetavah/ The five causes of purity. 1. ལམ་དངས་ ངས་ས་དག་པ། total punty of the path 2. ར་བ^གསངས་སདག་པ། total purity of the preparatory stage 3. ^མ་པར^ག་པས་མ^སཔ། lack of conceptual concoction 4. ན་པས་ཡངས་ས་ཟན་པ། total mindfulness 5. མ/ངན་ལས་འདས་པར་བ-^ས་པ། dedication towards nirvana


Avipaka ekaksanika prayoga/ Non-fruitional momentary training. The yogic practice of a Bodhisattva which is the

wisdom directiy opposing the obstructions to omniscience and which in actualizing the non-contaminated, non-matunng dharma, also actualizes the other concordant dharmas, all in the space of one instant (i.e. the 1 /60th of a finger snap).


Vipaka ekaksanika prayoga/ Fruitional momentary training. The yogic practice of a Bodhisattva, which is the wisdom directly opposing the obstructions to omniscience, and which, in actualizing the non-contaminated, maturing dharma, also actualizes the other concordant dharmas, all in the space of one instant (i.e. the l/60th of a finger snap).

མ་བར་རག་ད་་གཟགས། I

Vijnaptirupa/ Revelatory form. The physical or verbal expressions of a person's attitude or feeling.

^མ'པར་རག་3ད་མ'^ན་པ་ག|གས། I

Avijnaptirupa/ Non-revelatory form. For instance, the vows possessed by a Bhiksu while in deep sleep. There are five types: 1. འས'པ་ལས་3ར་པ། those arising from an aggregation of potential substance 2. མ་^ན་པར་བས་^ད་པ། those appearing only to a mental consciousness 3. ཡང་དག་པར་^ངས་བལས་^ར་པ། those arising from taking precepts 4. ན་བཏགསཔ། those arising from imputation 5. དབང་འར་བ། those arising from powers.



The seven-fold analysis of the emptiness of a chariot. To analyse whether: 1. གག་གམ། the chariot is one with its parts 2. ཐ་དད། the chariot is different from its parts 3.2་ན་པའམ། the chariot possesses its parts 4. ན་དང། the chariot is the parts dependent upon the chariot 5. བན་པ! the chariot is that which depends upon its parts 6. ^གས་པའམ། the chariot is a mere collection of its parts 7. ད3བས། the chariot is merely its shape.


Asta vaivadanikendriyani/ The eight purified mental faculties; the eight pure powers: 1. དད་པའ་དབངཔ། sraddhendriya/ the faculty of faith 2. བ5ན་འ3ས་་དབང་། viryendriya/ the faculty of virtuous efforts 3. ན་པའ་དབང་པ། smrtindriya/ the faculty of mindfulness 4. ཏངང'འ£ན་་དབངཔ། samadhrndriya/ the faculty

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of concentration 5. ཤས་རབ་་དབང་པ། prajnendriya/ the faculty of wisdom 6. ་ས་པ་ན་ས་པ་དབང་། anajnatam ajnasyam indriya/ the faculty of knowing all that is unknown 7. ན་ས་ བ་དབང་། ajnendriya/ the faculty of knowing all 8. ན་ས་པ་ དང-་^ན-པའདབང་པ། ajnatendriya/ the faculty of that which has the knowledge of knowing all.


The fifty-five topics of purified phenomena; the fifty-five classes of virtuous phenomena. 1 -6. |ད་པའ་ལམ་པར་ན་ག .e six perfections (see pha-rol-tu phyin-pa drug) as paths of practice 7-24. ་^བ་ལམ་ང་ད་བཙ་བ$ད། the eighteen

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emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bco-brgyad) 25-31. ^ལ་འ3ར་3་ ལམ་ང་གས་སབན། the thirty-seven limbs of enlightenment (see byang-phyogs so-bdun) 32. ^་གནས་་ལམ་འཔགསཔ་བན་པ་ བ^། the four noble truths (see 'phags-pa'i bden-pa bzhi) as paths of mental quiescence meditation 33. བསམ་གཏན་བ་^། the four meditative concentrations (see bsam-gtan bzhi) 34. ཆད' མད་བཞ! the four immeasurables (see tshad-med bzhi) 35. གཟགས་ད1མས་འ!ག་བ^། the four absorptions of the formless realm (see gzugs-med snyoms-'jug bzhi) 36. <^མ་ཐར་བད། the eight emancipations (see rnam-thar brgyad) 37. མཐར་ས་གནས་ པ་-་་་མས་པར་^ག་པ་དག the nine absorptions in series (see mthar-gyis gnas-pa'i snyoms-'jug dgu) 38. ག་མ^ང་ག་ལམ་^མ་ ཐར་^་གསམ! the three concentrations of the three doors of emancipation (see rnam-thar sgo-gsum) as paths of penetrative insight meditation 39. ན་ཏན་(2ད་པར'ཙན་3་ལམ་མན" ཤས་?་་། the five clairvoyances (see mngon-par shes-pa lnga) as

paths for higher qualities 40. ཏང་ང་འན་བ^། the four concentrations (see ting-nge 'dzin bzhi) 41. གཟངས་་^་བ་^། the four doors of retention (see gzungs-kyi sgo bzhi) 42. འསབའ་ ^མ་་^བས་བ^། the ten powers (see de-bzhin gshegs-pa'i stobs-bcu) as the resultant paths 43. ་འགས་པ་བ^། the four fearlessnesses (see mi-'jigs-pa bzhi) 44. སརཡང་དག་བག་བབ^། the four perfect specific understandings (see so-sor yang-dag rig-pa bzhi) 45.3མས་པ་ན་། great love 46, ང་་ན་། great

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compassion 47. &ས་མ་འས'པ་བ5་བད། the eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (see ma-'dres-pa bco-brgyad) 48-52. གང་ ཟག་^། the five aspirants to the above (see gang-zag-lnga) 53-55. མཐར1ག་'འ3ས་་གསམ། the three ultimate fruits (see mkhyen-gsurn) the basis, path and omniscient wisdom.


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The four types of purified phenomena 1. རང་བ^ན་3་^མ་3ང་། the

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natural purified phenomena 2. དམགས་པའ་^མ་ང་། purified phenomena of the object of meditation 3. *མ་དག་འམ་3བ་པ་ མ་ང་། purified practice 4. ཐབ་པའ་^མ་3ང་། purified attainment.


Vipaka hetu/ The ripening cause; maturing cause. All contaminated virtuous and non-virtuous karma


Vipaka phala/ The ripening results; the maturing fruits. One of the five types of results (see 'bras-bu-lnga); results of the contaminated virtues and non-virtues.

The eight qualities of fully ripened karma 1. ་ང་བ། long life 2. ཁ'ག'ན'སམ་1གས་པ| excellent features 3. ག«་་ན་སམ'1གས་པ། excellent family lineage 4. དབང་ག་ན་སམ་^གས་པ། excellent wealth and power 5. ག་བཅན་པ། respected speech 6. དབང་་བར་

3གས་པ། renowned authority 7. ^ས་པ་ན་པ། being a male 8. 3བསདང་2(ན་པ། strong will-power.


The training of the complete aspects. A Bodhisattva path or wisdom which meditates in a condensed way upon the hundred and seventy-three aspects of the three wisdoms of the basis, paths and omniscient mind. This wisdom exists from the Mahayana path of accumulation to the last instant of the path of meditation.


The eleven topics that characterize the training of the complete aspects. 1. ^མ་པ། aspects 2. ་§ར་བ། training 3. |ར'བའ' ཡན་ཏན། qualities of trainings 4. |ར'བའ'|ན། faults of trainings 5. ^ར་བའམ^ན་་ད། characteristics of trainings 6. ཐར་བཆ་མཐན། aids to liberation 7. ངས་འད་ཆ་མ-་^ན། aids to definite discrimination 8. ^བ་པ་ར་་^ག་པ་^གས། the irreversible


trainees 9. ས^་མཉམ་ཉད་^ར་བ! training in the sameness of


existence and peace 10. ཞང་དག'|ར'བ| training of the pure field 11.3བས་མཁས|ར་བ! training m skillful means.


The ten conceptual distractions; the ten mental wanderings: 1. དངས་ད་པར1ག་པ། conception of the lack of things 2. དས་ ད་པར1ག་པ། conception of the existence of things 3. |་ འགས པ་་^ག་པ། conception of exaggeration 4. ^ར་འབས་་^ག་པ། conception of underestimation 5. ག^ག་་-^ག་པ། conception of being one 6. ཐ་དད་་་7ག་པ། conception of being different 7. ང་་ ཉད་1ག'པ། conception of the identityness 8. 6ད'པར'་་7ག'པ| conception of being the qualities 9. ང་་^་བ་བ^ནད་^ག་པ། conception in accord with the name 10. དན་་^་་བ་བཞན་ད་ག་པ། conception in accord with the meaning.


The six types of distractions; six distractions towards sensual objects. 1. རང་བ^ན་་^མ་གང་ natural distraction 2. ་རལ་ཏ་^མ གཡང་། distraction towards outer objects 3. ནང་^མ་གཡང་། inner distraction 4. མཆན་མའ་གཡང་བ། distraction towards signs

(mtshan-ma) 5. གནས་ངན'ལན'3'གང་བ། distraction towards non-

». ^ ». ^ virtuous causes 6. ཡད་ལ་ད་པའ་གཡང་བ། obsessive-mental-distraction.


The five phenomena on the level of the aggregate of consciousness. 1. ན་*?ག་བད་§། the eighty indicative thoughts

2. If་བ་དཀར་ལམ་པའམས། the mind of radiant white appearance

3. མད་ཕདམར^མཔའམས། the mind of radiant red increase 4. 9ར་|བ་ནག་^མ་པ་མས། the mind of radiant black near attainment 5. འཆ་བ་ད་གསལ་་མས། the mind of the clear light of death.


Vijnananara/ Mental nourishment; food of consciousness. The energy of consciousnesses that assists the survival of a person's life.


The two types of consciousness; the two kinds of mind. 1. J 5ས་་$མ་ཤས། hetuhkala vijnana/ causal consciousness 2. ་་་་-བས་

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དས་་-^མ་ཤས། karyakala vijnana/ resultant consciousness. ^མ^ས-འཔ-བ་བ་ག་དག

Nava vijnana sanikranti mukhah/ The nine orificies for consciousness transference. 1. ཚངས་བག brahmarandhra/ crown of the head 2. |ན་མཆམས། uma/ between the eyes 3. ག caksu/ eyes 4. ^་བ། kama/ ears 5. %\ ghrana/ nose 6. ཁ། mukha/

mouth 7. Tབ། nabhi/navel 9. ་ལམ། mutramarga/urethra 10. བཤངལམ། varcomarya/anus.


The eight groups of consciousness; the eight consciousnesses. 1. ^ག་ག་^མ་པར་ཤས་པ། caksu vijnanam/ eye consciousness 2. % པ་^མ་པརས་པ། Srotra vijnanam/ ear consciousness 3. ^་^མ་ པར་^ས་པ། ghraha vijnanam/ nose consciousness 4. ^་འ་^མཔར་

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ཤས་པ1 jihva vijnanam/ tongue consciousness 5. ལས་^མ་པར་

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ཤས་པ! kaya vijnanam/ body consciousness 6. ཡད་་^མ་པརཤས་ པ། mano vijnanam/ mental consciousness 7. ཉན་ཡད་^མ་པར་ཤས་ པ། klesa vijnanam/ afflictive consciousness 8. ན་ག^མ་པར་ •^སཔ། alaya vijnanam/ foundational consciousness, the mental basis of all.


Meat free from the three objections. Any meat or flesh of an animal that one has not seen, heard or even suspected to have been killed for oneself.


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Panca yogibhumayah/ The five yogic stages. 1. གཞའ་ས! the basic stage 2. བད་པའས། the generated stage 3. ་ང་་་ས། the mirror-like stage 4. !་ང་བའ་ས། the luminous stage 5. གནས་ བའ་ས། the stage of abidance.



Yoga tantra. The third of the four classes of tantras that stresses the importance of internal activities, i.e. meditation rather than external or physical practices.

*ལ་འ9ར་3ད་་དམ་£ག་བ3་བ| The fourteen commitments related to Yoga tantra. 1-3. མཆག་ གསམ^་^བས་ས-བ^ན-པ-་ད་བ^ན་གགས-པ་རགས་-ས། refuge in

the Three Jewels, as the three commitments related to the

Tathagata family 4-6. ་་དང། ལ་འག་་དང་། བ་དན་བཟང་བ་? ^|་$གས-'དམ!ག"གསམ། commitment of accepting vajra, bell and acarya, as the three commitments related to the Vajra family 7-10. ཆས་དང་། ཟང་ཟང་དང་། ་འགས་པ་དང་། མས་པ|ན་བ་

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རན་£ན་རགས་་དམ་4ག་བ^། practicing the giving of dharma, material possession, protection from fear and love, as the four

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commitments related to the Ratna family 11-13.3་3|དང་། ནང་ $ལ་འ3ར་ད'དང'། ཐག་པ་གསམ་3་1ས་འན་པ་^་པད་མ་གས་་དམ'<1ག་ གསམ། accepting the outer action tantra, inner yoga tantra, and the dharma of the three vehicles, as the three commitments related to the Padma family 14. མ1ད་པ་ལས་ལ་བ£ན་པ་ལས་་ རགས་་དམ་^ག་ག^ག་་^བ་གས་་དམ་^ག striving in the activities of offering service, as the commitment related to the Karma family.



Sapta yoga tantra abhisekha/ The seven initiations of Yoga tantra. 1. ་ཏག་ང་བ་དབང་། initiation of the flower garland 2. ་དབང་། water initiation 3. ཙད་པ^་་དབང་། crown initiation 4. ་དབང་། vajra initiation 5. ལ་་དབང་། bell initiation 6. ང་་ དབང་། name initiation 7. ་£་|བ་དན་་དབང་! vajracarya initiation.


The five families of Yoga tantra. 1. སངས་ས་་གས། Buddha family 2. ་1་གས། Vajra family 3. ན་ན་་གས། Jewel family 4. པད་མ་གས། Lotus family 5. ལས་་གས། Action family.



The four seals according to the Yoga tantra system. 1. ག་ཆན། mahamudra/ the great seal 2. དམ་། samayamudra/ the pledge seal 3. ཆས་$། dharmamudra/ the dharma seal 4. ལས་5། karmamudra/ the action seal.


The five stages of yoga. According to the Anuyoga teaching of the Nyingma tradition there are five stages of yoga within the five paths. 1.1གས་ལམ་འན'བམས་་^ལ་འ§ར། the yoga of an aspirational mind of enlightenment on the path of accumulation 2. ར་ལམ་གས་ན་འད་པའ^ལ་འར། the yoga of distinguishing great families on the path of preparation 3. མཐང་ ལམ་དགས་ན་འན་པ་^ལ་འར། the yoga of releasing great breadth on the path of seeing 4. བ^མ་ལམ་^ང་ན་ཐབ་པ་^ལ་འར། the yoga of obtaining great oral transmission on the path of meditation 5. ་3བ་ལམ་5ལ་ན་|གས་པ་^ལ་འར། the yoga of perfecting great skills on the path of no-more learning.


Yogi pratyaksa/ Yogic bare perception; yogic direct cognition. The non-mistaken, non-conceptual mind of an Arya which arises in dependence upon its exclusive condition; the union of mental quiscence and penetrative insight.


Anuttarayoga tantra/ The highest yoga tantra The highest of the four classes of tantra which stresses the supreme importance of inner activity, regardless of the purificatory practices of external activities.


Yogi/ A Yogi; an adept. In its loose sense it is applied to any male practitioner, in contrast to a female practitioner who is known as a Yogini (rnal-'byor-ma).


The four yogas. The four stages of Mahamudra meditation according to the Kagyud tradition. 1. མས'ལ'དགསབ£'གག་་ གཏད་པས་
upon one's mind 2. མས་5ས་3ལ་་^གས་པས3ས་ལ་་^1 yoga free of conceptual elaborations lacking any entertainment of thoughts upon one's mind 3. ^ང་^མསར^ ་^གས་པས་ར་ག5ག་ག་^ར། y0ga of single-taste experiencing the inseparability of appearances and mind 4. མཆན་བ^'^*" ་ད་པས་^མ་ད་་^འར། yoga without meditation free of any signs.


The three yogic grounds. 1. གང་ཟག་་བདག་ད་^གས་པ་^ལ་^^ ས། the yogic ground realizing the selflessness of persons 2. གང་འ!ན་གས་^ང་^ས་པ་^་འར་་ས། the yogic ground

realizing the non-duality of subject and object 3. བདན་^ས པའ་^ལ་འར་་ས། the yogic ground realizing the lack of true existence of phenomena.

^ལ་མ་^ང་སམས། M

The subtle wind and mind of reality. The wind energy and mind inherent in the body of a person; the primordial wind energy and intuitive awareness.

*!་འགའ|ད'པ་དག་བསན། 1

A lay-person observing only some vows. One of the four nominally ordained lay persons (see dge-bsnyen btags-pa-ba bzhi) observing two or three precepts.

^གག|ད་པ:དག་བསན། 1

A lay-person observing only one vow. One of the four nominally ordained lay persons (see dge-bsnyen btags-pa-ba bzhi) observing oniy one of the precepts.

Visva vajra/ The multiple vajra A ritual implement (vajra) with three, five or more spokes.


The inseparability of appearance and emptiness. The indivisibility of appearing objects as the method and emptiness as the wisdom; thus a unity of the two from the object's side.



The seven conceptions (see snang-ba rnam-bdun). ^ང་བ་བ^་བ/མ།

The symbolic guru. One's own teacher who is the symbol of reality or total enlightenment.


The three-fold appearances; the three types of visions according to the Path and Fruit teachings of the Sakya tradition (see snang-gsum).


The seven deceptive conceptions; the seven appearances. 1. མ/ ལམ། like a dream 2. |མ། like an illusion 3.1ག*། like a mirage 4. Jབན། like an echo 5. ག!གས་བན། like a reflection in a mirror 6.5་ཟའ་གང་།3ར། like a city of smell-eaters (bar-do) 7.||ལ་བ། like a hallucination.


The four types of experiences. The experiences attained as a result of practicing rDzogs-chen meditation covering the experiences from the path of a trainee to the path of no-more learning. 1. ཆས་ཉད་མངན་སམ་་^ང་བ། the experience of seeing reality directly 2. ཉམས་^ང་གང་འལ་་||ང་བ| the experience of advancing in one's spiritual development 3. རག་^་ཆད་པབས་་་^ང་ བ། the experience of reaching a correct realization of the intuitive awareness (rig-pa) 4. ཆས་ཟད་|་འདས་་3ང་བ| the

experience of the total withdrawal of all phenomena into the sphere of intrinsic awareness (rig-pa) beyond imagination.


Inattentive perception. One of the seven perceptions (see blo-rigs bdun) which an object, though it appears clearly, is not properly discerned, e.g. reception of sound to an ear consciousness while one's eye consciousness is totally absorped in observing a beautiful form.


The purity of appearance and existence. The appearance of everything in its pure nature; a yogic way of experiencing phenomena


Self-liberation from the world of appearances. One who has gained liberation from this impure world.


The Three visions; the three basic paths. A Preliminary practice of the Path and Fruit teachings of the Sakya tradition, (see snang-gsum). B. Three types of visions: 1. མདག་པའ་^ང་བ། the impure visions 2. ^ལ'འར་ཉམས''3ང་བ། the pure visions of yogic experience 3. དག་པའ་^ང་བ། the pure vision.


The three faults of a receptacle; the three faults to be removed while listening to a discourse. 1. ^བ་་གཏད་ཁ|བ'་|ན། fault of not paying attention to the teachings like a pot turned upside down 2. ད་ལ'་འན་^བས་ལ་་|ན། fault of not retaining the teachings in one's mind like a pot which is leaking 3. ན་ངས་དང་འསདག་ཙན་^|ན། fault of having a deluded mind like a dirty or poisonous vessel.


The three Pala kings. The three kings of the Pala dynasty in ancient India—Sadhupala, Gunapala and Prajnapala; the three principal followers of Indian Acarya Pandita Dharmapala, who was invited by Guge King Yeshe Od of the Ngari region of Tibet during the early eleventh century. His three disciples also came with him and worked for the revival of Buddhism in Tibet.


Padma/ Lotus. It symbolizes the purity of a Bodhisattva's motive, just as a lotus blooms unblemished upon the mire of a swamp, a Bodhisattva remains in cyclic existence without being polluted by its negative aspects. The white lotus in particular symbolizes the pure nature of discriminative wisdom analyzing the nature of reality.

པད་མ་འང་གནས། M

Padmasambhava. The great Indian Acarya who brought the tantric teachings to Tibet in the eighth century. He founded Samye monastery and propagated the tantric form of Buddhism in Tibet.

པ/*!་ར་ན་1་བད། 1

The eight treatises of Vasubandhu; the eight Prakaranas. 1. མད་^་3ན་9་བཤད་པ1 Sutralarhkara bhasya/ Commentary on the Ornament of Discourses 2. དས་མཐའ་མ་འད་་ བཤད་པ། Madhyantavibhahgatika/ Commentary on the Distinction Between the Middle Way and the Extreme Way 3. ས་-fད་མ་འད་་བཤད་པ། Dharma dharmatavibhaiiga vitti/ Commentary on the Distinguishing the Phenomena and its Reality 4. མ་ཅ་པ་ག་ལའར་ས་པ། Trirhsika karika/ The Thirty Verses (on Cittamatra) 5. 9'་པ'ག་ལའར་ I ས'པ! Vinisika karika/ The Twenty Verses 6. པང་་^་རབ་ ད| Panca skandhaprakarana/ The Chapter on the Five Aggregates 7. མ་བཤད་རག་པ། Vyakhyayukti/ The Thorough Exposition 8. ལས་^བ་པ་རབ་་ད་པ། The Chapter on Establishing the Law of Karma

དབག་^ད། I

Yojana. A. According to the Abhidharma tradition it is a measurement of length equal to eight krosa (see gyang-grags), equal to 500 armspans. B. According to the KalacaLu measurement, four fingernails long becomes a cubit (see khru), four cubits equals an armspan, two thousand armspans equals one gyang-dak (see rgyang-grags), and four gyang-dak equals one yojana (see dpag-tsad).


The state of glorious Samantabhadra. The state of Buddhahood according to Nyingma tradition, the entity of the

three kayas (see sku-gsum) and five wisdoms (se ye-shes-lnga).


Srimat vajradhara/ The glorious Vajra master. Vajra master in the secret mantra tradition fulfilling six qualities: 1. འཁར་བའ་ 4ས་$བ་་དར་བ། one who has fully renounced samsaric concerns 2. འད་པ་ང་་གང་^ག་ས་པ། one who is content with few desires 3. ལག་ལན་ལ་མཁས་ང་ཉམས་^ང་ད་པ། one who is

•v K, V

experienced in practice and ritual activities 4. ད་་ཆག་དན་ལ་ མཁས་ང་1|བ་པ་ལ་མ|ན་པ། one who is knowledgeable of tantric treatises, can explain their literal and implied meaning, and is devoted to practice 5. ^་བ་ན་ལ་མཁསང་ནས་པ་^གསཔ། one who is learned in the meaning of the right view and fully accomplished in it 6. ང་་་^ང་གཏང་བ་ལ་དགའ་བ། one who is highiy compassionate and generous.


The eight adornments of a Tantric Yogi. 1. |གཙག་་་འ3ར་་་ <3ད་པའ་<£ས། a half vajra on his crown is a sign of the immutability of his goals 2. ཁམས་གསམ་ཟལ་གནན་§ང་ལརལ་པའ*ས། his matted hair is a sign of outshining the three realms 3. §' འལ་3གས་2(ན་ཐབས་ས་གག་པ་ཆས། the wings of method and wisdom are a sign of his miraculous powers 4. པ་རལ་དང་ འ£མས་3ག་མཆན་£གས་་*ས། the different hand mudras (gestures) are a sign of overcoming the opponent forces 5. ག^ན་སམ་^བ་བས^ང་བ་ག་་^བ་ཆས། his armour protects him against harms caused by others 6. ཉམ་ང་ན་ལ་-?ག་ད་ར་2་ན་ཆས། he wears the skins of different beings as a sign of his freedom from all fears 7. འར་འདས1མས་་3ག་ག^ག་'མ1་*ས། he uses blood and animal fat freely as a sign of his realizations of the sameness of existence and peace 8. ན་ངས་ཀན་བ^གས་བ་^ལ་པ་ མ་དང་ཆས། he uses fire freely as a sign of his freedom from all delusions.


Heroes and Heroines. The male and female practitioners residing in the celestial heavens; more loosely used for male and female tantric practitioners.


The eight-fold laughs of a Hero. 1. ^་བ^གས་པའ^ད་། Ha-Ha the frightening laugh 2. ^་དས་པ་^ད་། Hi-Hi the pleasing laugh 3. ^་^ག་པ་^ད་། Heh-Heh the majestic laugh 4. f$ ཟལ་ས་གནན་པ་གད་། Ho-Ho the subduing laugh.


The four kinds of warriors. 1. ^ང་བ་དམག hasti kaya/ those fighting on elephants 2. ་^་དམག aSva kaya/ those fighting on horses 3. ང^་དམག ratha kaya/ those fighting on chariots 4. ^ང་ཐང་་དམག parti kaya/ those who fight on foot.



The nine examples; the nine illustrations to prove the existence of Buddha nature within the mental stream of all sentient beings. 1. པད་མའནང་་སངས་ས། a Buddha in a lotus 2. |ང་£་ནང་་3ང་མ། bees in the honeycomb 3. §ན་3་ནང་་ང་། grain in the husk 4. ་གཙང་ནང་གར། gold in a rubbish heap 5. ས་ག་་གཏར། treasure beneath the earth 6. མ^་ལས་འ^ས་་་བའ 5ས་པ། the potential in a seedling to produce fruit 7. གས་$ལ་ནང་ ་ལབ་། a statue of Buddha wrapped in dirty rags 8. ད་ད་ ངན-པ་-ནང་ག་འར་ས་བ|རབ་^་པ་^། a universal long in the

■» V ft. cv -\

womb of an ugly woman 9. ས་འག་ག་རན་ཆན། a precious object buried in the ground.


Asityanuvyanjanani/ The eighty minor marks of a Buddha 1. ན་་ཟངས་་མག his nails are copper-coloured 2. ན་མག་ |མ'ཅན། his nails are moderately shiny 3. སན་མ་མཐ་བ། his nails

are raised 4. རནམས་|མ་པ། his nails are round 5. ར་་^མས་ ས་པ། his nails are broad 6. ར་་^མས་ན་ས་་བ། his nails are

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tapered 7. ©་མ་མངན་པ། his veins do not protrude 8. ^་མད་བམད་ པ། his veins are free of knots 9. ལང་བ་མ^ན་པ། his ankles do not protude 10. ་ག;བས་་མཉམ་བད་པ། his feet are not uneven 11. ང་འ་^བསས་གགས་པ། he walks with a lion's gait 12.3ང་བ་ ^བས་ས་གགསཔ། he walks with an elephant's gait 13. ངང་པའ་ ^བསས་གགསཔ། he walks with the gait of a goose 14. །^་མཆག་་ •^བས་ས་གགས་པ། he walks with a bull's gait 15. གཡས་གསས་^ག་ ང་གགསཔ། his gait tends to the right 16. མས་པརགགས་པ། his gait is elegant 17. ་གབར་གགས་པ། his gait is steady 18. ་ འ0ལ་བག'ཆགསཔ། his body is weU-covered 19. ^་་དར་སཔ། his body looks as if it were polished 20. ^་མ་པར་འཆམས་པ། his body is well-porportioned 21. ་གཙང་^མ་པརདག་པ། his body is clean and pure 22. ་འ་ངམ་པ། his body is smooth 23. ་་^མ་ པར་ད^་པ། his body is perfect 24. མཆན་^མ་པར་^གསཔ། his sex organs are fully developed 25. ^་་ལག་་^ངས་ང་བཟང་བ། his

v v

physical bearing is excellent and dignified 26. གམ་བ་^མས་པ། his steps are even 27. ^མ་པར་དག་པ། his eyes are perfect 28. 3'གཞན་ཤ་ཅན། he is youthful 29. ་^མ་པ་ད་པ། his body is not sunken 30. ^་སཔ། his body is broad 31. %་3|མས་པ། his body is not hose 32. ཡན་ལག་དང་ང་ལག་ནམ་པརའས་པ། his limbs are well-proportioned 33. གཟགས་པ་རབ་བ་ད་ཙང་^མ་བར་དག་པ། his vision is clear and unblurred 34. ||མ་པ། his belly is round 35.5་བས་ན་པ། his belly is perfectly moderate 36. ་མངསཔ། his belly is not long 37.3་ལ་ང་ང་བ་མ་ན་པ། his belly does not bulge 38. ་བ་ཟབ་པ། his navel is deep 39. ་བ་གཡས་གས་ས་འ6ལ་ བ། his navel winds to the right 40. ཀན་ནས་མས་པ། he is perfectly handsome 41. ན་ཏ|ད་བགཙང་བ། his habits are clean 42. ^་ལ་$|་བ་3གས་3ག་ད'པ། his body is free of moles and discolouration 43. ག་ང་བལ་རའ^མཔ། his hands are soft as cotton wool 44. ག་་ར་ར་མདངས་ད་པ། the lines of his palms

X 0». V

are clear 45. ག་ག་ར་མ་ཟབ་པ། the lines of his palms are deep 46. ག་་ར་་རང་བ། me lines of his palms are long 47. ^་ཙང་་

རང་བ། hisfaceisnottoolong48.^w^"W his lips are red like copper 49. ་^་མཉན་པ། his tongue is pliant 50. ་1གས་སབཔ། his tongue is thin 51. ^གསདམར་བ། his tongue is red 52. གསང་འག%དང་3!ན་པ། his voice is like thunder 53. གསང'?ན་

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ཙང་འ་་་མ་པ། his voice is sweet and gentle 54. མཆ་བ'|མ་པ། his teeth are round 55. མ་བ^་བ། his teeth are sharp 56. མ་བདཀར བ| his teeth are white 57. མ་བ་མཉམ་པ། his teeth are even 58. མ་བ་ན་ས་་བ། his teeth are tapered 59. ཤངསམ1་བ། his nose is prominent 60. ཤངས་གཙང་བ། his nose is clean 61. ^ན་ཡངསཔ། his eyes are clear and wide 62. £་མ་?[ག་པ། his eyelashes are thick 63. ^ན་དཀརནག་འད་ང་པད་མ་འདབ་མ་ར་རངས་པ། the black and white parts of his eyes are well-defined and are like lotus petals 64. §ན་ཆགས'ང་བ། his eyebrows are long 65. |ན'མ་འ£མ པ། his eyebrows are smooth 66.3ན་མ་་|མ་པ། his eyebrows are


soft 67. ་^ན་མའ་^་་མ^མ་པ། his eyebrows are eveniy haired 68. གརང%་ས་པ། his hands are long and extended 69. ^ན་མཉམཔ་ his ears are of equal size 70. ^ན་་དབང་་མ་ཉམསཔ། his ear sense power is perfect 71, དཔ5བ་0]གསཔར་འས་པ། his forehead is well-formed and well-defined 72. དལ་བ་འས་་བ། his forehead is broad 73. ད་ཤན་5་5ས་པ། his head is very large 74. ད1ང་བ་9!ར་གནག་པ། hjs najr is ^ bjack as a bumble bee 75.

ད'|3ག་པ། his hair is thick 76. ད་|འ^མ་པ། his hair is soft 77. དབ་5་མ་འ!ངས་པ། his hair is untangled 78. ད་|་གཤར་བ། his hair is not unruly 79. དབ3་¥་པ། his hair is fragrant 80.3T ^བས-དཔ^་བའ་དང-བ^ས་དང་ག^ང-^འ^^བ། his hands and feet are

marked with auspicious emblems such as the Srivasta a.,u Svastika.

Upama maya/ The exemplary illusion. The magical creation of the conjurers such as elephants and others.


Upama prabhasvara/ The examplary clear light mind. A

completion stage practice of tantra in which the energy-wind is integrated into the central energy channel at the heart-centre and the subtle mind is brought to a manifest level for the elimination of delusions.


Vicara bhavana/ Analytical meditation. Meditation of checking or reviewing the topic through applying analysis.


The three-fold analysis; the three criteria for validating a phenomenon. 1. མང་བ་མན་འ^ར་ལ་མན་སམ་ཆད་མས་གནད་པ་ད་པ། obvious things are not contradicted by valid bare perception 2. 5ང'3ད་|ག་3ར་ལ་་1ས་དཔག་ཆད་མས་གནད་པ་ད་པ། slightly obscure things are not contradicted by valid inference based on the force of evidence 3. ན་ཏ་་|ག་3ར་ལ་ལང་ཆད་མས་གནད་པ་ད་པ| extremely obscure things are not contradicted by valid inference based on scriptural authority.


A citation pure of the three-fold analysis. A citation in Buddhist teachings and practice qualified by the three-fold analysis (see dpad-pa gsum, above).


Mimarhsaka school of thought. A Hindu school of philosophy, which considers Vedantic teachings as self-originated and ultimate, and asserts that the self is permanent, partless and a substantially existent consciousness. They deny the existence of the omniscient mind and true speech, and also assert that there is no liberation which is the cessation of defilement, since the defilements are an intrinsic part of the mind. However, they assert that a person can attain Brahmahood through the practice of sacrifice.


Payantika/ Abandoning downfalls. A class of monk's transgression of vows that can be confessed in the presence of the Sangha community through abandoning the causal object of the downfall.


The unity of abandonment; the union of the pure illusory body and the abandonment of deluded obscurations to liberation; the state of unity of a trainee.


He who abandons the obstacles simultaneously.


The ten limbs of abandonment; the ten abandonments (see dge-tshul-gyi spang-bya yan-lag bcu).

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He who abandons the obstacles serially.


The three exalted abandonments; the three qualities of abandonment exclusive to Buddhas. 1. གས་པར་^ངས་པ། excellent abandonment 2, ^ར་་^ག་པ་ལ་ས་^ངས་པ། irreversible abandonment 3. མ་ལས་པར་^ངས་པ། complete abandonment.


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Demotion, pleasing and expulsion. The monastic rules for confessing a transgression of the 'remainder' category of vows by accepting the demotion of ranks, by offering services to the monk community which pleases them, or by accepting expulsion from the community.


The moral discipline of seven-fold abandonments and their auxiliaries. A moral discipline primarily requiring the abandonment of the three non-virtues of body (see mi-dge-ba bcu, 1-3), and the four non-virtues of speech (see mi-gde-ba bcu, 4-7) and other minor misdeeds such as abandoning taking intoxicants.


Pratibhana pratisanivit/ Specific understanding of confidence. A skillful way of a Bodhisattva's training of redressing their doubts through listening to dharma discourses and passing the transmission to others with tireless effort.


Object for overcoming obsession. One of the four objects of calm abiding meditation (see zhi-gnas-kyi dmigs-pa bzhi), e.g. one who is obsessed with lust must take ugliness as its object of antidote for developing calm abiding meditation.


Panca caksu/ The five eyes; the five eyes possessed by Buddhas. 1. འ|ན། divya caksu/ divine eye 2. ཤའ་|ན། carma caksu/ fleshy eye 3. ཤས་རབ་་^ན། prajna caksu/ wisdom eye 4. ཆས་་^ན། dharma caksu/ dharma eye 5. ཡ'ཤས་་|ན། jnana caksu/ primordial wisdom eye.


Collective karma; common karma, e.g. karma of a society or locality.


Prakrti/ The Fundamental Nature; the Universal Principle. The fundamental principle as asserted by the Sanikhya school

of Hindu philosophy, which is permanent, pervasive over all animate and inanimate objects, is the creator of all activities and is an undifferentiable unit.


Samanya laksana/ Generally characterized phenomena. Phenomena that are ultimately unable to perform a function, e.g. space.

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The four types of generality. 1. ^གས་| sanigraha samanya/

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collective generality 2. རགས་^། gotra samanya/ categorical generality 3. དན|། artha samanya/ meaning generality 4. Jj sabda samanya/ sound generality.



Carya Tantra; Performance Tantra. The second of the four classes of tantras, stressing the importance of a balanced approach in both the external rites and internal mental activity.


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The fourteen commitments related to performance tantra. 1-

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10. མ་དག་བ་བཙ་ང་བ། The abandonment of the ten non-virtues (see mi-ba bcu), 11. དམ་པ་ཆས་་གཏང་བ། not to abandon the sublime Dharma 12.3ངབ་'མས་མགཏང་བ། not giving up the mind of enlightenment 13. སར་^ས་མ་གཏང་བ། not abandoning practicing giving due to miserliness 14. སམས་ཙན་ལ་གནད་མ'3ད་པ། not harming other sentient beings.


Sad carya tantra abhisekhah/ The six initiations of performance tantra. 1. ་ཏག་ང་དབང་། initiation of flower garland 2. ཆ་དབང་། water initiation 3. ཙད་པ^་་དབང་། crown

initiation 4. ་་དབང་། vajra initiation 5. ལ་་དབང་། bell initiation 6. མང་ག་དབང་། name initiation.


Tri carya tantra gotrah/ The three families of performance tantra. A. 1. ་བ^ན་གགས་པའརགས། the Tathagata family 2. པད་ མའགས། the lotus family 3. ་་གས། the vajra family. B. That of Jགསང་3གས་་གས། Buddha's body, speech and mind.


A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life (bodhisattvacaryavatara). A fundamental text of Mahayana composed by Acarya Santideva during the eighth century, in which a Bodhisattva's conduct is explained.


The four activities. A. 1. འ3་བ། going 2. འཆག་པ། walking 3. ཉལ་བ། sleeping 4. འག་པ། waking. B. 1. ན་བཟང་ད་བ། all-good behaviour 2. གསང་བ|ད་པ། secret behaviour 3. འ་འ|ད་པ།

-v X V

behaviour in a crowd 4. ག'ཆན་3་ད་པ། the mahamudra behaviour.

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The doors of activity in performance tantra. 1. འ|ག་པའ|ད་པ། activity of entering into practice 2. ^ར་བའ་^ད་པ། activity of


application 3. |བ་པའ་|ད་པ། activity of the actual stage of practice 4. གབ་པའ|ད་པ། activity of accomplishment.


Meghopamacittotpada/ Cloud-like Bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with skillful means within the continuum of a Nirmanakaya Buddha.


The three emanation bodies of a Buddha. 1. བཟ་བ་|ལ་5།། silpa

nirmanakaya/ artisan emanation 2. "་བ་^ལ་^། janma


nirmanakaya/ miscellaneous emanation 3. མཆག་ག་་་^ལ་^། uttama nirmanakaya/ supreme emanation.


Tlirmanacakra/ The wheel of emanation; the channel-wheel located at the navel.


^ non-Buddhist by emanation. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who have chosen to emanate as teachers of non-Buddhist philosophy in order to lead those beings not yet ripened to progress on the higher states of realizations.


the three paths of manifestation; the three paths of emanation (see A. of rnam-thar brgyad).


The eight extremes; the eight extreme views. 1. ་|་མཐའ། production 2. འགག་མཐའ། cessation 3. ་^ག་མཐའ། eternalism 4. ཆད་མཐའ། nihilism 5. འམཐའ། going 6. ང་མཐའ། coming! ག་5ག་ན་པའམཐའ། 0^8.ཐ་དད'པའམཐའ། different.


The lack of eight extremes. The extremes to be abandoned while establishing the view of Prasangika Madhyamika. Lack of inherently existent birth and so on (see spros-pa'i mtha'-brgyad, above).


Pitr tantra/ Father Tantra. The highest class of tantra in which the primary focus is the development of an illusory body, e.g. Guhyasamaja tantra.


The father Dharma; also called the teachings of the father of the Kadam tradition, compiled by the father of the Kadampa tradition, Dromtonpa. This collection of teachings includes his questions to Atisa and the tatter's replies on many essential doctrinal points, and a short biography of Atisa and the guru lineage of the Kadampa's sixteen drops (thig-le bcu drug) transmission.


The father and son dharma (see pha-chos, above and bu-chos) of the Kadampa tradition.


Dasa paramita/ The ten perfections. 1-6. The six perfections (see phar-rol-tu phyin-pa drug, below). 7. ཐབས་་པ་རལ་་3ནཔ།

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upaya paramita/ perfection of means 8. 3ན་ལམ'3་པ་རལ་་3ནཔ| pranidhana paramita/ perfection of aspirational prayers 9. ^བས་་ པ་%་ན་པ། bala paramita/ perfection of power 10. *

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ཤས་་པ་རལ་ཏ་ན་པ། jnana paramita/ perfection of primordial wisdom.


Sad paramitah/ Thelix perfections. 1. |ན་པ་པ་རལ་་ན་<1། dana paramita/ perfection of giving 2. ལ་^མས་པ་རལ་ན་པ། Sila paramita/ perfection of morality 3. བཟད་པའ་པ་རལ་་ན་པ།

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ksanti paramita/ perfection of patience 4. བ^ན་འ་^ས་^པ་རལ་་ ན་པ། virya paramita/ perfection of effort 5. བསམགཏན་་པ་རལ 5་ན་པ། dhyatia paramita/ perfection of concentration 6. ཤས་ རབ་་པ་རལ་5་ན་པ། prajna paramita/ perfection of wisdom.


Sad paramita pratipaksah/ The six opponents to the six perfections. 1. སར་ ail matsava/ miserliness 2. ལ་འ4འ11 duhSila/ corrupt morality 3. ཞ་^ང་! krodha/ hatred 4. ལའ་། alasa/ laziness 5. ^མ་གཡང་། viksapana/ mental wandering 6. སརབ་འཆལ་བ། duhprajnaV corrupt wisdom.


The three treasures obtained from the father; the three constituents obtained from father. 1. £་བ། regenerative fluid 2. *£\ marrow 3.རས་པ། bone.


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The Phagdru Kagyud Order. One of the divisions of the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Phagmo Drupa (1110-1170), the chief disciple of Gampopa. He

mastered the art of writing and painting without being taught. His eight disciples founded the eight sub-sects of the Kagyud.


Mutually exclusive things. ^ན'<£ན་3ང་འགའ་|

Mutually exclusive contradictions; mutually exclusive dichotomy, e.g. permanence and impermanence, or hot and cold.


Asta parajika dharmah/ The eight moral defeats; the eight root

transgressions of a fully ordained nun, Bhiksuni. 1-4. the four

moral defeats (see pham-pa bzhi) of a Bhiksu 5. ས་པ་ལ་ཆགས་

མས་ས་ལས་འ0ད་ང་ག་པ། touching and embracing a man with

lust 6. |ས་པ་ལ་ཆགས་མས་ས་ལས་གན་5ལ་དབཀན་པ། throwing a

man down overwhelmed with lust 7. ,3'ར་པམ་བ3ང་བ་ས་བ^ན་ད་

འཆབ་པ། knowingly concealing moral defeat of a fellow nun 8. དག་^ང་འགའ^ག་ད་འདན་^གནས་ནས་ང་བ་^་^་^ང་^^ད་ཕ་སམས-ས་

བ1ད-པར་གལ་བ་་ད་ལས་ངག་་|་ནས་|ག་པར་ད་པ། ignoring the

forgiveness sought by Bhiksus through physical and verbal

gestures for their expulsion from the monastery.


The concealed moral defeats. Concealment of any of the four root transgressions by an ordalned monk.

པམ པ པ^།

Catvari parajika dharmah/ The four moral defeats; the four root transgressions of a monk, the committing of any would lead to loosing the status of a being a monk. 1. མ་བསད་པ། manusyabadha/ killing a human 2. མ་ན་པར་ལན་པ། adattadana/ taking what is not given 3. ་ཆངས་པར་ད་པ། abrahmacarya/

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indulging in sexual misconduct 4. མ'4ས་§་མའ'བ|ན་|་བ།

uttaramanusya dharma pralapa/ lying about one's attainment of suprahuman dharmas.


Paramita yana/ The Perfection Vehicle. The Bodhisattva vehicle as taught in the sutras known as the causal vehicle (rgyu'i-iheg-pa) in contrast to the mantrayaria vehicle known as the resultant vehicle.



Sad paramita vrttiprasthana pratipatti/ Achievement through engagement in the six perfections; the Bodhisattva paths encompassing the practice of the six perfections.


Mahasarhgika school. One of the four principal schools of the Hinayana tradition whose direct teacher is Kasyapa (see dge-'dun phal-po che'i sde-painga).


The ten innermost jewels of the Kadampa tradition (see bka'-gdams phugs-nor bcu).


Panca skandhah/ The five aggregates. 1. གཟགས་་ང་པ། rupa skandha/ aggregate of form 2. ཆར་བའ་པང་པ། vedana skandha/ aggregate of feeling 3. འ་ས་་ང་པ། samjna skandha/ aggregate of perception 4. འ་ད་་ང་པ། saniskara skandha/

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aggregate of compositional factors 5. ^མ་པར་ཤས་པའ་ང་པ། vijnana skandha/ aggregate of consciousness.


Sad skandhah/ The six aggregates 1-5. The five aggregates (see phung-po lnga, above) 6. ཡ་ཤས་་ང་པ། jnana skandha/ the aggregate of primordial wisdom.


TheTnreeHeaps.A.^«W"^I ང་པཤགས། ThesUtraof confession: 1. ་^ག་བབཤགས་པ། tfie practice of confessing non-virtues 2. སས་ཡ་རང་བ། the practice of rejoicing 3. ད་བ་བ|་བ། the practice of dedication. B. 1. ^ག་པ་བཤགས་པ། confessing non-virtues 2. ས་ས་་རང་བ། rejoicing at the virtues 3. ཆསའར་བར་ བ1 turning the wheel of doctrine.


The five excellences. A. 1. ཆས་ན་སམ་ཆ^གས་པ། dharma sanipanna/ excellent Dharma 2. ས་ན་སམ^གས་པ། kala sanipanna/ excellent period 3. ན'པ་ན་སམ་ཆ*གས་པ། sastra sanipanna/ excellent teacher 4. གནས་ན་སམ་^གས་པ། sthana sanipanna/ excellent abode 5. འར་ན་སམ་^གས་པ། parisad sanipanna/ excellent retinue. B. 1. ^་ན་སམ་^གས་པ! kaya sanipanna/ perfect body with the major and minor marks 2. 3ངས^གས་ན་སམ་!གས-པ། prahana pratita sanipanna/ perfect abandonments and accomplishments 3. འཁར་ན'སམ་*གས་པ| parisada sanipanna/ perfect retinue 4. ཞང་^ན་སམ་གས་པ། ksetra sanipanna/ perfect field created from the wisdom of self-awareness 5. ^ལ་པ་ན་སམ་ཆགས་པ། nirmaha sanipanna/ perfect emanation of wisdom and body.


The four excellences. A. འ1ག་^ན་པ་ན་ཆ*གས་^་བ^ The four worldly excellences: 1. ཆས། Dharma 2. ནར། wealth 3. འད་པ། wishes 4. ཐར་པ། liberation. B. འག་^ན་ལས་འདས་པ་ན་1གས་^་ བ་^། The four transworidiy excellences: 1. སངས་ས་་ཆས་དར་བ། flourishing of the Buddha Dharma 2. ནར་ལངས|ད་དང་2་ན་པ། possessing riches and wealth 3. འད་ཡན་^་ལ་ད་པ། enjoying the five sensual objects (see 'dod-yon lnga) 4. ཆས་ལ་བ^ན་ནས་ཐར་པ་ མངའདས་་ག་འཔང་འཐབ་པ། attalnment of the state of liberation following Dharma practices.

བན་£གས་གམ'2!ན། I

The triple excellences; the three primary requirements for a person going to receive monk vows. 1. གང་ལ་^མ་བ^ང་པའ^་ མཁན་བ། the presence of an abbot and assistant abbots from whom the vows are to be received 2. གང་ས་^མ་འག་པར་ད་པ་ ཆ་ག the full-fledged ritual ceremony through which the vows are to be received 3. གང་བབ་པར་3་བ་གནས་ལལབ^ན་ད་བ5།བཔར འདད་པའ་བསམ་པ། the perfect motivation to receive the vows.


A. The three excellences. 1. ་ན་སམ་^གས་པ། excellent cause 2. འས་་ན་སམ་-1གས་པ། excellent fruit 3. པན་འགས་བན་^་ གས་པ! excellent benefit B. The three perfect accomplishments. 1. རང་ན་ན་ཆགས! accomplishment of one's goals 2. ག^ན་ན་ན་ཆགས། accomplishment of others' goals 3. ན་གཉས་| པ་ཐབས'ན་1གས། accomplishment of the means for achieving both goals.


The Male Ritual of Cutting-Off. The transmission of the cutting-off ritual (gcod), of severing the ego, directly handed down from Phadampa Sangye to Yarlung Lama Sonani and his disciples.


The nine skills of a man; nine dexterities of manhood. A. ལས་ ངག་ད་གསམ་3་5ལ་གསམ་ར་དག The three each of body speech and mind. B. According to another tradition these are: 1. གཏ*| oratorship 2. ཡ་ག writing 3. £ས། calculation 4. མདའ། archery 5.^1 weight lifting 6. མཆངས། jumping 7. བང་། running 8. swimming 9. %\ stick-games.


Sata/ Eveniy shaped. The perfect and refined shape of a thing.


Visata/ Unevenly shaped. The imperfect and unrefined shape of a thing.


Mudra/ A. Hand gestures (mudra) B. Official or non-official seal.


Mahamudra; the Great Seal. The greal seal of emptiness; an exalted meditation on the nature of mind, particularly associated with the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism.


The consort. Wife of an accomplished Lama


A. The six symbolic ornaments. Costumes associated with tantric deities and yoginis, made of bones representing the six perfections. 1. ནར་བ། jewels 2. ལག་གབ། bracelets 3. f ཆ། ear rings 4. ་་-་་རག belt 5. rf ར'^ wheel 6. ཐལབ། funerary ashes.

B. The six sacred articles obtained from heaven during the reign of the Tibetan King, Lha Tho-Tho-Ri Nyan-Tsen. 1. མད་ ^་ང་ང་ག་། the sUtra sPang-skong phyag-rgya 2. མད^་ཟ་མ ཏག the sutra Za-ma-tog 3. གར་་མཆད་^ན། a golden stupa 4. གཡ་མཆད་^ན། a turquoise stupa 5. མ་་ག་། a mudra of woven pearl-net 6. ཙ་^མ^འ་ས་པར། wish-fulfilling pot.


The four seals; the four principles of meditation according to the yoga tantra tradition. 1. ལས་་3ག་། karma mudra/ seal of activity 2. དམ་ག་ག་། samaya mudra/ seal of pledge 3. ཆས་་ ག་། dharma mudra/ seal of doctrine 4. ^ང་པའ་ག་། sUnyata mudra/ seal of emptiness or great seal.


The Mudra deity. One of the six kinds of deities within action tantra, involving visualizing implements such as a vajra, wheel etc., at the heart and sealing it with the commitment related to the concerned deity.


The Amulet Box traditon of Mahamudra. The Mahamudra transmission of the realization of the clear light mind, through meditation on the inseparability of bliss and emptiness, being likened to the two clasped sides of an amulet box.


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The four mahamudra yogas. 1. ^་གཙག་མའ་^ལ་འར། the yoga of single-pointed concentration on the nature of mind 2. §ས'ལ3་ 1|ལ་འ3ར། the yoga of realizing the mind as being free from

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conceptual elaboration 3. ར་གཙག་ག་^ལ་འར། the yoga of realizing the sameness of the appearance and mind 4. ་^མ་མད་་ ^ལ་འ3ར། the yoga of no more meditation.


Sahaja mahamudra prayoga/ The Mahamudra of simultaneous arisal and merging. A Mahamudra linage of practice taught by Gampopa for practitioners of the initial level in order that they gradually realize the beginningless, inseparable nature of the mind and finally attain the Truth Body of a Buddha


Vajrapani; the Vajra Holder. A Bodhisattva who embodies the might and power of all the Buddhas.


Mudra/ A. Emblems, implements and hand gestures of a deity. B. Signs and marks.


The four outer offering goddesses inside the mandala. 1. ^ག་མ། goddess with pleasing gesture 2. ང་བ་མ། goddess holding garland 3.3་མ། goddess of song 4. གར་མ། goddess of dance.


The defender, the opponent. The respondent in a debate who defends his or her position.


The three outer tantras. According to the Nyingma tradition the Kriya (action) tantra was taught by Buddha Sakyamuni himself and the Upayoga (performance) tantra and Yoga (union) tantra were taught by Buddha Vairocana.


The entrance from outside; the process of initiation of the disciples entering from outside the curtain of the mandala. This involves having made requests to the master, placing the disciple at the eastern gate of the mandala, bestowal of the common and uncommon vows and enquiring about their Buddha family and aspiration, generating the all-encompassing yogic mind and binding the disciples to the oath of secrecy.


Bahirdha SUnyata/ The emptiness of external objects. One of the sixteen emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug); the lack of inherent existence of non-sentient phenomena, such as the four external elements, object of perception, etc.. .

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External phenomena. The assertion that form, i.e. the five objects of sensory consciousness, and the cognizing sensory

consciousness are not substantially the same, but exist separately and have a special causal relationship. This is an assertion of the two lower schools of Buddhist tenets, as well as of the Prasangika Madhyamika school.


External matter. For instance rocks and earth.

་ནང1ང་བ་ད། I

Adhyanta bahirdha sUnyata/ The emptiness of external and internal objects. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug); the lack of inherent existence of objects pervaded by consciousness, such as the six faculties, six consciousnesses and the internal organs.

་^ན་བ་དབང་བ^། I

The ten beneficial outer initiations. The initiations that are the gateway to entering the mahayoga tantra teachings in the

•>*. v x

Nyingma tradition. 1. ^ང་པ་^འ་དབང་། The initiations of the five essences (see snying-po lnga) 2. དབ་ན་་དབང་། initiation of the head-dress 3. མ་པ་དབང་། vase initiation 4. «ད་པན་་དབང་། crown initiation 5. ང་བ་དབང་། garland initiation 6. ་ཆ་དབང་། armour initiation 7. ལམཆན་་དབང་། initiation of the victory banner 8. གདགས་་དབང་། initiation of the umbrella 9. ག་3་ དབང་། initiation of the mudra 10. བཟའ་བཏང་་དབང་། initiation of food and drinks."


An outsider; a non-Buddhist. Those who belong to a faith other than Buddhism.


The four misapprehensions; the four wrong thoughts. I. % ག^ངབ་ལ་གཙང་བར་འ^ན་པ། to apprehend what is impure as pure 2. བདག་ད་པ་ལ་བདག་་འ1ན་པ། to apprehend what is selfless as

having a self 3. ^ག་བ^ལ་བ་ལབདབར་འན་པ། to apprehend what is miserable as happiness 4. ་^ག་པ་ལ་^ག་པར་འན་པ། to apprehend what is impermanent as permanent.


The four qualities of the six perfections (see pha-rol-tu phyin-padrag). 1. པར་^ན་རང་རང་་་མ^ན་པ་གས་དང་^ལ་བ། non-association with their respective opponents (see pha-rol-tu phyin-pa'i mi-mthun-phyogs drug) 2. གས་འར་སམ་་^ག་པ་ ས་རབ་ས་ཟན་པ། conjoined with the wisdom of the purity of the three circles (see 'khor-gsum) as their favourable condition 3. ད་ལས་ག^ན་3'འད་ན་£གས་པར་ད་པ1 fulfilling others' wishes as their function 4. འས་བ་3ང་བ་གསམ་|ན་པར་ད་ པ། ripening of the fruits as their results.


The three external white substances. 1. འ་མ། ksira/ milk 2. ^། dadhi/ curd 3. མར། ghrta/ butter.


The four external mandalas. 1. $ལ་1ན་་དལ་འར། coloured powder mandala 2. རས་ས་དལ་འར། mandalas painted on cloth 3. བསམ་གཏན་་དལ་འར། concentration mandala 4. ལས་ དལ། body mandala.


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The six outer sources of perception (see yul-drug).



Sad bahirdha dhatavah/ The six outer sensory spheres (see khams bco-brgyad, A).

The outer dependent arising; the working of the nature; the phenomena of nature.

cv cv —v. cv


The ten external qualities of a Vajracarya. 1. དལ་འར་འ་བ་ལ མཁས་པ། skilled in the art of drawing mandalas and meditating upon them 2. དང་་ར་བ་གས་་ཏང་ང་འན་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing the preliminary practices such as maintaining concentration 3. ་ལ་ས་འབས་པ་ག་་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing mudras or hand gestures 4. ^ངས་^བས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in positioning the body 5. འག^ངས་གས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in maintaining various sitting positions 6. བཟས་བ£ད་ལ མཁས་པ། skilled in mantra recitation 7. |ན%ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing fire-rituals 8. མ1ད་པའཆ་ག་གས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing offering rituals 9. ལས་ལ|ར་བ་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in performing practical ritual arts 10. གགས་གལདང་^ར་བ^་བ་ (^ས་ལ་མཁས་པ། skilled in bidding farewell to the deities and withdrawing them into the heart, etc.


Bahirdha mudra/ External mudra; external seal; a tantric consort; a gesture.


External tutor. The living Guru other than oneself. -ར་པཅས།

Pratikriya/ Restoration of vows. Restoration of transgressed vows through a confession ceremony.


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Ten never-returners. 1. ར་མ་འང་^གས་པ། the enterer into never-returner 2. བར་དར་འདའ་བ། the never-returner who attains liberation in the intermediate state 3. ^སནསའདའ་བ། the never-returner who attains liberation as soon as he is born 4. འཔར་བ

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གསམ། the three never-returners of the leap-over 5. མཐང་ཆས་་^་བ། the never-returner who attains liberation in the same life-time

6. ལས་མངན་3ད། the never-returner who attains liberation with the cessation of his body.


The five irreversible aspirants to virtue. The Bodhisattvas on the peak, forbearance, and supramundane levels of the path of preparation and the path of seeing and meditation.




Asta digpalah/ The eight directional protectors. 1. ཤར་་དབང་པ། Indra to the east 2.་ར་གན་། Yarna to the south 3. ནཔ་་ཆ' བདག Varun'itothewest4.3^'Wp Yaksatothe north 5. ཤར་ར་་། Agnideva to the south-east 6. ་^བ་་བན་ལ། to the south-west 7. ནབ་3ང'ད་་^ང'31། Vavudeva to the north-west 8. 3ང་ཤརད་དབང་2(ན| indra to the north-east.


Dasa digpalah/ The ten directional protectors. 1. དབང་པ། Indra 2.གན་། YamalWl Varana 4. གནད་|ན། Yaksa 5. ། Agnideva 6. ^ན་། Raksasa 7. ^ང་། Vayudeva 8. འབ^ང་། Bhuta 9. ཚངས'པ1 Brahma 10.ས་་། Vanadevi.


Pancadasa digpalah/ The fifteen directional protectors. A. (see phyogs-skyong bcu, above 1-10.) 11. ཉ་དབང་། Upendra 12. ^གས་བདག Ganapati 13, ་མ། Suiya 14.ཟ.་བ། Candra 15.ཐགས་ བཟང་། Avirala. B. According to Guhyasamaja tantra, these are: 1. ཤར་་་་མ^ན་ཆ་ར་། Yellow Vajra Weapon to the east 2. གཡས་ས|མ|་ནག་། Black Vajra Illusion to his right 3. ར་་ ་་དམར་། Red Vajra Fire to the south-east 4. ར་ད''5ས་ནག་། Black Vajra Time to the south 5. $'5བ'5"''ག5ན'ང་། Black Vajra Club to the south-west 6.3བ'?'1དཀར་! White Vajra

Naga to the west 7.5བ་3ང་5'་'$ང་^། Green Vajra Wind to the north-west 8. 3ང་་་་འགས་ད་ར་། Yellow Vajra Terrifier to the north 9. གཡས་ས་་་*་ང་དཀར་། White Vajra GaneS to his right side 10.3ང་ཤར'5་་་0་་དཀར་། White Vajra Wrath to the north-east 11. དབང་8|ན་དང་་དབང་་བར་5་^་^པ་

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དམར་པ། Red Vajra Sun between north-east and east 12. ^་འད་ དཀར་། White Vajra Moon 13. |་་་ར་། Yellow Vajra Silent (Brahma) 14. ་'དང་བདན་ལ་3་བར་5་ཐགས་བཟང་སནག་པ། Black Tak Zangri between west and south-west 15. ས་ཡ་9་'# ར་མ། Yellow Goddess of the Earth.


The ten directions. 1-4. གས་བ་^། the four cardinal directions 5.8. མཆམས་བད། the four sub-directions 9. ?ང་། zenith 10. *ག nadir.


Paksa dharma/ The first logical mark. The first condition to be fulfilled in a logical syllogism, i.e. the existence or presence of a logical mark in the subject of the syllogism. 9

3་ས། I

AnuSaya/ Delusion; affliction. That which is subtle and multiplying. Delusions are subtle because they are difficult to see, and they are multiplying because of their auxilary mental factors or objects of grasping.


The delusive doubt; the deluded doubt.


The ninety-eight delusions. The ninety-eight delusions of the three realms—eighty-eight delusions to be abandoned on the path of seeing, and ten delusions to be abandoned on the path

of meditation.



The hundred and twenty-eight delusions. The one hundred and twenty-eight delusions of the three realms, one hundred and twelve delusions to be abandoned on the path of seeing, and sixteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.


The ten delusions (see mi-dge-ba bcu).



The six delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug).


The yoga of subtle conceptions. The subtle conceptual yoga. A generation stage practice in the highest yoga tantra in which the objects of meditation are subtle.


Mala/ A rosary. Common religious article used for counting prayers, mantras, etc., usually strung with 108 beads. Also means a garland; a row, e.g. of votive lamps.


Arya/ A Noble Being. An exalted being; a superior. One who has attained the third path, the path of seeing, on which a person becomes a real Sarigha refuge.


Arya NagarjunaThe pioneer of the Madhyamika philosophy after Buddha Sakyamuni, who elucidated the subtlest profound view of emptiness.


Arya Upali. A close disciple of Buddha Sakyamuni, and a

barber by caste and profession, who was renowned for his mastery of the Vinaya teachings. After Buddha Sakyamuni's passing away, he was responsible for reciting the Vinaya teachings at the first Buddhist council.


Arya Mahakasyapa. A close disciple of Buddha Sakyamuni belonging to the Brahmin caste, he was the first patriach or successor of the Buddha and was responsible for reciting the Abhidharma teachings at the first Buddhist council.


Catvari arya satyani/ The four noble truths. 1. ^ག་བ^ལ་བན་པ། duhkha satya/ the truth of suffering 2. ཀན་འབ^ང་བན་པ། samudaya satya/ the truth of the origin of suffering 3. འགག་པའ་ བན་པ། nirodha satya/ the truth of cessation 4. ལམ་་བན་པ། marga satya/ the truth of the path.



Sapta arya dhanani/ The seven riches of the Noble Beings; the Seven Jewels of the Aryas. 1. དད་པ། Sraddha/ faith 2. ཆལ་|མས། sila/ moral discipline 3. ཐས་པ། sruta/ hearing 4. གཏང་བ། tyaga/ generosity 5. ང^་ས་པ། hri/ a sense of shame 6.0ལ་ད་པ། apatrapya/ a dread of blame 7. ཤས་རབ། prajna/ wisdom.


The four types of Aryas; the four types of ascetics. 1. ཆས་གས ངན་ངན་ཙམ་ས་ཆག་ས་པ། one who is content with poor clothing 2. བད1 མས་ངན'ན་ཙམ་3ས་5ག་ས་པ། one who is contented with meagre alms 3. གནས་མལ་ངན་ན་ཙམ་ས་ཆག་ས་པ། one who is content with a poor dwelling 4. ང་བ་^མ་པ་ལ་དགའ་བ། one who takes joy in ascetic practices.


The three secret ways of the Aryas. 1. !|ད་ཐམས་«ད་ག^ལ་ཡས་ཁང་

དངབ«ད^མས་5ད་་^མ་རལ་ད་བ! viewing the environment as the divine abode and all sentient beings as divine manifestations 2. |་ཐམས་ཙད་ག3ངས་^གས་དང་གདམས་ངག་5་འ|ར་བ། taking all sounds as being mantras or teachings of the Buddha 3.1ས^མས་«ད་གད་མ་ནས་ང་པར་་བ། viewing all phenomena as being empty of true existence from beginningless time.


Aryadeva. A direct disciple of Nagarjuna who defeated the famous Tirthika teacher As'vaghosa, a highly regarded scholar, in an open debate. Author of the Four Hundred Stanzas.


Aryastanga marga/ The eight-fold Noble Path. 1. ཡང་དག་པའ?་་ བ། sarhyakdrsti/ right view 2. ཡང་དག་པ་(ག་པ། saniyaksarhkalpa/ right thought 3. ཡང་དག་པའ་ངག saniyagvak/ right speech 4. ཡང་དག་པའ་^ལ་བ། saniyag vyayarna/ right effort 5. ཡང་དག་པ་འ1་བ། saniyagajiva/ right livelihood 6. ཡང་དག་པ་ ན་པ། saniyaksmrti/ right mindfulness 7. ཡང་དག་པ་ཏང་ང་འན། saniyaksamadhi/ right concentration 8. ཡང་དག་པ་ལས་་མཐའ། saniyakkarmanta/ right action.


The projected results; the four propelled fruits within the twelve links of interdependent origination—name and form, sources, contact, and feeling.


Projecting causes; the three causes within the twelve links of interdependent origination which implant the causes for ripening karmas to be reborn in cyclic existence (sariisara)— ignorance, karmic formation and consciousness.

I "MM II I? II ■ ■ ll M



Multiplied relics. Relics like mustard seeds, off-white in colour, found in the cremated ashes of holy lamas; they are placed inside statues, stupas, or amulet boxes as articles of protection and devotion.


Sanikranti/ Consciousness transference. A type of exalted purification practice in which one's or other's consciousness is transfered to a pure land; one of the six yogas of Naropa (see na-ro chos-drug).


The consciousness transference of entering a corpse (see grong-'jug),


n9 No

Causes for temporary deception.

འ|ན་འ1ས། 1

Virtuous activity; Buddha's grace. Synonymous with the virtue, merits or positive energy received through the blessings of the Buddha and his teachings.


The five types of virtuous activities. The five activities of a Buddha: 1.'་བ་ལས། activity of peace 2. ས་པའ་ལས། activity of increase 3. དབང་་ལས། activity of power 4. ག་་འ1ས། activity of wrath 5. ན་ས་གབ་པ་ལས། the spontaneous activity.

The four types of virtuous activity (see phrin-las lnga 1-4,



Pataka/ Flags; prayer flags.


The five products of a cow; fresh substances produced from a cow, collected before they drop to the ground. 1. ! urine 2. |་བ| dung3.^1 milk4.**| butter5.ཞ1 curd.


Pills made out of cow products (see above). བག་&གས།

Vasana/ Latencies; instincts; karmic imprints.


Vasana kaya/ The instinct body; the body of a dream state mainiy impelled by the instincts left upon one's mind.


The four types of instincts. 1. མངན་བ^ད་་བག་ཆགས! instinct of intuition 2. བདག་་བག་ཆགས། instinct of the view of grasping at self 3. 5ད་པ་ཡན'ལག''བག་ཆགས| instinct of samsaric experiences 4. རགས'མ3ན་པའ་བག་ ཆགས1 instinct of similar factors.


The three types of instincts. That of body, speech and mind. བག་མ་ད་པ།

Lack of conscientiousness; recklessness; negligence. An attitude of not guarding one's actions.


Sapta anuSayah/ The seven subconscious minds. The different subconscious experiences activated in conjunction with one's own experiences. 1. འདད'པ'འདད་ཆགས་'བག'9ལ1

«v* VX

subconscious attachment to the desire realm 2. ཁང་་^འ་བག་ 9ལ! subconscious anger 3. ད་པ'འདད'ཆགས''བག་?ལ། subconscious attachment within sanisara 4. ང་$ལ''བག'9ལ།

ev cs

subconscious pride 5. མ'རག'པའ'བག'^ལ། subconscious ignorance 6. ་བའ་བག་^ལ། subconscious view 7.ཐ་མ་་ བག'9ལ1 subconscious doubt.


Treasure-like Bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment possessed by Bodhisattvas on the three pure stages—the eighth, ninth and tenth, surpassing the two accumulations of merits and insights.


Volume. Generally a standard number of three hundred verses forming the sub-divisions of a text; a device to ensure

accurate translation and classification of a manuscript; but it may vary from text to text.


Antarakalpa/ The intermediate aeon. The period of time taken for each of the four intermediate aeons (see below) to begin and end in themselves.


The four intermediate aeons. 1. ཆགས་པའ་བ^ལ་བ། aeon of formation 2. གནས་པ་བ^ལ་བ། aeon of endurance 3. འ^ག་ པ་བ^ལ་བ། aeon of destruction 4. ^ང་པ་བ^ལ་བ། aeon of vacuity.


The twenty intermediate aeons; consisting of: 1. མའ་ཆ་ལ་ དཔག-ད-ནས-^-ལ-བ^ད-^-བ^-^-བ་ནས-^-ལ་བཅ-བར-§་བ་ད-བར;བ*1ལ་པ'གཅག one mn of decline) during wnicn

the infinite human lifespan decreases to 80,000 to 10 years. 2. ད-ནས-^ང-^-ལ-བ^ད-^-བར-ད-^ར^-འཔལ་^ངམ^-ལ-

བཅ-བར.-ད-|'བ-བ^ལ'པ-བཅ'བ3ད། eighteen aeons of increase and decrease, during which the lifespan of human beings goes from 10 to 80,000 and back to 10.3. ཡང་་ལ' བཅ་པ་ནས་བ^ད^^ར^རའཔལ-བ་བ^ལ-པ་གཅག one

aeon of increase, during which the human life span increases from 10 to 80,000 years.


Anantarya samadhi/ The uninterrupted concentration. The moment of capturing a meditative concentration that realizes emptiness directly.


Anantaryamurdhaprayoga/ Uninterrupted peak training. The final moment of the Bodhisattva path that results in the

immediate attainment of Buddhahood. Synonymous with the wisdom of the last moment within the mental continuum of a Bodhisattva.


Anantarya marga/ Uninterrupted path. A path of single-pointed concentration that overcomes its respective object of abandonment, e.g. the first instant of the path of seeing.


The four interruptions. The four interruptions in the course of maintaining meditative concentration: 1. ར'*1ང་ཅན།


obsession of taste 2. ང་^ལ་ཤས་ཆ་བ། strong pride 3. མ'རག' པ-ཤས་ཆ-བ། strong ignorance 4. 'བ'ཤས'ཆ'བ། strong view.


Antarabhava/ Intermediate state. The state of existence between death and rebirth, during which the consciousness takes a mental body projected by the previous karmic tendencies.

བར'ད་5ག I

Six classes of intermediate states. 1. ^་བ་འ་བར་ད།


intermediate state of birth 2. མ/ལམ'3'བར་ད| intermediate state of dreams 3. བསམ་ག^ན་་བར་ད། intermediate state

Cv Cv -V*

of concentration 4. འཆ་ཁའ་བར་ད། intermediate state of near-death 5. ས་^ད་བར་ད། intermediate state of reality 6. ་^ད་ པའ་བར་ད། intermediate state of becoming.


The probationary novice. One who has received layman's ordination but has not yet received novice vows.


Pranta/ Wilderness retreat. A retreat place completely set apart from the town life.



The nine orifices or gates of exit for consciousness to exit from the human body (see rnam-shes 'pho-ba'i bu-ga dgu).


A branch monastery. A subsidiary centre of learning founded by a later disciple of a master affiliated to the monastic centre, which is called the 'mother monastery' (ma-dgon).


The son dharma. The collection of teachings of Atisa and Drom Tonpa as received and compiled by their spiritual son, Ngog Legpe Sherab comprising many anecdotes in the life of Dromtonpa, and the entrustment of the Kadampa's doctrine to Dromtonpa during the last days of Atisa's life. This collection is also known as the Kadampa's miraculous text (sprul-pa'i glegs-bam).



The great scholar Buton (1290-1364). Born in central Tibet, he became famous for his scholarship of all sciences of learning. He compiled all the treatises translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan in a systematic order of index, and has also left more than two dozen volumes of collected wntings. Je Tsong Khapa also became his disciple and received many tantric teachings from him. His lineage is known as the Buton lineage (bu-lugs).


Iksvaku/ The sugarcane descendant. An epithet for Buddha

Sakyamuni whose ancestral lineage is traced to a child born of an egg that was dropped from semen which had dripped onto a sugarcane leaf.


The expulsion, finding and attainment. The Kadampa


principles of; 1. མ་ལ་ནས་ད། expulsion from the ranks of worldly people 2. §་ལ་བ^གས། finding the ranks of dogs 3,་ལ་ཐབ། attaining the rank of a god.


The generation of the vase. A tantric practice of generating the ritual vase as a deity by connecting vajra threads (multicoloured thread) from the vase to the heart of the master. First the vase to the heart of the master visualizes the deities, then they are offered blessed scented water from a conch, then are immersed in the nature of bliss and void and transformed as inseparable from the scented water contained in the vase etc., following a ritual text and tradition.


The preparatory vase ritual. A part of the preparatory rite for an initiation. The commitment beings (see dam-tshig sems-dpa') are generated in the vase and the wisdom beings (see ye-shes sems-dpa') are immersed into it, and then the initiation is bestowed following a rite and tradition of a lineage.


The Vase Initiation. A tantric empowerment (see bum-dbang bcu-gcig, next) meant for ripening a disciples's mental continuum and allowing the practice of the generation stage paths aimed at gaining Buddhahood.


The eleven vase initiations. 1. མ་དབང་! water initition 2. ཅད་པན་་དབང་། crown initiation 3. ད་་དབང་། vajra initiation 4. ལ་བ་དབང་། bell initiation 5. ང་་དབང^་ §བ་མ་དབང་^་། name initiation 6. ད་་§བ་དན'3་དབང་! vajra-carya initiation 7. གས་^་དབང་། mantra initiation 8. ལང་བ^ན་དངད-བགས་དང་ག་དབང་། prophecy and relief granting initiation 9. ད་་བ^ལ་ཞགས་་དབང་། vajra practice initiation 10. §ད'པ'བལ་ཞགས་་དབང་། ascetic practice initiation 11. £ས་3་ང་ག་དབང་། permission initiation.


Putraprabhasvara/ The son clear light. The clear light mind recognized through the power of meditation while on the trainee's path arising during the dissolution of winds within the central channel through the force of meditation; the son clear light is the experience of various levels of clear light mind gained on the path towards total perfection. This has two types: 1. དབན་པ་ད་གསལ། the clear light of isolation 2. ་དབན་པ་ད་གསལ། the clear light of non-isolation.


Danda/ Club with an ornamental human, vajra, or human head at its top; generally depicted as an implement in the hands of Asuras.


Matter. Any existent thing that is neither form nor consciousness, e.g. a person. There are two types of matter. 1.

Cv. •V' "V -v' -v

པ/དན་བན་པ། external matter, e.g. a clay pot 2. ནང་དན་བན་ པ1 internal matter, e.g. sense organs.


Three difficult aspects of practice. 1. ཆད་་^་ད^འཔ! fulfilling the goals 2. f ད་པ་་དཀའ་བ! executing the conduct 3. ལས་་དཀའ་བ། pursuing the practice.


Garuda; celestial eagle. A bird in Buddhist and Hindu mythology which is half man and half eagle symbolizing anger or wrath.


A purification ceremony conducted by a lama in which he sprinkles blessed water on one's head and gives water to sip.


GrdhrakUW Vulture Peak. The holy place near Rajgiri where Buddha Sakyamuni turned the second wheel of doctrine, e.g. the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras.


Kriyatantra/ Action tantra. The first of the four classes of tantra, stressing the importance of purifying external



The three types of siddhis of action (kriya) tantra. The power

of gaining proficiency in caryatantra practices 1. རབ་རག་ འ|ན་དངམན་ས-དངཔ^ན-བཅས-^ན་ས་བསགས་དང་།

the siddhi of knowledge of all sciences of learning as the supreme result 2. འ^ང་་^ང་བ་དང་བཅད་ལན་དང^ང མགས་སགས་དང་། the siddhi of disappearance, extracting the essence/ art of elixir and swift footedness as the middling result 3. ཐ་མ་གཞན་དབང་5་འ5་བ་དང་བསད་བ|ད་སགས་ སམ་ཛས་ལས་ལངས་|ད་གསམ་སགས་དབང་^་འ5་བ། the

siddhi of capturing, killing and expelling others or gaining control over matter, body and resources as the modest result.



The four suchnesses according to action tantra. The four primary applications of the action tantra practices (see de-kho-na-nyid bzhi).


The three initiations according to action tantra 1. མ་ག་་^ང་ བའ'དབང་1 the flower garland initiation 2. ་དབང། water


initiation 3. ཅད་པ-*'3་དབང་1 crown initiation.


The three types of concentration according to the action tantra The three suchnesses of concentration. 1. མར་གནས་ ད'9ད| suchness of abiding in fire 2. ་ར་གནས་་ད་^ད།

cv. -v cv

suchness of abiding in sound 3. ་མཐའ་ད་^ད། suchness of abiding in the finality of sound.


The six deities of the action tantra. 1. ^ང་པའ་། Sunyata deva/ emptiness deity 2. ཡ་ག་། aksara deva/ letter deity 3.་| sabda deva/sound deity 4. གཟགས་་། rupa


deva/ form deity 5. ག་9འ'། mudra deva/ seal deity 6. མཚན་མ་། lalcsana deva' symbol deity.


va 2

The fourteen commitments of action tantra in general. 1-3. དཀན་མག་གསམ་ལ་དད་པ། maintaining faith in the Three Jewels 4. གས་ལ་དད་པ། faith in mantra 5. ཐག་ཆན་ལ་མས་ པ| possessing aspiration in the greater vehicle teachings 6. ^མ་དང་ས་གས-ལ་^ས་པ། being respectful to spiritual masters and friends 7. འདས་མ་འདས་་་གཞན་ལ་་^ང་བ། having no hatred towards other deities of the past and future

8. ^ང་དས་བཞ་མད་པ་་གཅག་པ། not failing in carrying out one's commitments during the four days of a month, i.e., the eighth, fifteenth, twenty-fifth and thirtieth 9. ^་^་དང་མ་^གས་པའ་གཞང་གཞན་ལ་་མད་པ། not worshipping other barbarian and non-buddhist doctrines or philosophies 10. 3་ར'གས་པ་མན་ལ'3ས'^མ་སགས' མད་པ། offering of feast to strangers 11. མས་ཅན་ལ་ མས་པ་མ་ག་ཏང་བ། not giving up one's love and affection towards sentient beings 12. བསད་ནམས་་གས་གང་ད་8ལ་ བ| accumulating the collection of merits 13. བས་བཛད་ལ་ བ1ན་པ། devotion to incantation of mantras 14. དམ་ག་ གཞན་མས་^ང་པང་བ། observing other commitments.


The six families of action tantra. 1. ད་བ^ན་གགས་པ' རགས། the Tathagata family 2. པ^་རགས། the Padma

■V* -v. Cv CV

family 3. ད་£འ་རགས། the Vajra family, known as the three

•v- CV cv

transworldly families 4. ནར་འ་རགས། the Ratna family 5. <£ས་£ན་་རགས། the Spirit (lngas-rtsen) family 6. འ^ག་

-v, Cv Cv

ན་པལ་པའ་རགས། the common family, known as the three worldly families.


The three families of action tantra (see bya-rgyud rigs-drug, 1-3, above).


The time between the beginning and end of an activity. The span of time whrch is l/60th of a finger-snap.


Bodhicitta/ Mind of enlightenment. Altruistic mind of enlightenment to attain Buddhahood for the sake of other sentient beings; a Bodhisattva's way of life.


---- >a

Sapta bodhyangani/ The seven limbs of enlightenment; the seven auxiliaries to enlightenment which are in an equilibrim state of concentration and wisdom. 1. ^ན་པ། smrti/ mindfulness 2. ས་རབ། prajna/ wisdom 3. བ1ན་འས། virya/ effort 4. དགའ་བ། priti/joy 5. ཤན་|ངས། prasrabdhi/ suppleness 6. ང་ང་འ^ན། samadhi/ concentration 7. བ་?ང་ 3མས! upeksa/equanimity.


Bodhivrksa/ Bodhi tree. The pipal tree under which Buddha Sakyamuni attained complete eniightenment at Bodhgaya.


Bodhisattva. Practitioner of the greater vehicle teachings who has resolved to attain Buddhahood for the sake of ail sentient beings; also called the son of the Victorious Ones, more strictly, one who has at least attained the first path of the greater vehicle.


Dasa bodhisattvabalani/ The ten powers of a Bodhisattva 1. བསམ་པ་§བས། aSaya balam/ power of intention 2. ག' པ་བསམ་པ་་^བས། adhyasaya balam/ power of resolute intention 3. |ར་བའ་་§བས། prayoga balam/ power of application 4. ས་རབ་་^བས། prajna balam/ power of wisdom 5. ན་ལམ་་་^བས། pranidhana balam/ power of prayer 6. ཐག་པའ་་^བས། yana balam/ power of vehicle 7. ^ད་པ་་^བས། Carya balam/ power of conduct 8. ^ལ་པ་ ^བས། vikurvana balam/ power of emancipation 9. ང་བ་ ་^བས། bodhi balam/ power of eniightenment 10. ས་་ འཁར་ལ་བ་^ར-བ་^བས། dharmacakra pravartana balam/ power of turning the wheel of doctrine.



The thirty-four qualities common to Bodhrsattvas; the thirty-four aspects of the omniscient mind (see rnam-mkhyen-gyi r nam-pa sum-cu so-bzhi).


The ten aspects of a Bodhisattva's control. 1. ཆ^་ལ་དབང་བ། control over life 2. སམས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over mind 3. ཡ་ད་ལ་དབང་བ། control over materials 4. ལས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over action 5. |་བ་ལ'དབང་བ། control over birth 6. ས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over doctrine 7. ན་ལམ་ལ་དབངབ། control over prayers 8. |'འ§ལ་ལ་དབང'བ། control over miracles 9. མས་བལ་དབང་བ། control over different faculties 10. ^ས་ལ་དབང་བ། control over wisdom.

ང་&པ་སམས་དཔ་ས་བཅ། I

Dasa bodhisattva bhumayah/ The ten Bodhisattva grounds; the ten levels of Bodhisattvas (see sa-bcu).

ང་(|བ་སམས་-དཔ་སམས་ཅན་3་ན་་^ལ' བཅ་གས།

Twelve ways in which a Bodhisattva fulfils the purposes of sentient beings; the Bodhisattva's twelve means of working for the welfare of others. 1. ་བ་ད་པ། performance in action 2. |ག་བལ་ས་ག1ར་བ་དན"ད་པ། helping those who are suffering 3. ཐབས་ལ་^ངས་པ་དན་ད་པ། helping those ignorant of means 4. པན་འདགས་པ་དན་ད་པ། helping those in need of help 5. འ1གས་པས་?ན་པ་དན་ད་ པ། helping those oppressed by fear 6. མ/ངན་ས་གཟར་་བ་ དན་ད་པ། helping those overcome by suffering 7. ཡ་ད་' ངས་པ་དན་ད་པ། helping those lacking resources 8. གནས-འཆའ་བ^་ད་པ་དན་ད་པ། helping the homeless 9 |་མ|ན་པརའདད་པ་དན་ད'པ། helping those seeking to

live in harmony 10. ཡང་དག་པར་གས་པ་དན་ད་པ། helping those wishing to enter the teaching 11. ལག་པར་ ^གས་པའ་དན་ད་པ། helping those holding wrong views 12. §་འ3ལ་་་5་ནས'དན་ད་པ1 helping through miraculous deeds.



The thirty-seven limbs of enlightenment; the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment. 1-4. ན་པ་^་བར་བཞག་པ་བཞ། four close contemplations (see dran-pa nye-bar bzhag-pa bzhi) 5-8. ཡང་དག་པར་§ང་བ'བཞ། four perfect abandonments (see yang-dag spong-ba bzhi) 9-12. |་འ|ལ་་^ངཔ་བཞ། four limbs of miracles (see rdzu-'phral-gyi rkang-pa bzhi) 13-17. དབང་^་! five powers (see dbang-po lnga) 18-22. §བས་^ five forces (see stobs-lnga) 23-29. ང་བ་གས་་ས་ བ5ན། seven limbs of enlightenment (see byang-chub yan-lag bzhi) 30-37. འཔགས་ལམ^ན་ལག་བ^ད། eight noble paths (see 'phags-pa'i lam yan-lag brgyad).


Bodhisattva sanivara/ Bodhisattva vows; Bodhisattva precepts. The vows taken with the aim of helping others to attain the state of Buddhahood.


Arya Bodhisattva; superior Bodhisattva. A Bodhisattva who has attained the third of the five paths—the path of seeing.


The Five Works of Maitreya 1. མད་^་^ན! Ornament of Mahayana Discourses (mahayana sutralarhkara) 2. མངན་ གས'3ན1 Ornament of Clear Realization (abhisamayalani-kara) 3. དབས་མཐའ་མ་འད། Clear Distinction Between the Middle Way and Extremes (madhyantavibhariga) 4. ཆས་

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དངས་མ་འད། Clear Distinction Between Phenomena

and their Reality (dharma dharmatavibhariga) 5. ད'9'མ། The Sublime Continuum (uttaratantra).


Maitreya. A. Love; the wish for all sentient beings to be happy. B. Buddha Maitreya. Also called Maitreyanath, the future Buddha who will appear after the total disappearance of Buddha Sakyamuni's teaching, presently believed to be residing in the Tusita God Realm. C. Bodhisattva Maitreya The author of the Five Works of Maitreya (see above, byams-chos sde-lnga).


Blessed words of the Buddha; the teaching given through the force of Buddha's blessings although not spoken by him. There can be the blessings of body, speech and mind, e.g. the Heart Sutra is a discourse of the Buddha blessed by his mind.


The four types of blessings. 1. བདན་པའ་ན་ར,བས། blessing of the truth 2. ག1ང་བ་ན་ར,བས། blessing of giving 3. f བར་ཞ་བ'ན་ར,བས། blessing of ultimate peace 4. ཤས' རབ་་ན་^བས། blessing of wisdom.


The seven initiations of entering (the mandala) like a child. 1. ཆ་དབང་། water initiation 2. ཅད་པ^་^བང་! crown initiation 3. དར'དངས་་དབང'1 ribbon initiation 4. དར་ ལ--དབང། vajra and bell initiation 5. ད་་བ^ལ་ཞགས་' དབང་། vajra practice initiation 6. མང་ག་དབང་། name initiation 7. ^ས་^ངག་དབང་། permission initiation.


Vaisesika/ The Particularists. Proponents of non-Buddhist tenets following the sage Kanand, who asserted that all

objects of knowledge are included in six categories (see below); they also assert that ablution, initiations, fasts, and offerings of fire rituals are perfect paths to liberation; accordingly, when the self is in isolation free from desire, hatred, anger or pleasure, liberation is attained



The six principles of the Paticularists. 1. £ས| dravya/ substance 2. ཡན་^ན། guna/ quality 3. ལས! karma 4. !j| samanya/ enerality 5. ་བ/5! visesa/ particularity 6. འ་་བ། sarhgraha/ composition.


Vaibhasika. A lower school of Buddhist philosophy that asserts the division of all phenomena into the following five I categories, and assert three times as substantially existent. 1.

cv. cv.

འ5་མ*3ས་ག་པའ་གཞ1 non-composite phenomena as

•N cv cv.

permanent 2. ་^ང་བ་སམས་^་གཞ། appearances as form (objects of perception) 3. ག^་་མས་་གཞ། primary mind 4. འར་མས་ང་་གཞ། secondary minds 5. ན་པ་མ'

CV CV —v Cv CV

ཡན་པའ'འ5'3£>'3་གཞ1 non-associated compositional factors.


AstadaSa Vaibhasika nikayah/ The eighteen schools of Vaibhasika The eighteen schools of Hearers (see nyan-thos sde-pa bco-brgyad).


The four principal schools of Vaibhasika. The four mains schools of Hearers (see nyan-thos rtza-ba'i sde-pa bzhi).


Mahavibhasa/ The Great Ocean of Commentary (mahavibhasa). One of the principal texts of the Vaibhasika

school of philosophy said to have been composed collectively by five hundred Arhats lead by Upali, after the passing away of Buddha Sakyamuni. It belongs to the Abhidharma class of teachings.


Karanahetu/ Active phenomena; active cause. A phenomenon is said to be an active cause of another when it is both substantially distinct from that phenomenon and does not obstruct its arisal. There are two types of active causes: 1. ད་|'5ས་ན1 effective active cause, e.g. food for body 2.

55*r ^ ineffective active cause, e.g. permanent phenomena.


Twenty types of active causes. 1. གནས་པའ་ད་! active

cv -v

cause of endurance 2. བན་པའ་ད་་^། active cause-of


stablization 3. འབལ་བའ་ད་! active cause of separation 4. གསལ་པ་ད་། active cause of clarity 5< «}ད-ཆས-པ'

ད་། active cause of conviction 6. བ^ར་བའ་ད་། active cause of transformation 7. ཡད་ཆས་པར་ད་པའ་ད་

*** CV "V.

91 active cause of prompting conviction 8. འཐབ་པའ'ད'||

cv -v

active cause of achievement 9. ཐ་^ད'པའ་3ད་$། active

•V cv -v

cause of convention 10. ས'པའ་ད་$། active cause of

-V CV —V

reliance 11. འཔན་པའ་ད་! active cause of projection 12. མངན་པར/འ^བ་པ-ད-། active cause of establishment 13. ཡངས་་འ£ན་པ་ད་|། active cause of perfection 14. ང'བར་ད'པའ་ད'$། active cause of diminishment 15. ས སར་ངས་པའ་ད་། active cause of specific understanding 16.9/ན'ཅག་ད་པ་ད'། active cause of co-operation 17. ་མན'པ་ད'31 active cause of discord 18. "མ3ན'པ' མ་ཡན་པ་ད་! active cause of harmony 19. འབང་བ' ད་91 active cause of elements 20. 3ད་91 active cause itself.


Brahmin. One of the four castes of Indian society who are traditionally occupied with religious duties.


Four Vedas of Brahmins. 1. ངས་བ1ད། Rig Veda 2. མད་ |ན| YajurVeda3.^'<^ Sama Veda 4. 4}ད'^ང'། Atharva Veda


Six tasks of a Brahmin; six trainings of a Brahmin. 1. ?3ག'པ| reading 2.9ག་5་འ|ག་པ| training others to read 3. མད་ |ན| making sacrificial offerings 4. མད'|ད་ད'ད་འ|ག'པ| encouraging others to perform sacrificial offerings 5. |ན'པ།


giving alms 6. ལན་པ། accepting offerings. ^་བ་འ^ས་པ།

Visaniyoga phalam/ Fruit of cessation, e.g. the noble truth of cessation of suffering.


Sad anuttarayani/ Six unsurpassables. 1. མཐང་བ་^་ན་མད་པ།

^ -v

darsananuttaryam/ unsurpassable seeing 2. ཐས་པ་^་ན་མད་པ།

~v -v

sravananuttaryam/ unsurpassable hearing 3. ^ད་པ་་^་ན་མད' པ1 labhanuttaryam/ unsurpassable finding 4. བ^བ་པ་^་ན་

"v. Cv •«-'

མད"པ| siksanuttaryam/ unsurpassable precepts 5. རམ་་^་ ན་མད་པ། paricaryanuttaryam/ unsurpassable honour 6. £ས་ ་ན་པ་^་ན་མད་པ! anusmrty anuttaryam/ unsurpassable recollection.


Lama estate. An estate owned by a high lama


Canopy. A brocade and silk hanging above a high lama's throne.


Lama. A. Spiritual master; qualified religious teacher. Lit. 'high one' (guru) or 'weighty one', meaning one who possesses great knowledge and spiritual accomplishments.


A. The entire group of objects of refuge. B. A humble and sincere person. C. Not good, not bad.


Three qualities of a Guru. 1. ཚལ་§མས'མ'པར་དག་པས་§་ གསམ་་|ད-བགཅང་པ། tne conduct of his body, speech and mind are pure due to his strict morality 2. ས་རབ་མ་པར་ དག་པས-བཤད-པ-དན་ལ་མཁས-པ། ne is wise in giving

teaching due to his pure wisdom 3. བསམ་པ་མ་པར་དག་ པས་ག^ན་ལ་པན་འདགས་པ། he benefits others due to his pure altruistic thoughts.


A tantric monk. A monk either from the upper or lower tantric college of the Gelug order.


A Buddhist minstrel. A professional bard who moves freely, tell stories and sings poems of Buddhist ethics, karma, life stories and epics to people.


Guruyoga. The practice of guru devotion; the meditation and services to please one's guru in order to increase one's power to reach one's goal of ultimate enlightenment.


The four initiations of the highest tantra (see dbang-bzhi).


The three highest yoga tantras (anuttarayoga tantra). 1. པ་|ད| father tantra, e. g Guhyasamaja 2. མ་ད། mother tantra, e.g. Cakrasanivara 3. ག?ས'མད་་9ད། non-dual tantra, e.g. Kalacakra.


The thirty-six precepts of observance and abandonment of a novice monk (see dge-tshul gyi blangs-'das so-drug).


Buddhi/1. Mind; perception 2. Wisdom.


Wisdom; intelligence; sagacity; prudence; knowledge.


The three evil wisdoms. 1. «་་^T»r«l| not-knowing 2. % l-*,^i|'sr
The four principles of thought transformation; the four basic mind trainings. 1. དལ་འར་?ད་དཀའ་བསམ་པ། realizing


the preciousness of a human rebirth 2. འཆ་བ་མ་ག་བསམ་པ།

■v' cv -v

realizing the impermanence of this life 3. འཁར་བའ་^ས་ དམགས་བསམ་པ། realizing the faults of cyclic existence (sanisara) 4. ལས་་འ^ས་བསམ་པ། realizing that pleasure and suffering result from good and bad actions respectively.


Eight sessions of mind training. Kadampa's mind training

~N CV.

precepts transmitted by Dromtonpa. 1. ཟས་ལ་བན་པའ་^་

Jg -v

§FI mind training in reliance on eating 2. དགས་ལ་བན་

ev •*> «v

པའ་9'|ང| mind training in reliance on breath 3. ལས་ག^འ་ ་མ་^ད་ད་-^ལ་པ་ལ་བན་པ་^ང་། mind training through visualizing one's body as being as numerous as the grains of sand in the river Ganges 4. ཤ'(3ག'ལ'བན'པ§' |ང'། mind training in reliance on flesh and blood 5. ག^རམ་

-v ov

ལ་བན་པའ་^ང! mind training in reliance on ritual cake offerings 6. འང་བ་ལ་བན་པ་^'|ང'། mind training in reliance on the elements 7. ལས་ཡད་བཞན་ནརར^ལ་་!? |ང'1 mind training through transforming one's body into a wish-fulfilling jewel 8. འཆ'བ'མན'ངག'9་|ང'| mind training in reliance on the instructions for death.


The seven point mind training. The Kadampa's mind training precepts: ན་འ་ན་་ས་མས་པ། the preliminary practice 2. དངས་གཞ་ང་བ་་མས་|ང་བ། generating the mind of enlightenment 3.3ན་ངན་ང་བ་་ལམ་5་བ|རབ། transforming misfortunes into paths to eniightenment 4. **' གཅག''9མས-ལན^ལ-ནས-བ^ན'པ། synthesizing the practices of this life 5. §་འངས་པ་ཚད། the yardstick of mind training 6.1་|ང'ག་དམ'ག the commitments of mind

s ov

training 7.3་|ང་ག་བ9བ་1 the precepts of mind training.

|་|ང་^ན་པ་བ^་30|། 1

The mind training, 'Parting Away from the Four Clingings' common tc the Sakya tradition. 1. ^་འད་ལ་ཞན་ན་ས་པ་


མན! if you have attachment to this life, you are not a religious practitioner 2. འར་བ་ལ་ཞན་ན་ངས་འབ^ངན། if you are attached to cyclic existence, you have no renunciation 3. རང་དན་ལ་ཞན་ན་ང་མས་ན། if you are attached to your own welfare, you do not have the mind of enlightenment 4 འ|ན,པ་ང་ན་,བ-ན། if yOU ^ve grasping, you do not have the correct view.


Seven awarenesses; seven ways of knowing. 1. མངན་མ། pratyaksa/ direct perception 2. ཛས་དཔག anumana/ inferential perception 3. བཅད་ཤས། paricchinna jnana/ subsequent cognition 4. ཡད་ད3ད1 manahpariksa/ presumption 5. ^ང་ལ་མ་ངས། darsananiyata/ inattentive perception 6. ཐ་མ། vicikitsa/ indecisive mind/ doubt 7. ^ག་ཤས། mithyajnana/ distorted awareness.


The four classes of awareness. The classification of mind according to the way it cognizes its respective object of perception. 1. |}ང་ལ'མ'ངས'པ་དང་ཡད་དད་ག?ས་་མ་

f cv

གས་པའ'9] non-discerning mind, e.g. the presumptions and inattentive mind 2. ག་བཅས་ག་ད་་ལགས་ག^ས་ ་ལག་པར'ག་པ་|། distorted mind, e.g. the conceptual

■V -s cv

and non-conceptual misconceptions 3.3་ཅ"ག^ས་་འ|ག་པ་ ཐ་མ་'§། doubt, e.g. wavering minds 4. མངན་ས་་ ཆ-ད་མ-ག^ས་པ་^གས་པ་^། fcrning mind, e.g. valid direct perception and inferential minds.


Ways of dividing mind into two. A. ག'པ་དང་ག་ད'ག?ས' ་ད་བ! Conceptual and non-conceptual minds. B. ཚད་མ' ཚད་ན'ག9ས'ད་བ། Valid and invalid cognitions. C. འ^ལ་བ-དངམ-འ^ལ-བས-པ-ག^ས-ས-ད-པ། Mistaken

and unmistaken minds. D. གས་པ་དང་མ་གས་པ་ག^ས་་ ད'བ| Realized and unrealized minds.


Mental exclusion of other. An affirming negadve which is a mere projection of thought, e.g. the appearance of not not a vase, i.e. the generic image of a vase.


Intellectually formulated emptiness. Wrongly conceived emptiness.


Abhisekha/ Initiation; empowerment. A tantric ceremony in which a lama empowers his disciples to engage in higher practices of tantra through ripening their mental continuum.


The actual-initiation rite. A part of the initiation programm entailing the erection of the mandala and performing the accomplishment rite (sgrub-mchod), the self-initiation and bestowing initiation to others.


The concluding rite of initiation. Offering of the thanks giving mandala, agreeing to abide by the commitments, offering the three gates of activities for the master's service, and dedicating virtues.


The preparatory rite of initiation. This includes the ground ritual seeking permission for its use, preparatory rites of accomplishment by constructing the mandala be that a powdered sand or painted mandala, and the actual accomplishment rite for a couple of days.


The five sensory direct perceptions. That of eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body senses.

དབང'བ-3! .... •

Dasa vaSitah/ The ten powers. The ten powers or^Bodhisattvas having transcended the rank of being an ordinary person, i.e.

control over the ten types of harms which a common person is likely to experience. 1. ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of life-span 2. སམས་ལ་དབང་བ། control of mind 3. ཡ་ད་ལ་དབང་བ! control of resources 4. ལས་ལ་དབང་བ། control of activities 5. |'བ-ལ-དབང'བ། control of rebirth 6. མས་པ་ལ་དབང་བ! control of aspiration or wishes 7. ^ན་ལམ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of prayers 8. ཛ་འ^ལ་ལ་དབང་བ། control of miracles 9. ས-ལ-དབངབ། control of dharma 10. ཡས་ལ་དབངབ། control of wisdom.


The eleven initiations; the eleven initiations that are gateways to entering yoga tantra. 1-5. ^བ་མ་དབང་^་། the five initiations of a disciple (see rig-pa'i dbang lnga). 6-11. ^བ' དཔན--དབང-^ག the six initiations of the master (see slob-dpon gyi dbang-drug).


Navendriyani/ The nine powerful faculties. The nine faculties possessed by an Arya 1-5. མ'ང'ག'དབང་'^་| the five pure powers or purified mental faculties (see dbang-po Inga,-below.-B). 6. ར་བ་བད་བ། pleasant feeling 7. ཡད'བད'བ| unpleasant feeling 8. བ^ང་?མས1 equanimity 9. ཡད་དབང་། faculty of consciousness.


Pancendriyani/The five faculties; the live powers. A. དབང་པ' ག^གས་ཅན་པ་^་། The five physical sense faculties (see khams bco-brgyad, 7-12). B. མ་ང་་དབང་བ^་། The five purified mental faculties: 1. དད'པ'དབང'| sraddhendriyam/ power of faith 2. བ|"ན་འ2|ས''དབང'།

OS 1*

viryendriyam/ power of effort 3. ་^ན་པའ་དབང་པ།

Ov -v «S Cv

srnrtindriyam/ power of mindfulness 4. ་-ཏང་ང་འཛན་་དབང་

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པ| samadhindriyam/ power of concentration 5. ཤས་རབ་་^'

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དབང་པ། prajnendriyam/ power of wisdom. C. ས'^འ'!^'

ས་བ^ས་པ་ར་བ་^་། The five ever-afflictive faculties; the five feelings of an ordinary person. 1-1 ལས་་ར་^་


བད་^ག་ག^ས| comfortable and uncomfortable feeling of the body 3-4. ཡད་་ར་བ་ཡད་བད་དང་ཡད་་བད་ག^ས། the pleasant and unpleasant feeling of the mind 5. ^ར་^་ བ་^ང་^མས། the indifferent feeling.


EkadaSendriyani/ Eleven faculties. 1-5. དབང་པ་་^་! the five sense powers (see dbang-po drug, 1 -5) 6. ཁ! mouth 7. འ*ག' པ1 hands8.^| feet 9.3^1 anus 10. གསང་ W secret organs 11. ཡད་དབང་! faculty of mind.


-V »V

The twenty-two faculties; the twenty-two powers. 1-7. ན་9་ དབང་པ་བ་ན! The seven faculties of reliance (see rten-gyi dbang-po bdun). 8-9. ན'ཅན'3་དབང'་ག$ས| The two faculties of basis or sex (see rten-can gyi dbang-po gnyis). 10-14. ར་བ་དབང་་^་། The five faculties of feeling (see tshor-ba lnga). 15-19. མ'3ང་ག་དབང་་'21་! the five purified faculties (see dbang-po lnga,-B). 20-22. 3ག་,ད་3་ དབང་པ་གསམ། the three uncontaminated faculties (see zag-med kyi dbang-po gsum).


Sad indriyani/ Six" cognitive powers; six faculties; also called the six internal sources of perception (nang-gi skyed-mched drug). 1. མག''དབང'པ| caksurindriyam/ eye sense power 2. 'བ'དབང་པ| srotrendriyam/ ear sense faculties 3. «F དབང་པ། ghranendriyarn/ nose sense faculties 4. ་^འ་དབང་^

Ov f

jihvendriyam/ tongue sense power 5. འ1ས་3་དབང་པ| kayendriyam/ body sense power 6. ཡད'་དབང་པ| mana indriyam/ mental sense power. ■


The five physical faculties (see khams bco-brgyad, B. 1-5).


The three faculties. A. The three pure powers gained on the paths of seeing, meditation and no-more learning, respectively (see 6-8 of rnam-byang gi dbang-po brgyad; zag-med kyi dbang-po gsum). B. The three types of persons according to their level of intelligence: 1. དབང་པ་ཐ་མ། poor intellect 2. དབང་་འ§ང་། moderate intellect 3. དབང''རབ| sharp intellect



Isvara/ A. Mahadeva (siva). B. Glory and power. C. Excellence. D. Powerful attainments (siddhi).



A. The eight sovereign qualities (see thun-mong ma-yin-pa'i dbang-phyug-gi yon-tan brgyad). B. The eight powerful attainments; the eight worldly feats (see thun-mong-ba'i dbang-phyug-gi yon-tan brgyad).


The ten sovereign qualities of a Bodhisattva; the ten powers (see bdang-bcu).



Isvara/ The followers of Isvara. A school of Hindu philosophy which asserts that the world and its inhabitants are created by the projected thought (blo-yi gyo-ba) of Isvara (Siva), who they believe to be permanent, omniscient and never changing.


The four-fold initiations. The four-fold initiations of the

highest yoga tantra. 1. མ'དབང'| the vase initiation 2. གསང' དབང་! the secret initiation 3. ས་རབ་3ས'་དབང'| the primordial-wisdom initiation 4. ཆ*ག'དབང'། the word initiation.


The fourth initiation. The verbal initiation of words by which a tantric master introduces his disciple to the union of the pure body (illusory body) and mind (clear light) of a Buddha.


The threefold lineages—initiations, transmissions and explanations.


The two holy assemblies; the two spiritual communities. 1. གས་དགར/^ངལ-ཅན--^། tantric yogis and yoginis who

wear a white lower garment 2. རབ་ང་ངར'|ག་ག་^1 monks and nuns who wear red robes.


Prasarigika madhyamika school. The highest school of Madhyamika philosophy which asserts that phenomena do not exist by their own nature, inherently, not even on the conventional level.


Madhyamika school. The middle-view school, who assert emptiness as being free of two extremes—the extreme of existence and extreme of non-existence.


Svatantrika madhyamika school. A sub-school of Madhyamika philosophy which asserts that all phenomena

exist by their own nature, inherently, but do not have true existence.


The five middle way treatises. The five famous treatises of

Acarya Nagarjuna 1. ད་མ'5'བ'ཤས'རབ! prajnamula/ The

~> —■

Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way 2. ©ད་^ག


vigrahavyavartani/ Refutation of Arguments 3. ^ང'9ད'བ5ན ཅ། Sunyatasaptati/ Seventy Stanzas on Emptiness 4. རགས་པ་ §ག་ཅ! yuktisastika/ Sixty Stanzas of Reasoning 5. ཞབ་མ' མ'འཐག vaidalyasUtra/ Fine Investigation and Discernment.


-* ov -v -v

The six middle way treatises (see above 1-5) 6. རན་ཆན་^ང་ བ། ratnavali/ The Jewel Garland.


The alternative emptiness; the other emptiness (see gzhan-stong). The view asserted by Kurjldyyej^ oiipjfjan^chjoj'^^ gzhan-



The three isolations. A. མད་གས་5ན་མང་བ་དབང'5། The three isolations wommon to both sUtra and tantra traditions. 1. ལས'འ5,འ|ས,དབན,པ། body free of association in busy life 2. སམས-'ད'བ-མ^ག-ས-དབན'པ། mind fee of non-virtuous conceptualizations 3. §་གམ་ཐ'མལ་་|་ང'ཞན'

Cv -v

ས'དབན'པ། the three gates of activities free of ordinary vision and clinging. B. གསང་གས་* གས་རམ་་ལ་འར' ལ1 According to the Vajrayana's completion stage yoga of triple isolation (see dben-gsum rdo-rje'i rnal-'byor).


Vajrayoga of triple isolation. A meditation practice similiar to the completion stage yoga in highest tantra. 1. ངག་དབན! isolation of speech 2. ལས་ད^ན། isolation of body 3. ་་^མ་་ས' དབན[ isolation of mind.


The sixty features of a melodic voice; the sixty mellifulous speech. 1. མ?ན'པ! flexible 2. འ*མ'པ| soft 3. ཡད'5'འང' བ! attractive 4. ཡད'ལ'ཐད་པ| delightful 5. དག་པ| pure 6. -མ-ད-པ། faultless 7. གསལ་བ! clear 8.3ང་ཞང་འ*བས་ པ! pleasantly soothing 9. མ^ན་པར་ས་པ། worthy of hearing 10. '|གས་པ1 not harmful 11. 3ན་པ| beautiful 12.5ལ'བ1 subdued 13. ་$བ་པ1 not coarse 14. ་བ^་ པ| not rought 15. ་རབ་5'5ལ'པ! completely subdued 16. -ར་-^ན་པ! beautiful to hear 17. ལས་མ་པར་§ད་པ| refreshing for body 18. སམས་སམ་པར་ད་པ། refreshing for mind 19. f ང་དགའ་བར་ད་པ། pleasing the heart 20. དགའ་ བ'དང་བད'བ་བ|ད་པ| generating pleasure and happiness 21. «1ངས-ས'ག5ང-བ-མད-པ| completely without sadness 22. *]ན''ས-པར,'§ད-པ| being the object of universal knowledge 23. མ'པར'རག་པར'3'བ། being the object of thorough understanding 24. མ་པར་གསལ་བ! completely clear 25. དགའ་བར'ད་པ1 producing pleasure 26. མངན་ པ*-དགའ-བ*-ད'པ། producing manifest pleasure 27.3ན་ ་ཤས་པར་ད་པ། producing universal knowledge 28. མ་ པར་རག་པར་ད་པ! producing thorough understanding 29. རགས་པ! logical 30. འ|ལ་བ1 relevant 31. £ག་1ས་པ་ 5ན་ད་པ1 free of repetition 32. སང་ག་^་^གས!


possessing the strength of a lion's roar 33.9ང་པ་ཆའ་§་^ད|


producing the sound of an elephant 34. འ^ག་ག་^ད!


producing the sound of a cloud (thunder) 35. 3འ་་*1ད|

ov Ov

producing the sound of a Naga (serpent-spirit) 36. 5'3འ9' དངས1 producing the sound of Gandharva (a celestial

musician) 37. ཀ་ལ་ང་ཀ་་དངས། producing the melody of a spanow 38. ཚངས་པ་་དངས། producing the melody of Brahma 39. ཤང་ཤང་འ་་དངས་བགས་པ། producing the sound of a jivanjivaka bird 40. ་དཔང་་དངས་ར་ ན་པ། pleasant as the melodies of the lord of gods 41. ་ཡ་ ། producing the sound of a dundubhi drum 42. མ་ངས་པ། free of arrogance 43. ་དམའ་པ། not degraded 44. ་ཐམས་ ཅད་་ས་་གས་པ! harmonious to all sounds 45. ག་ ར་ཆག་པ་ད་པ། free of corrupted words 46. མ་ཚང་བ་ མད་པ། not incomplete 47. མ་མ་པ། not crying 48. མ་ཞན་ པ། not depressed 49. རབ་་དགའ་བ། extremely joyous 50. བ་པ། pervasive 51. བ་པ[ perfected 52. ན་ཆགས་པ། flowing 53. འལ་བ། elegantly connected 54. ་ཐམས་ཅད་ གས་པར་ད་པ། making all sounds complete 55. དབང་་ ཐམས་ཅད་མ་པར་ད་པ། satisfying all senses 56. མ་ད་ པ| non-abusive 57. མའར་བ། unchanging 58. མ་བགས་ པ། unwavering 59. འར་ད་་གས་པ། popular in all circles 60. མ་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་་མག་དང་ན་པ། possessing the best of all components.


Verse-form teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories (see gsung-rab yan-lag bcu-gnyis); verses which Buddha uttered during the beginning or conclusion of a discourse.


Sarasvatidevi. Goddess of eloquence. A goddess of both the Hindu and Buddhist pantheons, worshipped as the perfection of eloquence and regarded as the embodiment of mellifluent clarity of sound and speech.

' དར་་མ།

Early summer retreat. Observance of a summer or rainy season retreat by the monastic communities from the sixteenth

of the sixth month of the Tibetan calendar until the thirtieth of the eighth month. The tradition followed by the monastic community in general.


Varsika/ Summer retreat. One of the three basic observances for monks as prescribed by Buddha Sakyamuni; rainy season retreat during which time they do not go beyond the marked bounds of the monasteries and observe rules and regulations in addition to their regular routine.


Later summer retreat. Observance of a summer retreat by the monastic communities from the sixteenth day of the seventh month of the Tibetan calendar until thirtieth of the eighth month. This tradition is followed by both the upper and lower tantric colleges of Lhasa.


Vasubandhu. Regarded as a renowned Buddhist scholar of the 5th century, the younger brother of Arya Asariga and the author of Abhidharmakoktika and the eight treatises of Vasubandhu (see pra-ka-ra-na sde-brgyad).


The threefold practices; the three generation stage yogas or practices: 1. བད་པ་དཔས་་ལ་འར། the yoga of generating into the shape and form of a deity 2. བས་པ' གས་་ལ་འར། the yoga of reciting mantras of the deity 3 ད་གསལ་འག་ང་ས་་ལ་འ^། the yoga of

dissolution and arisal within the clear light experience.



Eight types of shape and form. 1. རང་བ། long 2. ང་བ།

short 3. *"3'བ| tegfr4^***^ ^'5.མ་པ། square 6. |མ'། round7.3'^l even 8. ་ལ་བ་མ་ཡན་པ། uneven.


Inseparable truth body. The inseparability of the emanation body, enjoyment body and the natural truth body of a Buddha.


The inseparable vajra teachings. One of the five kinds of teachings of a Buddha (see bsung-inga) according to the Nyingma tradition. This refers to the non-duality of sound and emptiness of all speeches and teachings of a Buddha being totally free of the two extremes.


Bamrom Kagyu tradition. One of the eight lineages of Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Gampopa's disciple, Bamrom Darma Wangchuk who is believed to have been the incarnation of Tulzug Choepa Nagpopa.


Five protruberances. That state of foetal development in the womb of a mother when the signs of five parts of body become obvious. 1 -2. དཔས་མ་ག^ས། signs of two legs 3-4. དཔང་པ་ག^ས། signs of two arms 5. མག། the head.


Seven tangible objects arising from the elements; seven objects of touch that are transformations of the four elements. 1.འ£མ་པ། smoothness 2. ཅ:བ་པ། roughness 3. ཡང་བ། lightness 4. |་བ། heaviness 5. ང་བ། coldness 6. བཀས་པ། hunger 7. ^མ་པ། thirst.


Twenty-two tangible objects arising from the elements. 1-7.

(see 'byung-'gyur-gyi reg-bya-bdun, above) 8. མ9ན'པ| pliancy 9. ད་པ། loseness 10. ད་པ་མ་ཡན་པ། tauntness 11. མ་པ། contentment 12. ་^མ་ཆ་བ། strong 13. ^མ་ཆང་ བ། weak 14. བ$ལ'བ། fainting/ swooning 15. གཡའ་བ། itching 16. བད'པ། slipperiness 17. ན་བ| illness 18. བ1'བ། aging 19. ^་བ། death 20. ངལ་བ། fatigue 21. ངལ་ག་བ། rest22.|p^'^ weighty.


The four elements. 1. ས། earth 2. ། water 3. མ། fire 4. &ང། wind. When it is five add ནམ་མཁའ། space; and when six add མ་^། consciousness.


Ten endowments; ten condusive factors for a person to"

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practise dharma 1. མ་ཡན་པ། being a human 2. ཡལ་དབས་ ་§ས་པ། being born m a Buddhist land 3. དཔང་པ་ཚངབ། having sound senses 4. ལས་མཐའ་མ་ལག་པ། being free from extreme actions 5. ཆས་ལ་དད་པ། having faith in the Dharma 6. སངས་^ས་ན་པ། Buddha's having appeared 7. དམ་ས་ གསངས་པ། Buddha's having taught the Dharma 8. བ་^ན་པ་ གནས་བ། the flourishing of his teachings 9. ་ས་ས' འག་པ་བ^གས་པ། there being people following his teachings 10. གཞན་ལ་ག་་བ5་བ1ང་་དང་ན་པ། having compassionate feelings towards others.


Phala sarana/The resultant refuge. The fully enlightened state of Buddha in one's own continuum, i.e. that fully enlightened refuge developed within oneself.


The five resultant phenomena; the five qualities of Buddhahood. Those of the body, speech, mind, qualities, and

enlightened activities of a Buddha.


The twenty-five resultant phenomena; the five each with respect to the body, speech, mind, qualities and enlightened activities of a |uddha according to the explanation given in the Nyingmatantras.


Correct reason of effect. A correct reason which is the effect of the predicate in a logical syllogism.


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Five divisions of correct reason of result. 1. |་དངས་3བ་་3་ གས| that establishing the direct cause 2. §་ན'སང་ག་ གས། that establishing the preceding cause 3. §་|་བ་3་ གས1 that establishing the general cause 4. ་་3ད་པར་བ་ ་གས། that establishing the particular cause 5. ས་£ས་ དཔག་་^གས། establishing the quality of a cause.


The resultant clear light. The perfect realization of the final reality of the basic primordial clear light existent within oneself as introduced by a qualified meditation master, and the ability to maintain this experience day and night.


Panca phalani/ Five types of results; five types of fruits. 1. §' མན་་འ3ས་5། nisyanda phalam/ results that accord with the cause 2. བདག་་འ^ས་བ། adhipati phalam/

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environmental cause 3. |ས་བའ་ད་པའ་འ$3ས'བ| purusa

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kara phalam/ results caused by persons 4. མ་པར་ན་པའ་ འབས་། vipaka phalam/ ripened results 5. བ/་པ་པ་འབ^ས་ བ1 visarhyoga phalam/ cessational results.


Four features characterizing the resultant Truth Body of a Buddha. 1. ང'བ་?ད'*| svabhavakaya/ the nature truth body 2. ཡས་ས་^ jnanadharmakaya/ the wisdom truth body 3. ལངས་^ sarhbhogakaya/ the complete enjoyment body 4. fP'Sj nirmanakaya/ the emanation body


He who attains the fruit by leaps.


He who attains the fruit successively.


The five resultant vehicles; the five tantric vehicles or paths. 1-4. The four classes of tantra (see rgyud-sde bzhi) 5. ^་^་ཡ' ག anuyoga vehicle 6. <ས་་7་ཡ་ག atiyoga vehicle.


The resultant clear light. The dharmakaya itself.


Eleven resultant forms. 1-5. དབང་་ག3གས་ཅན་པ'2;། five physical sense faculties (see dbang-po drug, 1-5) 6-10. ག^ང་

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^ན་་^་། five objects of perception (see yul-drug) 11. ཆས་3་ -མཆད་པ་གགས། abstract forms that are sources for mental consciousness.


Phalabhutamaturasannibhuta vastujfiana/ Basic wisdom close to the resultant mother. The knowledge of the basis near to omniscient wisdom; synonymous with the knowledge of the basis (gzhi-shes) within the mental continuum of a Mahayana Arya that is conjoined with exalted means and wisdom,

characterized as an antidote towards grasping at true existence.


PhalabhUtamaturadUribhuta vastujfiana/ Basic wisdom distant from the resultant mother; knowledge of the basis distant from omniscient wisdom; synonymous with the knowledge of the basis within the mental continuum of a Hinayana Arya, that lacks great compassion and is bound by grasping at true existence.


Drikung Kagyud. One of the prominent linaeges of the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by the master KyobaJigtenGonpo (1143-1217).


Drugpa Kagyud. One of the prominent lineages of the Kagyu order of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by Yogi Lingrepa Pema Dorje and Choeje Tsangpa Gyalre.


Two types of relationship. Relationship between any


phenomena can come under these two forms. 1. བདག་གཅག་ འ3ལ1 relationship of identical nature 2. ད་ང་འ^ལ། cause and result relationship.


Kantara/ Hermitage. Monastery or seat of learning for monks situated at least 500 armspans away from a town; a hermitage is situated further away then this according to the Vinaya rules.


Hidden meaning; implicit meaning, e.g. the teachings of

emptiness presented in the text, Ornament of Clear Realization.


Eight major transgressions (of tantric vows). 1. མཚན་^ད་མ་

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ན'པའ་རག་མ་བ^ན་པ། relying on an unqualified consort 2. འ5ས་གམ་དང་བལ་བ་^མས་འ|ག་ལ་གནས་པ། being in union without the three recognitions 3. ^ད་མན་པ་ལ་གསང་ བ་་^ན་པ། revealing secret substances of one's Lama and his

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consort to those who are not proper vessels 4. ཆགས'3'འཁར་ ལ'5ས'་£ད་པ། quarreling or arguing during an offering assembly 5. དད་པས་ས་འ་བ་ལ་ལན་§ག་པ1 giving wrong I answers to sincere questions 6. ^ན་ཐས་ནང་^་ཞག་བ^ན་ལང་ བར་བ^ད་པ། spending more than seven days in the home of a Hearer 7. ལ་འརཔ་མཚན་^ད་དང་་ན་པར་གས་ པར་&མ་པ། pretending to be a great yogi when you are not 8. དད་པ་ད་པ་ལ་དམ་ས་^ན་པ། giving teachings to those who do not have faith in them.


Dvadasa dhuta gunah/ Twelve ascetic practices; twelve disciplines of a strict practitioner. 1. གས'3ག'དར'0ད'པ| parhsukulika/ wearing robes made of rags 2. ཆས་གས་གམ་ པ1 traicivarika/ wearing the three dharma robes 3. ང་བ་1"! namatika/ wearing robes made oniy of wool 4. ^ན་གཅག་་པ། aikasanika/ eating one's food in one sitting 5. པསད་་^མས་པ།

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paindapatika/ subsisting on alms 6. 3ས་3ས་མ་ལན་པ། khalupascad bhaktika/ not accepting food after having risen from one's seat 7. དགན་པ་བ། aranyaka/ dwelling in a


hermitage 8. ཤང་§ང'པ། vrksamulika/ dwelling at the foot of a tree/ forest dweller 9. 3་གབ་མད་པ1 abhyavakasika/ dwelling in an open and unsheltered place 10. 5ར་0ད'^| smasanika/ dwelling in cemeteries 11. "ཅག་པ་བ། naisadika/

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remaining in the sitting posture 12. གཞ་£'བཞན'པ།

yathasairistarika/ sleeping wherever one may happen to be.


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Three types of giving. 1. ཟ)ང་-9ང་ག་|ན་པ། giving material help 2. 'འ1གས'པ'|ན་པ། giving protection from fear 3.

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*ས'3'|ན'པ། giving dharma teachings. When it is five add 5.མས་པ|ན'པ། giving of love.


Corrupt practice of liberation through union. The name given to the corrupt practice spread in Tibet by the so called Red Acarya and the Pandita with blue lower robes from India, the period between Lang Darma and the coming of Atisa. They spread the erroneous teaching that liberation is attained through mere union with consorts and killing of animals.


Prayoga/ A. Trainings; practices. B. Commitment of an action; one of the four factors determining the completion of an action. C. Preliminaries to an actual practice.


Twenty trainings. The twenty trainings of a Bodhisattva's meditation on the combination of the three basic trainings. 1. བདན'ཞན'ལ་་གནས་པ་|ར་བ། training that does not focus on grasping at true existence 2. བདན་ཞན་བཀག་པའ་ |ར'བ! training free from grasping at true existence 3. -ཟབ་ པ|ར་བ! profound training 4. ག5ང་དཔག་དཀའ་བ་|ར་ བ1 training that is hard to fathom 5. ཚད་ད'པ་|ར་བ། immeasurable training 6. གས'ཆན'ཡན་རང་གས་པ་|ར་ བ! training that leads to enlightenment painfully after a long period 7. ལང'བ3ན་ཐབ་པ་|ར་བ། training bestowed with

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prediction 8. 3ར་མ་ག་པའ་|ར་བ། irreversible training 9.

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ངས་པར;འ3ང་བའ་|1ར/བ། training of definite actualization

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10. བར'ཆད་མད'པའ་|ར'བ། training free of impediments

11. 3ང'ཆབ'ལ་?་བ་|ར་བ། training that is close to

enlightenment 12. <|ར'5'འཆང'$་བ'|ར'བ། training leading to quick enlightenment 13. གཞན་§'^ན་3'|་ར་བ1 training for the welfare of others 14. འཔལ་ད་བ་ད་་ |ར་བ། training without progression or regression 15. ཆས་ དང་ས་ན་སགས་་མཐང་བ་|ར་བ། training in not

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seeing either dharma or non-dharma 16. བསམ་མ་(3བ་པའ'


|ར་བ། inconceiveable training 17. མ་པར་མ་ག་པའ་|ར་ བ། training free from conceptual elaboration 18. འ3ས'བ'

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རན་ཆན་་|ན་པའ་|ར་བ། training bestowing the jewel of fruits 19. གནས་ངན་ལན་^་མ་དག་པར་§ད་པ་|ར་བ། training purifying subtle negativities 20. ས'མཚམས་་|ར'བ1 training within prescribed limits.


Four trainings; the four Bodhisattva trainings. 1. མ་^གས་

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|རབ། training of complete aspects 2:5་མའ་|ར་བ| peak training 3. མཐར་ས་|ར་བ། serial training 4. ^ད་ཅག་མ་ |ར་བ1 momentary training.


The ten approaches; ་§ད་་§ར'བ|ད་པ་ཡན་ལག'?| the ways of approaching or undertaking action tantra practices. 1. གས'པ'བ'པ'། tantrika as the practitioner 2. ར.ང-^གས-བ!བ་པར?3་བ-། oneseif as the deity for

accomplishing the mantra 3. གཡག་|བ་པ'གས་མག helpers as the supreme friends for one's accomplishments 4. ^ང་རས་ལ་སགས-པ-ཛས། possessing ldong-ros stones and others as the substances or articles 5. |ར'བའ་བ£ན'འ5|ས| application as the enthusiastic perseverance 6. དབས་ལ' སགས་བ་ཡལ་གས། living in a central land or otherwise as the place of living 7. ར་|'ལ་སགས་པ'གཞ་གནས།


location in the mountains etc., as the environment 8. དད'<་3' དང་་་ལ་སགས་པ་5ས། spring time and mornings as the period of practice 9. ར"མ་དང་ག3གས་^་ལ་སགས་པ་

ཡནལག་ཛགས་པ་། possessing qualified images and paintings of deities 10. འ1གས་པ་ད་ཅང་ན་ཆ་བ་མས་ «?བས1 fearlessness and forbearance as the spirit of carrying out practices.


The six yogas of the Kalacakra tantra. The yogas of wind meditation according to the completion stage practices in the Kalacakra tantra. 1. སར་་|ད། withdrawal 2. བསམ་ག་་ཏན། concentration 3. ག་ཅ~ལ། pinpointing the life-sustaining wind 4. འ£ན་པ། retention 5. ས་དན། recollection 6. ང་ འ^ན! single-pointed concentration.


Six preparatory practices. The six ways to prepare oneself for a daily session of meditation. 1. གནས་ཁང་་དར་ས་པ།

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cleaning the room or place of practice 2. ན་བ^མས་ཤང་ མད་པ'ག་4་ད་པར་གཤམས་པ། arranging symbolic objects of refuge and pure offerings 3. ལས་མ་^ང་ཆས་ བ5ན་3་^་ནས་5བས་འམས་བད་་བ། sitting on a comfortable cushion and maintaining the seven-fold posture of Vairocana (see rnam-snang chos-bdun), then taking refuge and generating the mind of enlightenment (bodhicitta) 4. གས་^ང་གསལ་བ^བ་པ། visualizing the merit-field 5. མ་1ལ་དང་འལ་ཡན་ལག་བ5ན་པ་་བ། offering the seven branch practice and the mandate of the universe 6. ད་དང་ འ^ས་ངས་་གསལ་བ་བ^བ་པ། making powerful supplication and prayers from one's heart.


Fourteen qualities of (a Bodhisattva's) training. 1. བ5ད'3་ མ^་བཅམ་པ། annihilation of demonic powers 2. སངས་^ས་ ་དགངས'ང་མ|§ན་པ། attention and knowledge of the Buddhas 3. སངས་9ས་་མན་མ་5་མཛད་པ། being within

the sight of the Buddhas 4. གས་ང་ལ་^བར་འ^རབ།

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nearing the state of enlightenment 5. མ་པར་ན་པ་ཆ་བ། greatness of ripened results 6. ར3ན་3བ་མ་'|་བ་|་བ'


9ད་5་འར་བ། becoming a proponent of the perfection of wisdom teaching 7. -གས་ངལ་་ད་པ། non-deflection

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from complete enlightenment 8. དག་བའ་ཅ"བ་ན་མང་མ་ ཡན་པ་|་བ། cultivation of special roots of virtues 9. དམ' བཅའ་བ་དན་ཐམས་ཅད་བ་པ། accomplishment of all the pledges and vows 10."མ་§ན་§་འབ4ས'བ'$'ཆ'བ! achievement of extensive and great fruits of merits 11. སམས' ཅན་་དན་བ་5ས་པ། ability to work for the welfare of other sentient beings 12. ^་བས་^ངར་^ན་-་ཟབ་མ་ངས' པརཐབ་པ། attainment of profound perfection of wisdom from life to life 13. ས་§ན་3བ་མ་གང་5་དར'བ་ཡལ་དར་ |ས་ནས་འ§་བ་དང་ཁ་?ན་5་་བ| copying and reciting the perfection of wisdom teachings everywhere that the teachings flourish 14. ཡན་^ན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡངས་ས་ཛགས་པ། accomplishment of all good qualities.


Two types of forders; two types of non-Buddhists. These non-Buddhists are said to be possessing the five extra-sensory perceptions and the ability to fly. 1. non-buddhist through meditation 2. non-Buddhist through logic.


Prayoga marga/ Path of preparation. The second of the five paths, where a practitioner gains conceptual understanding o emptiness.


Ten aspects of the heat level of the path of preparation. 1. མས་ཅན་ཐམས-ཅད-ལ-མས-མ9མ-པ། equality of attitude towards all sentient beings 2. མས་པ་སམས་དང་་^ན་པ།

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attitude of love towards all sentient beings 3. པན་པའ་སམས་ དང་ན་པ། attitude of benefit towards all sentient beings 4. ཁང|-བ-ད-པ-མས-དང^ན'པ། attitude free from anger towards all sentient beings 5. མ་པར་འ་བ་ད་པ་མས་ དང་ན་པ། attitude of non-violence towards all sentient beings 6. ^ན་པ་མས་ལ་པ་མ་མས་དང་ན་པ། attitude of regarding elders as one's parents 7. ན་མ^མ་པ་མས་ལ་ §ན'དང་«|ང་མ་མས་དང་ན་པ| attitu(je of regarding

one's peers as brothers and sisters 8. གཞན་པ་མས་ལ་་དང་ བམ-མས-དང8་ན-པ། ^itude of regarding the youngsters as sons and daughters 9. བརམ་མས་ལ་མཛའ་བས་དང་ གས-་སམས-དངན-པ། anitude of regarding equals as one's friends 10. སམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ག་^ན་དང་ག^ན་ མཚམས་-མས-དངན-པ། attitude of friendliness towards all sentient beings.


Eleven marks of irreversibility of a Bodhisattva on the heat level of the path of preparation. 1. གཞན་དན་5་ག3གས་སགས་ ལ'བདན་(^ན་ག་པ། he has turned away from grasping at true forms, etc. 2. ^བས་གམ་ལ་ཐ་མ་^ད་པ། he has extinguished doubts concerning the three jewels of refuge 3. ་མས་པ་བ^ད་-ཟད་པ། he has extinguished the eight non-condusive states (see mi-khoms-pa brgyad) 4. རང་གཞན' ག|ས-ཀ་ད་བ་ས་ལ་|ར་བ། he encourages both himself and others in dharma practice 5. བདག་གཞན་བ་བ་བསམ་


པས་^ན-པ། ne practices giving with the thought of exchanging self-concern for concern for others 6. -ཟཔ་མ་

•V» f CV CV. -V

དན'ལ'སམ'9་མ་3ད་པ། he has no doubt concerning the meaning of the profound emptiness 7. ^'གམ'3'f ད་པ་ མས་པ'སམས་ས|ད་པ| he performs the deeds of body, speech and mind with love 8. བ་པ་་^་དང་་འགས་པ། he never associates himself with the five obstructions 9. བག་ལ་ 9ལ་3ན-འ<1མས-པ། he has subdued all evil latencies 10.

ག་^^ན་ཤས་་^ང་ན་པ! he is always mindful and alert 11. གསསགས-^ངས་ས|ད-པ-གཅངབ། hewearsneat^ciean

cloth, etc.


Murdha prayoga nrarga/ Peak training of the path of preparation. The Bodhisattva practices at the the peak level of the Mahayana path of preparation, on which he has gained a conceptual understanding of the emptiness conjoined with the mind of enlightenment.


The four levels of the path of preparation; the second of the five paths. 1. ^ད། heat level, whereupon the first sign of

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attaining the wisdom of the path of seeing is felt. 2. 5"་མ།

peak level, where one has gained irreversible signs of one's

wholesome qualities for the first time 3. བཟད་པ།

forbearance level, whereupon one initially gains confidence to

— i*

overcome fear from experiencing emptiness 4. ཆས་མཆག supramundane level, the final level of the path of preparation liable to ensure direct bare perception of emptiness in the next immediate instant.


AjataSatru; King Ajatasatru of Magadha in India during the time of Buddha Sakyamuni. After Buddha's passing away into parinirvana at Rajagrtia, he sponsored the first council (see bka'-bsdu gsum).


Abhrantajnana/ Unmistaken perception; non-deceptive cognition. An awareness that is unmistaken with respect to its appearing object, e.g. the first moment that eye sense perception cognizes a tree.


Unestablished presumption; incorrect belief. Presuming what is true for an irrelevent reason.


Anivrtavyakrta/ Non-obscured unspecified phenomena Those categories of phenomena that are not deluded by nature, yet are neither virtuous nor non-virtuous with respect to their results, e.g. the universe, permanent phenomena



Mata tantra/ Mother tantra. The highest class of tantric teachings mainly emphasizing the development of the clear light mind, e.g. Cakrasambhava tantra


Six families of the mother tantra. 1. དར་མས་'རག«་། Vajrasattva tantra 2. མ་^ང་ག་ རགས1 Vairocana tantra 3. ར་ཀ་རགས། Heruka tantra 4. ད་་?་མ་རགས1 Vajra-sUrya tantra 5. པད་མ་དགར་དབང་ག་རགས། Padmanartesvara tantra 6. ་མག་་རགས། Paramasva tantra.


Indefinite presumption. Presuming what is true to be so for an undetermined reason.


Astaniyata bhumikah/ Eight indefinite levels of thought; eight uncertain secondary mental factors. 1. ག་པ། vitarka/ rough investigation 2. དད་པ། vicara/ subtle investigation 3. འད་པ། kaukrtya/regret 4. ག?ད1 nidra/sleep 5. FBI krodha/ anger 6. ཆགས་པ། raga/ attachment 7. ང་3ལ། mana/ pride 8. ཐ་ཆམ། vicikitsa/ doubt.


Machig Labkyi Dolma (1055-1145). A renowed female practitioner of the cutting-off ritual (gcod), a disciple of Phadampa Sangye.


ASuddha mayakaya/ Impure illusory body. A completion stage practice of tantra in which a meditator establishes the lack of non-inherent existence of all phenomena and their illusory nature of appearances.


SaptaSuddha bhumayah/ Seven impure grounds; the first seven of the ten Bodhisattva grounds (see sa-bcu, 1-7), in which a Bodhisattva possesses subtle pride still to be purified.


Astadasavenika buddha dharmah/ Eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (also see sangs-rgyas-kyi chos ma-'dres-pa bco-brgyad). A. |ད་པས་པ|ས་པ་5ག Six of behaviour: 1. ^་ ^-པ་འ^ལ་བ-མ་མངའ-བ། nasti tathagatasya skhalitam/ possessing unmistaken bodily qualities 2. གང་ཅ་ཅ་མ་མངའ་ བ1 nasti ravitam/ not possessing unskillful (noisy) speech 3. ན-པ-^མས-པ་མ-མངའ-བ། 0^ musita smrtita/ possessing undeclined memory 4. ^གས་མ^མ་པར་མ་གཞག་པ་་མངའ་ བ། nastyasamahita cittam/ constant abidance in meditative equipoise 5. 3ང་ད་ར་ང་་?ད་ས་བ་པ་ཐ་དད་པ་?ད་་ འ^་ཤས་མ་མངའ་བ། nasti nanatva samjnaV realizing that cultivation and elimination are not inherently different 6. ས་ ས^'མ'བ^ག་པ'བ^ང་|མས'་མངའ'བ། nastyaprati-

sarhkhyayopeksa/ possessing indiscriminate equiminity. B. "f གས་པས་པ^ས་པ་ག Six of insight/ wisdom: 7. འ5ན་པ་ "^མས་པ་མ་མངའ་བ། nasti cchandasya hani/ possessing undeclining aspiration 8. བ|ན་འས་?མས་པ་་མངའ་བ། nasti viryasya hani/ possessing undeclining effort 9. སམས་ ཅན'འ5ལ་བ་ཐབས་ན་བ^མས-པ''མངའ'བ། nasti smrti

hani/་ possessing undeclining mindfulness as a means for taming sentient beings 10. ང་ང་འ1ན་^མས་པ་་མངའ་བ། nasti samadhi hani/ possessing undeclining single-pointed

concentration 11. ས་རབ་^མས་པ་་མངའ་བ། nasti prajnaya hani/ possessing undeclining wisdom 12. མ་པར་ ^ལ་བ་ལམ་^མས་པ་མ-མངའ་བ། naSti vimukti hani/

possessing irreversibility from liberated paths. C. མཛད་པས་ བ^ས་པ་གམ། Three of virtuous activity: 13. ^་འ^ན་ ལས། kayakarma/ virtuous activity of body 14. གང་ག་


འ^ན་ལས། vakkarma/ virtuous activity of speech 15. གས་

Cv Cv

3་འ^ན་ལས། manah karma/ virtuous activity of mind. D. ^ས་ས་བ^ས་པ་གསམ། Three of time: 16. འདས་པ་5ས་ མ།2ན-པ་ལ-མ'ཐགས-མ་ཆགས་པ་^-ས། atite 'dhvanya-sarigam apratihatarh jnanadarsanarh parvartate/ unobstructed wisdom concerning the past 17. མ་ངས་པ་^ས་མ་་ན་བལ་ མ་ཐགས་མ་ཆགས་པ་^་ས། anagate 'dhvanyasahgam apratihatarh jnadarSanarh pravarttate/ unobstructed wisdom concerning the future 18. ད་་བ་5ས་མ@ན་པ་ལ་མ་ཐགས་ མ་ཆགས་པའ་^་་ས། pratyutpanne 'dhvanyasahgam apratihatarh jnana darsanarh pravartate/ unobstructed wisdom concerning the present.


Matrka/ Mamo. A class of goddesses of which Palden Lhamo is the most prominent; most Mamos are depicted as ugly and terrifying figures; a skull full of diseases, a magic ball of thread and a black snare are their typical weapons; Mamo, as a class of deities, are quite numerous in different forms and constitute an important feminine aspect of the protectors of Buddha's doctrine.


Anupalabdhi saitiyaghetu/ Correct reason of non-cognition. Correct reason arising from non-coghition in which the actual predicate that is established is a negative phenomenon, i.e. is

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not perceived. There are two types: 1. "^ང་རང་མ་དམགས་པའ་ གས། correct reason arising from non-cognition (of a

specific thing) which is suitable to appear (to a perceiving mind). 2. ་^ང་བ་མ་དགས་པ་གས། correct reason arising from non-cognition (of a specific thing) which is unsuitable to appear (to a perceiving mind).


AnupattaSabda/ Unconjoined sound. Sounds that are created from elements not conjoined with consciousness, e.g. the sound of a running brook.


Affirming negative. A negation which when expressed in words negates its specific object of negation and directly or indirectly implies the existence of another affirming (non-negative) phenomena, e.g. the statement, 'Rani does not sleep during the day,' which indirectly implies that she sleeps during "the night. There are three types: 1. ས་གཞན་དངས་་ འཔན་པ་མ་ཡན་དགག directly affirming negative 2. ས་ ག^ན^གས་^་^པན་པ-མ-^ན་དགག indirectly affirming negative 3. ^བས་^བས་ས་འཔན་བ་མ་ཡན་དགག circumstantially affirming negative.


Exclusion (of others), which is an affirming negation, i.e. an affirming exclusion synonymous with negation, e.g. the statement, 'not a vase.' There are two types: 1. 9འ་གཞན་ ལ! mental exclusion of other 2. དན་རང་མཆན་་གཞན" སལ| ultimate self-characterized exclusion of other.


Avidya/ Ignorance. One of the six root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug); a secondary mind that is a direct antidote to the wisdom understanding the law of causality and reality of phenomena; and hence the root of misapprehension of all. There are primarily three categories, those that are induced

through closed mindedness, doubt and wrong view or


མ་^ར5བ'པ'མ^ད'^མ| Three treasures obtained from the mother. 1. ཤ། flesh 2. 21གས་པ། skin 3. HI blood.


Sarhmitiyah/ The three schools of Sammitiya; one of the eighteen Hinayana schools of philosophy. 1. ས'ག'ར'ལ' གནས་པའ་|། Kaurukullakah2.^'^^'^| Avantakah 3. གནས་མ་་པ་^། Vatsiputriyah.


The instruction lineage. A sub-school of the rDzogs-chen atiyoga teachings of the Nyingma order of Tibetan Buddhism.


Mandala/ A. Mandala; a divine mansion. B. An offering to one's spiritual master, in which one visualizes offering the entire universe and its precious contents, etc.


The four types of mandala offering. 1. པའ་མ|>ལ། outer 2.. ནང་་མ^ལ། inner 3. གསང་བ་མ^ལ། secret 4. ད་་ན' ?ད'་མ^ལ། suchness.


Mother clear light. Clear light mind of the death and sleep



Boundless action leading to lower realms; action of non-respite. One of the most serious hell-states in which a person

is reborn without even passing through the intermediate state of rebirth.


Marpa (1012-1099). The great Tibetan yogi and translator, the disciple of Naropa and teacher of Milarepa. He was responsible for transmitting the teachings of Naropa to Tibet and for founding the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism. He visited India three times and Nepal four and studied under numerous teachers.


Removing obstacles upward. Such as in Vajrasattva meditation in which the negativities are visualized as being flushed out of your own mouth and upper orifices by an upward flow of light and nectar coming from the body of Vajrasattva at the crown of one's head.


Four pledges of Aksobhya. 1. ད་£འ་དམ་ཆག pledge concerning the vajra 2. ལ་བ་དམ་ག pledge concerning the bell 3. ག་^འ་དམ་^ག pledge concerning the seal 4. (^བ་དཔན་་དམ་ཆག pledge concerning the master.


Eight non-condusive factors. Eight non-free states or factors making the practice of dharma impossible. 1. ད-མ,ལ་བར་|་བ། born as a hell being 2. ཡ་དགས་་|་བ། born as a hungry ghost 3.5ད་འ་ར་|བ། born as an animal 4. ་་རངར་

-V -v' -v.

|་བ། born as a long living god 5. ^ར་*] བ། born in a barbaric land where the doctrine of the Buddha does not exist 6. དབང་པ་མ་ཚང་བ། having incomplete sense faculties, such as being blind, deaf or insane 7. ལག་་ཅན། holding wrong views, such as disbelief in the law of causality 8. སངས་$ས་

་ས་ད་པ་^ལ་ན་|་བ། born in a land where Buddha's doctrine does not flourish.


Dasakusalani/ Ten non-virtuous actions; ten unwholesome deeds. 1.ག་གཅད་པ། killing 2. མ་ན་པར་ལན་པ། stealing 3.ལག་ག^མ། sexual misconduct 4. བ|ན། lying 5. [5/མ། slander 6. ག'-|བ| harsh speech 7. ངག'འ[3ལ། idle gossip 8. བབ་མས། covetousness 9. གནད་སམས། malicious intent 10. ལག་། wrong view.


Two non-virtuous levels of thought. The two mental factors that accompany all non-virtuous thoughts. 1. (^ལ་མད་པ! anapairapya/ immodesty 2. ང་ཆ་མད་པ། ahrikya/ shamelessness.

The Unchangmg Vajrakaya. A term common to the Nyingma tradition; one of the five types of Buddha's body or being (see sku-lnga). The inseparability of Dharmakaya and Rupakaya.


Fourteen classes of person. 1. ^ང་ཐང་པ། infantry 2. ་པ། cavalry 3. ་^ང་ཆན་པ། elephant cavalry 4. ང་་པ་-^་^ལ་

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རགས་བཞ| charioteer belonging to the Ksatriya caste. 5. ནགས་ན་གནས་པ། hermit 6. [3མ་ན'གནས་པ། lay practitioner 7. དཀའ་བ་བ་^མ་1་རགས་བཞ། ascetic belonging to the Brahmin caste. 8. ཡག་མཁན། scribe 9. ང་པ། merchant 10. ན་པ་^་ད་་རགས་གམ། physician belonging to a noble caste. 11. ས་གཞ་མ^་བ། farmer 12. བ་ལང་|ང་བ། herdsman 13. འ1མ་ལས'པ། potter 14. §མ་ན་གནས་པ་$་ དམངས་ རགས་བཞ། householder belonging to a lower caste.


Lying about the attainment of superhuman qualities; lying about spiritual realization when actually not possessing them.


The sixteen human principles; the sixteen principles of moral conduct issued by the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo as a decree. 1. དཀན་མག་གམ་ལ^ས་པས་མད་པ། respectfully worshipping the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma and Sahgha) 2. དམ་པ་ས་བ^བ་པ། practising sublime Dharma 3. པ་མ་ལ་བར་བ། honouring one's parents 4. ཡན' ་^ན་ཅན^ལ-གང^-བརབ། honouring the learned scholars 5. རགས་མཐ་བ་དང་^ན་པ་མས་ལ་^་^་པ-^ད་ད-པ།

honouring and respecting the elders and those belonging to higher castes 6. མཛའ་བས་ལ་གང་རང་བ། being loyal and benign by avoiding a temperamental relationship with one's friends 7. ཡལ་་§མ'མ£ས་ལ་པན་འདགས་པ། being benevolent as well as one is able towards people in one's locality and neighbours 8. ཡད་ང་བ། being honest and incorruptible 9. མ་ཡ་རབས་ལ་་བ། following examples of the gentle and decent 10. 3ས་ནར'ལ་|དས་པ། living a


moderate life free from extreme means of livelihood 11. དན' ཅན་ལ་པན་ལན་^་ག་པ། repaying kindness to the generous 12. བ/ས^ངལ-ག^-མད་པ། avoiding deceptive conduct and fraud, such as in weights and measures 13. ^མས་ཤང་^ག' དག་མདཔ། avoiding jealousy of others' belongings and cultivating friendship with all 14. ངན་པ་ས་ལ་་^ན་ཞང་ རང་ཆ^གས་འཛན་པ། avoiding the influence of evil friends and one's deceptive 15. ད་ད་་ཁ་ལ་་^ན་པ། not listening to what women say 16. ཐག་པ་་ཞང§་ག་ཡངས་པ། being patient and far-sighted and enduring hardships in carrying out one's duties.


The five holy places that cannot be destroyed (see gnas-chen lnga).


Four fearlessnesses; four grounds of self-confidence of a

Buddha Fearlessness with respect to the assertion of: 1. རང་ དན•5•*Jངས•པ•ཐམས•ཅད••Jངས•^ས•དམ•བཅས•པ•ལ•*i•

འ£གས'པ། one's complete and perfect extinguishment of all negativities for the purpose of oneself 2. ^'^Vy^'W ཐམས-ཅད་དང་^ན^ས-དམ་བཅས་པ་ལ་་^གས་པ། one's

complete and perfect accomplishment of knowledge for the purpose of oneself 3. གཞན་དན་5་ག?ན,'ལམ'འད་དག་ག་ (^ས་དམ་བཅས-པ'ལ-'འ1གས'པ། revealing the paths .of

antidotes for the purpose of others 4. གཞན་དན^འ་་དདག' 3ང་^ན་^ས་དམ་བཅས-པ-ལ-མ-འ|གས-པ། revealing the

eliminations for the purpose of others.


Asamasamapancaskandhah/ The five aggregates equal to the unequalled one. 1. ཆ1ལ་0མས་'པང་! sila skandha/ aggregate of morality 2. བསམ'ག^ན'3'པང'| samadhi skandha/ aggregate of concentration 3. ཤས་རབ་་^་པང་པ། prajna skandha/ aggregate of wisdom 4. མ་པར་ལ་བ་པང་། vimukti skandha/ aggregate of thorough liberation 5. མ་པར་ ^་བ་(1}་ས་མཐང་བ་པང་པ། vimuktijnana darsana

skandha/ aggregate of seeing the wisdom of thorough liberation.


The sixteen attributes of the four noble truths. 1-4. ^ག་བལ་ བདན་པ་[3ད་ས་པ^། four attributes of the truth of suffering (see sdug-bsngal bden-pa'i khyad-chos bzhi) 5-8. ན་འང་བདན་པ་་3ད་ས་བཞ། four attributes of the truth

of origin (see kun-'byun bden-pa'i khyad-chos bzhi) 9-12. འགག་བདན'3་0ད'ས་བཞ། four attributes of the truth of cessation (see 'gog-bden-gyi khyad-chos bzhi) 13-16. ལམ' བདན་3་0ད་ས་བཞ། four attributes of the truth of the path (see lam-bden-gyi khyad-chos bzhi).


The great non-conceptual heart. The primordial wisdom is .known as the great non-conceptual heart or mind in the

Nyingma tradition.


A person of three-fold qualities. Being able to speak, understand and having a sound mind.


fratipaksa/ Discordant factors; dissimilar factors. That which is either contradictory to or does not share a common basis with the predicate in a logical syllogism.


Eight causes of invisibility. 1. ^་ཅང་རང་བ། very distant 2. ? ཅང'9'བ། very close 3. དབང་པ་^མས་པ། weak sense faculty 4 §ད-དབང"}མས'པ། weak mental faculty 5. ཆ'3'བ| subtle object 6. བ་པ་དང་བཅས་པ། obstructive factors 7. 1ལ-ས-གནན-པ། outshining factors 8. ཡལ་འས་པ། confusing object.


Statement rejecting other qualities; statement rejecting the existence of other features, e.g. the statement, 'sound is oniy an impermanent thing.'

མ་^ག་པ་འད་ས་དག། Nine unlovely perceptions; nine points of meditation on

ugliness. 1. མ་པར་བམ་པ། perception of a swollen corpse 2_ མ-པར་/འས་ག^ག་པ། perception of a worm eaten corpse 3. མ་པར་གས་པ། perception of a festering corpse 4. མ་པར་དམར་བ། perception of a bloody corpse 5. མ་ པར་ས་པ། perception of a bluish corpse 6. མ་པར་3ས་པ།


perception of a corpse being devoured 7. མ་པར་འཐར་བ། perception of a scattered corpse 8. མ་པར་འཆ^ག་པ། perception of a burnt corpse 9. མ'པ་ར་5ག'་^'31 perception of a poisonous corpse.


Eighteen signs of ugliness; eighteen unlovely signs. 1. མ་§ག' པ། ugliness 2. ་་བ། falling ham 3. ད^ལ་བ་ང་བ། small forehead 4. མདག་ར་|། pale color 5. ག་ར་བ། yellow ^6.ག་|མ་པ1 closed eyes 7. ག་ང་བ! small eyes 8. §ན-མ-མཚམས-མ་!ར/བ། eye-brows not joined 9. ^་ལབ་པ! flat nose 10. ས་རང་བ། long teeth 11. ་|་ག་པ| stammering 12.་ནང^ར་བ། crooked body 13. big belly 14.

དཔང་པ་་ངར་^ང་བ། stooped shoulders 15. ལས་ལ་§'མང་ བ! hairy body 16. ལག་པ་དང་*|ང་པ་་མ་?མས་པ། shrivelled hands and feet 17. ག་§མ་པ། thick joints 18. F དང་ལས་ལས་་ངན་ང་བ། bad smell from body and mouth.


Aprastisthita nirvana/ Non-abiding state of peace; non-abiding nirvana. The full state of nirvana free of the extremes of both cyclic existence and peace.


Anupalambha sunyata/ Emptiness of non-apprehension. One of the sixteen emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug); the lack of inherent existence of all phenomena witnin the context of any of the three times—past, present and future.

Cs. cv


Kinnara/ Probable-human. A class of beings included withrn the realm of the gods of desire.


Indestructible drop. The indestructible drop being either the ever existent very subtle wind and mind or the white and red drop at the heart-centre during one life-time.


The four causes of ignorance; the four causes of lack of knowledge. 1. <3ལ་བ^ལ་པས་་ས་པ། due to distant location of the object 2. 5ས་བ^ལ་པས་ས་པ། due to distant time reference of the object 3. ་་བ^ལ་པས་་ས་ པ། due to the subtle nature of the object 4. ཟབ་ཅང་མཐའ་ ཡས་པས་ས་པ། profundity and vastness of the object.


Statement rejecting other possibilities, e.g. the statement, 'it is only possible that a calf be born from a cow.'


Asaiksa marga/ Path of no-more learning. Last of the five paths.


The five cruelties; the five immoral activities-that deserve punishment. Those: 1. ^ལ་པ་ལ་གནད་པ། harming a king 2. པན'«|ན་གཅག་གས་གཅག་ལ་གནད་པ། harming each other 3. 3ལ--བ*|འ་ལ་མ་9ན-པ། disloyal to the king's advice 4. ལག་པས-འ-བ་འ་བ། practicing wrong livelihood 5. ལག་ པར་^གས་པར་་^ར་པ། engagement in hostile behaviours.


Blindfold. The red blindfold worn around the head during particular stages of a tantric initiation in order to prohibit the disciple from seeing the secrets of the mandala before they pass through the permission to be able to do so.


Two types of name. 1. དངས་ང་། real name 2. བ་^གས་ང་། given name.


Conceptual cognition involving terms. A type of conceptual generation produced in conjuction with the name of a thing, e.g. a concept that takes for granted, 'anything that is capable of rasing a beam is a pillar.'


The interdependent link of name and form. The fourth in the link of the twelve interdependent originations. Name refers to sound, smell, taste, phenomena and form as the form



Tri koti/ Three possible combinations. 1. if it is 'X' it should be T but if it is T it is not necessarily 'X' 2. that which is both 'X' and T 3. that which is neither.


Catuskoti/ Four possible combinations. 1. that which is 'X' but not T 2. that which is T but not 'X' 3. that which is both 4. that which is neither.


Nine topics of the Nirgrantha school. 1. ག life-force 2. གང་ •ཟག person 3. §མ་པ| precepts 4. ངས་པར་^་བ། certainty

of aging 5. འང་བ! bindings 6. ལས། karma 7. §!ག'པ| non-virtues 8. བསད་ནམས། merits 9. ཐ་ར་པ། liberation.


Sad tirthika Sastarah/ The six non-buddhist teachers; These were the one's who were defeated by Buddha Sakyamuni while completing miracles, and the event is celebrated as the Great Prayer Festival. 1. ད'ས,ང?གས'ད། PUranakasyapa 2. ན'5'5་གནག'9ས་'བ1 Maskarigos'aliputra 3. ་ད་་ བ'ཡང'དག73ལ་བ'ཅན། Sanjayivairadiputra 4. ་པམ་་ལ་ བ་ཅན| AjitakeSakambala5.^fr^%^l Kakudakatya-yana 6. གཅར''བ་ག?ན'3་བ1 Nirgranthojnatiputra.


Two types of non-Buddhists. 1. ^ལ་པ་མ་^གས་པ། non-Buddhist by emanation 2. ང་བའ་^་ནས་མ་^གས་པ། non-Buddhist by nature or birth.


Fire-like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with exertion possessed by Bodhisattvas on the path of preparation.


Non-affirming negative. A negation which when expressed in words negates its specific object of negation, but neither directly nor indirectly implies the existence of another (non-negative) phenomena, e.g. emptiness.


Awareness of the clear appearance of a non-existent object; an awareness in which something not existent seems clearly to exist, e.g. appearence of the single moon as double.


Female ritual of cutting-off (gcod). A ritual of severing negative thoughts handed down from Phadampa Sangye to Yogini Machig Labkyi Dolma and her disciples.


Adhimukticarya bhUmi/ State of faith. The first two of the five paths, where a practitioner employs faith and aspiration in his practice and has only a conceptual understanding of emptiness. Hence the Bodhicitta at these stages are also known by the name—Bodhicitta preoccupied by faith.


The four minds of enlightenment preoccupied by faith. The mind of enlightenment possessed by Bodhisattvas on the first two paths—the path of accumulation and preparation. 1. ས་' འ་སམས་བ|ད། me earth-like mind of enlightenment (see sa lta-bu'i sems-bskyed) 2. གར་་་མས་བ|ད། the gold-like mind of enlightenment (see gser lta-bu'i sems-bskyed) 3. ་བ་་་སམས་བ!ད! the moon-like mind of enlightenment (see zla-ba lta-bu'i sems-bskyed) 4. མ་་འ་ སམས་བ^ད། the fire-like mind of enlightenment (see me lta-bu'i sems-bskyed).


State of peace; liberation; nirvana. དམན་པ་ས་པ^།

Eight stages of the lower vehicle (see theg-dman gyi sa-brgyad).


Explicit teachings; bare teachings. The transmission of certain

teachings in every detail, from the master's own experience in meditational practice.


Three minor red protectors common to the Sakya tradition 1. 'ར-^གར'|ངཐག་ཅན། Kurukullasuvarnaka 2. ནར' |ན་མ'དམར་| Raktavasuanam3.^T5'^ Tinudevi.


Three major red protectors common to the Sakya tradition. 1. ་ར་!?། ^»2.གས'བདག Ganapati 3. འདད་3ལ1 Kamaraja.


Alambana pratyaya/ Objective condition. One of the four conditions (see rkyen-bzhi); the objective condition held in the mind that serves as the direct cause of generating that perception, e.g. a vase, for an eye consciousness.


Marvelous teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories of Buddha's teachings, describing the marvelous qualities of the Hearers, Bodhisattvas and Buddhas or their heavens.


Svapana maya/ Illusory body of the dream-state. A kind of illusory body experienced in a dream state through the force of karmic imprints; a subtle wind and mind body.

The lower Vinaya lineage. The restoration and spread of the lineage of monastic vows by the three persons known as Mar-Shakya, Yo-Gejung, and Gtang--Rabsel-rrom Do-kham, the lower region of Tibet to central Tibet after the persecution of Buddhrsm in Tibet by Lang Dharma. This Vinaya lineage was

received by Lachen Gongpa Rabsel, who passed the lineage to Lume Tsultrim Sherab, and subsequently to twelve persons of central Tibet.


Four medicine tantras; four basic texts of Tibetan medicine. 1. ■ཅ་་ད། root tantra 2. བཤད་ད! explanatory tantra 3. མན་ ངག་9་ད! instruction tantra 4.9ད'3་མ1 later tantra.


Six tastes of medicine (see ro-drug).


Medicine like Bodhicitta; the mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of wisdom practice possessed b,y a Bodhisattva on the sixth ground; it has the potential to pacify obstructions to omniscience like a powerful medicine.

^ན་^མ་བ^། J

Four types of medicine; four types of food for monks as prescribed by the Buddha. 1. 5ས་-རང་ག'ན| food to be eaten before noon 2. ^ན་ཆ་་ད^ ་་^ང་བའན! food suitable at a particular session 3. ཞག་བ5ན་9་ན1 food to be taken for seven days 4. འཆ་བཅང་ག་|་ན། food to support life.

^ན་^་བད་ག-གགས་བད། j

Asta bhaisajyaguravah/ Eight medicine Buddhas; eight healing Buddhas. 1. ཤ3་བ'པ1 Buddha Sakyamuni 2.2}ན' ་3'བ£3་འད་་3ལ་པ། Bhaisajyaguru 3. མན་མན'^ པ| Abhijnanaraja 4. ཆས་བགས་^་མཆ། Dharmakirtisagara 5. མ.་ངན་ད་མག་དཔལ། ASokottamaSri 6. གསར་བཟང་ མད། Suvarnabhadravimala 7. ་དངས་^ལ་པ། Svaraghosa-raja 8. མཚན་ལགས་ཡངས་བ|གས་དཔལ། SUpankirtita NamaSri.


Six good medicines. 1. ཛ་^ང'ག'བ3ང'པ། nutmeg for heart 2. ^གང་^་བ་བ^ང་! bamboo-manna for lungs 3. g-ར་ 3མ་མཆན་པ་བ3ང་། saffron for liver 4. ལ་་་§ག་ག་བ3ང་ | clove for life force 5. ག་ལ་མཁལ་་བ3ང་| lesser cardamon for kidneys 6. ཀ་ཀ་ལ་མཆར་པ་བ-་ཟང་! carda-mon for spleen.


Pranidhijnana samadhi/ Concentration knowing the object of prayers; meditative concentration on prayers that one may benefit sentient beings until the end of cyclic existence.


Pranidhana bodhicittotpada/ Wishing bodhicitta; aspirational thought of enlightenment.


The five kinds of prayers. 1. 3*

The Great Prayer Festival. This prayer festival held at Lhasa Tsuglag Khang during the first month of every year was originally instituted by Tsong Khapa in 1409.


Eight precepts of the wishing bodhicitta. A. ཆ་འདར་སམས' བ§ད་མ་9མས་པར་འཔལ་བ་ཐབས་བཞ། Four means to prevent degeneration of Bodhicitta in this life: 1. སམས་བ|ད་ ་^ན་ཡན་^ན་པ! being mindful of the benefits of

Bodhicitta 2. ^ན་མཆ་ན^ས^ག^་སམས་བ^ reaffirming the Bodhicitta resolve six times a day 3. སམས' ཅན་§ས''!$ང'བ། not neglecting sentient beings 4. གས་ ག^ས་པསགས་པ། accumulating the two heaps of merits. B. ^་བ་གཞན་^སམས་བ^་^ང་མ་འ^ལ་བའ་^པས་པཞ! Four means of non-separation from bodhicitta in all respects: 1. མཁན'£1བ་དབ'བ$ར་བ། not deceiving abbots, masters and lamas, etc. 2. གཞན་3'དག'བ'ལ'འད་5'་འ|ག་པ[ not inducing regret in those practising virtue 3. ཐག་ཆན་ལམ་ གས་ལ་་§ན་་འདགས་པ། not disparaging those on the path of the greater vehicle 4. ག་བསམ་ན་པ་གཡ་§)་§ང་བ1 abandoning pretentious thoughts.


Vadisirhha/ Lion of eloquence; lion amongst teachers; an epithet of Buddha Sakyamuni.


Inexpressible and inconceiveable; emptiness.


To bewail; to mourn for; to grief.

A miniature painting. Small sized images and paintings of mandalas, deities, implements and auspicious symbols used during the course of an initiation or other ceremonial occasions.

The holy place, Tsari located in the southern border of Tibet. It is considered a holy place of Cakrasambhava and Vajrayogini.

The three types of fiery energy; the three kinds of tu-mo energy (gtum-mo) 1. §་གམ་མ་རང་བཞན་ཅ"|་^། the natural fiery energy, the emptiness of all phenomena as the outer tu-mo 2. ནང་་གམ་མ་་^་ཐང་ཅ^། the fiery energy

of tu-mo, the short A at the navel as the inner tu-mo 3. གསང' བའ-གམ-མ-ཁ^ར/ཅ^། nhe fiery energy of union, the union of ever-excellent emptiness and the unchanging great bliss, the secret tu-mo.


Je Tsong Khapa (1357-1419). The founder of the Gelug order of Tibetan Buddhism. Renowed for his marvelous scholarship and practice. His eighteen volumes of collected writings comprises the heart of the Gelug doctrine.


Panca usnisabuddha/ Five Usnisa Buddhas. 1. ག€ག་"?ར་ ག5གས་ད,71ར། Usnisa Sitatapatra 2. ག£ག་5ར་5'མ^1 UsnisaVimala 3. གཅ^ག'་5རམ'9ལ] UsnisaVijaya4. གཅག' ^ར་འབར་བ། Usnisa Jvala 5. ག^ག་^-ར་པ་རབ! Usnisa Kilaka


Jyestha/ pradhana/ Principal factor, main factor, fundamental principle; central figure; primary object; head; chief.


Two fundamental principles according to the Sarhkhya school of Hindu philosophy. 1. རངབཞན་འ་གཅ་བ། causal principle of nature 2. གནས་3་བས་འ3ས་བ་གཅ"་། resultant principle of manifestation.


Primary mind; A consciousness or mind that is accompanied by secondary mental factors, e.g. the six consciousnesses.


Mountain dwelling spirits. A type of non-human spirits

believed to be living in the mountains; may enter an oracle in trance and speak through him or her.


Monks and nuns.

The five channel wheels. 1-4. the four channel wheels (see rtsa-'khor-bzhi) 5. གསང་གནས་བད་^ང་་འར་ལ། the wheel of sustaining bliss at the secret place that has thirty two petals.


Six channel wheels. 1-5. the five channel wheels (see rtsa-'khor-lnga) 6. ནར་བ་དས་་འ^་ལ། the wheel at the centre of the Jewel.

The four channel wheels. 1. |''བད'ཆན་'འར'ལ| the wheel of great bliss at the crown that has thirty-two petals 2. མན་པར'ལངས'|ད''འར'ལ| the wheel of enjoyment at the throat that has sixteen petals 3. ^ང་ག་ས་་འར་ལ། the wheel of phenomena at the heart that has eight petals 4. ་ བ་^ལ་པ་འརལ! the wheel of emanation at the navel that has sixty-four petals.

The three channel wheels (see rtsa-'khor bzhi, 1-3).


Six root delusions; the six root defilements. 1. འདད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 2. ཁང'01 pratigha/ hatred 3. ང་^ལ། mana/ pride 4. མ་རག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 5. ཐ་ཆམ། vicikitsaV doubt 6. ་བ| mithya drsti/ wrong view.

Four root downfalls; four root transgressions of a monk's vows. 1. ^ག་གཅད་པ! taking life 2. མ་ན་པར་ལན་པ། taking what is not given 3. མ་ཆངས་པར་^ད་པ། indulging in sexual misconduct 4. བ|ན་|་བ། lying.

Fourteen root downfalls; fourteen root transgressions of the tantric vows/ precepts. 1. ད་་^བ་དན་ལ་བ*ས་པ| belittling the vajra master/guru 2. བད་གགས་བཀའ་ལས་ འདས་པ། despising the precepts of the Buddha 3. ད་འ་^ན་ ལ'འ།་5'བ! speaking badly of vajra brothers and sisters 4. མས་པ་འདར་བ། abandoning love for sentient beings 5. ན་འ|ག་་མས་འདར'བ| abandoning the wishing and committed mind of enlightenment 6. མད་གས་་ས་ལ་ ད'པ| despising the sutra and tantra teachings 7. ་^ད་མན་ལ' གསང་བ་ག་པ། exposing the secret of tantra to those who are not initiated 8. པང'་ལ'བ$ས'པ། mistreating one's body 9. 3་ང'པ'9ད'3ང'བ། abandoning emptiness or being sceptical about it 10. ག5ག'ཅན་་གས་བ^ན'པ! associating with bad friends 11. §ང་པ་?ད་ན་པར་མ་ས་པ། not reflecting on emptiness 12. དད་£(ན'སམས'ན'འ§ན'པ1 disturbing another's faith in the Dharma 13. དམ་ག་1་བཞན་་བ^ན་ པ1 not observing the pledges and commitments 14. བད་མད' ད་པ། despising women.

^ང་བ^་བད། (འ|ག་',མ་3'བ3བ་།

Eighteen root downfalls; eighteen root transgressions of the Bodhisattva vows. 1. བདག་བ§ད་གཞན'!|ད| praising oneself and belittling others 2. ཆས་ནར་མ་་^ར་བ། not giving material aid or teachings of Dharma 3. བཤགས་་^ང་་^ན་ པར་གཞན་ལ་འཆག་པ། not listening when someone declares his or her offences 4. ཐག་ན་^་ཞང་དམ་ས་འར^ང་ ་^ན་པ! abandoning the teachings of the greater vehicle and

preaching false doctrine akin to the mahayana teachings 5. དཀན་མག་་དཀར་མ་ན་པར་ལན་པ། misusing offerings of the three jewels not given to oneself 6. དམ་པའ་ཆས་^ང་བ། abandoning the sublime Dharma 7. རབ་^ང་ལ་འཆ^བ། evicting monks and nuns 8. མཚམས་ད་་ལས་ད་པ། committing any of the five boundless actions 9. ལག་་འ£ན་ པ| holding wrong views 10. གནས་འ-་ཟག་པ། destroying

Cv ^ Cv

places of worship or pilgrimage 11. ^ད་མན་ལ་^ང་^ད་བ^ན' པ| teaching emptiness to improper receptacles 12. ཛགས་ང་ ཐབ་པ་§-ལས-བ§ག'པརད'པ། turning people away from working for enlightenment 13. ས' ཐར་་^ང་བ། abandoning the vows of individual liberation 14. 9ན་ཐས'་ཐག་པ'ལ་3་ར་བ་

-V CV.

འདབས་པ། mistreating the lower vehicle doctrine 15. མ་

f cv

ཆས'(་3'མའ་|ན་3'བ! lying exorbitantly of superhuman attainments 16. དཀན་མག་་དཀར་མ་ན་པར་ལན་པ། misappropriation of the property of the three jewels 17. |མས'ངན-འཆངབ། holding corrupt ethical discipline 18. 3ང་ཆབ'་མས་འདར་བ། abandoning the mind of enlightenment.



Nadigranthi/ Knot of the channel-wheel. In tantra, this constitutes channel-knots or coils formed from the transfiguration of the three principal energy channels of the body—central, right and left, at different locations of the standing central energy-channel.


The wheel of energy-channels. The wheels or cakras of energy channels formed from their mode of coiling at the central energy-channel.


The four root precepts. The four basic vows, the transgression of which constitutes loss of monk vows (see rtsa-ltung bzhi).


■v f -v -V*

Four primary colors. 1. ན་པ། blue 2. ས-ར་པ" yellow 3. དཀར་! white4.^^| red.


Sad mUladharmah/ Six root precepts; six root vows of a probationary nun. 1. གཅག'པ'ལམ'5་་འ51'བ| not going


alone on the road 2. ར་^ལ་བར་མ་་བ། not swimming across to the other shore 3. ས་པ་རག་པར་་་བ། not touching a male person 4. |ས་པ་དང,ན'ཅག་འ5ག'པར'་3་ བ| not living with a male person 5. ་མ་?ས་པ་འཆབ་པར


མ་་བ! not concealing a transgression of vows by a fellow


nun 6. |ན'5་འར་བ་མ་3'བ། not acting as a go-between.

^'པ་^ན-མངས་^་ས་མང་&ན-པ) Mental attitudes of the root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug).


Sad mulakleSah/ Six root delusions; the six root defilements (see rtsa-nyon drug).


The four root commitments; the root samayas. The four vows of observance common to all the lower tantras. 1. འ^1'ན' པ་ཡང་དག་པ་་བ! upholding right worldly view 2. དཀན'མ|ག'གམ་ལ་|བས''འབ| taking refuge in the Three Jewels 3. ང་བ་ཆན་ར་སམས་བ^ད་པ! generating the mind of enlightenment 4. དལ་འར^་དབང་བ^། receiving initiation into a mandala.


Tri mula duhkhah/ The three fundamental sufferings (see sdug-bsngal gsum).


Four main Hinayana schools. 1. པལ་ཆན་^་པ། Mahasathghika, pioneered by KaSyapa 2. གཞ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡད་

CV -v

པར་|་བའ་^་པ། Mulasarvastivadin, pioneered by Rahula 3. གནས་བན་པ་^་པ། Sthavira, pioneered by Katyayana 4. མང་བརབའ་^་པ། Sarhmitiya, pioneered by Upala.



Six root tastes; six fundamental flavours (see sman-gyi ro-drug).


Five principal energy winds; the energy winds retaining the nature of the five fundamental elements functioning in the

■*"* Cn Cv

human body. 1. སག་འཛན་་^ང! prana/ life-supporting

-v cv

I wind 2.3ར་སལ་9་§ང་། apana/ downward moving wind 3.

-v cv

3ན'འ'^ང'| udana/ upward moving wind 4. མ^མ་གནས་ ་^ང་། samana/ equally abiding wind 5. ^བ་ད་་^ང་། vyapaka/ pervasive wind.


Avadhuti/ Central energy channel. Located midway between the left and right channels, extending from the tip of the sex organ up to the top of the head from where it bends down in an arch and terminates between the eye-brows; the energy channel through which the essential drops passes.

Energy channels, winds and drops. The three fundamental interdependent components of our body, which can be utilized through proper yogic practice to understand the ultimate nature of all phenomena; the basis of our consciousness for sustenance and survival of our life. It is explained that the

energy channels are like our home, essential drops as our property and energy wind and mind as the owner.


The three roots: A. 1. ན་^བས་་^་བ་^་མ། spiritual master as the source of blessing 2. དས་^བ་་ཅ-་བ་ཡ་དམ། meditational deity as the source of siddhi 3. བ་ར་གཅད་་^ང' བ་ཅ"བ-མཁའ'འས'|ང། Dakini as the guardian for protecting oneself from hindrances. B. The energy channels: 1. ཅ"ད་མ། the central energy channel 2. ར'མ! energy channel to the right 3.3ང་མ། energy channel to the left.


no no

The entity of the three roots; one's personal spiritual master.


The skillful yoga of completion. One of the five yogas according to the Nyingma tradition; the total perfection of all qualities of the state of union of a learner on the path to liberation.



Six signs of irreversibility from the peak level of the path of preparation. 1. ལས'ལ་|ན་་རགས་་འང་བ། families of

-v -v

worms cannot arise in his body 2. སམས་ལ་་་མད་པ། he


has no crookedness in his mind 3. ^ངས་པའ་ཡན་་་ཏན་བཅ/

cv -*v

ག^ས་བ^ན་པ། he trains in the twelve ascetic practices (see sbyangs-pa'i yon-tan bcu-gnyis) 4. སར་!་་དང་འཆལ'བའ་ ཆལ་|མས་སགས-མད-པ། he has no signs of meanness or immorality 5. ས་^ད་དང་་འགལ་བར་ར་ན་དང་ན་ པར་འ་བ། he advances in the perfection of wisdom which is not in conflict with reality 6. གཞན་དན་5་དམ;ལ་བར་འ འདད་པ། he wishes to enter hell for the welfare of others.


MUrdhaprayoga/ Peak training. Mahayana path of preparation at the peak of the accumulation of merits, which surpasses the meditation of the aspects of the three knowledges—that of basis, path and omniscience.


Asta mUrdhaprayoga dharmah/ Eight topics that characterize the peak training. 1. ད་ཅ"་|ར། peak training of the heat level of the path of preparation 2. £་མའ་3་|ར1 peak training of the peak level of the path of preparation 3. བཟད་


པའ་ཅ"|-^། peak training of the forbearance level of the path of preparation 4. ཆས་མཆག་ཅ"|ར། peak training of the supramundane qualities level of the path of preparation 5. མཐང་ལམ་ |་|ར། peak training of the path of seeing 6.1|མ་ ལམ'5་|ར། peak training of the path of meditation 7. བར་ ཆད་མད་པའ'ཅ"|]ར། peak training of the uninterrupted path 8. བསལ་་ལག་བ། wrong achievements to be eliminated.


Kaliyuga/ Quarrelsome period; degenerated age/era. In the event of further degeneration of the second-fold aeon (see bskal-ba gnyis ldan), when people gradually begin to commit all the ten non-virtuous activities, the quarrelsome period is said to have come. This is the third phase of degenerating age.



The four features of virtuous efforts; the four qualities of the perfection of effort, it: 1. ལ་ལ་སགས་་མན་གས་^མས་

-v-་ CS. "V

པ1 quells laziness and negativities 2. ཆས་"2་བདག་མད་ གས་པ་མ་པར་་ག་པ། generates non-conceptual

understanding of the selflessness of phenomena 3. འདད་པ་ གས་པར་ད་པ། fultllls wishes 4 རགས་3ན་གས*་|ན་

པར་3ད་པ1 ripens the potentials for the three types of liberations—Hearer's, Solitary Realizer's and Bodhisattva's.


Virya bala/ Power of effort. One of the five powers (see stobs-lnga) within the classification of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see byang-phyogs so-bdun) that is immune to hindrances such as laziness.


Serial training in effort. A Bodhisattva training concentrated in the development of the perfection of effort.



Virya paramita/ The perfection of effort. An effort dedicated towards virtuous goals following the Bodhisattva's way of cultivating it.



Viryendriya/ Faculty of effort; power of effort. One of the five ever-purified faculties (see dbang-po lnga) within the classification of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment; the continuous flow of virtuous hearing, contemplation and meditation.


s3 • s3 >o

Viryarddhipada/ Limb of the miracle of effort; One of the four legs of miracles (see rdzu-'phrul-gyi rkang-pa bzhi); possessing a wish to eliminate negative conduct.


Five types of effort; the five types of effort that generate higher qualities, 1. ག་ཆ་བ|ན་འ3ས། armour-like effort 2. Iར་བ་བ1ན་འ3ས། effort of action 3. མ་པ་ད་པ་ བ1ན'འ3ས| effort free of discouragement 4. ་ག་པ་

བ1ན'འ3ས! irreversible effort 5. ག་པར་་འ1ན་པ་ བ5ན'འ3ས| effort that is never contented.


Threetypes_ofefifort_^ག^^ན་འ^ས། armour-like effort 2. དག'བ་ལ'|་བ'བ1^3ས[ joyful effort in virtuous conduct 3. སམས'ཅན'དན'§ད''བ1ན'འ3ས། effort for the welfareof sentient beings.

Stamped clay figure house; little houses made to store clay figures (see tsa-tsa).


Eight hot hells. 1. ཡང་སས། sanjivana/ reviving 2. ཐག་ནག kalasutra/ black-line 3. བ^ས་འ^མས། sarhghata/ mass destruction 4. ང་འབད! raurava/ crying 5. ང་འབད་ཆན་པ། maharaurava/ great crying 6. ^་བ! tapana/ hot 7. རབ་་ཚ་ བ1 pratapana/ very hot 8. མནར་མད། avici/ non-respite or boundless.

<*་*། %i\

Saccha/ Stamped clay figures. Clay figures stamped with the image of stupas or deities; they are placed in a stUpa, shrine, or a place of worship and veneration.


Brahma. A. According to the Buddhist accounts, Brahma is the lord of the gods of the form realm. B. Hindus believe him to be the creator of the universe. C. The pure celestial domain within the form and formless realm.


The four pure moral bases. The worldly paths retaining the nature of love, compassion, joy and equinimity that ensures the attainment of a state of Brahma.


Four immaculate merits. 1. ར་མད་ན་ད་པ་ས་གས་ ས-རང^ལ-^ང་ཅན་་མད་^ན-པ^གས-པ། construction of a stUpa preserving holy relics in a place where none exist 2. ད་འན་་^་ལ་ན་དགའ་ར/བ་པལ་བ། offering a garden or estate to the sangha community 3. དག་འན་2་ དན་འམ་པ། healing a schism in the ordained community 4. ཆད་མད་བཞ་་^མ་པ། meditating on the four immeasur-ables.


Brahmacarya upasaka/ Celibate ordained layperson. A lay ordained practitioner who has vowed to accept the precept of not indulging in sexual conduct throughout his life, e.g. Acarya Candragomin.


The vows of an approximate-celibacy. An ordination ceremony accepted before taking a probationary nun's vow.


Two types of valid cognition. 1. མན་མ་ཚད་མ།

pratyaksa pramana/ direct valid cognition 2. ས་དཔག་ཚད་ མ། anumana pramana/ inferential valid cognition.


Seven treatises on valid cognition. Seven works of Dharmakirti on the study of valid cognition. 1. ཚད་མ་མ' འལ། Commentary on Valid Cognition (pramanavartika) 2. ཚད་མ་མ་ངས། Discernment of Valid Cognition (pramana-vinis'caya) 3. ཆད་མ་རགས་ཐག Drop of Reasoning on Valid Cognition (nyayabindu) 4. ག་^ན་གས་ཐག་པ། Drop of Logical Reasoning (hetubindu) 5. འ^ལ་བ་བག་པ། Analysis of Relationship (sariibandhapariksa) 6. ད་གཞན་^བ་པ། Establishing Alternative Continuum (sarhtanantarasiddhi) 7. |ད་པ'རགས'པ། Science of Debate (vadanyaya).


The five types of invalid cognitions. 1. བཅད་ས། subse-quent cognition 2. ལག་ཤས། wrong perception 3. ཐ་ཆམ། doubt 4. ཡད་དད། presumption 5. |<ང'ལ་མ'ས'པ'§། inattentive perception.


Catvaryapramanani/ Four immeasurables; the four immeasurable thoughts in Mahayana teachings. 1. མས་པ་ ཚད་མད། maitri immeasurable love 2. ^ང་^ཚད་ད! karuna/ immeasurable compassion 3. དགའ་བ་ཚད་མད། muditaV immeasurable joy 4. བ^ང་་^མས་ཚད་མད། upeksaV immeasurable equanimity.


Tsalpa Kagyud Order of Tibetan Buddhism founded by the holy master Zhand Drowe Gonpo.


Word retention. Ability to retain names, terms and words by heart; a power gained through meditation.


Six topics; as asserted by the Vaisesika school of Hindu philosophy. 1. £ས| dravyam/ substance 2.0ད་ཆས| guna/ property 3. ལས| karma/ activity 4. "§1 samanyam/ generality 5. ་3་བ<ག viSesa/ particularity 6. འ5'བ! samavaya/co-existence/composition.


Sabdabhisekha/ Word initiation; word empowerment. The last of the four-fold initiation according to the highest yoga tantra in which the master introduces the state of union (yuganada) to his disciples.


Apara/ This side, meaning cyclic existence (sarhsara) as contrast to the state beyond suffering (nirvana).


One who oniy sees the worldly view; an ordinary person. ^་|མས་3་<£ས་པ(^

The four features of the perfection of morality. 1. ཆ^ལ་འཆལ" སགས་་མན་གས་^མས་པ། pacifies opponent forces such as corrupt morality 2. ས་་བདག་ད་གས་པ་མ་ པར་མ་ག་པ། generates non-conceptual understanding of selflessness 3. ཡངས་་ས^ང་བར་ད་པ། gives thorough protection 4. རགས་ཅན'གམ་ན་པར་ད་པ| ripens the fruits of the three vehicles—Hearer, Solitary Realizer and Bodhisattva.


Silanupurva prayoga/ Serial training in the perfection of morality. The Bodhisattva paths from the path of accumulation up to the moment before complete enlightenment.


Three types of morality. A. ང་མས་་ཆ;ལ་|མས་གམ། Three moralities of a Bodhisattva: 1. ?ས་|ད་^མ་པ་ཚལ་ (3མས| duskrta sarhvara Sila/ morality of abstention from misbehaviour 2. དག་བ'ས་|ད་་ཚལ་0མས། kuSala dharma sanigraha sila/ morality of integrating virtues 3. མས-ཅན་དན-ད-་ཚལ་|མས། Sattva krtya Sila/ morality for the welfare of other sentient beings. B. In general: 1. འ1གས'|བ'-ཆ;ལ-|མས། morality giving protection from fear 2. ལགས'ན''^ལ'§མས1 morality of admiration in virtues 3. ངས་འང'ག་ཚལ་@མས། morality of seeking freedom from cyclic existence.


Duhsila/ Immorality; corrupt morality.


Kuhana/ A. Hypocritical. B. Cunning way of earning a living; one of the five wrong livelihoods (see log-'tsho lnga).

Four-fold methods; four means of transmitting a tantric teaching. 1. ག་ག་ཚལ། word by word transmission 2. ་ ཚལ! explicit method 3. ས་པ་ཆལ། implicit method 4. དན-དམ་པ-^ལ། ultimate method.

Salaka/ Counting sticks. Sticks measuring about one foot, that

are used in monasteries during the ritual ceremony for counting the number of monks entering a rainy season retreat.


Three modes of reasoning; three criteria for establishing a logical reason. 1. གས་ཆས། property of the subject 2. ས' 0བ། subsequent pervasion 3. ག་བ། counter pervasion.

Vase of longevity; life-vase. Vase held in the hands of Buddha Amitabha or a vase in which long-life blessings has been


The immortality of life. One of the four immortalities (see rig-'dzin rnam-bzhi) according to the Nyingma tradition of attaining grounds and paths. As soon as a trainee attains the supramundane stage, i.e. the fourth level of the path of preparation, he or she has attained the pure human vajra body, and because his or her consciousness becomes fully ripened to be transformed into the path of seeing, has also attained the immortality of life.


Five long living sisters; five goddesses of Tibet. 1. ་མ་ བ^ས་ཆ^་ངམ། Tashi Tsering Ma, the goddess of long-life and glory 2. མཐང་་ཞལ་བཟང་མ། Thingi Zahlzang Ma, the goddess of clairvoyance 3. མ'གཡ'^'བཟང་མ། Miyo Lobsang

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Ma, the goddess of earth and environment 4. ཅད་པན་མན་ བཟངམ། Chodpan Drinzang Ma, the goddess of precious articles 5. ག^ད་དཀར་འབཟང་མ། Tadkar Drinzang Ma, the goddess of cattle and domestic animais.


Six symbols of longevity; six objects of long life. 1. མ་་

རང། long living man 2. ་<*>་རང་། long living bird 3. ར དགས'<1་རང་། long living deer 4. ང་་ང་། long living tree 5. ་་རང་། long living running water 6. བ^ག་་ང་། long living rocky cave.


The three: life-span, life-force and spirit. The first is likened to the butter-oil of a butter lamp; the wick to the life-force, and flame to the spirit. The three conditions that are basic faculties for the maintenance of our life.


The three longevity deities. 1. ་དཔག་ད། Amitayus 2. ལ་དཀར། WhiteTara3.^'-f^I Vijaya.


A. The Tsok-offering; the ritual feast offering ceremony. The ceremony of offering food and drink to the host of divinities by blessing these in the form of bliss and void. B. Accumulation of merits—virtues.


Ganacakra/ The cycle of Tsok-offering. The ritual of offenng tsok-feast. The feast comprises the five sensual objects (see 'dod-yon lnga) and food and drink by blessing these into uncontaminated wisdom-nectar to the host of divinities and oneself visualized in the form of a deity. A special way of accumulating merits and positive energy.


Sarhbhara pratipatti/ Achievement through accumulation. A Bodhrsattva path of practice existing from the great level of the supramundane qualities stage of the path of preparation upto the moment before complete enlightenment.


Seventeen achievements through accumulation. That of: 1. བ|་བ་|ང་་ཆན་་གས་བ། great compassion 2-7. པ་ ལ་་ན་པ་ག་་གས-བ། Six perfections (see phanrol-tu phyin-pa drug) 8. ་གནས་་གས་^བ། mental quiescence 9. ག་མཐང་་གས་བ། penetrative insight 10. ་ག་ང་འལ་་གས་བ། union of mental quiescence and penetrative insight lT. ཐབས་་གས་བ། skillful means 12. བསད་ནམས་་གས་་གས་བ། "accumulation of ments 13. ཡས་་གས་གས་བ།° accumulation of insight 14. ལམ་་གས'བ། Pathsl5. གངས་་གས་ བ། retention 16. ས་གས་བ grounds 17. ག?ན་་ གས་བ! antidotes.


Statement indicating a group, e.g. the statement, 'race.' གས་གས།

Dual accumulation; two types of mentonous collections. 1. པསད་ནམས་་ཆགས། punya sarhbhara/ accumulation of

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merits 2. ཡ་ཤས་་^་ཆགས། jfiana sarhbhara/ accumulation of insight.


Collective generality. Any group which is the combination or collection of many factors or components, e.g. a pillar.


The five limbed practices on the path of accumulation. 1. ས' |་<|ལ་@མས་ལ་བན་པ། observance of the morality of ordinary persons 2. དབང་པའ་§་་་^མ་པ། retraining one's

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sensual organs 3. ཟས་^་ཆད་རག་པ། maintaining a dietary balance 4. ནམ་་ཆ་^ད་ད་ལ་་^ལ་བར་ལ་འར་ལ་ བ1ན་པ། practicing yoga at the early and latter parts of dawn

without sleeping 5. ན་ས་ན་པ་ད་བ་ལ་5་གཅག་་ གནས་པར་དགའ་བ། rejoicing in the practice of remaining in single-pointed virtuous acts.


The three paths of accumulation. The small, middling and great.


Three types of collection; three groups. 1. ང་་གས། group of names 2. ག་ག་གས། group of words 3. ཡ་་ གས| group of letters.


The seven limbed practices for the accumulation of merits (see yan-lag bdun-pa).

Panca vedanah/ Five types of feelings. 1-2. ལས་་ཆར་བ་ བ'§ག'ག?ས། two of the body-pleasure and pain 3-4. ཡད' -ར-བ་3ད་བད་དང་$ད་་བད་ག9ས། two of mental-happiness and unhappiness 5. ར་བ་བ^ང་^མས། neutral feeling.


Vedana smrtyupasthana/ Close contemplation of feelings; mindfulness of feelings. Contemplating that all feelings whatsoever have the nature of suffering and misery. . .


Sad vedanah/ Six types of feelings. གས་་^ར་བ་ར་ བ'ནས་ཡད་ཤས''3རབ'ར'བ'བར'ག Feeling with re-spect to the six consciousnesses (see rnam-par shes-pa drug).


Dvadasa vedana skandhah/ Twelve aggregates of feeling. 1. ག་་འས་་^་རག་པ་ལས་3ང་པ་|ར་པ། feeling produced

through visual contact 2. ^་འས་་ག་པ་ལས་ངབ་ ཆར་བ། feeling produced through olfactory contact 3. ་བའ་ འས་་ག་པ་ལས་ང་བ་ར་བ། feeling produced through aural contact 4. §་འས་་ག་པ་ལས་ང་བ་ ཆར་བ། feeling produced through gustatory contact 5. ལས་ ་འས་་ག་པ་ལས་ང་བ་ར་བ། feeling produced through physical contact 6. ཡད་་འས་་ག་པ་ལས་ང་ བ་ར་བ། feeling produced through mental contact 7. དབང་ས་ས/ར་་བ་ར་བ། feeiing from sense powers 8. ཡདས་་ར་བ་<1ར་བ། feeling from mental consciousness 9. 3ང་ང་དང་བཅས་པ་ར་བ། disturbed feeling 10. ཟང་ཟང་ད་པ་ར་བ། undisturbed feeling 11. ན་པ་བ^ན་ པའ་ཆར་བ། feelings stimulating attachment 12. མངན་པར་ འངབ་བ^ན་པའ་ཆར་བ། feelings expressing experiences.


Yoga with signs. A kriya tantra practice of deity yoga lacking direct realization of emptiness, in which a practitioner meditates on the inseparability of the pledge being (see dam-tshig sems-dpa') and the wisdom being (see ye-shes sems-dpa').


Three aggregates of perception with signs. 1. ཐ་་^ད་ལ་མཁས པའ་འ་ཤས། skillful perception of the conventions 2. འདས' ས་་^ག་པ་སགས-ལ-དགས-པ-འ^-ས། perception

observing compositional factors, impermanence, etc. 3. དགས-མ-གསལ-བ-འས། perception of a clearly

focused object.


Laksana/ A. Definition; characteristics. Anything that is a definition must fulfil three qualities of a substantial existence (see rdzas-yod chos-gsum tshang-ba). B. Study of Buddhist philosophy.


The three causal vehicles; the three characteristic vehicles. A term used in the Nyingma tradition for the Hearers vehicle, Solitary realizer vehicle, and Bodhisattva vehicle.


Laksanabhisandhi/ Interpretive sutra concerning the characteristics (of phenomena), e.g. the sutra included in the Third Turning of the Wheel of doctrine in which Buddha clearly explained the three categones of phenomena in terms of their true existence or lack of true existence.


Alaksanatvaikaksanabhisambodha/ Signless momentary training. The last instant of the Bodhisattva paths of advancement, which is categonzed as a direct antidote to the obstruction to omniscience and which has direct perception of emptiness.


Trim laksanani/ Three characteristics; three natures; the three types of phenomena according to the Cittamatnn school of philosophy. 1. ན་བགས། parikalpita laksanam/ imputed phenomena, mere objects of conceptual labelling, e.g. permanent phenomena 2. གཞན་དབང་། paratantra laksanam/ dependent phenomena, e.g. a vase 3. ཡངས་^བ། parinispanna laksanam/ thoroughly established phenomena, e.g. emptiness of a vase.


Animitta yoga/ Yoga without signs. A kriya tantra practice of deity yoga conjoined with the wisdom cognizing emptiness, in wnich a practitioner meditates on the inseparability of the pledge being (see dam-tshig sems-dpa') and the wisdom being (see ye-shes sems-dpa').


The sign-deity. One of the six types of deities according to action tantra (see bya-rgyud lha-drug) in which a trainee maintains the imagination of oneself and one's activities as that of a deity.


Exemplary mental consciousness. The mind-stream representing the conventional T that acts as the basis upon which the latencies of karma abide and mature.

མ<£ན་བཟང་པ་མ་ཅ་£་གས། Thirty-two major marks of a Buddha. 1. ^ག་ཞབས་འར་ ལས་མཚན་པ། the palms of his hands and feet bear signs of a wheel 2. རས་^ལ་བན་ད་ཞབས་ཤན་་གནས་པ། his feet are well set upon the ground like a tortoise 3. ག་ཞབས་སར་མ་ ་བས་འ^ལ་བ། his fingers and toes are webbed 4. ག་ ^པས་འ-= མ་ང་ག^ན་ཤ་ཆགས་པ། the palms of his hands and feet are smooth and tender 5. ག་དང་ཞབས་དང་ཐལ་གང་ དང་ག་པ་གས་མཐ་བ་ར་§་གནས་བན-མཐ-བ། his

body has seven prominent features: broad heels, broad hands,

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broad shoulder blades and broad neck 6. སར་མ་རང་བ། his fingers are long 7. ང་པ་ཡངས་པ། his heels are soft 8. ང་ང་བ། he is tall and straight 9. ཞབས་་ལང་བ་མན-པ། his ankle-bones do not protrude 10. 5འ'བ་*)་ན་5་

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གས་པ། the hairs on his body point upward 11. ན་པ་ར' དགས'^'ན'ཡ'འ་'བ1 his ankles are like an antelope's 12.

ག'རང'ང་མ£ས'པ། his hands are long and beautiful 13. མམས་་་བ་§བས་་3བ་པ། j^s male organ is withdrawn 14. པགས་པ་གར་མདག-འ་བ། ^s body is the colour of gold 15. པགས'པ'སབ་ཅང་འ£མ་པ། his skin is thin and smooth 16. བ་^'ར་ར་ནས་གཡས་གས་་འ0ལ་བ། each hair curls to the right 17. ཞལ་མ་1ད་|]ས་བ*་ན་པ། his face is adorned by a coiled hair between his eyebrows 18. ར་^ད་ སངག་འ་བ། the upper part of his body is like that of a lion 19. དཔང་པ་མག་ཤན་་མ་པ། his head and shoulders are perfectly round 20. ཐལ་གང་^ས་པ། his shoulders are broad 21. ར་མ་པ་རམག་^ང་བ། he has an excellent sense of taste even of the worse tastes 22. f §་ར་་ང་གབ་པ། his body has the proponions of a banyan tree 23. གཅ^ག་ར་ བར་མ'མངན'པ། he has a protrusion on the crown of his head 24. ་^གས་རང་ང་བ་པ། his tongue is long and thin 25. གང་ཚངས་དངས་་བ། his voice is mellifluent 26. འམ་པ-ང་་འ་པ། his cheeks are like those of a lion 27. མས་ན་་དཀར་བ། his teeth are white 28. མས་མ^མ་ པ! there are no gaps between his teeth 29. ^མས་ཐགས་ བཟང་བ། his teeth are eveniy set 30. མས་བ་བཅ་མངའ་བ། he has a total of forty teeth 31. §ན་མཐན'མཐངའ,བ། his eyes are the colour of saphire 32. |)ན་་ཛ་མ་བ་མཆག་ག་ཛ་ མ་དང་འ་བ། his eyelashes are like those of a magnificient heifer.


Pancanantariyani/ Five heinous crimes; five boundless actions. Five non-virtuous actions that propel a person immediately into the most serious hell realm. 1. པ་གསད་བ།


pitrghata/ patricide 2. མ་གསད་པ། matrghata/ matricide 3. ད-བཅམ-པ-གསད-པ། arhadghata/ killing an Arhat 4. ་ བན་གཤགས་པའ་^་ལས་ངན'སམས་ས་3ག་འ§ན་པ། tathagatasyantike dustacitta rudhirotpadanam/ drawing blood from the body of a Buddha with evil intent 5. དག་འན་'

དན་འ3ད་པ། sariighabheda/ causing a schism within the Sarigha.


Sarhprayukta hetu/ Concomitant cause. Sharing five common factors with the result, which pertain oniy to a cognition; one of the six types of causes (see rgyu-drug).


Five concommitant factors. The way a secondary mind accompanies the primary mind through five-fold correlationships. 1, ན་མཆངས་པ། common sense base 2. དགས་པ་མཚངས་པ། common object 3. མ་པ་མཚངས་པ། common aspect 4. ས་མཆ^ངས་པ། common time 5. £ས་ མཚངས་པ། common substantial entity.


Tsurphu Monastic University. The principal monastic seat of the Karma Kagyud Order of Tibetan Buddhism, established in 1189 by the First Karmapa, Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa (1110-1193).


Ocean-like bodhicitta. The mind of eniightenment associated with the exalted practice of the perfection of patience possessed by a Bodhisattva on the third ground.


The six lakes. 1. |ང་1་མ། lake of honey 2. མར་་མ། lake of butter 3. ཞ་མ། lake of yogurt 4. ་མ་མ། lake of milk 5. ་མ! lake of water 6. ཆང་་མ། lake of liquor.


Topic to be defined. Any phenomenon that is qualified by: 1.

being generally a topic to be defined 2. not being a topic to be defined other than by its definition 3. that of which there is an example.


The three types of livelihood; the three causes for our survival. 1. ij life-span 2. བསད་ནམས། ments 3. ལས| karma.


Thirteen articles of livelihood for a monk. 1. ^མ་|ར། Namja: patched yellow robe worn oniy by a fully ordained monk 2. -^་གས། patched yellow robe worn by any monk 3. མཐང་གས། undergarment 4. ལ་གཟན། sweat shawl 5. ལ་ ག3ན'་ག3ན། shawl over sweat shawl 6. ཤམ་ཐབས། lower robe 7. ཤམ་ཐབས་་གཟན། shawl 8. ་བཟད། protective cloth for shaving the head 9. གངས། towel 10. གངབ། matll.^TWI གཡན་^གབ! itch covering/rash bandage 12.གཡར་་རས'ན| large rain cap 13. གརབ། cloth bag.

Jayantu. A Sanskrit word meaning victorious or victory forever.


Twelve deeds of Buddha Sakyamuni. 1. དགའ་^ན་ནས་འ་ བ'མཛད'པ། descent from Tusita heaven 2. ཡམ་་མས་ ་གས་པ་མཛད་པ། entering the womb of his mother 3. ^་བམས་པ་མཛད་པ། taking birth 4. པཟ་གནས་ལ་ མཁས་པར་^ན་པ་མཛད་པ། displaying his skill in the worldly arts 5. བཅན་མ་འར་ད་དས་པརལ་པ་མཛ་^་ པ། life with the women of the harem 6. རབ་^་ངབ་མཛད་ བ། renunciation and ordination as a monk 7. དཀའ་བ་£)ད་ པ་མཛད་པ། practising arduous discipline 8. ང་བ་ཤང ང་་བ^གས་པ་མཛད་པ། meditation under the Bodhi tree 9 པད་པཅམ་པ་མཛད་པ། defeating the host of demons

(mara) 10. སངས་$ས་པའ་མཛད་པ། attaining full enlightenment 11. ས་་འར་ལ་བ^ར་བ་མཛད་པ། turning the wheel of doctrine 12. ^་མ/ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་ མ-་ངད་པ། passing into the state of peace (parinirvana).


A. Word by word teaching by a teacher pointing his finger at the text. B. Detailed teaching pointing out every single detail and reference.

མ1ད། 1

Kosa/ A. Treasure-house B. Treasure of Knowledge (Abhi-dharma); a major Buddhist text on metaphysics, cosmology, etc.


Treasure-house like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the practice of accumulations (see tshogs-gnyis), possessed by a Bodhisattva on the tenth ground.


Urnakesa/ Coiled hair, hair-treasure. A long coiled hair between the eyebrows of a Buddha; one of the thirty-two major marks of a Buddha (see mtshan-bzang-po sum-cu rtsa-gnyis).


Ten awarenesses "according to the Abhidharma tradition; the ten knowledges of a Buddha. 1. ཆས་ཤས་པ། anarma jnanam/ knowledge of Dharma 2. £ས་ས་ས་པ། anvaya jnanam/ subsequent knowledge 3. |ག་བལས'པ། duhkha jnanam/ knowledge of sufferings 4. ན་འང་ས་པ། samudaya jnanam/ knowledge of the origin of sufferings 5. འགག་པཤས་ པ། nirodha jnanam/ knowledge of the cessation 6. ལམ་ཤས་ པ། marga jnanam/ knowledge of the path 7. ཟད་པས་པ། ksaya jnanam/ knowledge of exhaustion 8. མ་^་བ་ཤས་པ།

through concepts or ideas but are actually capable of performing a function, e.g. form.


Dravya dharma/ A. Functioning thing; things that are actually capable of performing a function, e.g. form. B. Qualities of a thing, e.g. impermanence of form.


Nava dravya/ Nine principles; nine phenomena as asserted by the Vaisesika school of philosophy. 1. བདག atman/ self 2. དས། kala7 time 3. S^l disa/ direction 4. ཡད། citta/mind 5. ནམ་མཁའ། akasa/space 6. ས| prthvi/ earth 7. | apa/ water 8. མ! agni/ fire 9. §F\ vayu/wind.


Dravyasat/ Substantial existent. A. A material entity or existent, e.g. a vase. B. A category of phenomena which can be understood without first having to understand another phenomena, e.g. the aggregate of form, or a vase.


The three features of substantial existence; the three features of those substantial entities that are themselves the definition of a phenomena 1. རང་མཚན་^ད་ཡན་པ། being a definition 2. རང་་མཚན་ག་^ང་^བ་པ། that which is established upon its own basis to be defined 3. རང་་མན་་ལས་གཞན་ པ་ས་གཞན་་མཚན་^ད་་ད་པ། not being a definition other than its own basis to be defined.


Six types of substantial existents. 1-4. (see rdzas-yod bzhi, ibid) 5. €གས་3བ་་ཛས! primordially established

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substantial existence 6. བདན་་1་}བ་3་£ས། truly existent substantial existence.

anutpada jnanam/ knowledge of non-production 9. ན་£བ་ ཤས་པ། sarhvrti jnanam/ knowledge of conventional phenomena 10. གཞན་་མས་ས་པ། paracitta jnanam/ knowledge of others' minds.


The six ornaments and two excellences of this world; the great Indian pandits (see rgyan-drug mchog-gnyis).


Two conceptions of grasping; two thought-apprehensions of the object-holder. 1. ཛས་འ&ན་ག་པ། apprehension of the substantial entity 2. བ་-ཏགས་འ£ན་?ག་པ། apprehension of the imputed entity.


Mustibandha/ Mode of apprehension; apprehended object irrespective of its existence or not.


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Grahana/ A. Subjective mind; awareness; object-holder. B. Grasping; holding; apprehension; attachment.


Dvayagraha/ Two types of apprehension; two types of grasping: A. 1. འ^ད་ནས་འ1ན་པ| apprehension through contact 2. མ་འ^ད་པར་འ^ན་པ། apprehension without contact B. 1. རང་མཚན་འ1ན་པ། apprehension of self-

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characterized phenomena 2. ^་མཆན་འཛན་པ། apprehension of generally characterized phenomena C. 1. གང་ཟག་་བདག་ འ^ན། grasping at the self of a person 2. ས་་བདག་འ^ན། grasping at the self of a phenomena.


Dravya/ Substance. Things that are not merely labelled


Four types of substantial existents. 1. གས་པས་གབ་པ་ཛས་ ཡད། logically established substantial existence 2. པན་པས་

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མ་འ^་བའ་ཛས-་^ད། ever unchanging substantial existence

3. ན་ད'^་པའ་£ས་ཡ་"ད1 functional substantial existence

4. རང་3་བ་པ་ཛས་ཡད། self-sufficient (independent) substantial existence.


Same substantial entities. For instance, a white and black vase made from the same lump of clay.

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Catvara rddhipadah/ Four legs (causes) of miracles. A class of division within the thirty-seven auxilaries to enlightenment; qualities gained by a Bodhisattva on the great level of the path of accumulation (tshogs-lam). That of: 1. འན་པ་ཛ་འལ་ ་^ང་པ། chanda rddhipada/ aspiration 2. བ|ན་འ^ས་་|་ འ^ལ་་^ང་པ། virya rddhipada/ effort 3. བསམ་པ་ཛ་ འ"ལ་་*1ང་པ། citta rddhipada/ thought 4. དད་པ་|་


འལ་་^ང་པ། mimanisa rddhipada analysis.

Five types of miracles. 1. ^མ་ང་་ཛ་འཔལ། miracles acquired through meditation 2. |ས་ཐབ་2་|་འལ། miracles acquired by birth 3. གས་ལས་ཐབ་པ་ཛ་འལ། miracles acquired through tantric practices 4. ན་ལས་ང་བ་ཛ་ འལ། miracles acquired through medicinal pills 5. ལས་ ལས་ང་བ་|'འཔལ། miracles acquired through karmic forces.


Four types of lying; four types of lying about monk's precepts. 1. པམ་པ་^ར་ག^གས་་ཛ^། lying classed as a

defeat 2. ག་མ་^ར་ག5གས'་|ན། lying classed as a remainder 3. མ་ངས་པ་^ར་ག^གས་་ཛན། lying classed as an indefinite case 4. ?ས་ས་་3ར་ག?གས་་|ན། lying classed as a fault.


The Perfected Aeon (see bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan).


Great perfection. A term exclusive to Nyingma doctrine and meditation. The spontaneous and natural perfection of fully enlightened qualities possessed by the three kayas within the reality of mind, i.e. the primodially empty nature dharmakaya; the naturally luminous sambhogakaya; and all-pervasive compassion nirmarjakaya, which is otherwise the ultimate reality of all phenomena.


Heart's core great perfection. The transmission of great perfection originally received by King Trisong Deutsan from Acarya Vimalamitra During the later period of propagation of Buddhism (see bstan-pa phyi-dar) in Tibet. This transmission was widely disseminated by the great master Kunkhyen Longchen Rabjampa (see kun-mkhyen klong chen rab-'byams).


The ground of riding the uhiversal rDzogs-chen. According to the Nyingma tradition, this refers to the tenth Bodhisattva ground attained on the fifth stage of yoga, where a person has completely and perfectly integrated all experiences and appearances on the path to liberation into the sphere of lack of production of all projections of the Rupakaya.

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Sarhpanna krama/ Completion stage. An anuttarayoga tantra practice of meditation in which a practioner trains or is able to activate the innate primordial wisdom through experiencing the four-fold joys (see dga'-ba bzhi) and the mind of clear light through experiencing the four-fold empties (see stong-bzhi) respectively upon this vajra (deity) body.

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The four completion stage yogas; the four completion stage yogas of the Yamantaka tantra. 1. གས་་ལ་འར། yoga of mantra 2. དམ་ག་་ལ་འར། yoga of samaya 3. དབས'་ལ'འར| yoga of shape 4. ཡས་་ལ་འར། yoga of primordial wisdom.



Five levels of the completion stage. 1. ་ལ,ས'དབན| isolation of body 2. ངག'དབན| isolation of speech 3. མས་དབན། isolation of mind 4. ད་གསལ། clear light mind 5. |་ལས། illusory body. In some cases, the first two are listed as one and the state of union (yuganaddha) is added to the list to make five. See the five profound paths (zab-lam rim-lnga).


Six levels of the completion stage, (see rdzog-rim rim-lnga 1-5, above) 6. ང་འག the state of union (yuganaddha).


Completing karma. Karma that primarily determines the specific details of environmental and physical attributes, personality, etc., of a being irrespective of the level of rebirth, e.g. a dtfg enjoying comforts of living in a palace though just an animal.


Accomplishment, maturation and purification. བ£-ས'§^|

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Upapaduka/ Miraculous birth. One of the four types of birth (see skye-gnas bzhi), e.g. the birth of Guru Padmasambhava.


Fox; exemplifies cowardice and deceit in a person

2fpJ| * 1 Gutter.


Guttur or wolf's lair.




Donkey; ass.


Varanasi. One of the four principal holy places of Buddhist

pilgrimage, where Buddha Sakyamuni turned the first wheel of doctrine concerning the four noble truths to the the five ascetics (see 'khor Inga-sde bzang-po).

Name of a naga; a water-deity.



Joyful state of mind; laughing expression.

Clear mental comprehension of words and meanings.

Vartu. An ancient script used by Tonmi Sambhota as a model for headless Tibetan script (U-med).

Warrior god; god of weapon.

QJ'gnt| འ་§(ལ།

Tiredness; fatigue.



Zhalu monastery. A monastery in the vicinity of Zhigatse established during the 11th century, which flourished as a principal centre of study and training of Zhalu philosophy during the time of Buton Rinchen Drup. It is believed that this monastery had many Sanskrit texts.


Zhang-Zhung is believed to be the cradle of ancient Tibetan culture, and according to some the place of origin of the Bon religion. Some historical texts like the Blue Annals identify Zhang-zhung with Guge, now the Tsa-dha district in the Ngari region of western Tibet.


The threefold services; the three ways to honour and please

one's root guru. 1. རབ་བ་པའ་མཆད་པ། offering of practice as the supreme 2. འ^ངལས་ངག་་ཞབས་^ག physical and vocal service as the middling 3. ཐ་མ་-ཟང་ཟང་་འལ་བ། material offering as the modest.


Varika/ Monk steward. Monk official in charge of economic affairs; especially one chosen during the three months rainy season retreat.


Spoken teaching of Buddha. Teachings that Buddha actually spoke from his mouth directly; verbal teachings of Buddha.

Instruction; advice of a respected person.


Bhojya/ Food; food offerings.


Samatha/ Mental quiescence meditation; calm abiding meditation. A single-pointed meditative concentration developed through the techniques of settling the mind; a practice common to both Buddhists and non-Buddhists.



The six powers of calm abiding meditation (see stobs-drug). (3་གནས་་དམགས་པ་བ(^།


Four objects of mental quiescence meditation. 1. 0བ་པའ་ དགས་པ། pervasive object 2. |ད་པ'མ་|ང་ག་དགས་པ།


objects for overcoming objects of obsession 3. མཁས་པའ་ དགས་པ། object of the wise practitioner 4. ་?ན་མངས་མ་


|ང་ག'དམགས'པ། object for purification of delusions.


The conditions for calm abiding meditation; the necessities for practicing calm abiding meditation. I. མ^ན་པའ་ཡལ་ན' གནས་པ། living in a harmonious place 2. འདད་པ་ང་བ!

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having few desires 3. ཆག་ཤས་པ! having contentment 4. ' བ་མང་་ཡངས་་3ངས'པ། having few activities of involvement 5. ཚལ་^མས་མ་པར་དག་པ།་ having pure morality 6. འདད་པ'ལ'སགས-པ'མ་པར་^ག་པ་«|ངས་ས་^ངས་པ།

having freedom from gross delusions such as attachment.


The four attentions of calm abiding meditation (see yid-byed bzhi).


Restoration and purification ritual through mental quiescence meditation. A gathering of monks for purification of negativities entailing meditation on close mindfulness or contemplation.

^་གནས་^པས་^་ས་པ་^་། The five faults of calm abiding meditation (see nyes-pa lnga).


Santaraksita/ Acarya Santaraksita. A highly learned master-scholar from Bengal who visited Tibet during the time of King Tnsong Deutsan. He assisted Guru Padmasambhava in the building of Samye monastery and was responsible for founding the monastic community for the first time in Tibet.


The Pacifier. This is a Buddhist religious tradition founded by Phadampa Sangye at the beginning of the 12th century, and propagated the practice of gcod (cutting-off) ritual in Tibet.


Samatha vipaSyana yuganaddha/ Union of mental quiescence and penetrative insight meditation.

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Ksetrapala/ Field protectors. Protectors of the land and fields; a kind of local deity often associated with charnel grounds. Also those male and female guardians who reside in the heavens.


The ten heinous hindrances (see bsgral-ba'i zhing-bcu). These identify someone as an enemy of the Buddha Dharma to be expelled according to tantra


Ksetrasuddhi prayoga/ Pure land training. A Bodhisattva practice by which one can transform all roots of virtue into means for establishing a Buddha field, with its inhabitants, where he will gain the state of full enlightenment; this path arises on the three pure Bodhisattva grounds, i.e. the eigth, ninth and tenth.


Eight noble persons; enterers and abiders in the four state of an ascetics—Stream-winner, Once returner, Never returner and Arhatship. 1. ན་3གས་གས་པ། enterer into the fruit of a stream-winner 2. |ན'9གས་འབས'གནས། abider in the fruit of a stream-winner 3. ར་འང་ཞགས་པ། enterer into the fruit of a once-returner 4. པར་ང་འབ^ས་གནས། abider in the fruit

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of a once-returner 5. ར་མ་འང་^གས་པ། enterer into the fruit of a never-returner 6. ར་་འང་འ3ས་གནས། abider in the fruit of a never-returner 7. ད'བཅམ་3གས'པ། enterer

into the fruit of a Foe-destroyer 8. ད་བཅམ་འབ^ས་གནས། abider in the fruit of a Foe-destroyer.


Entering, abiding and dissolution. The three-fold tantric practice of causing the energy winds to enter, abide and dissolve into the central channel through meditation.


The mind training, 'Parting Away from Four Clingings' (see blo-sbyong zhen-pa bzhi-bral).

Object of attachment. Synonymous with the apprehended object of conception (rtog-pa'i zhen-yul).


Parabhava sUnyata/ Emptiness of others. One of the sixteen types of emptinesses; the lack of inherent existence of transwordly phenomena as opposed to worldly exi stents.


Four changeable mental factors. 1. ག^ད| niddham/ sleep 2. འ3ད་པ| kaukrtyam/ regret 3. ག་པ། vitarka/ grcss investigation 4. དཔད་པ! vicara/ subtle investigation.

Other emptiness; alternative emptiness. The lack of existence of other conventional phenomena, i.e. dependent and imputed phenomena, etc., upon the thoroughiy established phenomena, i.e. the non-dual wisdom understanding the inseparability of the subjective mind and objective existence. An alternative middle-vtew asserted by Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism.


Abandonments of harms to others along with the basis. The

nature of individual liberation vows; 'others', here refers to

the seven non-virtuous activities of body and speech that

inflicts direct harm on others, and 'bases', here refers to the

causes of those non-virtues—the three non-virtues of mind.

When a person holding individual liberation vows eliminates

these with his or her mind conjoined with a sense of

renunciation, it becomes a fully characterized individual

liberation vow (pratimoksa).


Alternative dissimilar factor. That which is a dissimilar factor, yet shows a common basis with the predicate in a logical syllogism.


Two types of dependent phenomena. One of the three categories of phenomena according to the Cittamatrin school. 1. དག་པའ་གཞན་དབང་། suddhaparatantra/ pure dependent


phenomena 2. མ་དག་པའ་གཞན་དབང་། asuddhaparatantra/ impure dependent phenomena.


Five circumstantial endowments. Of the ten endowments (see 'byor-ba bcu) the five factors required to be fulfilled in the

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environment in which one lives: 1. སངས་$ས་འ£ག'ན་ན་ ན་པ། Buddha's having come 2. དམ་པ་ས་གངས་པ། His having taught the doctrine 3. བ་^ན་པ་གནས་པ། the existence of His doctrine 4. ་ས་འ|ག'"5ད་པ་། the existence of His followers 5. གཞན'§ར་ག་1ང'བ£་བ| being compassionate towards others.


Valid cognition ascertainable from other factors, e.g. valid

cognition within the continuum of a person who has no knowledge of valid cognition.


Anyapoha/ Exclusion of other; negative phenomena. An awareness that understands its own object of perception through negating the existence of its direct opposite, e.g. the generic image of a vase. Synoymous with negative phenomena. There are two types: 1. ད་དགག་་གཞན་ལ། n0n-affirming exclusion of other, e.g. emptiness 2. མ་ཡན་དགག་ག་ ག^ན་སལ། affirming exclusion of other, e.g. not being a vase.


Two types of knowable objects; two objects of knowledge. 1. §1 sarnanya/ general phenomena 2. ་བག visesa/ particular phenomena or 1. |་མཚན]བཛས་§ས། sarnanyalaksana/generally characterized 2. རང་མཚན། svalaksana/ self-character-


ized phenomena or 1. ག་པ། nitya/ permanent 2. མ་ག་པ། anitya/impermanent.


Three objects of knowledge. 1. མངན་ར། pratyaksa/ manifest phenomena, e.g. pillar 2. ་^ག་ར། paroksa/ obscure phenomena, e.g. impermanence 3. ཤན་་་^ག་^ར! atiparoksa/ extremely obscure phenomena, e.g. very subtle nature of the law of causality.


Vimana/ Inconceiveable mansion; celestial mansion; heaven.


The seventeen basic precepts. The basic precepts of cultivation for an ordained monk. There is one precept for obtaining the vows not yet obtained; nine precepts for

protecting the vows already obtained; and seven precepts for purifying the transgressed vows.


Yathasarhstarika/ He who sleeps wherever he happens to be. One of the twelve ascetic practice (see sbyangs-pa'i yon-tan bcu-gnyis); to sleep on a bed of grass or leaves, etc., which are laid out once without being rearranged for comfort's sake.


Sapta mulasarvastivadah/ Seven Mulasarvastivadin schools.


One of the eighteen schools of the Hinayana tradition. 1. གཞ་ ཐམས་ཅད་<3$ད་པར་|་བ། MUlasarvastivada 2. ད'^ང'བ| KaSyapiyah 3. ན'པ| Mahisasakah 4. ས་^ང་བ། Dharmaguptah 5. མང་ཐས་པ། BahuSrutiyah 6. གས་དམར་བ། Tarnrasatiyah 7. མ་པར་་^་བ། Vibhajyavadinah.


The basic clear light mind. The Buddha nature within the mental continuum of sentient beings, i.e. the primordially pure nature of the minds of all beings.


The five basic wisdoms for transforming the five delusions into wisdoms. 1. ག་ས་་་ལང་ཡ་ས། mirror-like


wisdom for self-pacification of hatred-anger 2. གཞ'ས'3' མ9མ'9ད་ཡ་ས།. wisdom of equality or sameness for self-pacification of pride 3. ག་ས་་སར་^གས་^ཤས། wisdom of analysis for self-pacification of desire-attachment 4. ག་ས་་་བ་ཡ་ཤས། wisdom of accomplishment for self-pacificationof jealousy 5. ག་ས་་ས་དངསཡ་ ཤས། wisdom of reality for self-pacification of closed-mindedness.


Twenty-seven aspects of the basic wisdom. 1-12. བདན་པ་དང་ -གསམ--མ-པ-བཅ-ག་^ས། twelve aspects of the first three noble truths (see bden-pa dang-po gsum-gyi rnam-pa bcu-gnyis) 13-27. ལམ་བན་-མ་པ་བཅ་^་། fifteen aspects of the noble truth of the path (see lam-bden-gyi rnam-pa bco-lnga).


Nine topics that characterize the basic wisdom. 1. ཤས་པས་ ^ད-ལ--གནས-པ-ག་^ས། non-abidance in the extreme of existence through knowledge 2. "|ང་ས་ག་ལ་་གནས་ པའ་ག^ས། non-abidance in the extreme of peace through compassion 3. ཐབས་མ་ཡན་པས་འ^ས་ཡམ་ལ་རང་བ་ག་ ཤས| distant from the mother effect due to lack of skill in means 4. ཐབས་མཁས་པས་འ^ས་ཡམ་ལ་^་བ་ག་ས།


close to the mother effect due to skill in means 5. མ་མན་ 3ག^'3'གཞ'ཤས1 basic wisdom classed as a discordant factor 6. ག?ན''གས་'ག'ཤས། basic wisdom classed as an antidote 7. ག'ས'་|ར་བ| training in basic wisdom 8. ག་ས་་མ9མ་$ད'|ར་བ། training in the sameness of basic wisdom 9. གས་་མཐང་ལམ། path of seeing.


The three basic rituals; the three basic ceremonies of monks. The text of rituals concerning: 1. གས་|ང་། bi-monthly restoration and confession ceremony 2. དར་གནས། summer or rainy season retreat for three months beginning from the sixteenth of the sixth Tibetan month 3. དགག'ད3! the ceremony of lifting restrictions after the completion of the three months retreat.

The three basic kayas. 1. ཐ་མལ་བ'|་བ'ག'|3ལ^ the

_ _ ** "** ***-

ordinary state of birth as the basic nirmanakaya 2. ཐ་མལ་་་

འ་བ་ག་ས་^ the ordinary state of death as the basic dharmakaya 3. ཐ་མལ་་བར་་ག་ལངས་^ the ordinary state of intermediate rebirth as the basic sambhogakaya.


Avataranabhisarhdhi/ Interpretative sutra encouraging conversion, e.g. a sutra explaining the existence of the self of a person in order to convert a follower into Buddhist doctrine.


The great treatises of philosophy studied in the monastic universities or elsewhere.


The five treatises of Buddhist philosophy. 1. པར'§ན| Perfection of Wisdom 2. དབ་མ། Middle Way 3. ཚད'མ། Valid Cognition 4. འལ་བ། Monastic Discipline 5. མ^ད། Treasure of Knowledge.


Chiding; reprimand; upraising in an ironic manner.


The three types of incantation according to action tantra; the three suchnesses of recitation in prahayama meditation. 1.

CV «V"

གཞ་ལ་གཞལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on the object deity 2. སམས་ལ་གཞལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on


the mind deity 3. ་ལ་གཞལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on the sound deity.


Mount-like bodhicitta. Mind of enlightenment associated with the exalted practice of compassion and resolute intention possessed by a Bodhisattva on the three pure grounds.

ཟ མ ་^ག

Karanda/ A. Food casket; carried by ascetics as their pot. B. Za-ma-tog sUtra concerning Arya Avalokitesvara's cycle of teaciiings.


Sasrava/ Contaminated phenomena. Deluded phenomena capable of increasing affliction by their presence, e.g. a human body.

ཟག'པཅས''པ^པ་^'| Five contaminated aggregates (see phung-po lnga).


Four types of contaminations (see chu-bo bzhi).


The six gates of contamination; the six ways in which delusions increase or become stronger. 1. 3ག'པའ'བདག་9ད| being a contaminated thing, such as being any of the twenty root or near delusions (see rtsa nyon drug and nye-nycn-nyi-shu) 2. ཟག་པ་དང་འབ/་པ་བ། being connected to a contamination, such as the sense faculties that are immediate conditions for producing contaminated mental experiences 3. -་ཟག་པས་ བཅངས་པ། bcing bound by contamination, such as the contaminated virtues within the three realms of existence 4.-"ཟག་ པའ'ས་'འ5ལ'བ1 being possessed by contamination, such as the inability to exploit one's body, speech and mind for positive activities 5. ཟ)ག་པ་ས་་མ3ན'པ། being similar to contamination, such as form, sound etc., that are


physical sources of contamination 6. ^ག་པའ^་ལས^ང་བ། arisen from the contaminated, the results of contamination, such as this human body.


Five uncontaminated aggregates; the five pure ways. 1. -^ལ་


[་མས'3་3ང'པ| Sila skandha/ aggregate of moral disciple 2.

cv -v CV. CV -V

•^ང-ང-འཛན--པང-པ། samadhi skandha/ aggregate of

*V CV -V

concentration 3. ཤས་རབ་^་པང་པ། prajna skandha/ aggregate of wisdom 4. མ་པར་ལ་བ་པང་། vimukti skandha/ aggregate of thorough liberation 5. མ་པར་ལ་བ་ཡས་


མཐངབའ་པང་པ། vimukrijnana skandha/' aggregate of seeing the wisdom of thorough liberation.


The three uncontaminated powers (see dbang-po gsum, B). The powers of a person who has attained the truth of the path.


The five uncontaminated paths (see zag-med kyi phung-po

lnga, above). These are known as the five uncontaminated paths when the word aggregates are replaced with the word path.


Twenty-one groups of uncontaminated wisdom. 1. ང་གས་ ས་བན། thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (see byangs-phyog so-bdun) 2. ཚད་ད་བ། four immeasurables (see tshad-med bzhi) 3. མ་ཐརབ$ད། asta vimoksah/ eight


emancipations (see rnam-thar brgyad) 4. མཐར་ས་གནས་ པའ་^མས་འ|ག'ད3 nine absorptions (see snyoms-'jug-dgu) 5. 3ད'པར'བཅ1 ten exhaustions/ ten totally pervasive

rv cv ■v

concentrations (see zad-pa bcu) 6. ་ཟལ'3ས'གནན'པ'བ$ད1 eight outshining factors/ eight surpassing concentrations (see zil-gnon brgyad) 7. ?ན་མངས་ད་པ་ང་ང་འ£ན། concentration free of delusions 8. ^ན་གནས་མ^ན་པ། pranidhijnasamadhi/ knowledge of one's object of prayers 9.

•V -V

མངན་ཤས་^ག six extra-sensory perceptions (see mngon-par shes-pa drug) 10. ས་ས་ཡང་དག་རག་པ་བ། four specific perfect understandings (see so-sor yang-dag-pa rig-pa bzhi) 11. མ'དག'བ། four purities: a) ན་མ་དག pure basis b) དགས'པ'མ'དག pure objects c) གས་་མ་དག pure compassion d) ཡ་ས་མ་དག pure primordial wisdom 12. དབངབཅ། ten sovereign qualities (see dbang-phug bcu) 13. ^བས་བཅ། dasa balani/ ten powers (see de-bzhin gshegs-pa'i


stobs-bcu) 14. མ་འ^གས་པ་བཞ། four fearlessnesses (see mi-'jigs-pa bzhi) 15. བས^ང་བ་ད་པ་གམ། three unguarded aspects—that of physical, verbal and mental behaviours of a Buddha 16. 5ན'པ་9'བར་གཞག་པ་གམ། three close contemplations (see dran-pa nye-bar gzhag-pa gsum) 17. བ-f ལ-བ''མངའ-བ'ས'9ད། non-negligence of the purpose of sefttient beings 18. བག་ཆགས་ཡང་དག་བཅམ་པ། complete elimination of latencies of three delusions 19. གས་ £'ཆན'པ། mahakarunaV great compassion 20. སངས'3 ས་3་

ཆས་མ་འས་པ་བཅ་བ-^ད། eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (see ma-'dres-pa bco-brgyad) 21. མ[ན་པ་གམ| three wisdoms (see mkhyen-gsum).



Navanasrava bhUmayah/ Nine uncontaminated grounds; nine

uncontaminated levels of concentration. 1. བསམ་ག་-ཏན་དང་

'དངས་ག་§མས་འག actual absorption of the first

concentration 2. བསམ་གན་དང་་དས་ག་^མས་འག་

ཅམ'པ'བ། ordinary absorption of the first concentration 3. བསམ-ག^ན-དང-དས-ག་^་^མས-འག-^ད-པར-ཅན།

exalted absorption of the first concentration 4. བསམ་ག་-ཏན' ག^ས་པ-དས-ག^མས་འག actuai absorption of the second concentration 5. བསམ་ག་7ན་གམ་པ་དས་ག་

^མས་འག actual absorption of the third concentration 6. བསམ-^ན་པ^-པ-དས-ག^--^མས-འག actua|

absorption of the fourth concentration 7. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ ཡས་དངས་ག་!མས་འག actual absorption of infinite space 8. མ་ས་མཐའ་ཡས་དངས་ག་^མས་འག actual

cv -v cv

absorption of the infinite consciousness 9. ཅ་ཡང་མད་་^་ དངས་ག་^མས་འག actual absorption of nothingness.


The unobstructed phenomena; The uninterrupted phenomena ཟངས་མག་དཔ0]་ར།

The copper coloured glorious mountain. The legendary abode of Guru Padmasambhava.


Amisa/ A. Material goods. B. Blurred vision; confusion. ཟ^་པ་ས་པ།

Ksayajnana/ Knowledge of exhaustion. One of the ten types of awarenesses according to the Abhidharma tradition (see

mdzod-las bshad-pa'i shes-pa bcu); knowledge of one's own confidence of having abandoned all objects of elimination.


The total pervasive concentration; the concentration of exhaustion. The power of concentration gained by a person who is able to transform any phenomena into any particular element.


The ten exhaustions; the ten totally pervasive concentrations (seezad-par bcu, below).


Ten exhaustions; ten totally pervasive concentrations the aim of which is to develop omniscience, by training in perceiving an element such as fire or a color such as blue as totally pervading all phenomena. Totally pervasive concentration with respect to 1 -4. ས་་་.-རང་བ་དང། five elements 5-8. 'ར་དཀར་དམར་བ། four root colours-blue, yellow, white and red 9. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་^ས། infinite space 10. མ་ཤས་མཐའ་ཡས། infinite consciousness.


The dough-ball divination. In this system the contents of divination written down on pieces of paper are rolled up in a dough-ball and thrown in front of holy images or paintings of deities of special significance through chanting invocation prayers.


GanibhiradarSana tantra/ Lineage of the profound view; the profound view lineage. Lineage of teaching and practice coming from Manjusri, Nagarjuna and Candrakirti which mainiy emphasises the wisdom aspect of the teachings.


Ganibhira sUnyata/ Profound emptiness; profound voidness.


Lineage of profound pure perception; lineage of sacred vision. A. The transmission obtained as a result of direct vision and access of one's personal meditational deity. B. A Nyingma lineage derived from accomplished masters, who through their pure perception, have attained a vision of their root guru and meditational deity as the same, and received certain secret teachings that are transmitted only to a limited circle of disciples.


Asta ganibhira dharmatah/ Eight profound realities; eight aspects of the profound reality. 1. |་བ་-ཟབ་མ། profound production 2. དགག་པ་ཟབ་། profound stopping 3. ་9ད་ ཟབ་མ། profound thusness/reality 4. ཆས་ཟབ་མ། profound phenomena 5. ཤས་པ་ཟབ་མ། profound awareness 6. $མས ལན་ཟབ་མ། profound practice 7. ག^ས་^ང་-ཟབ་མ། pro-found non-duality 8. ཐབས་མཁས་ཟབ་། profound skill in means.


The profound peace; the clear light mind of a Buddha; the dharmakaya The unfathomable omniscience and the state of nirvana or cessation of sufferings within the continuum of a Buddha.


The profound peace free of the eight extremes (see spros-pa'i mtha'-brgyad).


The five profound paths; the five stages of tantric paths

according to the highest yoga tantra. 1. ངག དབན! isolation of speech 2. མས་དབན། isolation of mind 3. ^་ལས། illusory body 4. འད་གསལ། clear light mind 5. ང་འག the state of unity of the illusory body and clear light mind.

ཟཔ་གས^གས་མ^་^་འར། The yoga of non-dual profundity and clarity. The yoga of union of emptiness and the primordial mind realizing it.


The primordial wisdom of non-dual profundity and clarity. The wisdom of a yogi, who experiences a clear vision of the divine mandala like the rainbow within the understanding of emptiness.


The yoga of foods. 1. ཁ'3ས་^ན་དངའ-བར་ག་པར་|ད་པ། the practice of relishing food like a medicine for sustenance 2. ནང|ན'§ག'ག་!ལ'5་ལངས|ད'པ། the practice of relishing food like offering for the inner fire-ritual.


The three white foods; yogurt, milk and butter.


The first bit of food. The tradition of offering the first portion of a meal to the objects of refuge before one eats.


Suddhotfana/ King Suddhodana; the father of Buddha Sakyamuni.


Catvara-aharah/ Four types of food; four nourishments. 1.


ཁམ་་ཟས། kavalikarahara/ coarse food, for the growth of

-v Cv

the sense organs of this body 2. རག་པའ་ཟས། sparsahara/ food of touch, for the growth of consciousness 3. སམས་་ ཟས| manah saihcetananara/ food of mental thought, for projecting rebirth in future lives 4. མ་པར་ས་པ་ཟས། vijnananara/ food for consciousness, for the actualization of the next rebirth.


The conjoined sounds. The sound produced by a person through the force of elements such as wind, e.g. sound of clapping hands and flute.


Astabhibhavayatanani/ Eight surpassing concentrations; the power of concentration through which a yogi aims to gain control of the miracles. 1. རང་གགས་ཅན་་འ་ས་པས་་ ལ་་གགས་ཆང་ང་ལ་བ་ང་གགས་་དག་ཟལ་ས་

གནན་པ། imagining himself having form, he sees small external forms and overcomes them 2. རང་གགས་ཅན་5་ འས^པས^་ལ་་གགས་ཆན་་ལ་བ་ངགགས་"

Cv CV 1-*

དག་-་ཟལ་ས་གནན་པ། imagining himself having form, he sees large external forms and overcomes them 3. རངགགས' ད་པར་འ་ས་པས^ལ་་གགས་ཆང་ང་ལ་བ་ང'

ག3གས་་དག་1ལ་ས་གནན་པ། imagining himself as lacking form, he sees small external forms and overcomes them 4. རངགགས་ད་པར་འས་པས་་ལ་་གགས་ ན་་ལ་བ^ང་གཟགས་་དག་ཟལ་ས་གནན་པ། imagining himself as lacking form, he sees large external forms and overcomes them 5. རང་གགས་ཅན་ད་པར་འ་ ས་པ་་ནས་་ལ་་གགས་ན་་ལ་བ་^ང་གགས་་


དག་་་ཟལ་ས་གནན་པ། merely imagining himself as lacking

form, he sees external blue forms and overcomes them 6. རང་ གགས་ད་པར་འ་ས་པ་་ནས་་^^

ལ་བ་ང'གགས''དག་ལ་ས་ག^^^ merely imagining himself as lacking form, he sees external yellow forms and overcomes them 7. རང་གགས་ད་པར་འ་ས་པ་་ནས་་ ལ་་གགས'དམར་་ལ་བ་ང་གགས་་དག་^^ གན་པ། merely imagining himself as lacking form, he sees

external red forms and overcomes them 8. རངགགས་མད་པར་ འ་ས་པ་་ནས་་ལ་་གགས་དཀར^^^

དག་ཟལ་ས་གནན་པ། merely imagining himself as lacking form, he sees external white forms and overcomes them.


Yuganaddha/ A. Unification; state of union, e.g. the union of calm-abiding and penetrative insight meditation or the union of bhss and void. B. One of the five levels of the completion stage practices in tantr^ the union of emptiness, the wisdom aspect and great compassion, the method aspect or the union of the wisdom of spontaneous great bliss, the method aspect and the emptiness of clear light mind, the wisdom aspect or the ever-supreme emptiness, the object and the unclianging wisdom of great bliss, the object-per(^iver.


Twenty-three types of unification; twenty three states of union. 1. འར་འདས་དར་ད་་ང་འག union of the inseparability of cyclic existence and the state beyond suffer-


ing 2. ན་ང་ག་ང་འག union of ever-deluded and ever-purified phenomena 3. མ་བཅས་མ་ད་་ང་འག union of that with and without aspects 4. གང'འ£ན'2་ང འ|ག union of object and object-perceiver 5. ག་ཆད་^ལ་


བའ་ང་འ|ག union 0f mat wnich is free of the extremes of

-V" Cv cs -"s CS.

eternalism and nihilism 6. ^ང་^ད་་^ང^འ་ངའག union of emptiness and compassion 7 ཐབས་ས་ང་འག union

of method and wisdom 8. ག་བཅས་ག་ད་་ང་འག union of residual and non-residual cessation 9. བདག་མད' ག?ས་་ང འག union of two selflessnesses 10. |'ལས་ དང་དགསལ་་ང་འག union of the illusory body and clear light 11. རལ'འ£ན''ང'འ|ག union of thorough dissolution 12. ས'གག'ག'ང་འ|ག union of gradual dissolution 13. བན'ག9ས་ང་འག union of two truths 14. མ9མ'གཞག'ག'ང'འག union of meditative equipoise 15. ས་ཐབ་་ང་འག union of post-meditative equipoise 16. སད'ག9ད་་ང'འག union of sleep and the awakened state 17. མ^མ་པརའག་ང་་ང་འག union of engagement

OS cs

and arisal from meditative equipoise 18. ན'པ'མ'ན་པའ་ ངའག union of mindfulness and unmindfulness 19. བད' ?ང་ང་འ|ག union of bliss and emptiness 20. 'ད"ང འག union of action and action-performed 21. བ^ད་ཛགས' ང་འག union of generation and completion stage 22. དག'


མ'དག་ག་ང་འ1ག union of a pure and impure state 23. གགས་ཅན་གགས་ད་་ང་འག union of an embodied and unembodied entity. In the list of twenty-one, nos. 11 and 12 and nos. 14 and 15 are counted as one each the union of thorough and gradual dissolution and the union of a meditative and post-meditative state.


Two types of unification; two states of union (yuganaddha). 1.

cs Cs

^བ་པའ་ངའག state of union of a trainee or learner 2. མ་ «1བ་པའ'ང་འ|ག state of union of a non-trainee or a Buddha.


The four types of unification; the four states of union. 1.8F

་^ང་ང་འག union of appearance and emptiness 2. རག་་^ང ང་འག union of awareness and emptiness 3. བད^ང་

ངའག union of bliss and emptiness 4. གསལ་^ང་ང་འག union of clear light and emptiness.


Ciraka/ Top-knot; knotted hair gathered at the crown of the head.


Monk's overcoat; worn during religious gatherings, especially during winter.


Four auspicious days of every month; four special days of a month according to the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. 1. ས་ བ3ད'པར'སངས་3ས'ན'3'ས'བ3ང། eighth is the day of the Medicine Buddha 2. ས་བཅ་པར་མཁའ་འ་ས་བ3ང་། tenth is the day of the Dakinis 3. ས་བཅ་^་ར་སངས^ས་ཤ^་ བ་པ་ས་བཟང་། fifteenth is the day of Buddha Sakya-muni 4. ཆ*ས་མ་ཅ་པར་སངས'9ས་ད་དཔག་ད་་ས་ བ-་ཟང'1 thirtieth is the day of Buddha Amitabha.


Waxing and waning moon.



Nava graha/ Seven planets; seven days of the week. 1. 9་མ། aditya/ Sun 2. <|་བ། Soma/ Moon 3. ག་དམར། arigaraka/ Mars4.^'^ budha/ Mercury 5. པར་བ། brhaspatih/Venus 6. པ'སངས| sukrah/ Jupiter 7. 3ན་པ། Sanaiscara/ Saturn. 8. 'གཅན། rahu/ ascending node of the moon 9. མག་རང་། ketu/ descending node of the moon.


Five predeterminations of Buddha Sakyamuni before conceiving to be born in this world while he was in the god

realm, born as Devaputra (dam-pa tog-dkar-po). 1. ས་ལ' གཟགས་པ། observation of the time for his appearance 2, རས་ ལ་གགས་པ། observation of the family of his birth 3. རགས་


ལ་གཟགས་པ། observation of the caste of his lineage 4. ཡམ'


ལ་གཟགས་པ། observation of the mother to who he would be born 5. ཡལ་ལ་གགས་པ། observation of the land in which to disseminate his doctrine.


Rupayatanam/ The source of perception of form; synonymous with forms (gzugs); direct objects of sight—shape and colour.


RUpadeva/ The form deity. One of the six deities according to action tantra. A visualization meditation of emitting and withdrawing light from the moon mandala and the circle of mantras, the transformation of which then give rise to complete feaiures of the concerned deity of one's meditation.


RUpadhatu/ Form realm. Realm in which beings are preoccupied with meditative concentration free of attachment to sensual objects within the desire realm but have attachment to forms.


One hundred and eighty objects of elimination within the form realm to be* abandoned on the path of meditation. The four levels of concentrations—first, second, third and fourth within the form realm each have forty-five objects of elimination (see gzugs-khams-kyi sgom-spang lnga, below) when each of the five eliminations are further divided into nine levels of subtlety from within the three basic levels of great, middling and small and each of these levels are further

divided into three levels, thus making one hundred and eighty in all.

གགས་^མས་2་^མ'ས.ང་^་། The five objects of elimination within the form realm to be


abandoned on the path of meditation. 1. མ་ རག་ པ། ignorance 2, འདད་ཆགས། desire-attachment 3. ང'5ལ| pride 4. འ^ག་ | view of transitory collection 5. མ་ཐར་། the extreme view.


The four levels of the form realm; the four states of concentration within the form realm; the four worlds of the taiealm-^'TO'^'^l ག?ས'པ། གམ་པ། བ' པ། first, second, third and fourth concentration realms.


Seventeen regions of the form realm. Three states of the first level concentration: 1. ཚངས་ས། Brahmalcayikah/ Brahma type 2. ཚངས་པ་མན་ན་འན། Brahmapurohitah/ Brahma attendants 3. ཚངས་<£ན། Mahabrahmanah/ great Brahma. Three states of the second level concentration: 4. འད་ང་། Parittabhah/' little light 5. ཚད་མད་འད། Apramanabhah/ limitless light 6. ད་གསལ། Abhasvarah/ bright light. Three states of the third level concentration: 7. དག་ང'1 Parittasubhah/ little virtue 8. ཚད་མད་དག Apramanasubhah/ limitiess virtue 9. དག་^ས། Subhakrtsnah/ vast virtue. Eight states of the fourth level concentration: 10. §ན་ད། Anabharakah/ cloudless 11. པསད་ནམས་^ས། Punyaprasavah/ born from merit 12. འབ^ས་བ་ཆ་བ། Brhatphalah/ great fruit 13. མ་ཆ་བ། Avrhah/ not great 14. མ་ གང་བ། Atapah/without pain 15. ་མ་^ང་། Sudrsah/

CV -y-' '

excellent appearance 16. ཤན་་མཐང་། Sudarsanah/ great perception 17. འག་མན། Akanistah/ not low.

གགས་ཅན་གགས་0]་^་བ་ནམ་ར!ར། *

Emancipation of one possessing form, looking at a form. A concentration of the form realm cultivated by a yogi while considering himself as a being with physical form, in order to eliminate attachment towards external forms.

གགས་ཅན་མ་^ན་པ་མ^ངས་^ན་འད་ད་ ་པང་པ་་^ན་ག

Six classes of non-physical aggregates of concomitant compositional factors. 1. སམས་་ས་མང་། mental attitude 2. ད་བ་ས-མང་། virtuous ^tDde 3. ་ད་བ་ས་མང་། non-virtuous attitude 4. ?ན་མངས་ན་་ས་མང་། mental attitude of the major delusions 5. ?ན་ངས་ང་ང་ས་མང་། mental attitude of the minor delusions 6. མ་ངས་པའ་ས་མང་། indefinite mental attitude.


Twenty-five types of forms. 1 -4. ཅ"བའ་ཁ་དག་བ། four root colors (see rtsa-ba'i kha-dog bzhi) 5-12. «་ན^ག་ག་[བ་ག་བ3ད། eight secondary colours (see yan-lag-gi kha-dog brgyad) 13. རང་བ1 long 14. ང་བ1 short 15. མ'པ1 squareness 16. མ་| sphencal 17. ^ལ་^་མ། fine particles 18. ་^ལ' རགས'པ། gross particles 19. མཐ་བ། high 20. ^'^I low 21.་ལ་བ། evenness 22. ་ལ་བ་མ་ཡན་པ། unevenness 23. མན་པར་^བས་ཡད་པ། manifest form 24. མ་པར་ག་ད། revelatory form 25. ནམ་མཁའ་དང་ཁ་ག་ག3ག་པ་གགས། color identical with the sky.


Fifteen form aggregates. 1-4. ་འང་བ་ན་་བ། four causal elements (see 'byung-ba bzhi) 5-15. འབ,ས་གགས བཅ/གཅག། eleven resultant form aggregates (see 'bras-gzugs bcu-gcig).


Five phenomena on the level of the form aggregate. 1. གགས་་པང། form aggregate 2. ག་ས་་་ལང་ཡ་

-N. CV

ཤས1 basic mirror-like wisdom 3. སའ་ཁམས། earth element 4. ག་་དབང་། eye sense power 5. རང་ད་ས་བ|ས་ པའ་གགས! form within one's mental continuum.


Arupa dhatu/ Formless realm. The realm in which the beings do not have a gross body but have a pure mental body; they are free of attachment towards sensual objects, but have attachments to the formless realms.


Never-returner who attains liberation without effort and migrates to the formless realm.


Never-returner who attains liberation as soon as he is born in the formless realm.


Never-returner who attains liberation in the highest state (either in Akanistha or the Peak of Existence) after migrating to the formless realm.

གགས་མད་ར་འ་ར་མ་འང་འད་ད་དང་ བཅས་པར་འདའ་བ།

Never-returner who attains liberation with great effort and migrates to the formless realm.

གགས་མད་ར་འ་ར་མ་འང་འད་ད' མདཔར་འདའ་བ།

Never-returner who atains liberation without effort and migrates to the formless realm.


Catasra arupyasamapattayah/ Four formless absorptions; four types of formless meditative absorptions. 1. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ ཡས་་^མས་འག akaSanantyayatanarh/ absorption of infinite space 2. མས་མ3འ་ཡས'མས་འ|ག vijnananantyayatanarii/ absorption of infinite consciousness 3. ཅ་ཡང་མད་པའ་ ^་མས་ འ|ག aJdncanyayatananV absorption of nothingness 4. འ་ ས་ད་འདས་ད་ན་་|མས་འ|ག naivasamjnanasarhjna-yatanarh/ absorption of that which is neither with discrimination nor non-discrimination.


Emancipation of one without form looking at a form. A concentration within the form realm cultivated by a yogic while considering himself as a being without form in order to eliminate his attachment to external objects.


Never-returner who migrates to the form realm.


Never-returner who attains liberation in the highest state (Akanistha) after migrating to the form realm.


Never-returner who attains liberation as soon as he is born in the form realm.


Never-returner who attains liberation in the intermediate existence of the form realm.




Never-returner who attains liberation with great effort and migrates to the form realm.

ག1གས་'9ར་^9་3ར་མ་^ང་^ད་3ད་མད་ པར་འདའ་པ།

Never-returner who attains liberation without effort and migrates to the form realm.


Two objective graspings; two graspings at objects; two conceptual graspings at objects. 1. འ^ག་པ་གང་ག grasping at engagements that are to be cultivated 2. ག་པ་ གང་ག grasping at elimination that are to be abandoned or 1. ?ན'མངས'གང'ག grasping at delusive phenomena 2. མ་ངགངག grasping at purified phenomena.


Non-duality of the object and object-perceiver. The lack of difference between the object and the object-perceiver; a view asserted by the Cittamatrin school of philosophy.


Grahyavisaya/ Referent object. Object as seized by a perception, e.g. vase for a consciousness apprehending vase.


Dharani/ Retention power (dharani). The ability to hold words and meanings of the dharma through the force of exalted mindfulness and wisdom. Also means mantras (gzungs-sngags) through the power of which one summons blessings and the ability to eliminate interfering forces.


Four types of retention power, four doors of dharani. 1. བཟད' པའ་གངས! ksantidharani/ retention of patience, the ability to endure patiently the emptiness discerned without being terrified by it 2. གས་་གང^། mantradharani/ retention of

mantra, the ability to convert any syllable or syllables into a mantra for eradicating infectious diseases and interfering forces 3. ག་ག་གངས! vakya dharani/ retention of word, the ability to retain names, terms or words through the power of memory 4. དན'3་གངས1 artha dharani/ retention of meaning, the ability to retain the specific and general meanings of all phenomena through the power of mindfulness.


The commitment related to food. The commitment according to the highest yoga tantra to accept the five fleshes (see sha-lnga) and five nectars (see bdud-rtsi Inga) without any preconceptions.

བ1'བ་^'^། I

Silpanirmanakaya/ Artisan emanation. A form of incarnate Buddha's emanation as artisans and master-craftsman in order to tame beings.

བ3་རག་ག་|་^་མ'§། j

The thirty skills of arts and craft. A section of the sixty-four arts. 1. ཡ་ག literacy 2. ལག་£ས། calculation by hand 3. ངས། mathematics 4.1ས་ཆན། great mathematics 5. ཐར་«|གས[ scare crowing 6. གམ^བས། gestures by feet 7.1གས'3ས་ |ར་ ཐཔས། art by iron rods 8. རལ་་ ཐབས1 sword slinging 9 (^གས་པ-གདབ-པ། 1^50 throwing 10. མདའ་་ཆ་འཔན་པ། archery 11. མ5ན་5'བ|ར'བ། offensive 12. ར'བ|ར'བ། defensive 13. བཅད'པ| cutting 14.5ལ'བ| tearing 15. དག' པ། stick throwing 16. ^ང་ནས་འག་པ། remote targeting 17. ་ག་པར་འག་པ། blasting 18. གནད'5'འག'པ། blowing the target 19. ་ར་བར་འག་པ། insensitive targeting 20. £བས་1་བརའཔག'པ། intense targeting 21. མངས་པ། jumping 22. ད''འ£ན'པ! weight lifting 23. བང་| racing 24. 5ལ| swimming 25. བ^ལ'བ1 crossing 26. ^ང་་ཆ་ག^ར་ཞན་པ། . elephant riding 27. ་ལ་ཞན་པ། horse riding 28. ཤང''བཟ'

ཐབས། chariot making 29. མདའ་3འབཟ་3བ་ས། bow and arrow making 30.2ད་?བས། wrestling.


The three types of patience. 1.གད་པ་ལ་^'་^མ་པ་བཟད་ པ། patience of not retaliating against someone who harms you 2. |ག་བལ་དང་ལན་་བཟད་པ། patience of willingly enduring sufferings 3. ས་ལ་ངསས་་བཟད་པ། patience of discriminative awareness of the Dharma.


Two signs of irreversibility on the patience level of the path of preparation. 1. གཞན་ས་ད^ར་་བབ་པ། he cannot be led astray by others 2. ལས་བཅས་མ་5ན་པ་བདད་ལ་བད་་ གས་པ། he recoghizes the maras preaching counterfeit paths as true maras.


Ksatitigata murdhaprayoga/ Peak training of the forbearance level of the path of preparation. A Bodhisattva path where he has gained stability in establishing his realization to progress further.


The five fundamentals of the performing arts; the five limbs of performing arts. 1. མད་འཛན་པ། memorization of texts 2. ལ་མ! music 3. *ས་3གས། costumes 4. བཞད་གད། comedy 5.1ས'གར| art of dance and drama.

བ^ས་པ^ད་^་ན་-ལག་བ^། Four branches of recitation; four types of incantation practice

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and meditation according to kriyatantra. 1. འ་གཞ་ལ་གཞལ་ བ! retitation while concentrating on the sound deity 2. མས-'ག-ལ་ག^ལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on the mind deity 3. ག^ན་-ག་ལ་ག^ལ་བ། recitation while

concentrating on another deity 4. བདག་་ག་ལ་གལ་བ། recitation while concentrating on self-deity.


Japapeksatadhyana/ Concentration dependent on recitation.


Japanapekseiadhyana/ Concentration independent of recitation.


Akanistha/ A. The Akanista Buddha field where the sambhogakaya form of Buddhas reside, also called the 'Richly Adorned Heaven Beneath None'. B. Heaven Beneath None; the highest god realm within the form realms of the fourth concentration domain.


The five delusions of the lower realms; the five delusions within the desire realm. 1. འདད་ཆགས། desire-attachment 2. ་^ང་། hatred-anger 3. འ1ག་གས་ལ་་བ། view of the transitory collection 4. ཚལ་^མས་དངབ^གས-མག་ འ^ན། view of holding wrong moral disciplines and ascetic practices as supreme 5. ཐ་ཆམ། doubt.


Amitabha/ Buddha Amitabha. The Buddha of the western direction.


Three pledges related to Amitabha Buddha. 1. པ/་^ད། performance and action tantra as the outer practice 2. གསང་བ་ ལ་འར་དང་^་མད། yoga and anuttarayoga tantra as the secret practice 3. 3ག་པ་གསམ་ས་བ!*ས་པའདམ་<1ག all practices encompassing the doctrine of the three vehicles.


Venuvana/ A. Bamboo grove; a park near Rajagrha that was offered to Buddha Sakyamuni by King Bimbisara.


Kasyapa/ A. Kasyapa Buddha. The third of the thousand Buddhas and sixth of the Seven Heroid Buddhas (see sangs-rgyas dpa'-bo bdun) B. Mahakas'yapa. The first of the seven hierarchs (see ston-pa'i gtad-rabs-bdun) and one of the ten close disciples of Buddha Sakyamuni, famous for his scholarship, and was also responsible for collecting all the Abhi-dharma class of teachings during the First Council.


Prabhasvara/ Clear Light. A. A domain of gods within the second concentration realm. B. Clear light mind; the fundamental state of consciousness which manifests at the time of death. A qualified tantric practitioner employs this subtle mind to realize emptiness. There are two types: 1. འ་འད་ གསལ། son clear light (see bu'i 'od-gsal) 2. མ་ད་གསལ། mother clear light (see ma'i-'od-gsal).


Prabhasvara rnlya/ The clear light illusory body. One of the types of illusory bodies, the empty-body, like a reflection on a mirror, that is attained as a result of successful meditation on the completion stage of tantra.


Non-obscured clear light mind. In the Sakya tradition this refers to the Buddha nature present in all sentient beings.


Actual clear light. The fully characterized clear light mind.


Sarhyak saihvrtti/ Real conventional truth; perfect conventional truth. The causes and results giving rise to the ten virtues and other wholesome activities as a result of a perfect examination of the outer and inner nature of dependent-arising principles,


Sarhyag vak/ Right speech. To speak correct and show others means of teaching, debate and writing, aimed at generating correct views.


Sarhyak samadhi/ Right concentration. Establishing meditative concentrations free of the faults of laxity and excitement; an antidote to the hinderences in meditation.


Sarhyak sarhkalpa/ Right thought. Engaging in the study of scriptures and teachings with proper motivation.


Sarhyag drsti/ Right view. Discerning the meanings of the four noble truths and the two truths through proper analytical and contemplative means.


Sarhyag ant a/ The perfect finality. The sphere of reality or emptiness at the cessation of the pervasive suffering, nirvana.


Sarhyak srnrti/ Right mindfulness. Retaining the object of clam abiding and penetrative insight through application of balanced approach of meditation techniques.


Sarhyag vyayama/ Right effort. Application of perseverance in one's practice of eliminating the obscuration to liberation and omniescence.


Saihyagajiva/ Right livelihood. Right physical and vocal behaviour free of wrong means such as wheedling behavior, flattery and so forth, to earn one's livelihood.


Sarhyak karmanta/ Right action; right conduct. Maintenance of one's behavior free from negative techniques in contrast with the principles of teachings.



Forms arising from pledges, e.g. a vow or an obeisance of vows revealed through physical, verbal and mental activities.


Catvari prahanani/ Four perfect abandonments; four right eliminations. A section of the thirty-seven auxilaries to enlightenment. 1. ་དག་བ་|ས་པ་§ང་བ། abandonment of non-virtues that have not been produced 2. མ་དག་བ་མ་|ས་

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པ་མ་བ^ད་པ། non-generation of non-virtues that have not yet been produced 3. དག་པ་མ་|ས་པ་བ|ད་པ། increasing virtues that have been produced 4. ད་བ་ས་པ་ལ་བ། making effort in generating virtues that have not yet been produced.


Vaisali/ A. Vaisali. The city of Vaisali in the vicinity of Patna where Buddha Sakyamuni turned the Third Wheel of Doctrine; the doctnne of good distinction between the three divisions of phenomena—imputed, dependent and thoroughly established (reality). B. A chapel in Ganden monastery.


Eight secondary colors. 1. |ན་་ཁ་ག cloudy 2. ་བ་ཁ་ ག smoky 3. 5ལ་་ཁ་ག dusty 4. ་བག་་ཁ་ག misty 5. བ་མ་ཁ་ག shadowy 6. ^་ད་་ཁ་་^ག sunny 7. SF བ་ཁ་ག brightness8.མན་པ་ཁ་དག darkness.



Five secondary energy winds. The five energy winds in the body produced through the force of basic elements within the


body. 1. 3་བའ་§ང་། carana vayu/ moving wind for the


cognitive faculty of vision 2. མ་པར་^་བའ་&ང་། vicarana vayu/ thoroughly moving wind for the cognitive faculty of hearing 3. ཡང་དག་པར་་བ་ར^ང་། samudacarana vayu/

perfectly moving wind for the cognitive faculty of smell 4.

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ངས་པར་་བའ་&ང་། avicarata vayu/ definitely moving wind


for the cognitive faculty of touch or contact 5. རབ་་་བའ' (་་&ང་། upacara vayu/ strongly moving wind for the cognitive faculty of taste. There is another way of listing these five energy winds from the perspective of their dynamic reaction within the body. ལས་ལ་གནས་པ་འང་འ5ར་་«|ང་^་| 1. ^་&ང་ས་ཁམས། the earth element as the naga's wind 2.

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རས་ལ་་ ^ང་^ངཁམས། the wind element as the tortoise's wind 3. ཅ"ངས་པ་^,ང་་ཁམས། the fire element as the lizard's wind 4. 9ས'ན་་§ང''ཁམས། the water element as devadatta's wind 5. ར་«)ལ'་རངས་ཁམས། the earth element as vasuraja's wind.

The river or water fulfilling eight qualities (see chu-yan lag brgyad-ldan).


Pancariga/ The five limbs. Two arms, two legs and head.


The five preparatory stages. The five preliminary steps of Mahamudra meditation according to the Drigung Kagyud tradition. 1. ང་བ་་མས་བ^མ་པ། meditation on the mind of enlightenment 2. རང་ལས་ར་བ§མ་པ། meditation on oneself as a deity 3. £'མ'ལ'ས་3ས་བ§མ་པ། meditation on faith and devotion to one's spiritual master 4. མ་ག་པའ་ ་བ་བ||མ་པ། meditation on the non-conceptual view 5. བ' %ན་ས་^ས་འབས་པ། concluding one's practice by dedication.


Saptanga puja/ Seven branch practice; seven limbed practice. The seven priliminaries for carrying out a Dharma practice. 1.

$ག'འཚལ-བ། vandana/ prostration 2. མད་པ་པལ་བ། pujana/ offering 3. བཤགས་པ་པལ་བ། deSaya/ confession 4. ཛས-ས་^་རང་བ། anumoda/ rejoicing 5. བ^ལ'བ།

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sarhcodana/ requesting 6. གསལ་བ་འདབས་པ། adhyesana,/ supplication 7. བ'བ| parinarnana/ dedication (see sngags-phyogs-kyi yan-lag bdun-pa, and rgyun-bshags-kyi yan-lag bdun-pa).


Pitt/ Male deity. Male deity or protector in the tannic system representing the method aspect of practice.


Six ornaments of a male deity. 1. དབ་3ན1 head-dress 2. ' 3ན1 earrings 3. མ3ལ'3ན1 necklace 4. ག་! bracelets 5. མད་3ར་ཐགས་པ1 skull cup 6. ཐལ་ན་་མ་བ' daubing of ashes.


Higher boundless action. Positive action of higher potentiality that leads one to the higher attainments, as opposed to the boundless non-virtue which directly drives one to the hell realm.

Removing obstacles downwards. Such as in the practice of Vajrasattva meditation; the elimiantion of obstacles of the body through visualizing them being flushed out of one's lower orifices with the downward flow of light and nectar from Vajrasattva at the crown of one's head.


The four joys of the descending order. A skill gained through successful meditation on psychic heat by way of melting bodhicitta induced in the wheels of the energy channels,

according to the completion stage meditation of the mother tantra in the highest yoga practice. Thus when the bodhicitta melts and descends it produces: 1. ང་མས་|་་ལས'བབ་ པས་དགའ་བ། joy from the level of the crown 2. མན་པར་ བབ་པས་མག་དགའ། supreme joy at the level of the throat 3. |ང་གར་དགའ་3ལ། extraordinary joy at the level of the heart 4. ་བར་ན'ཅག་|ས་དགའ། spontaneous joy at the level of the navel.


The descending and ascending order of joys from the melting of bodhicitta from crown level to the secret organ and vice-versa.


Aksara deva/ Letter deity. One of the six types of deities in performance (kriya) tantra; meditation of the syllables visualized upon a moon cushion generated out of emptiness.


Meditational deity; personal deity; tutelary deity. Buddhas or Bodhisattvas relied upon by a practitioner having special bond or relationship in accordance with the tantric values.


Three types of hungry ghosts. 1. §'|བ'ཅན། those with external obstructions (food) 2. ནང'|བ'ཅན། those with internal obstructions (drink) 3. ཟས་^མ་ག^ས་ཀ་བ་པ་ཅན། those with obstructions to both food and drink.


Hundred Syllable mantra. Such as of Vajrasattva, Heruka, Yamantaka and others.


A. Text book. Treatises on Buddhist philosophy studied in each of the monastic universities that form their basic curriculum of religious study. B. Documents old or new.


The five types of direct mental perception. Those related to: 1. གགས་འ£ན་ཡད་མན། form 2. |་འ1ན་ཡད་མན། sound 3. ་འ1ན་ཡད་མངན། smell 4. ་འ1ན་ཡད་མན། taste 5. ག་འ1ན་ཡད་མན། objects of touch.


Pratyayita Sraddha/ Convinced faith; trusting faith. Total faith in the working of karma and the three objects of refuge.


Manahpariksa/ Presumption; correct belief. A fresh awareness that apprehends the correct object, without depending on experience or correct reasohing as its basis, e.g. the presumption that sound is impermanent merely through hearing the statement, 'sound is changeable'. There are three types of presumptions: 1. ་མཚན་ད་པ་ཡད་དད། presumption for no reason 2. ་མཆན་ར་^ང་ལ་བན་པ་ཡད་དད། presumption for an incorrect reason 3. ་མཚན་མ་ངས་པའ་

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ཡ་་ད་1^! presumption for an indefinite reason.


Six attentions. L^K^^T"^-^! attention

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to individual characteristics 2. མས་པ་ཡད་ད། attention arisen from belief 3. རབ་་དབན་པ་ཡད་ད! attention of complete isolation 4. དགའ་བ་བ£་ད་པ་ཡད་ད། attention

encompissing joy 5. དད'པ'ཡད'ད། attention to analysis 6.

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|ར'བ'མཐའ'ཡད'ད། attention to the conclusion of activity.


Four attentions; the four ways of attending to an object of meditation while practicing concentration meditation. 1. བ|མས་་འག་པ། painstaking attention 2. ཆད་པ་དང་ བཅས་་འག་པ། repeated attention 3. ཆད་པ་ད་པར' འག་པ། uninterrupted attention 4. |ལ་བ་ད་པར་འ|ག་པ། effortless attention.


Cintamani/ A. Wish-fulfilling gem. B. Dalai Lama 3. Human body. 4. Gems obtained from the ocean.


Cintamanyupamacittotpada/ Wish-fulfilling gem like bodhicitta. The mind of eniightenment associated with the perfection of prayers possessed by a Bodhisattva on the eighth ground of advancement.


Manojnamaitri/ Appealing love; heart-warming love.


Manobhava/ Mind-arisen; synonymous with the intermediate state of rebirth (bardo).


Matr/ Female aspect; tantric consort; a female counterpart of a male deity or tantric practitioner symbolizing the wisdom aspect of practice.


Five adornments of a female deity. 1. ད'9ན1 head-dress 2. 3ན'3ན1 earrings 3. མ3ལ'5ན1 necklace 4. ག་བ། bracelets 5.3'རགས1 belt.


One hundred and eight topics of the Perfection of Wisdom text. 1-53. ན་ནས"?ན་མངས་གས་་འལ་^ང་ང-གམ། fifty-three topics of the ever afflicted phenomena (see kun-nas nyon-mongs phyogs-kyi 'grel-rkang nga-gsum) 54-108. མ་ 3ང་གས་་འལ-^1ང'^བཅ་5་ང་| fifty-five topics of the purified phenomena (see rnam-byang phyogs-kyi 'grel-rkang nga-lnga). /

^མ'§ས་འ|ང་པ^ས་གམ། \

The large, medium and short Wisdom Perfection sutras (prajnaparamita sUtra). 1. འབམ1 The One Hundred

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Thousand Verse (satasahasrika) 2. 9 HI The Twenty Thousand Verse (virhSatisahasrika) 3. བ$ད་^ང པ| The Eight Thousand Verse (Astasahasarika).


Objective clear light; the emptiness.

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Five determining mental factors; five determinants. 1. འ5% པ| chanda/ aspiration 2. མས་པ། adhimoksa/belief 3. དན་པ། smrti/ mindfulness 4. ང'འ1ན། samadhi/ concentration 5.


ཤས་རབ། prajna/wisdom. ^འ1'ཅན'3'འད'གསའ1།

Subjective clear light; the wisdom cognizing emptiness in tantra.


Three object-perceivers; three object possessors. A. 1. ། sabda/ sound 2. SI manas/ awareness 3. ^ས་བ! purusa/ person. B. 1. ག1གས| rupa/ form 2. ཤས་པ| jnana/

consciousness 3. 3|ན མན འ ད[ viprayukta sarhskara/ those that are neither.


Visaya visayin/ Object and object-perceiver; object and subject.


Six types of objects. 1. གགས| rupa/ form 2. f sabda/ sound 3. %\ gandha/ odors 4. ར| rasa/ tastes 5. རག་། \ sparsa/ object of touch 6. ཆས! dharma/ phenomena


The six cities of central India; six cities in ancient India connected to Buddhist culture. 1. 3ལ་་ཁབ། Rajagrfia 2. «་ངས-པ-ཅན། Vaisali 3. མ^ན་ཡད། Sravasti 4. ^མ་བཀ། Campaka5.W^| Saketa6.^'^'^| Vaiahasi.

Four types of objects. 1. ་^ང་ཡལ! apparent object 2. གཟང་ ཡལ། apprehended object 3. འག་ཡལ། focussed object 4. ^ཞན་ཡལ! implied object.


Two-fold division of objects; two-fold divisions of all phenomena. A. རང་མཚན་དང|'མཚན། Self characterized and generally characterized phenomena B. མངན་རདང^ག་ར! Manifest and hidden phenomena C. འདས་ས་འས་མ་ས། Compositional and non-compositional phenomena D. དགག' པ་དང་བ་པ། Negative and affirmative phenomena E. འགལ' བ་དང་འབ^ལ་བ། Contradictory and non-contradictory phenomena F. ^ང་བ་དངསལ་བ། Apparent and excluding

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phenomena G. ་|''བ,ག General.and particular phenomena H. ཛས་ས་དང་ག་ས། Substantial and opposite phenomena I.

མཚན'9ད'དངམན'། definition and defined phenomena J. ན་£བ'དང'དན'དམ། conventional and ultimate phenomena.


Jnana dakini/ The wisdom dakini; the primordial wisdom dakini. A. The transworldly female Bodhisattvas. B. Vajra Yogini.


Jnana bindu/ The primordial wisdom drop. The indestructible drop within the heart center in the central energy channel.


Jnana vajra/ The primordial wisdom vajra and bell. The inner method and wisdom, i.e. the great bliss and emptiness, symbolized by the nine-spoked vajra and bell.


The primordial wisdom appearance; the primordial wisdom vision. The vision of everything seen as totally pure.


Jnana caksu/ The primordial wisdom eye; the wisdom eye; the divine look. In its highest sense it is the ability to see everything that exists.


Jnana mudra/ The primordial wisdom mudra. The wisdom of non-dual profundity and clarity.


Jnana sarhbhara/ Collection of wisdom; accumulation of

insight. The virtuous energy conjoined with the mind of enlightenment and wisdom understanding emptiness that is a

cause for producing the resultant wisdom-body of the Buddha.


Jnana maya/ The illusory body of wisdom. The inconceivable activities of all Tathagatas; the emanation of their wisdom projected in action.


Panca jnanani/ The five wisdoms of a Buddha. 1. མ་ལང་'

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བའ་ཡ་ཤས། adarsa jnanam/ mirror-like wisdom 2. སར་ ^གས་-^་ས། pratyaveksana jnanam/ wisdom of

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discrimination 3. མ^མ་^ད་ཡ་ཤས། samata jnanam/ wisdom of equality 4. ་བ་ཡ་ཤས! krtyanusthana jnanam/ wisdom of accomplishment 5. dharmadhatu jnanam/ wisdom of reality.


Jnanakaya/ Wisdom truth body; the omniscient mind of a Buddha.


Jnanasattva/ Wisdom being. The actual meditational deity that is meditated upon or visualized; a generation stage practice of meditation in tantra in which a wisdom being is meditated at the heart of one's pledge being (dam-tshig-pa) seated on a sun and moon cushion.


Twelve ritual articles of a Yogi. 1. ད ར་§ལ'ག?ས| vajra and belll^SI small hand drum 3. ཐད'པ1 skull cup 4. f-?'V\ staff 5. རས'3ན| bone ornaments 6. རན'ན'བ3ད! eight jewel ornaments (see rin-po che'i rgyan-brgyad) 7. གཅ;ག'?ར'ག'ག། hair knot at crown 8. དགང'|གས| ritual 1^9.བམ་པ། vase 10.3ང'བ| rosary 11.3ག'2་གས'ཤམ'

ཐབས! a tiger-skin garment 12. ^ད་གཡག་ད་གཡག upper and lower garment.


Thirteen articles of a monk (see 'tsho-ba'i yo-byad bcu-gsum).



Six articles of a monk; six basic articles of a monkhood. 1-3. ས་གས་མ་གསམ། the three Dharma robes—two upper and one lower garment 4. ངབཟད། begging bowl 5. ' ཚགས། water strainer 6. གདངབ། cushion.


"N5 CV CV •v' CV

Two thoroughly established phenomena. 1. ན་ཅ་མ་ལག་པའ་ ཡངས་་3བ1 correct thoroughly established phenomena 2. འ3ར་ད'ཡངས'5བ1 unchangeable thoroughly established phenomena.


Two types of tutors. 1. ་ཡངས་འ^ན། the external tutor 2. ནང་་ཡངས་འ1ན། the internal tutor.


Four total purities; the four features to be meditated in their pure entities for cultivating higher tantric practices connected to a deity-practice. 1. གནས! adhisthana/ environment 2. ལས| kaya/body3.^'ip upakarana/riches 4. མཛད་ པ། karya/deeds.


Six thorough investigations. That of: 1. དན། artha/ meaning 2.དངས་། bhava/existence/things 3. མཚན'?ད། laksna/ characteristics 4.3གས| paksa/ directions 5. ས། kala/time 6.རགས་པ| nyaya/་ logic.


Existence; synonymous with objects of knowledge. <ས་ན་<£བ།

Water-bowl offering; offering of waters to the objects of refuge.


Twelve sets of a hundred qualities; qualities attained by a Bodhisttva on the first ground, i.e. on the path of seeing. 1. ས་^ད་ཅག་མ་གཅག་ལ'སངས་$ས་བ9་ཞལ་མཐང་བ། seeing a hundred Buddhas in a single instant 2. སངས་^་ས' བ^་ན་ས་བ&བ་པརས་པ། knowing that he is being blessed and inspired by a hundred Buddhas 3. §ལ་པ་བ5' འ9"ད'པ1 sending a hundred emanations 4. ་^ས་^ད་^ག་མ' ག3ག་ལ་བ^ལབབ$ར§ན'པ། travelling to a hundred Buddha fields in a single instant 5. ན་དང་་མ་མཐའ་བ^་ལ་ཡ་ ས་་གཟགས་པ་འག་པ། seeing the past and future rebirths over a hundred aeons 6. ང་ང་འ£ན་བ$་ལ་|མས་པར'འ|ག་ཅང ་^ང་བ། remaining absorbed and rising in a hundred concentrations in one instant 7. མས་ཅན་བ$་་|ན་པར་§ད་པ། maturing a hundred disciples 9. ངཁམས་བ^་གཡ་བར་ད་ པ| shaking a hundred Buddha fields 10. ང་ཁམས་བ^་ད་ ས་གསལ་བར་ད་པ། illuminating a hundred Buddha fields 11. ས་་ ^་་བ^་འད་པ། opening a hundred entrances to dharma 12. རང་ག་ལས་བ3ར་§ན་པ། ལས་རར་^ངའར་ན་སམ་ གས་པ-བ^ས'པ§རབར^ན་པ། manifesting a hundred physical forms, each of which are surrounded by a hundred Bodhisattva disciples.

Panca gunah/ Five qualities; A. As asserted by the Vaisesika

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school of philosophy. 1. ་ནམ་མཁའ་ཡན་^ན། sound as the


quality of space 2. 'སའ'ཡན་་7ན1 smell as the quality of

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earth 3. ར'འ'ཡན'*?ན! taste as the quality of water 4. རག་

་§ང་་ཡན་་7ན། sensation as the quality of wind 5. ཁ'ག'

མའ'ཡན"7ན། color as the quality of wind. B. According to

the Nyingma tradition—the five qualities of a Buddha are: 1. ^མ་པར-དག་པ་^ང་།བམས། a pure Buddha field 2< 3་ཆད་


བལ་བའ་ཞལ་^ས་ཁང་། an inconceivable celestial mansion 3. གསལ-ང་དག-པ-ད-ཟར། a clear and luminous light 4. 0ད་པར་་འཔགས་པ་གདན་|། a su51ime tnrone 5 དས་

'V' CV -V*

^ར་^པ^ལངས^ད། inexhaustible resources.


Gunaprabha/ Acarya Gunaprabha. A disciple of Acarya Vasu-bandhu famous for his scholarship in Vinaya teachings. His works include the Root Sutra of Vinaya and Treatise on the Bodhisattva Levels..


The fortune summoning ritual. The ritual of invoking wealth deities such as Vaisravana, Zambala or GaneS for affluent resources.


Yazang Kagyud Order. One of the sub-sects of the Kagyud order of Tibetan Buddhism originally founded by Drogon Phagmo Drupa's disciple Kalden Yeshi Senge; the main monastery of this tradition in Tibet was built in the upper region of Yalung valley by Yazang Chokyi Moniam.


Satha7 Deceit; cunning. Ambitious attitude similar to pretention, trying to gain advantage by hiding one's faults from others; a form of dishonesty.

Rakta/Blood. རགས་པ་ར་^་།

Twenty-five gross objects. 1-5. པངཔ་་^་། five aggregates


(see phung-po lnga) 6-9. ཁམས་བཞ། four elements (see khmas-bzhi) 10-15. |'མཆད'§ག six sources of perception (see dbang-po drug) 16-20. ཡལ'^'1 five objects (see yul-lnga) 21-25. ག་ས་་ཡཤས་^་། five basic wisdoms (see gzhi-dus-kyi ye-shes-lnga).


Self-sufficiently existent independent self. An independent self as asserted by the lower schools of Buddhist philosophy.


Svalaksanasiddha/ Existence by its own nature or character-

istics. The assertion that phenomena exist not as mere objects of conceptual labelling but in their own right.


Svalaksana sunyataV Emptiness of own characteristics; lack of true independent existence of the characteristics or marks of all conventional things, of all paths to enlightenment and of all qualities of an enlightened being; one of the sixteen emptinesses.


Concentration on self-basis/ deity. A tantric practice of self-generation through meditation on the emptiness deity, letter deity, form deity, seal deity and sign deity, while simultaneously reciting and counting mantras.


Self-liberation. A rDzogs-chen meditation technique of naturally releasing all conceptual experiences into the sphere of self-arisen intuitive awareness without being forced through the application of antidotes, similar to a snake's self-loosening of its coiled body.


Pratyekabuddha/ Solitary Realizer. Hinayana practitioner who works only for his own liberation from cyclic existence, and who does not rely on a teacher during the last phase of his rebirth; some teach Dharma by means of physical gestures and some by means of miracles; a Solitary Realizer's path is very similar to that of a Hearer (nyan-thos).


Pratyekabuddha yana/ The Solitary Realizer vehicle; the path of Pratekyabuddhas. The paths are similar to that of a Hearer (Sravaka); asserts the selflessness of a person and meditates

on the twelve links of interdependent origination, and attains the state of aFoe-destroyer (Arhatship).


Panca pratyekabuddha margah/ The five paths of the Solitary Realizer's vehicle. The path of accumulation, preparation, seeing, meditation and no-more learning of this vehicle.


The three types of Solitary Realizers; the three categories of Pratekya Buddhas who have not transcended the Sravaka's path before. 1. བ་ར་་་རང་སངས་$ས། the Rhinoceroslike solitary realizer 2. གས་|ད་་རང་སངས་^ས། the sociable solitary realizer 3. |ན་གས་་རང་སངས་§ས། the solitary realizer of the stream-winner.


Svatantrika School. A school of Madhyamika, who assert the lack of true existence of all phenomena and specifically that of functional phenomena, even nominally; but assert inherent existence. The name of the school is derived from their assertion that, in dependence upon a correct reason (established inherently by its inherent characteristics), the view of true existence can be severed in the mind of correct opponent.


Non-Buddhist by nature. Those who assert and are naturally attracted to views describing Buddha as wrong. There are two types: 1. non-Buddhist by birth 2. non-Buddhist by learning.


Objective existence; existence from its own-side. True and independent existence established only in reference to the thing itself.

SvaSunyata/ Self-emptiness. The middle view of the emptiness of self; reality that all phenomena are empty of inherent existence.



Svarthanumana/ Inference for self, e.g. an inference generated for one's own understanding, e.g. impermanence through logical reasons.


Svayambhu vijnana/ Self-born wisdom; spontaneously arisen wisdom in the mental continuum of all sentient beings.


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Five personal endowments. 1. མར་་^ས་པ! born as a human being 2. ཡལ་དབས་་་བ། born in a central land (a Buddhist country) 3. དབང་པ་ཚང་བ། possessing complete sensory faculties 4. སངས་^ས་བ་^ན་པ་དད་པ། • having faith in the teachings of Buddha 5. ལས་་མཐའ་མ་ལག་པ། not being subject to extremely wrong deeds.


Svalaksana/ Self-characterized phenomena. A phenomenon which is established from its own side without being labelled by thought, e.g. a vase.


The naturally obscure phenomena. Those phenomena that cannot be seen directly by sight, e.g. spirits or demons.


Misdeed by nature; improbity by nature. Such as the transgression of moral values through killing, lying, etc.,

which are unwholesome by nature and not specifically prohibited by Buddha.


Svabhavasiddha/ Inherent existence. Self existent without being dependent on causes and conditions.


Svabhava samyaghetu/ Correct reason of (the same) nature. A correct reason which has the same nature as the predicate in a logical syllogism. There are two types: 1. [^ད་པར་ས་པ་པའ་ རང'བན''གས'ཡང'དག direct correct reason of the same nature 2. །^་པར་དག་པ་་རང་བན་་གས་ཡང་དག indirect correct reason of the same nature.


Fundamental principal by nature. The threefold principle of motility, darkness and lightness existing in a state of equilibrium; philosophical view of the Sathkhya school of thought.


PrakrtisUnyata/ Emptiness of nature; natural emptiness. Lack of inherent existence of the nature of all phenomena; one of the sixteen emptinesses.


Naturally abiding Buddha nature; natural Buddha lineage. The reality of a stained mind that is liable to transform into the nature truth body of a Buddha.


SvabhavaviSuddhabhUta svabhavakaya/ Intrinsically pure nature body (of Buddha); i.e. the emptiness of the Buddha's mental continuum.


Svabhavasahajasiddha/ The natural spontaneity. A. The existence of phenomena independent of effort B. According to rDzogs-chen meditation this refers to the primordial quality of mind inherently possessed within the three kayas of a Buddha


Svasarhvedana/ Apperception; self-awareness. A non-conceptual awareness which only apprehends internal phenomena je. a consciousness.


Svasariivedana pratyaksa/ Direct appreception; direct self-awareness. A direct perception that is devoid of conceptualization and oniy takes aspects of awareness as its object.


Self-evident direct perception. A valid cognition that cognizes itself as being a valid perception, e.g. a valid cognition of a person who has the knowledge of valid perceptions.


Pratyekabuddha/ Solitary Realizer (see rang-rgyal). རཔ་གནས།

Pratistha/ Consecration. Blessing representation of Buddha, Dharma and Sarigha through a ceremony and transforming them into sacred religious articles.


Pravrajya/ A. Monks and nuns; fully ordained monks or nuns; probationary nuns and novice monks and nuns. B. Sexantry; a cycle of sixty years in the Tibetan caiendar commencing from

the year 1027, as introduced by Gyijo Dawe Ozer after the translation of the Kalacakra tantra in Tibet.


Five types of ordination vows; five kinds of vows. 1-2. དག་ ལ་པ་མའ་^མ་པ། sramanera Sramanerika/ novice monk and nun's vows 3. དག་^བ་མའ་^མ་པ། siksamana/ probationary nun's vows 4-5. ད་§ངཔ་མ་§མ་པ། Bhiksu bhiksuni/ fully ordained monk and nun's vows.


Four articles of a monk; belongings of a monk categorized into four sets: 1. འ་བ་ཡ་ད། jivitopakarana' articles of livelihood 2. མ་བ་^་ད། basic necessities 3. ག་པ་ཡ་ ད། supplementary articles 4. ཡ་ད་པ^ན་^གས། minor articles.


Chapter, a textual division. Also a treatise written by Acarya Vasubandhu.


Taimiracaksuvijnana/ Blurred vision; the visual consciousness of someone with a cataract.



Nine mountains; nine mountains according to the Abhidharma tradition. 1. རརབ་ན་། sumeru/ Mt. Meru 2-8. གསར་་


ར'བན། the seven golden mountains 9. ར་ཡག་ག་ར། the encircling iron mountains.


Parvatopamacittotpada/ Mountain-like bodhicitta. The mind ofent ightenment associated with the practice of the perfection

of concentration possessed by a Bodhisattva on the fifth ground.

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Sasavisana/ Rabbit's horn. A popular example illustrating non-existence.



Meru/ Mt. Meru; Sumeru; the king of mountains; central axis of Buddhist cosmology. Founded on a base of gold, the east of which is made of shiny white silver, south of blue lapiz lazuli, west of red crystal and north of yellow gold.


Asta sarhgharatna gunah/ Eight qualities of the Sangha Jewel; the Sangha's qualities of wisdom and liberation. 1. ^་་བ་ མ^ན་པའ་ཡན་^ན! quality of knowing what is reality 2. ^ད^མ^ན་པ་ཡན་^ན། quaiity 0f knowing whatever

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exists (conventionality) 3. རང་རག་པའ་^ན་་ཏན། quality of


knowing inner features 4. རག་པའ་ཡན་་^ན། quality of knowledge itself 5. ཆགས་བ་ལས་ལ་བ་ཡན་^ན། quality of liberation from alluring delusions 6. ཐགས་བ་ལས་ལ་

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བའ་ཡན་་རན། quality of liberation from obstructive delusions 7. དམན་བ་ལས་ལ་བ་ཡན་^ན། quality of liberation

«*' CV -V

from lower delusions 8. ལ་བའ་ཡན་^ན། quality of liberation itself.


Vidya mantra/ The knowledge mantra. The mantras primarily meant for establishing the wisdom aspect of realizations and divine activities. In a more generalized sense this comprises the female form of deities, her mantras, mudras, etc.


Inseparability of awareness and emptiness; the oneness of mind and emptiness.


Ten fields of study; ten knowledges; ten sciences (see rig-gnas chung-ba lnga & rig-gnas che-ba lnga).


Eighteen sciences. A. According to the Abhidharma tradition these are: 1. ལ་མ། music 2. འ§ག་འཐབ། amorous skills 3. འ་ཆས། ས་&ས། house-keeping 4. ངས་ཅན། mathematics 5.། grammar 6. གས་བ། medicine 7. ས་ལགས། theology 8.བ-ཟ'| arts and crafts 9. འང|ད། archery 10. ག^ན་ག logic 11. *}ན'|ར། pharmacology 12. རང་་བཅས་པ། self-discipline 13. ཐས་པ་་་ན་པ! contemplation 14. ་^ར་མ་ དཔད| astronomy 15. §ས། astrology 16. ག་འ་བལ། magic 17.ན'རབས། historv 18. S^'S^'^^'^I legends. B.


according to the Vinaya tradition these are: 1. སངས་གས་་^་ 3ད་། 2.་ག་བ'མ| 3. ག^ན་གས་རག་^། 4.རག་ད། 5. བད'|ད། 6. ་ངས'པར་|ར་བ། 7.ས་གསལ། 8.ངས'པ'ག 9. §|བ་|ར་མཁས་པ། 10. ^ར་མ་རག་པ། 11.གས་ད་་ རག'པ| 12.ར'ང་ག་རག་པ| 13. ཆར་|ད་་རག་པ། 14. འ^ན-^ངཔན-པ-་རག-པ། 15.་3ག་པ་རག་པ། 16.5ད་ §ག'ཅ་པ| 17.[§ར'ད''རག'པ། 18.གནས་འག'པ་རག'པ1


Five minor sciences; five minor fields of study. 1. ་^ན་ངག kavya/ poetry 2. མངན་བ£ད། abhidhana/ synonyms 3. ^བ་

■V* CV

|ར། chanda/ lexicography 4. ་^ར་-^ས། jyotisa/ astro-science 5. ས་གར། nataka/ dance and drama.


Five major sciences; five major fields of study. 1. བཟ་རག་པ།

silpa/ arts and crafts 2. གས་བ་རག་པ། cikitsa/ medicine 3. ་ རག་པ། Sabdavidya/grammar 4. ག^ན་གས་ག་པ། hetu/

■V* cv

logic 5. ནངདན་རག་པ། adhyatma/ philosophy.


Vidya/ A. Knowledge. B. Awareness. C. Wisdom. D. Intelligence. E. Science of learning.


The set of discourses of a knowledge-bearer; Mantrayana vehicle. An antidote against all the three delusions (see du-gsum) in an balanced manner.


Three types of knowledge; three clairvoyances possessed by a person on the path of no-more learning. 1. ན་་གནས་སམ་

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ན་་མཐའ་རག་པ། knowledge of beginninglessness 2. འཆ་ འཔ-བ་དང|་བའམ་་མ་མཐའ་ག་པ། knowledge of

endlessness 3. ཟག་པ་ཟད་པ་ག་པ། knowledge of the exhaustion of contamination.


Naiyayika/ Logicians. Proponents of non-Buddhist tenets who follow Brahma Aksapada in asserting that all objects of knowledge are included in six categories (see tshig-don drug). This school is known by the name 'logician,' because they follow the logical system taught by their teacher Aksapada. The general presentation of their tenets are basically the same as those asserted by the Vaisesika (particularist) school of Hindu philosophy.


Seven lords of knowledge. 1. རབ་་^བ་པ། Susiddhi 2. དབ་ 3ན'3'གམ་པ། Mauli 3. བཛ'་ཀ་ལ་ཀ Vajrakilika 4. རན'

ན་ཀ་ལ་ཀ། Ratnalalika 5. གགས་ལགས། Surupa6.^' ཐག Vajrahindu7.^'£'^I Vajralalita.


The five initiations of the knowledge-bearer. The five initiations that are gateways to enter performance tantra (kriya tantra). 1. ་^ང་ གསད་་ཡ་དབང། the water initiation to extinguish the fire of hatred-anger 2. ང་^ལ་ར་བ^ལ་དབ^་ན་ དབང། the crown initiation to demolish the mountain of pride 3. འདད་ཆགས་ག་འ་=མས་ད་་དབང་། the vajrainitiation to pacify the poison of desire-attachment 4. ■་ག་དག་་^གས་ ལ་ལ་་དབང། the bell initiation to release the chain of jealousy 5. ག་མག་མན་ལ་ང་་དབང། the name initiation to quell the darkness of ignorance.


The four initiations of intuitive awareness. The four initiations that are the gateway to enter into rDzogs-chen meditation practice. 1. |ས་བཅས་མ་པ་དབང་། the vase initiation with elaboration 2. |ས་ད་གསང་བ་དབང་། the secret initiation without elaboration 3. ན་་^ས་ད་ས་རབ་ཡ་

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ཤས་3་དབང་| the primordial-wisdom initiation that is without extreme elaboration 4. རབ་་§ས་ད་ག་་དབང། the word initiation that is extraordinarily supreme without elaboration.


Catur vedah/ Four Vedas; four ancient sciences of Hindu religion. 1. ་་^ན་ངག sama veda/ science of poetry 2. ད་ས^ང། atharva veda/ science of administration 3. མཆད་|ན། yajur veda/ science of sacrifice 4. ངས་བ1ད། rg veda/ science of aphorisms.

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The Vidyadhara's doctrine; set of teachings concerning tantra.


The symbolic lineage of Vidyadharas. A guru lineage within the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism responsible for the transmission of rDzogs-chen meditation through bare introduction by a master.


The four types of Vidyadharas; the four knowledge-holders. According to Nyingma tradition these are the stages of attaining the wisdom knowledge from the path of a trainee to the path of no-more learning. 1. མ་ན་རག་འ^ན། the fully ripened vidyadhara 2. ་དབང་རག་འ^ན། the immortal-life vidyadhara 3. ག་ཆན་རག་འ^ན། the mahamudra vidyadhara 4. ན་5བ་རག་འ^ན1 the spontaneously arisen vidyadhara


Blessed sons and daughters; the customary way in which Buddha addressed his disciples.


Bodhisattva of definite lineage or family. Bodhisattvas who follow and enter the Mahayana path from the beginning without first entering the Hearer or Solitary realizer paths.


The four types of followers; disciples of the four families. 1. ^ན་ཐས་་རགས་ཅན། those belonging to the Hearer's family 2. རང་-5)ལ་་གས་ཅན། those belonging to the Solitary realizer's family 3. ཐག་ཆན་་རགས་ཅན། those belonging to the Greater Vehicle's family 4. མ་ས་པ་གས་ཅན། those belonging to an indefinite family.


The three types of followers; disciples of three families (see above 1-3).


Sounds expressing class or category, e.g. the expression 'object of knowledge'.


Kularhkula/ One born from family to family, e.g. a god taking rebirth again as a god.


Two types of objects of negation by reason. 1. ན་ཅ་ལག་ག་ . ་^་བ། wrong view 2.'ར་འ£ན་པ་་བ། the thought grasping at it.

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Categorical generality, e.g. a vase as compared to a golden vase.


Collection of six treatises; six treatises on the Middle Way by Nagarjuna. 1. དབ་མ་ཅ"བ་ཤས་རབ། The Fundamental Treatise on the Middle Way (Mulaprajna) 2. རན་ཆན་^ངབ། The Precious Garland (Ratrravali) 3. རགས་པ་ག་ཅ་པ། The Sixty Verses of Reasoning (Yuktisastika) 4. ་1ང་?ད'བན'ཅ'པ། The Seventy Verses on Emptiness (Sunytasaptati) 5. ཅ"ད་བ^ག

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The Refutation of Wrong Views (Vigrahavyavartani) 6. ཞབ་མ་ མ་འཐག The Thorough Investigation (Vaidalyasutra).


Four castes of Hindu society. 1. བ^མ་ཟ་གས། priest caste


2.9ལ'རགས1 warrior or royal caste 3. £་རགས1 merchant caste 4. དམངས་རགས། laborer or working caste.


The disciples of the three families; A. According to tantra: 1.

་བན་གགས་པ་རགས། Tathagata family 2. ད་འ་^ རགས། Vajra family 3. པད་མ་རགས། Padma family. B. The three types of disciples (see rigs-can gsum).


The lords of the three families; in accordance with the Kriya tantra tradition: 1. འ£མ་དཔལ་དངས། Manjusri, lord of

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wisdom 2. 3ག་ན་ད་£། Vajrapahi, the lord of might and power 3. |ན་རས'ག1གས། Avalokitesvara, the lord of compassion.


The ground of the three vajra families. The entity of Buddha's body, speech and mind according to action tantra (carya), represented by Buddha Vairocana, Amitabha and Vajra Aksobhya respectively.


Distant lineage of instruction. The texual lineage of the Nyingma tantras received by master Ma-Rinchen Chog and Nyag Janan Kumara from the great pandita Vimalamitra, who came to Tibet during the reign of King Trisong Deutsan. This transmission was wide spread in Tibet during the later period of propagation.


Sarira/ Relic pills. Tiny grain-like pills, sacred writings or physical remains of a saint or holy master, preserved at their cremation ground. Such relics are preserved in tombs and amulet boxes as objects of devotion and protection. There are three types: 1. གངས་་རངབལ། relics of sacred writing 2. ད-བ!དངཔག་སན་སགས་་ངབ^ལ། relics of bodily parts such as hairs, nails, etc. 3. འ^ལ་གངག་ངབ^ལ། multiplied relics (see 'phel-gdung). 1. ས་^་ང་བལ། relics of

dharmakaya 2. f བལ་་རང་བལ! relics of physical parts 3. !!་ག5ང་ག་རང་བ^ལ! relics of the cremated body.


The Treasure of Precious Collection. The collection of teachings and works of hundreds of treasure masters of the Nyingma tradition systematized into a set of collected works as compiled by the great master Kongtrul Yonten Gyatso comprising sixty-two volumes.


A. Seven precious royal emblems, (see rgyal-srid sna-bdun)

B. Seven precious stones. 1. པ^་ར/ག ruby 2. ་^་ན་ལ!

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sapphire 3. བ^! lapiz lazuli 4. མ་བ་་ད། emerald 5. ད་£་པ་ ལམ| diamond 6. མ་ག pearl 7= §'་ར1 coral. Or 1. གར| gold 2. དངལ། silver 3. ད་ཤལ། crystal 4. ^ག spurg (karketana?) 5. མ་ག་དམར། red pearl 6. ད1ང་། emerald.


Asta ratnalarhkarah/ Eight jewel ornaments; eight adornments of a deity. 1. ད'3ན། mukuta/ crown 2. ^ན་་^ན། karnika/ earrings 3. མ^ལ་^་ན། kanthabharana/ necklace 4. ག་གབ། cudi/ bracelets 5. ཞབས་གབ། payala/ anklets 6. ་་། a jewel sash worn across one shoulder hanging to the level of the navel 7. ད་ཤལ། a jewel sash worn across both shoulders hanging to the level of the thighs 8. འག་པགས། a jewel net sash worn as a girdle.


Ratnakaropamacittotpada/ Jewel source-like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the perfection of morality possessed by a Bodhisattva on the second of the ten grounds.


Four pledges concerning Ratnasambhava Buddha. 1. ཟང་ཟ་ང་ ག་|ན་པ། giving material help 2. ་འ1གས་པ་|ན་པ།

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giving protection from fear 3. ཆས་3་|ན་པ| giving teaching 4. མས་པ་|ན་པ། giving love.


Upasthana/ A. Offering of services and honoring spiritual persons and communities. B. Pujas or ritual ceremonies to pacify hinderances.


Two stages; two stages of tantric practice. 1. བ1|ད'རམ|


utpannakrama/ generation stage 2. ཛགས་རམ། sarhpanna-kramai completion stage. Or 1. |་ལས| illusory body 2. འད' གསལ། clear light.


Karakmi/ Monk's water pot; this is now sybolized by a bag tied to their sash that hangs in their lap.


The eight mental dregs of an unfortunate person. 1. 9ན ངས་པ་འང་བ་དམ--^ད-པ། he or she is strongly


bound by delusions 2. ན་|ད'ཤན'་ངན་པ1 is extremely bad mannered 3. འཁར^བ'ལ་ཡད་་|་བ། has no remorse about living in sarhsara 4. དད་པ་ཅང་ཟད་^ངམད་པ། has total lack of

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faith in Dharma 5. མ་དགའ་^་ག་པ་^ད་པ། commits non-virtues 6. ས་ལ་་མས་པ། has no interest in the Dharma 7. £F པ'9མས'པ1 has lost his or her vows 8. དམ'ག་འཆལ་བ| has corrupted the samaya or commitment.


Three ways to transforming a thing into an object which a

monk may use. 1. |ན་བདག་བདག་་?ད་་ས་པ་གག་པ་ རངབ| by means of considering the benefactor himself as the owner 2. ཞལ་7བ་བདག་་?ད་་་བས་ལན་་ག3ག་པ་མས་^་§་ ནས་རང་བ། by means of considering the steward himself as the

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owner 3. ཆ'གའ'1་་ནས་རང་བ། by means of ceremohial rituals and rites.


Six bone ornaments; six types of ornaments made of bone worn by a tantrika. 1. རས་པའ་མ^ལ་^ན། bone necklace 2. རས་པ་གབ་། bone bracelet 3. རས་པ་་ཆ། bone

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earrings 4. 3ས'པའ'དབ,'3ན། bone crown 5. མཆད་^ར་ ཐགས། bone wheel at the heart held by a bone bead sash across the shoulders 6. ཐལ་ཆན། daubing crematory ashes.



One who takes seven rebirths at the most to attain liberation; a stream-winner who attains liberation after seven successive births as a human or god of the desire realm.



Sat sparsah/ Six types of contact; six types of touch through association with the six faculties: ག་་འས་་ག་པ་ནས་ ཡད་་འ5ས'་རག་པའ་བར་§ག། eye, nose, ear, tongue, body and mind.


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The three types of contact. A. 1. རག་པའ་རག་པ། contact through wisdom, the uncontaminated contact 2. མ་ག་པ་

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རག'པ| contact through ignorance, the deluded contact 3. ད' ག་^ས-ཀ-མ-^ན-པ-ག-པ། contact that is neither, such as an indifferent contact. B. Three types of contact in view of the resultant feelings: 1. བ་བ་<ང་འར་་ག་པ། contact giving rise to pleasant feelings/happiness 2. ^ག་བལ་^ང

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འར'3'རག་པ། contact giving rise to unpleasant feelings/ suffering 3. བ

SparSahara/ Food of touch; nourishment through touch. The contentment or satisfaction gained through contact with a pleasant object, e.g. forgetting to feel hungry while engrossed in watching an exciting movie.


Ekadasa sparsah/ Eleven objects of touch; eleven tangible objects. 1-4. འང་བ་ས་་་རང་བ། the four elments-

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earth, water, fire and wind 5. འ^མ་པ། mrduka/ smoothness


6.-§བ'པ། kakarsa/ roughness 7. §་བ། gurutva/ heaviness 8. ཡང་བ། laghutva/ lightness 9. བ*]ས་པ། jighatsa/ hunger 10. ^མ་པ། trsaVthirst 11. ང་བ། sita/coldness.


Ekarasa/ One taste; single taste. The ultimate taste or experience of the reality of phenomena.


Twelve types of taste. 1-6. (see ro-drug) 7. ཡད་་འང་བ། appetizing 8. ཡད་་་ང་བ། non-appetizing 9. ་ག^ས་ཀ་ མ་ཡན་པ། neither appetizing nor non-appetizing 10 . '" ཅག་ད་པ། natural 11. |ར་བ་ལས་ང་བ། artificial 12. ར བ་ལས་ང་བ། transformed taste.


Sixfold transmissions of single taste; six instructions on experiencing the single taste of all phenomena. 1. མ་ག་ ལམ་འ0ར། taking conceptualization as a path 2.9ན་མངས་ ལམ་འ་ར། taking delusions as a path 3. ན་ཚ་ལམ་འ་ར། taking illness as a path 4. ་འ་ལམ་འ་^ར། taking gods and

ghosts as a path 5. §ག་བལ་ལམ་འ[ར། taking suffenngs as a path 6. འ'བ'ལམ་འ0ར། taking death as a path.


Six types of taste. 1. མངར་བ། madhura/sweet 2. §ར་བ། amla/sour 3. [་་བ། tikta/bitter 4. ^་བ། kasaya/astringent 5. ཚ་བ། katuka/hot/burning 6. ལན་ཚ་བ། lavana/salty.


Rasana/ Right channel; right energy-channel. Red in color and stands adjacent to the central energy channel, it runs from the level of the eye-brows, to some what below the navel, the specific details varying according to the lineage and practice of the tantra concerned.


Kunapa/ Corpse filled swamp; swamp of filth. One of the neighbouring hells (see nye-'khor-ba'i dmyal-ba).


Vetala/ Zombie.


Thirty-six types of taste. Six types of tastes within each of the six tastes (see ro-drug).


The eighteen arts of music. 1. གར། dance (gar-dang-bro) 2. 1 fairy dance 3. ་བ་ཆ། beating big drums 4. £་་། clay drum 5. ་པ,ན། accessory drums 6. ་ཆན་པ། big drums 7. འཁར་། bronze gongs 8. ་^ང་ད་གཅག་པ། single-stringed guitar 9. ཛ་་ཁ་གཅག་པ། one sided clay drum 10. ་3གས་་ སལ'|ལ། iron cymbal 11. འཁར་བ་སལ་ལ། bronze staff carried by monks 12. པ་་པ་ང་ད་གམ་པ། three-stringed guitar 13. ་མ་ཀ^། mu-kunda 14. ལ1ན་3་དངས་དང

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བ་^ན་པ། music accompanied by bells and cymbals 15. པག' དབ1 clapping 16. ལ་མ་] musical sounds 17. པ་^ང] guitar 18. |ང'| flue.


The vase-hke wind meditation. A tannic practice or yoga of wind meditation in which, roughly speaking, air from the bottom of one's body is drawn up and air from the upper part of the body is compressed down so as to form a vase-shape at the navel level, and then retained and released at appropriate intervals according to the instruction of the master.



Energy-wind with five-fold rays. The subtle wind that serves as the mount for the clear light mind of death.


Arrogance; superiority complex; self-aggrandizement.

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Practice; practical experience. ^ན་ངས་ག^ན་^ད་^ང་འ^ར་^་^ས།

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Aparaparyayavedaniyam karma/ Karma whose fruits will be experienced or ripened in subsequent lives.


Sakrdagamin/ Once Returner; a Hinayana path.


Karmic debt; karmic retribution.


Margapratisedhya/ Objects to be negated by the path. There


are three types: A. 1.9ན'བ| klesavarana/ obscurations to

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liberation 2. ཤས'^བ| jneyavarana/ obscurations to

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omniscience 3. ^མས་འག་ག་བ་པ། samapattyavarana/ obscurations to absorption. B. 1. ཆགས'བ| ragavarana/ obstruction through attachment 2. ཐགས་་^བ།


sapratighavarana/ obstruction through obstacles 3. དམན་བ། hinavarana/ obstruction of the lower.


Five paths. 1. གས་ལམ། sarhbhara marga/ path of accumulation 2. ་|ར་ལམ། prayoga marga/ path of preparation 3. མཐང་ལམ། darsana marga/ path of seeing 4.

མ་ལམ། bnavana marga/ path of meditation 5. ་^བ་ལམ། asaiksa marga/ path of no-more learning.


The two types of paths. A. འ1ག་ན་དང་འ1ག་ན'ལས' འདས་པ་ལམ། The worldly or transworldly path. B. ཐག་ ཆན-དང་ཐག་དམན་་ལམ། The path of higher and lower vehicles. C. ས་་དང་འཔགས་པ་ལམ། The ordinary and exalted path. D. མད་གས་ག?ས་་ལམ། The path of the sutra and tantra tradition. E. ཐབས་ས་ག^ས་ལམ། The path of method and wisdom. F. ན་ད་དང་ལ་ད''ལམ| The ripening and liberating path.


Four features of the noble truth of the path. 1. ལམ། marga/ ■ path 2. རགས་པ། nyaya/ awareness 3. བ་པ| pratipatti/ achievement 4. ངས་འན| nairyanika/ definite freedom.


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Fifteen aspects of the noble truth of the path. 1. ད་པ་པ་མད་ པ་མ་པ། aspect of lacking an agent 2. ས་པ་'ད'པའ མ་པ། aspect of lacking a knower 3. འ་བ་ད་པ་མ་པ།

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aspect of lacking transmigration 4. འལ་བ་མད་པའ་མ་པ།

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aspect of lacking discipline 5. མ/ལམ་་མ་པ། aspect of a

dream 6. 'བ$ན''མ་པ། aspect of an echo 7. ག་གཡར་ ་མ་པ། aspect of a hallucination 8. མ^ག་^་མ་པ། aspect of a mirage 9. |་མའ་མ་པ། aspect of an illusion 10. ^ན་མངས་ད་པ་མ་པ། aspect free from delusion 11. མ-པར་ང་པ་ད-པ-མ-པ། aspect of lacking purified

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phenomena 12. གས་པ་མད་པའ་མ་པ། aspect of being free from impediments 13. |ས་པ་ད་པ་མ་པ། aspect of

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being free from conceptual elaborations 14. -^མ་པ་མད་པའ་ མ'པ| aspect of being free from pride 15. ་གཡ་བ་མ་ པ| aspect of immutability.


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Seven aspects of the noble truth of the path. 1. ཆད མད་པའ མ་པ། immeasurable aspect 2. མཐའ་ག^ས་དང་མ་འས་ པའ'མ'པ། aspect of not being mingled with the two extremes 3. ཐ་་དད་པའ་མ་པ། undifferentiate aspect 4. མག'5'འ^ན'པ་ད་པའ་མ་པ། aspect of the non-

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apprehension of superiority 5. མ་པར་མ་ག་པའ་མ་པ། aspect of non-discrimination 6. གཞལ་་ད་པ་མ་པ།

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aspect of inconceivability 7. ཆགས་པ་མད་པའ་མ་པ། aspect of non-attachment.


The eight abandonments of the noble truth of the path. The abandonments to be eliminated by virtue of attaining the


noble truth of the path within the desire realm. 1. མ་རག་པ། ignorance 2. འདད་ཆགས། desire-attachment 3. ང་0། hatred-anger 4. ང་3ལ། pride 5. ཐ་མ། doubt 6. ལག་། wrong view 7. ་བ་མཆག་འ£ན། holding wrong views as superior 8. ཆ;ལ་|མས་དང་བ5ལ་གས་མག་འ£ན། holding wrong discipline and morality as superior.


Manamargopamacittotpada/ Highway-like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the limbs of

enlightenment possessed by a Bodhisattva on the tenth ground.


Madhyamamarga/ The Middle Path. A path free of the two extremes.


The Paths and Fruits. The profound and precious teachings of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. This lineage of teaching rooted in Hevajra tantra comes from Mahasiddha Virupa as transmitted to Krsna and Dombhipa, and was brought to Tibet by Drogmi Lotsawa, who then passed the transmission to Sachen Kunga Nyingpo. Then to Sonam Tzemo and Dragpa Gyaltsen and then to Sakya Pandita and then to Drogon Choegyal Phagpa. The lineage has been successfully preserved to this day by many masters of the Sakya tradition.


The open lineage of the paths and fruits. The transmission of the cycle of teachings of the paths and fruits successively passed down from the five foremost masters of the Sakya tradition to Mahasiddha BuddhaSri, then to Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo exclusive to Ngorpas—a sub-school of the Sakya tradition which came to be known as the open lineage of the paths and fruits of the Ngor sect.


The restrictive lineage of the paths and fruits. The transmission of the cycle of teachings of the paths and fruits passed down from Doring Kunpang to Tsarchen Losel Gyatso, then to Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk and Mangthoe Ludub Gyatso; is known as the restrictive lineage of the paths and fruits exclusive to Tsarpa, a sub-sect of the Sakya tradition.


Three principal aspects of the path. 1. ངས་འང་། nihsarana/ renunciation 2. ང་སམས། bodhicitta/ mind of enlightenment 3. ཡང་དག་པ་་བ། sarhyagdrsti/ right view.


Four pre-eminent qualities of the Graded Path to Enlightenment. 1. བ^ན་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་འགལ་ད་་གས་པ་


ཆ་བ| one understands that there is no contradiction in the entire teaching of the Buddha 2. གསང་རབ་མ་ལས་པ་གདམས་ ངག--འཆར-པའ-ཆ-པ། 0ne discovers that all the teachings of the Buddha are sound instructions 3. ^ལ་བའ་དགངས་པ་ བ་3ག''གས'པ''བ། one understands easily and

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unmistakenly the purpose of Buddha's teachings 4. ^ས་|ད་ ཆན་-རང་འགག-་འཔ-ཆ་བ། one wijj automatically

stop committing great negativities. ^མ་རམ་པ་^་།

The five stages of paths (see rdzogs-rim-pa lnga). འ4མ་ར་ན|

Marga prajnaparamita/ Path perfection of wisdom. The Bodhisattva yoga of the union of clam-abiding and penetrative insight meditation, aimed at attaining a resultant perfection of wisdom.


Margajnana/ Path wisdom; Knowledge of the paths. Mahayana paths within the mental continuum of a superior Bodhisattva.


Thirty-six aspects of the path wisdom; thirty-six aspects of the knowledge of the paths. 1-8. ན་འང་བན་པ་མ་པ་


བ5ད། eight aspects of the noble truth of the origin of suffering (see kun-'byung bden-pa'i rnam-pa brgyad) 9-15. ལམ'བན''མ'པ'བན! seven aspects of the noble truth of the path (see lam-bden-gyi rnam-pa bdun) 16-20. ^ག་བན' ་མ་པ'་*-".] five aspects of the noble truth of suffering (see sdug-bden-gyi rnam-pa lnga) 21-36. འགག་བན་་མ་པ་ བཅ་ག sixteen aspects of the noble truth of cesstion (see 'gog-bden-gyi rnam-pa bcu-drug).


Five limbs of the path wisdom; the five limbs of the knowledge of the paths. 1. ལམ་ས་་བ་གགས་ང་$ལ་ མངན-འ^ར-དང-བ^ལ་བ། freedom from manifest pride impeding the generation of path wisdom 2. ^ར་ལན་ཐག་ཆན་

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་རགས་སད་པ། ripening the Mahayana lineage as the principal cause 3. མཐན་5ན་ང་སམས་བ|ད་པ། generating bodhicittta as the auxiliary cause 4. ལམ་ས་་རང་བན། the nature of the path wisdom 5. ལམ་ས་་ད་ལས། the function of the path wisdom.


Eleven topics that characterize the knowledge of the paths. 1. ལམ་ཤས་་ཡན་ལག limbs of the path wisdom (see lam-shes-kyi yan-lag, above) 2. ^ན་ཐས་་ལམ་ས་པ་ལམ་ ཤས1 the path wisdom that understands the Hearer's path 3. རང་$ལ་-ལམ-ས-པ-ལམ་ས། the path wisdom that

understands the Solitary Realizer's path 4. པན་ཡན་ཅན་་ མཐངལམ། ^e beneficial Mahayana path of seeing 5. £་མ་ ལམ་་ད་པ! the function of the path of meditation 6. མས་ པ་^མ་ལམ། the Mahayana path of belief 7. བ^ད་བར བགས་གསམ་་^མ་ལམ། the Mahayana path of praise, exhortation and eulogy 8. བ་བ་^མ་ལམ། the Mahayana path of dedication 9. ས་་^་རང་^མ་ལམ། the Mahayana path of meditation of rejoicing 10. བ་པ་་^མ་ལམ། the

Mahayana path of meditation of achievement 11. མ་དག' *|མ་ལམ། (ne Mahayana path of complete purity.


Karma; law of causality. ལས་ལ་ག^ས་་ད་བ། The way karma is divided into two types: A. 1. མང་བར་ངས་པའ་ལས། karma whose fruits will definitely be experienced 2. ^ང་བར་ མ་ངས་པ་ལས། karma whose fruits will not definitely be experienced. B. 1. ད་བ་ལས། virtuous karma 2. ་དག་ བ'ལས| non-virtuous karma. C. 1. ཟག་བཅས་་ལས། contaminated karma 2. ཟག་མད་་ལས། uncontaminated karma D. 1. ^ང་་ལས། karma to be accumulated 2. ར་ ་ལས། karma to be abandoned. E. 1. མས་པ་ལས། mental activity 2. བསམ་པ་ལས། intended activities. ལས་ ལ་གམ་་ད་བ། jne way karma is divided into three types: A. འབ^ས་བ་^་ནས། According to their nature of fruition: 1. བ'བ་<ངའར་་ལས། karma giving rise to happiness 2. §ག་བལ་<ང་འར་་ལས། karma giving rise to suffering 3. བ^ང་!མས་་ལས། karma giving rise to

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indifference. B. ས་^་ནས། According to the time of their fruition: 1. མཐང་ས་<ང་འར་་ལས། karma whose fruits will be experienced in this life 2. |ས་ནས་|ང་འར་ལས། karma whose fruits will be experienced in the next life 3. ལན་ ངས་གཞན་||ངའར་་ལས། karma whose fruits will be experienced in other subsequent live.s C. ང་བའ་^་ནས། According to their nature: 1. བསད་ནམས་་ལས། virtuous karma 2. བསད་ནམས་མ་་^ན་པ་ལས། non-virtuous karma 3 ་ག་^་བ་ལས། unfluctuating karma. D. གསག་ཚལ་་^་ ནས། According to the way a karma is accumulated: 1. ས་ བསགས-ག^ས-ཀ-ཚངབ-ལས། karma which is both caused and accumulated 2. བསགས་ལ་མ་ས་པ་ལས། karma which is accumulated but not caused 3. ས་ལ་མ་པསགས་ པའ་ལས། karma which is caused but not accumulated.


Karmavarana/ Karmic obscurations; karmic negativities; obstructions arising from the actions of henious crimes that are accumulated in the past or present life.


Four features of karma; four characteristics of an action. 1. ལས་ངས་པ། karma is definite 2. ལས་འཔལ་ཆ་བ! karma multiplies greatly 3. ལས་མ་ས་པ་དང་་འ^ད་པ། karma not accumulated will not be experienced 4. ལས་ས་པ་ད' ་-ཟ་བ། karma commited will not dissipate.


Karma mudra/ A. Action seal; tantric consort; the female partner of a male tantric practitioner. A completion stage practice. B. The hand mudra symbolizing enlightened activities ('phrin-las).


Three types of karmic fruit. 1. མ'|ན''འ3ས'| fully matured fruit/ result 2. ^'མཐན^འ་^ས་བ,' results corresponding to its cause 3. བདག་་འབ^ས་བ། environmental result.


The four branches of karma. A. ག། བསམ་པ། |ར་བ། མཐར་ཐག The object, intention, actual activity and completion. B. (see las-kyi ngo-bo bzhi).



Five types of karma; five activities; five functions. 1. འདགས' པ། lifting up 2. འ་€ག་པ། putting down 3. བ5ང་པ! extending 4. བ^མ་པ། withdrawing 5. འ་བ། going.


Action vase. The ritual vase used during various religious ceremonies such in the consecration and purification of a mandala, offering articles, self-generation, abode, disciples and so on.


Liturgy; set of manuals for rituals concerning individual deities and their practice.


Three paths of activity; three mediums of activity through body, speech and mind.


Agama/ Reading transmission. A discourse in which a text is thoroughiy read to the disciples in order to transmit the oral tradition to the disciples. This then authorizes a disciple to read, contemplate and meditate on that particular cycle of teachings.


Scriptural teachings. The transmission of Buddha's teachings extant in oral and scriptural form.



Prophetic teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories that concerns prophesies given by Buddha about the past and future lives of an individual.


Citation; quotation; scriptural support. (^ང་མ་བ^ན།

Avyakrta/ Unspecified phenomena. Something Buddha has

not specified as being either virtuous or non-virtuous, e.g. a person.


Caturdasavyakrta mulani/ Fourteen unspecified views; Concerning: 1. འ1ག་ན་ག་པ། Sasvato loka/ a permanent world 2. འ^ག་ན་མ་ག་པ། aSaSvato loka/ an impermanent world 3. འ1ག་ན་ག་3ང་ག'ལ་་ག་3ང་་ག་པ། sasvatas casvatas ca/ a world which is both permanent and impermanent 4. འ1ག་ན་མཐའ་ཡད་པ། antavan loka/ a world which has an end 5. འ1ག་ན་ག་པ་ཡང་མ་ཡན་་ ག་པ་ཡང་མ་ཡན། naiva Sasvato nasasvatasca/ a world

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which is neither permanent nor impermanent 6. འ^ག་ན' མཐའ་ཡད་པ་ན་པ། anantavan loka/ a world which has no end 7. འ1ག'ན་མཐའ་ཡད་'2ང་ཡད་ལ་མཐའ་ད་3ང་ད། antavanis canantavanis ca/ a world which is both with and without an end 8. འ1ག་ན་མཐའ་ཡད་པ་ཡང་མ་ཡན་ད་པ་


ཡང་མ་ཡན། naivantavan nanantavan/ a world which is neither with nor without an end 9. ་བན་གགས་པ་་ནས' ཡད1 bhavati tathagatah pararh maranat/ the existence of

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Buddha after passing away into parinirvaha 10. ད་བཞན་ གགས་བ་ནས་ད། na bhavati tathagatah pararh maranat/ the non-existence of Buddha after passing away into parinirvaha 11. ་བན་གགས་པ་་ནས་ཡད་3ང་ཡད་ལ་ད་3ང་


མད། bhavati ca na bhavati ca tathagatah pararh maranat/ a Buddha who is both existent and non-existent after passing away into parinirvaha 12. ་བན-གགས་པ་་ནས་^ད་བ ^ངམ^ན-ད-པ-«1ངམ-|་པན། naiva bhavati na na bhavati tathagatah pararhmaranat/ a Buddha who is neither existent nor non-existent after passing away into parinirvaha 13. ག་

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ད་ལས་ཡན། sajivas tac chariram/ the life-force is the body 14. ག་^ང་གཞན་ལས་་^ང་གཞན། anyo jivo 'nyac chariram/ the life-force and body are independent of each other.


Three virtues of body; three wholesome activities concerning the body. 1. ^ག་གཅད་ང་བ། not killing 2. མ་ན་པར་ལན་ པ་§ང'བ། not stealing 3. ལག་གཡམ་ངབ། not indulging in sexual misconduct.


Five essential parts of the body. 1. ་3'བ། klomaka/ lungs 2. |ང་ག hrdaya/heart3.*F^I vrkka/ kidney 4. མཆར'བ| yalqt/ spleen 5. མཆན'པ། pliha/ liver.


Five vital points of the body. 1. ་§་བ། murdhan/ crown 2. མན་པ! griva/throat 3. |ང་ག hrdaya/heart 4. ་བ། nabhi/ navel 5. གསང་གནས། secret organ.


Six hollow organs of the body. 1. $'མ། antram/ small intestine 2. ལང་ཀ། pakvaSaya/ large intestine 3. པ་བ། amaSaya/ stomach 4. མ^་མ། antraguna/ womb 5. 5།ང'པ| audariyakam/ bladder 6. མ9ས'§ད། pitta/ gall bladder.

Five limbs of the body. A. 1. དཔལ"བ། forehead 2-3. པས་མ་ ག?ས1 two knees 4-5. ལག་མཐལ་ག^ས། two palms of the hands. 6.1.མག head 2-3. ལག'པ'ག?ས། two arms 4-5. *f པ'ག*?ས| two legs.


Kayamandala/ Body mandala. The tantric practice of visualizing and identifying the entire residence and resident featmes of the deities upon different parts of one's body through meditation.


The extraordinary qualities of the body; the eight powerful attainments (see dbang-phyug brgyad, B.) common to both Buddhists and non-Buddhists attained as a result of the accomplishment of one's tantric practices.


Seven essential energies of the body; seven basic elements for the sustenance of the body. 1.13ག rakta/ blood 2. ཤ། marhsa/ flesh 3. ལ| medah/ fat 4. རས'པ1 asthi/ bone 5. ་^ང'1 majja/ marrow 6. [བ/བ། rasa/ semen and blood 7. -ཟ' བང་དངས་མ། nutrients of food and drink.


Physical ecstacy. The state of physical pliancy and flexibility gained as a result of the successful development of calm abiding meditation (samatha) enabling the physical ability to bear the hardship of higher practices.


The six excellent qualities; the six qualities exclusive to Buddha Sakyamuni. 1. དབང་^ག'པན'མ'གས'པ| excellent resources 2. གགས'པན'མ'གས'པ། excellent physical features 3. དཔལ་པན་མ་གས་པ། excellent glory 4. གས་པ་པན་མ་གས་པ། excellent fame 5. ཡ་ཤས་པན' སམ་གས་པ། excellent wisdom 6. བ£ན'འ[ས'པན'མ' གས'པ| excellent effort.


The four negativities; the four compulsive acquisitions (see nyer-len bzhi). All the one hundred and eight delusions are condensed into these four negativities.



Twelve year cycle. 1.་བ| mouse 2. aF I ox 3.3ག tiger 4.ཡས1 hare 5. ^ dragon 6. ལ། serpent 7. | horse 8.ལག sheep 9. §^I monkey loTsi bird 11. & dog 12. པག pig.


Translator; lit. the eye of the universe; one who is fluent in two languages.


Rinchen Zangpo (958-1055). The great translator during the later propagation of Buddha's teachings in Tibet. His translations are reputed for their authenticity and clarity.

Five misconceptions; five wrong ideas. Misconception concerning: 1. དགས་པ་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། object 2. ས' ལ་ལག་པར-^ག-པ། time 3. ་་ལ་ལག་པར^ག-པ། identity 4. རང-བ^ན-ལ-ལག-པར-^ག-པ། nature 5. ས་རབ་ལ་ལག་ པར་ག་པ། wisdom.


Sixteen misconceptions; sixteen wrong views. Misconception concerning: 1. དགས་པ་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། object 2. མ' པ་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། aspect 3. འ^ས་་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། fruit 4. ན་ཛབ་བན་པ་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། conventional truth 5. ན་དམ་བན་པ་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། ultimate truth 6. |ད-པ--བ'-ལ-ལག-པར^ག-པ། nature of conduct 7. |ད་ པ^ན-སངས-^ས་ལ་ལག་པར་^ག-པ། object of refuge 8. ས་ལ་ལག་པར་^ག་པ། dharma 9. ད་འན་ལ་ལག་པར་ ག་པ། Saiigha 10. ཐབས་མཁས་པ་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། skill in means 11. མན་གས་ལ་ལག་པར་ག་པ། realizations 12. !1ང་'ལ་ལག་པར'ག'པ། abandonments 13. ལམ་་ང་་ལ་

ལག་པར-་-fག་པ། nature of the path 14.3ང'ག?ན'2'མ'ད་ ལ་ལག་པར'ག'པ| distinction between objects to be abandoned and their antidotes 15. ས་མས་་མཚན་^ད་ལ'

^ it cv. CV.

ལག་པརག་པ། characteristics of phenomena 16. རང་|འ་ མཆན་^ད་ལ-ལག-པར་ག་པ། general and specific nature of phenomena.

Panca mithya^rstayah/ Five wrong views. 1. འ^ག་ཆགས་ལ་ ་བ། satkaya drsti/ view of transitory collection 2. མཐར་ འ^ན་་་བ། antagraha drsti/ view of adhering to an extreme 3. ་བ་མཆག་འ1ན། drsti paramarSa/ view holding oneself to be superior 4. <£ལ་0མས་དངབ^3གསམག་འ£ན། silavrata-paramarsa/ view holding bad ethics and discipline to be superior 5. ལག་། mithya drsti/ wrong view itself.



Mithya sarhvrtti/ Wrong conventional truth; distorted conventional truth, e.g. a rabbit with horns.


Five wrong livelihoods. Earning livelihood by means of: 1. F གསག flattery 2. གཞགས་§ང'| hinting 3. ?ད་པས་?ད་པ་ འལ'བ1 seeking reward for favor 4. ཐབ་ས་འ£ལ'བ། using force 5. ཚལ་འཆས། contrived means.



Sixteen distorted views; sixteen wrong conceptions concerning the four noble truths. Four of the noble truth of suffering: 1. ཟག་བཅས་་པང་་^ག་པར་་བ། seeing the contaminated aggregates as permanent 2. ཟག་བཅས་་པང་་བ་བར་བ།


seeing the contaminated aggregates as joyful 3. ཟག་བཅས'3' པང་པ་གཅང་བར་་བ། seeing the contaminated aggregates as pure 4. ཟག་བ3ས་་པངབདག་་་3་བ། seeing the contaminated aggregates as the self. Four of the noble truth of the

origin of suffering: 1. ^ག་བལ་་ད་་་བ། seeing sufferings as causeless 2. |་གཅག་་ནས་ས་པར་་བ། seeing sufferings as produced by a single cause 3. དབང་^ག་ སགས་་§་གཡ་བ་-|ན་5་བ15ངནས་3ས་པར་འ£ན་པ། seeing them as projected by the whim of Isvara and others 4. རང་ བན་ག་ལ་གནས་^བས་་ག་པར་-་བ། seeing them as

inherently permanent but temporarily impermanent. Four of the noble truth of cessetion: 1. ཐར་པ'ཡ་ད་་འ"1ན་པ། seeing libertion as totally non-existent 2. ཟག་བཅས་^ད་ པར་འགའ^ག་ཐར་པར-འ|ན་པ། seemg certam contaminated

features as liberation 3. ?ན་ངས་པ་0ད་པར་འགའ་ག་ ཐར་པར་འ|ན་པ། seeing certain levels of delusion as liberation 4. f ན་ངས་ལན་ཅག་^ངས་^ང་^ར་ག་པར་འ^ན་ པ། apprehending the return of delusions which have already been discarded. Four of the noble truth of the path: 1. ཐར་པ་ ཡ་མད་་འ£ན་པ། seeing the path to liberation as totally non-existent 2. བདག་ད་གས་པ་ས་རབ་ཐར་པ་མ་ཡན་ པར་འ^ན་པ། seeing that the wisdom understanding


selflessness as not a path to liberation 3. བསམ་ག^ན^་ད་ པར་འགའ^ག་ཐར་ལམ་་འ£ན་པ། seeing certain levels of concentration as the path to liberation 4. §ག་བལ་ག^ན་ཟད་ ད་པ་ལམ་ད'པར་འ་|ན-པ། seeing paths leading to total

exhaustion of sufferings as non-existent. འ3ག་ས།

Mithyajnana/ Distorted cognition; wrong perception. An awareness that apprehends its object of cognition incorrectly, e.g. the visual perception cognizing a white snow mountain as yellow. There are two types: 1. ག་པ་ལགས། kalpita/ conceptually distorted cognition 2. ག་ད་ལག་ས། akalpita/ non-conceptually distorted cognition.



Sarhbhogakaya/ Complete Enjoyment Body; Utility Body;

sanibhogakaya. A form of Buddha's appreance possessing five definite qualities (see nges-pa lnga) and are directly accessible to Arya Bodhisattvas oniy.



The five certainties of a Sarhbhogakaya Buddha (see nges-pa lnga).



The thirteen adorations of a Sarhbhogakaya Buddha. There

CV ■v*

are the five adorations made of silk: 1. དར'3'ཅད'པན། scarf crown 2. ^ད་གཡགས། upper garment 3. དར'ད$ངས། ribbons hanging over ears 4. §'རགས| belt 5. ད'ད5ས!

cv s ~V cv

lower garment; and the eight jewel ornaments: 6. རན་པ་ཆའ' ད'5.ན1 jewel head dress 7. ^ན'|ན། earring 8. མ3ལ'3ན! necklace 9. དཔ,ང'9ན། bracelets on the arms 10. ད་ཤལ་དང་


ས་མ་ད། doshal and semodo, the jewel garland hanging down to the heart level and navel respectively 11. ་3ག་ག5པ1 bracelets 12. སར་གབ། rings 13. ཞབས་གབ། anklets.


Sariibhogacakra/ Wheel of enjoyment. Channel-wheel located at the level of the throat.


Sad bhoganam apayasthanani/ Six causes of poverty; six causes of impoverishment. 1. ཆང་འཐང་བ། madya panam/

■v* -v

drinking alcohol 2. ^ན་པ་འ^་་ད་པ། dyUtam/ gambling 3. མཚན་མ་འན་པ། vikala carya/ wandering at night 4. §ག་ པ་གས་་བ^ན་པ། papamitrata/ seeking bad company 5. འས་པ་ལ་་བ། samaja darsanam/ watching social gatherings

-v -v"

6.ལ་ལ། alasyam/laziness.


Vairin/ A. Revenge; vengeance. B. Harmful spirit who seeks to revenge a past grudge.


Five types of flesh; five meats. 1. ^ང་པ་ཆའ་ཤ hastimamsa/

CV cv

elephant flesh 2. མའ་ཤ manusyamaihsa/ human flesh 3.

Cv Cv Cv

འ་ཤ asvamamsa/ horse flesh 4. 0འ་ཤ kukkuramariisa/


dog flesh 5. བ་་^ང་ག་ཤ gomaiiisa/ cow flesh. Also called the five types of big-flesh (sha-chen sna-lnga).


Pisaca/ Meat-eater, flesh-eater. A type of spirit living on meat, categorized as a hungry ghost.

Sariputra/ One of the two principal attendents of Buddha Sakyamuni known for his wisdom and intelligence.


Sakya/ Sakya tribe. Lit: the able one; name of an ancient Indian caste in which Buddha Sakyamuni was born. Hence, he is known as the king of the Sakyas.


Sakyaprabha/. An Indian pandit who was a direct disciple of AcaTya Gunaprabha. He mastered the study of monastic discipline (vinaya) and wrote the Treatise on Novice Vows (sramanerika-karika).

Sakyasribhadra/ Sakyasri Bhadra (1142-1225). A KaSmiri pandit who was instrumental in establishing monastic institutions in Tibet. He became abbot of Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen; stayed for twelve years at Radreng, Lodrag and others by working incessantly for the spread of Buddhism in Tibet.


Shangpa Kagyud Order. One of the sub-sects of the Kagyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Kherdub Khyungpo Nyaljor.


Shambala. A pure land which is the cradle of Kalacakra tantra. It was the Shambala king, Suchandra, who requested Buddha Sakyamuni to teach Kalacakra, propagated and preserved it in Shambala from where it was brought to India and later into Tibet. It is believed that in the future the twenty-five

propagators of Kalacakra will emerge from Shambala and ruli the universe in a righteous manner.


XSb$2ka& v&stf Sflmb tie?. A fores) M &£Mi tree h be/ieved to exist in a neighbouring hell realm surrounding hot

hell realms, where beings climb them and suddenly fall as the

/eaves transform into sharp swords 2nd blades.


Two pioneering lineages of Buddha's teachings. 1. $་ཆན་§ད་ བད| vaipulyacarya/ the lineage of extensive practice 2. ཟ་བ་མ་་བད། gariibhiracarya/ the lineage of the profound view.


Two pioneers of Buddha's teachings. 1. མགན་པ་^བ། Nagarjuna, the pioneer of the Middle Way philosophy 2. འཔགས-བཐགས'ད། Asariga, the pioneer of the Mind Only philosophy.


Extremely obscure phenomena. Phenomena that can oniy be established through recourse to scriptural quotation, e.g. the subtle aspects of the law of causality.


Vaipulya/ Extensive teachings. One of the twelve scriptural categories; such as different levels of the perfection of wisdom teachings concerning the ten perfections of wisdom (see phar-phyin bcu).

Pliancy; suppleness. The flexibility and pliancy of mind or body, or of both, gained through the power of calm-abiding

le meditation (samatha). A basic necessity for firm understanding of emptiness.


h Aswadat1 dene&ctm; recMm or etgressm of verses of it auspiciousness at the conclusion of a ceremony.

Shugseb Kagyud school. One of the eight sub-schools of the Phagdu Kagyud school founded by Gyergom Tsuitrim Senge in the twelfth century.


Implied meaning; indirect reference.


The seventy topics of the perfection of wisdom (see don bdun-cu).



Four types of the perfection of wisdom. 1. རང'བཞན་ཤར'3ན1 svabhava prajnaparamita/ natural or real perfection of wisdom 2. གང་ཤར་3ན1 textual perfection of wisdom 3. ལམ་ཤར


3ན། marga prajnaparamita/ path perfection of wisdom 4.

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འ3ས་་ཤར་ན| resultant perfection of wisdom.


Four vessels of the perfection of wisdom; four types of persons receiving the perfection of wisdom teachings. 1.9ན' པ་§!ད! srotabhjana/ vessel of hearing 2. ལན'པ'§ད|


adanabhajana/ receptive vessel 3. འཛན'པའ'་^ད| grahakabhajana/ beholding vessel 4. ཆ^ལ་བན་ཡད་ལ་ད་ པའ་ Sffl yoniSomanasi karabhajana/ reflective vessel.



Santana/ A. Mental continuum; mind stream. B. Characteristics; personality.


Jneyavarana/ Obscuration to omniscience. The delusions and wrong views that obstruct the attainment of omniscient mind.


Parikalpita jneyavarana/ Intellectual obstacles to omniscience; intellectually acquired obstacles to omniscience.


Obstruction to omniscience that is a conception grasping at delusions.


Obstruction to omniscience that is a conception grasping at nominal entities.


Obstruction to omniscience that is a conception grasping at purified phenomena


Jneyavarana dravyagrahaka kalpana/ Obstruction to omniscience that is a conception grasping at substantial entities.


Sahaja jneyavarana/ Innate obstruction to omniscience. ས་པ།

Jnana/ Awareness; mind: mental; consciousness, both primary

and secondary minds; clear and knowing (see blo-la gnyis-su dbye-tsul).


The ten consciousnesses; the ten awarenesses (see mdzod-las bshad-pa'i shes-pa bcu).


Basic wisdom not abiding in the extreme of cyclic existence through possessing the knowledge of selflessness


Jneya/ Objects of knowledge; knowable objects. Synonymous with existents.


The twenty-five principles; the twenty-five categories of phenomena asserted by the Samkhya school (see grangs-can-pa). 1.|ས་བ། purusa/ person 2. རང་བན། prakrti/


fundamental principle 3. SI buddhi/ intellect 4. ང་་^ལ། ahariikara/ I-principle consisting of motility (rdul), darkness (mun-pa) and lightness or courage (snying-stobs) 5. གགས། rupa/ visible forms 6. ། sabda/ sounds 7. ། gandha/ odors

~S -N

8. ར1 rasa/ tastes 9. རག་། sprastaryam/ tangible objects


10. མག caksu/ eyes 11. 'བ1 srota/ ears 12. %\ ghraha/ nose 13. §། rasana/ tongue 14. པགས་པ། sparSana/ skin 15. ཁ། vacana/mouth 16. ལག་པ། pahi/arms 17. *་ངཔ། pada/ legs 18.3བ། payu/ anus 19. མདམས། upastham/ genitalia 20.ཡད1 manas/mind 21.^1 prthivi/earth 22. ། apa/ water 23. ། tejas/fire 24. §ང་། vayu/ wind 25. ནམ་མཁའ། akaSa/ space.


The Treasure of Knowledge; the encyclopedia of Buddhism.

Commoniy known as Skes-bya kun-khyab, a very famous text by Kongtrul Yonten Gyatso (1813-1899) contain-ing ten chapters of four sections each. The book deals with every subject of Buddhist studies and meditation.


Sariiprajanya/ Mental alertness; introspection. In calm-abiding meditation it is that mental factor which watches the activity of the mind from inclining towards mental dullness or agitation during a meditation.


Sixteen moments of cognition and forbearance of the path of seeing; the sixteen aspects of the path of seeing (see mthong-lam shes-bzod skad-cig-ma bcu-drug).


Prajna/ Wisdom. Discriminative awareness that understands what is to be cultivated and what is to be abandoned.


The four qualities of wisdom. 1. ས་འཆལ་སགས་་མཐན་ གས'9མས'པ1 pacifies discordant factors such as corrupt morality 2. ས་་བདག་ད་གས་པ་མ་པར་་ག་པ། generates non-conceptual wisdom understanding the selfless-ness of phenomena 3. འདད་པ་ཛགས་པར་ད་པ། accomplishes one's wishes 4. རགས'ཅན'གམ་|ན་པར་§ད་པ། matures disciples of the three families (see rigs-can gsum).


Serial training in wisdom. Bodhisattva paths from the path of accumulation up to the moment preceeding the last instant of the "rVIahayana path, mainly engaged in the training in wisdom.

-V Cv.


Prajna dhana/ Riches of wisdom; wealth of wisdom. Abundance of wit, intellect, ingenuity, understanding, etc. One of the seven riches of a Noble Person (see 'phags-nor bdun).


Prajnaparamita/ Perfection of Wisdom. The Bodhisattva's training of wisdom, e.g. the understanding of emptiness and selflessness; one of the six perfections.


Prajnaparamitahrdya Sutra/ Heart of Wisdom; the Heart Sutra. A short perfection of wisdom sUtra chiefly consisting of a dialogue between Sariputra and Avalokitesvara on the nature of emptiness. A teaching of Buddha through his inspiration and permission.


Three types of wisdom. A. 1. ན་ཛབ་གས་པ་ས་རབ། wisdom understanding conventional phenomena 2. དན་དམ་ ^གས'པ'ས'རབ། wisdom understanding ultimate phenomena 3. མས་ཅན་དན'§ད་གས'པ་ས'རབ| wisdom understanding the welfare of sentient beings. B. 1. ^ས་པ-ལས་ངབས-རབ། wjS(jom acquired through hearing 2. བསམ་པ་ལས་ང་བས་རབ། wisdom acquired through contemplation 3. བ^མ་པ་ལས་ང་བ་ས་རབ། wisdom acquired through meditation.


Prajnajnanabhisekha/ The primordial wisdom initiation; the wisdom-knowledge initiation. A highest yoga tantra initiation, in which the mind of disciples is initiated in reliance upon the mandala of the femine consort: their mental delusions are

removed; they are empowered to carry out completion stage practice meditation and the seed to obtain the dharmakaya of mind-vajra is implanted into the mental continuum of the disciples.


Desana/ Confession; declaration. Declaration of previously committed non-virtuous actions or transgressions of vows and precepts.


College. A department within the monastery where the study of philosophical texts are the primary curriculum in contrast to the training of ritual and tantric ceremonies.


Study and practice; the study as well as practice of the teachings of a religious culture.


Five means of teachings; five ways of presenting a text in the Buddhist tradition. 1. དགས་ན! purpose 2. བ^ས་ན། summary 3. ག་དན། literal meaning 4. མཚམས་|ར། links 5. བ་^ལ་ལན། debate and discussion.


Kalyahamitropamacittotpada/ Spiritual Friend-like bodhicitta. The mind of enlightenment associated with the practice of the perfection of means, possessed by a Bodhisattva on the seventh ground.


Prthivi/ A. Earth; solid component. B. Ground; levels of realization within the mental continuum of a practitioner who has entered the path of practice following any of the three vehicles, e.g. the Bodhisattva paths on and above the path of seeing.


Five foremost masters of Sakya; the five supreme masters of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. 1. ས་ན'ན'དགའ' |ང'1 Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158) 2. 'བཅ;ན' བསད་ནམས་|་མ། Jetsun Sonam Tsemo (1142-1182) 3. ་ བཅན-གས་པ་^ལ་མཆན། j^sun Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1216)J. ས་|་པ|་*7་ན་དགའ་3ལ་མཚན། Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen (1182-1251) 5. འམགན་ས་$ལ་འཔགས་ པ། Drogon Choegyal Phagpa (1232-1280).


Seven Sakya masters of the Manjusri lineage. 1-4. (see above,

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sa-skya gong-ma lnga) 5. པ/&་ཆན་འད་པ་ཆ། Palchen Odpoche (1150-1203) 6. 3ངས་ཚ་བསད་ནམས་3ལ་མཚན| Zangtsa Sonam Gyaltsen (1184-1239) 7. འམགན་འཔགས་ པ་§་ས་3ལ'མཚན| Drogon Phagpa Lodoe Gyaltsen (1444-1495).


The Sakya Tradition; the Sakya School of Tibetan Buddhism. One of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism established by Khon Kunchok Gyalpo and disseminated by the five foremost masters of the Sakya school (see sa-skya gong-ma lnga). The fundamental teaching of Sakya is the paths and fruits cycle of teachings. This tradition has three sub-schools: Sakya, Ngorpa and Tsarpa. The head of the tradition follows a patriarchal lineage of two houses: Phuntsok Phodrang and Dolma Phodrang. Presently, it is headed by the Drolma Phodrang patriarch His Holiness Ngawang Kunga Theckehen PalbarTriniey Samphel Wang-gi Gyalpo (b. 1945).


Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen (1182-1251). One of the five supreme masters and the sixth patriarch of the Sakya hierarchy of Tibetan buddhism; famous for his mastery of the ten sciences (see rig-gnas bcu) and for creating the early Mongolian script. His works such as the Elegant Sayings (sa-skya legs-bshad), Distinction Between the Three Vows (sdom-gsum rab-dbye) and Entering Into the Gate of the Wise One's (mkhas-pa-la 'jug-pa'i sgo) are some of the renowned works.


Three cycles of Dakini practice in the Sakya Tradition. 1. £

་མཁའ་§ད། NaroDakinil^^'P IndraDakini 3.་5་མཁའ|ད། MaitriDakini.


Nine Grounds; the levels of attainments. 1, རགས'3'ས།


gotrabhUmi/ level of family 2. བ^ད་པའ་ས། astamakabhumi/ level of the eighth 3. མཐང་པ་ས། darsanabhumi/ level of seeing 4. ས^བ་པའ་ས། tanubhUmi/ level of discrimination 5. འདད་ཆགས་དངབ,ལ་བ་ས། vigataraga bhUmi/ level free from attachment 6. ས་པ་གས་པ་ས། krtavibhumi/ level under-

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standing deeds 7. 9ན་ཐས་་3་ས| SravakabhUmi/ level of the Hearer 8. རང་སངས་-^ས་་ས། pratyekabuddhabhumi/ level of Solitary Realizer 9. ངཔ་མས་དཔ་ས། bodhisattva-bhumi/ level of the Bodhisattva (see khams-gsum sa-dgu).


Twelve thorough trainings on the ninth ground. 1. ན་ལམ' མཐའ'«་ས'པ་འ3བ-པ། fulfilling infinite prayers 2. ་དང^' ལ་སགས་པ་འ^བ་ས་ས་^ད^-^བ-བན་་ས་པ།

knowledge of the languages of nagas, gods, and others 3. ས-^ན-པ-ལ^བས^པ-^--^ན-ར-^ད་པར་འག་པ།

having inexhaustible confidence to teach Dharma like a flowing river 4. མངལ་་འ|ག་པ་|ན་པ་£་3མས་ཅད་་བགས་ པ་^མ་མས་སའག་པ། at rebirth he enters only into the womb of a respectable woman 5. རགས་པན་མ་གས་པ། of an excellent family 6. རས་པན་མ་གས་པ། of an excellent clan 7. 'འ3ང་པན'མ་གས་པ། of an excellent caste 8. འར་པན་མ་གས་པ། with an excellent retinue 9. ་བ' པན་མ་གས་པ། taking an excellent birth 10. ངས་པར་ འང་བ-པན-སམ-གས་པ། renouncing household life 11. ང་བ་་ང་ང་་འཚང་^་བ། gaining enlightenment under the Bodhi tee 12. ཡན"རན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡངས་་གས་ པ! accomplishing ail virtuous qualities.


Eight thorough trainings on the eighth ground. 1. མས་ཅན་ ཐམས-ཅད''མསས-པ། knowledge of the thoughts of all sentient beings 2. སངས་9ས་གང་ན་བ3གས་པ་འ1ག་ན་་ ཁམས་ས་པ། knowledge of the places where Buddha resides 3. སངས་£་ས་་ང་བ་པ། establishing Buddha-fields 4. ས་མས་་རང་བཞན་^་་བ་བན་གས་པས' སངས་3ས་མ?ས་པ1 pleasing the Buddhas with one's correct understanding of the reality of all phenomena 5. སམས་ཅན་ མས--ཁམས-དངདབང-སགས-མ|ན-པ། knowledge of the different faculties of sentient beings 6. སངས་^ས་་ང གང-འ1བ'བ-མས-ཅན^མས--ད-|ངབ། purifying

the continuum of sentient beings in those directions where Buddha-fields will be established 7. ང་མས་་|ད་པ་ ཐམས་ཅད་^་མ་་བ་ང་ང་འ^ན་ལ་གནས་ནས་ད་པ།

performing the deeds of Bodhisattvas while abiding in an illusion like concentration 8. མས་ཅན་་དན་མས་བན་ 'ད'པ'ལན'པ| willingly taking rebirth for the benefit of sentient biengs.


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Ten thorough trainings on the fifth ground. 1. %ད'བར་2་ ཆད-་[|མ-དང'འགས-འ§ས-§ད-པ-§ང-བ། av0iding

association with householders for profit and fame 2. རབ་' ང་བ་ག^ན-ལ'|ན་བདག་དད་པ་ཅན་་(3མ་་§ན་པ་ང་བ།

not preventing monks from finding the homes of faithful benefectors 3. འ་འ!་གནས་་གནས་པ་!]ང་བ། avoiding living in busy places 4. ཆགས་པས་བདག་ལ་བ?ད་པ་§ང་བ། avoiding praising oneself with attachment 5. གཞན་ལ་བ$ས་ པ་2ང'བ། avoiding deprecation of others 6. ་དག་བ་ལས་ ལམ་བཅ་*།ང་བ། avoiding the ten unwholesome actions 7. |མ་པས་ག^ན་ལ་་འད་པ་§ང་བ། avoiding conceit and arrogance towards others 8. ^ང'ར'ན'ཅ'ལག'ལ'ཞན'པ'§ངབ། avoiding attachment towards wrong practices of cultivation

and abandonment 9. ལག་པར་པ་|་ངན་§ང་བ། avoiding wrong and unwholesome views 10. སམས་^ན་མངས་ལ་ གས་པ་ང་བ། avoiding mental association with delusions.


Dasa bhUmayah/ A. According to the Bodhisattva paths these are the grounds of: 1. རབ་་དགའ་བ། pramudita/ the extremely joyous 2. ་མ་མད་པ། vimala/ the stainless 3. འད' ད་པ། prabhakari/ the luminous 4. འད་འབ། arcismati/ the radiant 5. |ངས་དཀའ་བ། sudurjaya/ the difficult to overcome 6. མངན་་པ^གས་པ། abhimukhi/ the approaching 7. རང་་སང་བ། dUraiigama/ the Gone Afar 8. ་གཡ་བ། acala/ the immovable 9. ལགས་བ་§་ས། sadhumati/ the

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good intelligence 10. ཆས་^་^ན། dharmamegha/ the cloud of dharma. B. ^་^་ཡ་ག་ན་མངམ་ཡན་པ་བཤད་སལ་ར་ གས་ལམ་^བས་་ས-བཅ་ན། According to the Anuyoga vehicle of the Nyingma tradition there are ten grounds within the path of accumulation as follows: 1. འར་བ་མ་ངས་པའ' ས! the unchangeable ground 2. བན་པ་ག་ས། the basic

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ground of reliance 3. གལ་ཆན་|ང་བའ་ས། the ground of


important training 4. བ^བ་པ་་3ན་2་ས། the ground of continual training 5. བསད་ནམས་ན་་ས། the ground of


basis for meritorious accumulation 6. བན་པ་[5ད་པར་་འ་ བ་ས། the ground of firm advancement 7. དགས'འ3ས་|་


བའ'ས1 the ground of achieving the fruits of one's object 8. གནས་པ་་འར་བ་ས། the ground of unchangeable occupation 9. གདལ་བ་ས་^ད་་ས། the ground of universal reality 10. ཛགས་པ་|་བས་་ས། the ground of unilateral completion.


DvadaSa bhUmayah/ Twelve grounds; twelve levels of the Mahayana paths. 1-10. (see above, sa-bchu) 11. ང་བ་་

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སམས-མ་བ^ད་པའ་ས། prior to generating the mind

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of enlightenment 12. ན་་འད་་3་ས1 the ever-illuminating



The Fourteen Grounds. 1. ས'པ|ད་པ་ས། The ground of faith 2-11. (see sa-bcu) 12. ད་ད''ས| the incomparable ground 13. ཡ'ས'ན'པ'ས། the ground of attaining

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primordial wisdom 14.3ན'5'འད་ད'£འ་ས། the ever-luminous vajra ground.


The ground ritual. The ritual of examining, begging, purifying, owning, guarding and blessing the ground or venue intended for a tantric ceremony of constructing a mandala and performing an initiation.

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Eight thorough trainings on the second ground. 1.5ས'་^'5་ ཆ;ལ་§མས་གསམ་མ-པར-དག'པ། (maintaining) purity of the three moral disciplines at all times 2. གཞན་ས་པན' པ-རགས་པ་ལ་ས-པ-ག!-བ། repaying the help rendered by others 3. གད་པ་ཅ་ང་ཡང་བཟད་པ། patiently accepting all harms 4. ས་ག་་ད་བ་|་བ་དགའ་བ། always rejoicing in wholesome deeds 5. མས་ཅན་མས་ལ!ང་་-བ། being compassionate towards all sentient beings 6. མཁན'§བ་ སགས་ལ་འད་^ང་པ^ར་པ^་ད་པ། honoring and respecting one's teachers and abbots 7.3་མ་མས་ལ་3ས་པས་ས་9ན'

པ། receiving teachings from one's teachers respectfully 8. |ན་སགས་པར་ན་^ས་ལ་ས་^ག་5་པ|ན་པ། always practising

the perfection trainings such as giving, etc. ས1ང'།

Mahitala/ Terrestial world; terrestial realm. One of the three realms of existence, which is primarily the abode of humans, animals and other earth-bound creatures.


Ten thorough trainings on the first ground. 1. ་བ་ཐམས་ཅད་ ལ་ག^་ད་པ་བསམ་པ། anitude free from deceit in all activities 2. རང་གཞན་་དན་ལ་པན་པ་ཐག་ན་?ད་འ1ན་པ། practising the Greater Vehicle for the benefit of both self and others 3. མས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་མས་མ^མ་པ་^ད། an attitude of equanimity towards all sentient beings 4. སར་^་ ད-པས'བདག-པ'ཐམས-ཅད-ག^ང-བ། giving away all belongings without miserliness 5. བས་ག^ན་དམ་པ་ག་་ བ^ན་པར་ད་པ། always relying on a good spiritual friend 6. ཐག་པ་གསམ་་ས་མ་ལས་པ་དགས་པ་འལ་བ།

seeking the goals of all the precepts of the three vehicles 7. ས་<5ག་་ངས་པར་འང་བ'མས,:|ད་དང་ན་པ། always

possessing the thought of definite freedom 8.་5ས'ག་5་ སངས-5ས'-^མཐངབར་འདད-ཅང-ད-ལ་དགའ-བ། aiways

eagerly wishing to behold Buddha's presence 9. ག5ལ་་ ^མས-ལ་དཔ་མ[3ད-ད་པར་ཆས་§ན་པ། teaChing Dharma to

all without restraint 10. ས'ག་'བན་པ་ག་|་བར་ད་ པ! always speaking the truth.


Twelve thorough trainings on the sixth ground. 1-6. པ་རལ་་ ན་པ་§ག་ཛགས-པརད'པ། accomplishing the six perfections (see phar-phyin drug) 7. ^ན་ཐས་་ས་ལ་དགའ་བ་^ང་བ། abandoning attachment to the Hearer's level 8. རང་^་ལ་་ས་ ལ'དགའ'བ'3ང'བ| abandoning attachment to the Solitary Realized level 9. ^བ-་དན་ལ^ག-པ-མས^ངབ། abandoning fear of the meaning of profound emptiness 10. མག'ལ'སགས་པ'བ^ངས'3ང་་3མ'པ1 not being discouraged even if asked for one's head 11. བདག་པ་ན་བ^ང་ཡང་་


དགའ-བ་མད་པ། not being unhappy at renouncing all one's belongings 12. དབལ་ཡང^ང-བ་^ངབ། not abandoning beggars even in distress.


Bhupati/ A. Lord of earth; owners of the earth; non-human spirits and creatures having influence of the locality or sites.


Twenty thorough trainings on the seventh ground. A. £1ང  9" ! Abandoning twenty misapprehensions: 1. བདག་་འ^ན་ པ! grasping at self 2. མས་ཅན་་འ1ན'པ། grasping at sentient beings 3. ག་་འ^ན་པ། grasping at the life-force 4. གང་ཟག་་འ1ན་པ། grasping at persons 5. ཆད་པ་མཐར་ འ^ན་པ། grasping at the extreme of eternalism 6. ག་པ' མཐར་འ|ན'པ། grasping at the extreme of externalism 7. མཚན་མར་འ£ན་པ། grasping at signs 8. $ར་འ£ན་པ| grasping at causes 9. པང་པར་འ£ན་པ། grasping at aggregates 10. ཁམས་་འ་1ན་པ། grasping at elements 11. §' མཆད་'འ1ན་པ། grasping at sources of perception 12. །བམས་གསམ་-ལ་གནས་པར་འ|ན-པ། gasping at the three

realms as the basis 13. 'དག'དར'ར'འ£ན་པ| grasping at the three realms to be abandoned 14. མས་ན་་9མ་པ| mentally discouraged state 15. སངས་^ས་་མན་པར་ན་པ། attachment towards Buddha 16. ས་་མངན་པར་ན་པ། attachment towards Dharma 17. དག་འན'5'མངན'པར'ན' པ། attachment towards Sarigha 18. ཆ;ལ་§མས་་མན་པར་

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ཞན'པ! attachment towards moral discipline 19. ^ང་པ་^ད' ལ་£ད'པ། contention about emptiness 20. ^ང་པ་དང་ན་ཛབ་ འགལ་བར་འ|ན'པ། seeing the conventional and emptiness

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as contradictory. B. ག9ན་པ་9 ! Cultivating twenty antidotes: 1. ་^ང་པ་^ད་ཤས་པ། knowledge of emptiness 2. མཚན་མ'ད-པས་པ། knowledge of signiessness 3. ^ན་པ' ད་པ་ས་པ། knowledge of wishlessness 4. འར་གམ' མ་པར་དག་པ་གས་པ། knowledge of the purity of the three

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factors (object, agent and action) 5. ་$ང'£'ཆན་པ| great compassion 6. ^མ་པ་ད་པ' lack of pride 7. ས་ཐམས' ཅད་མ9མ་པ'^ད''གས'པ1 knowledge of the sameness of

all phenomena 8. མཐར་ཐག་ཐག་པ་གཅག་སཔ། knowledge of one final vehicle 9. དན་དམ་པར་་^་བ་ས་པ།

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knowledge of ultimate non-production 10. •་ཟབ་མ་མ་ག་པའ'

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བཟད'པ'ཤས'པ1 knowledge of patient acceptance and fearlessness of emptiness 11. ས་ཐམས་ཅད་བན་ད་་ §ན'པ| teaching that all phenomena lack a truly existent nature 12. བན་འ£ན་་ག་པ་^ན་5་འ1མས་པ། subduing all conceptions of true existence 13. མཚན'མར་འ£ན་པ་ འ5'ས-དང-འཛག^-སགས་§ང-བ། abandoning all perception of signs, wrong views, etc. 14. མ་མན་ལ་5་གཅག' པ་^་གནས་ངས-པར་སམས་པ། training jn single-pointed

mental quiescence meditation on omniscient mind 15. ག' མཐང-ཐབསས-ག"!ས-ལ-མཁས-པ། possessing penetrative insight skillful in both method and wisdom 16. གནས་ལགས་ བ§མས-པས'མས-ལ'བ། taming the mind through having meditated on the mode of abidanceAreality 17. ཆས་ཐམས་ཅད་ ལ་ཐགས-པ-ད-པ^སདང9(ན-པ། having unobstructed wisdom knowing all phenomena 18. ཆས་གང་ལའང་བདན་པར་ ཆགསཔའགནསན-པར^གསཔ། knowledge of any phenomen-


on's being without a basis for true existence 19. རངགར་^ད་ ^ར་འདད་པའ་སངས་3ས་5་^ང་ག(^ན་་མ^མ་་འབ།

of movement to and from Buddha-fields as one wishes 20. རངག་ལས་ལ་དབངབ^ར་ཐབ-པས-ལས-^འདད-པར-^ན-པ།


exhibiting all forms of bodies having gained control of one's own body.


Five Treatises of Asariga; five works of Asariga on levels of attainments. 1. ལ'འར'§ད'པ'ས| Grounds of Yogic Practices (YogacaryabhUmi) 2. ག^ན་ལ་དབབ་པ་བ་^བ། Compendium of Ascertainment (Nimayasarhgraha) 3. གཞ་བ་་|' བ1 Compendium of Bases (Vastusarhgraha) 4. མ་ངས'བ£[' བ| Compendium of Enumerators (Paryayasarhgraha) 5. SI' བ|་ བ| Compendium of Explanation (Vi varanasarhgraha).


Six ways of shaking the earth. The way nature pays its respect when a Buddha is born, enlightened or passes away into parinirvaha, etc. Also when a person becomes a Bodhisattva generating the mind of enlightenment. A. 1. འ^ལ་བ། moving 2. གཡ'བ1 shaking 3. ^ག་པ| lifting 3. འ§ག'པ| errupting 4. འར'འ.ར| humming 5. ཆམ'ཆམ| shimmering. B. ཤར་གས་མཐ་ན་5བ་གས'དམའ་བ| if the east is higher the west is lower 2.5བ་གས་མཐ་ན་ཤར་གས་དམའ་བ| if the west is higher the east is lower 3. ་གས'མཐ'ན'3ང' པགས་དམའ་བ། jf south is higher the north is lower 4. ང-§གས-མཐ-ན--གས-དམའ-བ། jf ^ north is higher the south is lower 5. མཐའ'མཐ་ན'དས་དམའ་བ| if the corners are higher the central part is lower 6. དབས་མཐ་ན་མཐའ' དམའ-པ། if the central part is higher the corners are lower.


Antariksa/ Celestial world; celestial realm. One of the three realms of existence, primarily the abode of gods.


ASuddhabhumi/ Unsuitable land. Area where poisonous snakes, etc., live. Or a disputed land where according to Vinaya, building of a monastery is prohibited.


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Ten thorough trainings on the fourth ground. 1. དབན་པའ' ནགས-ན་གནས-པ། solitary dwelling in a forest 2. འདད་པ'

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ང'བ| having few desires 3. ཆག་ཤས་པ! being contented 4. |ངས-པ-<*ན^ན-ལ-3ད'དམ-པ| strictiy following the

twelve ascetic trainings (see sbyangs-pa'i yon-tan bcu-gnyis)

5. བ^བ་^མས་ཡངས་་་ག^ང་བ། not forshaking discipline

6. འདད'པ་ཡན་^ན་ལ་§ད་པ| loathing sensual objects 7. གལ-^་ས་ས་^ལ་བ་དང་འཆམས་པ་ས་^ ན་ཅང་

མ^ངའདས་ལ་གཞལ་བ། leading beings to the state of peace by giving teachings according to their capabilities 8. བདག་པ་ ན་ག^ང་བ! renouncing and giving away all possessions 9. ད-བ-བ'པ་ལ་མས་་3མ་པ། never turning away from

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doing wholesome practices 10. མངན་ཞན་་་བ་མད་པ། never holding wrong views.


Bhutala/ Subterrestial world. One of the three realms of existence, which is primarily the abode of nagas, or serpent spirits.


Paths and grounds. Grounds and paths of advancement to the state of liberation and omniscience.


Five thorough trainings on the third ground. 1. ཆས་ཐས་པས་ མ-ངམས་པ། never satiated with listening to teachings 2. -ཟང་ 1ང-བསམ-བད-པར-ག^ན-ལ-ཆས་|ན་པ། teaching others

without a thought for reward 3. རང་^ད་གང་་འཚང^་བ'


ཞང་ན་བ་ང་བ། purification of the Buddha field where one is to attain enlightenment 4. འར་བ་§ན་མཐང་བ་གཞན་ན་ ལ་^ངས་ས་མ-^་བ། never discouraged by seeing the faults of cyclic existence, from seeking others welfare 5. ང་ཚ་ཤས' ང་་^ལ་ཡད་དང་ན་པ། having a sense of shame and embarrassment.


Buddha/ Fully enlightened being; Buddha. One who has completely purified himself of all faults and delusions and perfected all knowledge and wisdom; a fully enlightened being knowing all phenomena as they are.


Astadasavenikabuddhadharmah/ Eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha, according to the Abhidharma tradition, (see ma-'dres-pa bco-brgyad). 1-10. %བས་བཅ། dasabalani/ ten


powers (see de-bzhin gshegs-pa'i stobs-bcu) 11-14. མ་

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འ^གས་པ་བཞ། catvari vaisaradyani/ four fearlessnesses (see mi-'jigs-pa bzhi) 15-17. ན་པ'?་བར་བཞག་པ་གམ། trim smnyUpasthanani/ three close mindfulnesses (see dran-pa nye-bar bzhag-pa gsum) 18. ^ང'£'ཆན'པ། mahakaruna/ great compassion.


Thirty-nine qualities exclusive to a Buddha. 1-10. ^བས་བཅ། ten powers (see de-bzhin gshegs-pa'i stobs-bcu) 11-14. མ་


འ^གས་བབ^། four fearlessnesses (see mi-'jigs-pa bzhi) 15-18. ས་ས་«་ངདག-ག་པ་བཞ། four specific perfect understandings (see so-sor yang-dag-pa rig-pa bzhi) 19-36. མ་འས་བ་ བཅ་བ^ད། eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha (see ma-'dres-pa bco-brgyad) 37. 'བན'?ད''མ'པ། aspect of thusness 38. རང་ང་་མ་པ། aspect of self-arisal 39. སངས་§ས་?ད་'མ་པ། aspects of the Buddha himself.


The twelve deeds of Buddha Sakyamuni (see mdzad-pa bcu-bnyis).


Buddhagotra/ Buddha Nature; Buddha Lineage. The intrinsically pure mind and Buddhahood acquired through practice.



Seven Heroic Budhas; the seven Buddhas of this aeon who have already appeared in this world according to the Hinayana tradition. 1. མ་གགས། Vipasyin 2. གཅ;ག'5ར'ཅན| Sikhin

3.ཐམས་ཅད|བ། ViSvabhu 4. འར་བ་འ1ག Krakuccanda 5.གར་བ། Kanakamuhi 6. ད་ས,ང་། Kasyapa 7. ཤ3་ བ་པ། Sakyamuhi.



Seven Probationers; the first seven monks of Tibet ordained by Acarya Santaraksita during the reign of King Tri Ralpa Chan. 1. ^གསལ^ང་། BaSaInangl**^W«l Chim Shakya Prabha 3. པ་གར་བ་རཅ་ན། Pagor Bero Tzana 4. ངན' ལམ་་5ལ་བ་མག་དངས། Ngan-lam Gyalwa Choryang 5. མ/རན་ན་མག Ma Rinchen Chog 6. འན་?!]་དབང་། Khon Lui Wangpo 7. གཅང་ལགས་^བ། Tzang Legdrub.


Ground-ritual; preparatory-rite of the site. A part of preparatory rite in an initiation in which the goddess of the site is generated in the centre of the mandala and wisdom-beings are immersed into her; she is then offered ritual-cakes (gtor-ma) and her permission is sought to allow the site to be used for an empowerment ceremony.


Thorough trainings on the grounds; qualities of the trainings on the various levels of a Bodhisattvas' career (see sa-dang-po'i yongs-sbyong bcu, etc.).


Dusana/ Refutation; refutation of others' position or philosophical stand. There are two types: 1. correct refutation 2. incorrect refutation.


TrayastriniSa ctevah/ The Heaven of Thirty-Three. Celestial abode of gods of the desire realm believed to be located on top of Mt. Meru, which is inhabited by the so called 'eight

wealth-gods' (nor-lha brgyad) the 'eleven wrathful' (drag-po bcu-gcig), the 'twelve suns' (nyi-ma bcu-gnyis), the 'two sons of thal-kar' (thal-skar-gyi bu-gnyis) and Indra (lha-bdang brgya-byin).


The three-fold aeon (see bskal-pa sum-ldan). སང་ག་བཟང་པ།

Haribhadra/ Acarya Haribhadra. A student of Acarya Santaraksita known for his authority in the study of Perfection of Wisdom; the author of the Clear Meaning ('grel-pa don gsal) and the Extensive Commentary on Eight Thousand Verses (brgyad-stong 'grel-chen).


Citta/ Mind; primary consciousness, e.g. eye consciousness. སམས་^་་་པ-མས་པདན།

Seven mental constituents; seven domains of the mind. 1. ག་་མ་པར་ས་པ་ཁམས། caksu vijnanadhatu/ domain of eye consciousness 2. ་བ་མ་པར་ས་པ་ཁམས། srota vijnanadhatu/ domain of ear consciousness 3. ^འ་མ'

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པར་ཤས་པའ་ཁམས། grana vijnanadhatu/ domain of nose consciousness 4. §་མ་པར་ས་པ་ཁམས། jihva vijnanadhatu/ domain of tongue consciousness 5. ལས་་མ་པར་ས'


པའ-།བམས| kaya vijnanadhatu/ domain of body consciousness 6. ཡད་་མ་^རས་པའ།་^མས། mano vijnanadhatu/ domain

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of mental consciousness 7. ཡད་་^་དབང་པ། mana indriyam/ domain of mental faculty.


Concentration on mind base; absorption into the object of mind. One of the four types of recitations/ incantation in lower tantra (see bzlas-brjod yan-lag bzhi); a practice of

visualizing the ultimate mind of enlightenment as empty of inherent existence and the moon disk at the heart as the conventional mind of enlightenment.


Ten mental levels; ten mental attitudes. 1-5. ན'འ་^'1 five

ever-functioning mental factors (see kun-'gro-lnga) 6-10. ~v

0|ལ'ངས'(£] five determining mental factors (see yul-nges-lnga).


Cittoptada/ Mind generation; generation of the mind of enlightenment; an altruistic mind caused by a wish to benefit others and accompanied by a wish to attain Buddhahood for the sake of others.


The twenty-two types of bodhicitta. The division of bodhicitta according to one's level of attainment and illustration. There are: 1-4. མས'པ་|ད'པ་སམས་བ|ད་བ། four preoccupied by faith (see mos-pa spyod pa'i sems bskyed bzhi) 5-11. 3་ག་ བསམ-དག-པ-མས-བ|ད-བན། seven preoccupied with resolute intention (see lhag bsam dag pa'i sems bskyed bdun) 12-20. མ'པར'|ན་པ་མས་བ|ད-ད3 nine fully matured ones (see) 21-22. |བ་པ་!]ངས་པ་མས་བ§ད་ག«?ས། two completely free of obscurations on the level of Buddhahood.


Two types of mind of eniightenment; two kinds of bodhicitta. ^£-§-ནས། By nature: 1.ན'་1བ'སམས'བ|ད། sarhvrti cittotpada/ conventional mind of eniightenment 2. དན་དམ' སམས-བ^ད། paramartha cittotpada/ ultimate mind of

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enlightenment B. '་^ར་བའ་^་ནས! By means of their activity:

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1. ^ན་པ་སམས་བ^ད! pranidhana bodhicittotpada/ aspiring


mind of enlightenment 2. འག་པ་སམས་བ་^ད། prasthanacittotpada/ engaging mind of enlightenment.


Four types of mind of eniightenment. The mind of enlightenment categorized in view of their degree of attainment. ས' མཚམས་་^་ནས། l. མས་པ|ད་པ་སམས་བ|ད། adhimukti-carya cittotpada/ mind of enlightenment preoccupied with faith—extant on the path of accumulation and the path of preparation only. 2. ^ག་བསམ་དག་པ་སམས་བ^ད། adhyasayacittotpada/ mind of eniightenment preoccupied with resolute intention—extant on the first seven Bodhisattva grounds. 3. མ་པར་§ན་པ་སམསབ§ད། visuddhicittotpada/ fully matured mind of enlightenment—extant on the last three Bodhisattva grounds. 4. f བ་པ་^ངས་པ་སམས་བད། avaranaprahana cittotpada/ mind of enlightenment free of obscurations—possessed by a Buddha


Three types of mind of the enlightenment. The mind of eniightenment categorized from the perspective of how it is initially generated. ཐག་མར་མས་བད་ཚལ་་§་ནས། 1. ཛ་^་་སམས་བ^ད། a shepherd-like mind of eniightenment 2. མ9ན་པ་་་མས་བ|ད། a boatmanlike mind of eniightenment 3.3ལ་་་བ་མས་བ|ད། a king-like mind of eniightenment.


Santana/ A. Mind-stream; mental continuum. B. Mental attitude; philosophy.


Sattva/ Sentient being. Lit: 'possessing a mind'; all living beings who posseses a mind, as distinct from a Buddha who possesses an enlightened mind.



Sattvakhyasabda/ Articulate sound. Sound which intentionally indicates meaning to sentient beings, e.g. the speech of a Buddha, as opposed to the sound of a brook that does not intentionally indicate any meaning to sentient beings.


A. Souvenir. B. Brain and heart, the location of mind. C. object of meditation.


Two types of objects of meditation. Objects within and without one's own mind stream.


Six types of mind; six attitudes. A. 1. ཅ"བའ་སམས། mUlacitta/ root mind 2. £ས་ས་ད£ད་པ་མས། anucaritacitta/ post-analytical mind 3. མ་པར་དད་པའ་ མས། vicaranacitta/ analytical mind 4. ངས་པར་འ! ན་པ་ མས། avadharanacitta/ discerning mind 5. ^མ་པ་མས། samvaracitta/ restraining mind 6. ^ན་པ་སམས། pranidhicitta/ wishing mind. B. six consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tsogs-brgyad, 1-6).


The eighteen tantras of the mind-system; the eighteen tantras of rDzogs-chen meditation. 1. $་མ་་|ད་རག་པ་རང་ ཤར། The Ocean-like Tantra called Self Appearance of the Intuitive Awareness. 2. ^་མ་་་^ད་ད་་མས་དབའ་^ང་


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ག་མ་ལང་། The Sun-like Tantra called Mirror of Vajrasattva's Heart 3. ང་་་བ་^ད་ང་ག་ཅ-ལ་གས། The Lion-like Tantra called Perfection of a Lion's Skill 4. ར་3ལ་་བ་§ད་ dj-ག་མད་པ། The Meru-like Tantra called The Letterless 5. འར-ལ'-'5ད'བཀས-མ£ས-པ། The Wheel-like Tantra

called Auspicious Adoration 6. ་ག་་བ་ད་|་ཐལ་ འར། The Key-like Tantra called Sound Consequentialist 7. རལ་་་བ་|ད་ན་^བཟང་་གས་་་ལང་། The

Sword-like Tantra called Mirror ofSamantabhadra's Heart 8. གསལ་ང་་་ད་ན་་འབར་བ། The Multi Pronged Spear-like Tantra called Blazing Lamp 9. གསར་ན''' ^ར་བ/པ/བག་་ད! The Refined Gold-like Tantra called Jewel Studded 10. མ'བ་འ3ལ་བ་་་§ད་9་ མ་ཁ་§ར། The Tantra Like the Meeting of Mother and Child called Union of Suns 11. ་ལང་་་ད'ང་|ད་^ས་པ། The Mirror-like


Tantra called Adoration of Introduction 12. མ་^ག་^ར་ལ' བ3ས་པ་^བའ་3་་ད་མ་ག་^ང་བ། The Pearl Stnng-like Tantra called Pearl Garland 13. |ལ་མད''་3ད'རག'པ' རངལ། The Snake's Coil-like Tantra called Self-liberation ofintutive Awareness 14.3ང'ན'་'ད་$ང'5ག་པ| The Guru-like Tantra called Six-fold Centrism 15. '''བ'9ད' ཛགས་པ་རང་ང་། The River-like Tantra called Spontaneous Completion 16. 3་་་་5ད'ནག་མ་§ས་མ། The Razor Blade-like Tantra called Wrathful Black Goddess 17. 3ལ་་ ་་|ད་|་གང་འབར་བ། The King-like Tantra called BiaungTomb 18. བང་མ^ད་་བ་ད་^ན་་་^ངས་པ། The Treasure-like Tantra called Jewel Heap.


The Mind system; the mind tradition. A lineage of rDzogs-chen meditation coming from Acarya Srisirhha, the great translator, primarily establishing the recognition of intrinsic awareness being free of its own plays.


Nine stages of setting the mind; the nine stages of establishing one's mind into a state of single-pointed concentration in calm-abiding meditation. 1. ནང'འ£ག'པ། mental setting 2. |ན་་འ1ག་པ། continual setting 3. བ^ན''འ^'པ1 patch-like

setting 4. 9་བར་འ£ག'པ། close setting 5. འལ་བར་ད་པ། controlled setting 6. 'བར་ད'པ| pacification 7. མ་པར་་ བར་ད་པ! complete pacification 8. £་གཅག་་§ད་པ། single-pointed setting 9. མ^མ་པར་འ^ག་པ། equal setting.



Cintana/ Thought; intention. A secondary mind that draws the attention of a primary mind to its object and establishes its recogmtion.


Mental activity. Activities of body, speech and mind brought to a manifest level or revealed due to mental projections.


Incorporation of the triple-beings. A method of generating deities one within another: 1. དམ་^ག་མས་དཔའ། samayasattva/ the pledged-being (see dam-tsig sems-dpa') 2. ཡ་ས་སམས་དཔའ། jnanasattva/ the wisdom-being (see ye-shes sems- dpa') 3. ངང་འ1ན་མས་དཔའ། samadhisattva/ the concentration-being (see ting-nge-'dzin sems-dpa').



Fifty-one secondary mental factors; fifty-one secondary minds accompanying a primary mind. 1-5. ན་འ་^། the five omnipresent-mental factors (see kun-'gro-lnga) 6-10. ཡལ' ངས་་^! the five determinants (see yul-nges lnga) 11-16. 5"

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9ན་§ག the six root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug) 17-36.9' 9ན་9་། the twenty near-delusions (see nye-nyon nyi-shu) 37-47. དག་བ་བཅ་གཅག the eleven virtuous mental factors (see dge-ba bcu-gcig) 48-51. གཞན་འ3ར་བ། the four changeable mental factors (see gzhan-'gyur bzhi).


The five occasions without mind; the five occasions when

mind temporarily ceases to function. 1. འགག་^མས་་གནས་ ^བས། meditative absorption in cessation 2. འ་ས་ད་ པ་གནས་^བས། lack of discrimination 3. འ་ས་ད་པ་ ^མས-འག་་གནས་*|བས meditative absorption lacking discrimination 4. ག?ད་མཐག་་གནས་^བས། deep sleep 5^6 5.བ3ལ་བའ་གནས་^བས1 fainting.


Cittamatra/ The Mind oniy school; Cittamatra. A Mahayana school of tenets called the Yogacara or Vijnanavada, developed by Asariga and his brother Vasubandhu. This school asserts lack of duality between the object and object-perceiver and propounds eight types of consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tshogs-brgyad). There are two sub-schools.


True aspect mind oniy school. Cittamatrins who assert that the appearance of a gross form to the sensory consciousness perceiving form in the mind of a non-Arya being (one who has not perceived emptiness directly) is not contaminated by latencies of ignorance.


False aspect mind only school. Cittamatrins who assert that the appearance of a gross form to the sensory consciousness perceiving form in the mind of a non-Arya being is contaminated by latencies of ignorance.


Followers of the sage Kapila. A proponent of non-Buddhist philosophy (Hindu) called the Sanikhyas who assert the enumeration of all phenomena into twenty-five categories (see shes-bya nyer-lnga) and gains liberation through complete understanding of these phenomena


Eliminative engager. A subjective consciousness which engages in its object of identification by differentiating it from various aspects that are possessed by it, e.g. the idea or statement that expresses Tashi. There are two types: 1. §་


སལ་འག mental eliminative engager, e.g. the concept of a vase 2. འ་སལ་འག verbal eliminative engager, e.g. the statement, 'sound is impermanent'.


Apoha/ Elimination; eliminative phenomena; a negative

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phenomena. There are three: 1. དན་་་སལ་བ། meaning eliminative phenomena, e.g. a thing that is not not a vase 2.


^འ་སལ་བ། mental eliminative phenomena, e.g. the appearance of a thing that is not not a vase to a thought cognizing a vase 3. ད་དགག་་ལ་བ། affirming negative type eliminative phenomena, e.g. the mere absence of something that is not a vase.


Pratimoksa sariivara/ Vows of individual liberation. Precepts of ordination meant for self-liberation from bad rebirth and


saihsara There are generally two: 1. [^མ་པའ་^མ་^། a householder's vows 2. རབ་ང་-ག^མ་པ། a monk's or nun's vows.


Eight classes of individual liberation vows (see so-thar rigs-bdun 1-7) 8. བ^ན་གནས་་^མ་པ། one day ordination vows.

ས'ར!ར་རགས' རས' བདན།

Seven classes of individual liberation vows. 1. དག་^ང་^འ་^མ་ པ།- bhiksu sarhvara/ fully ordained monk vows 2. དག་§ང་མ་ ^མ་པ། bhiksuni sariivara/ fully ordained nun vows 3. དག' ཚལ་^་^མ་པ། sramanera sanivara/ novice monk vows 4.

དག་^ལ་མའ་^མ་པ། sramanerika sariivara/ novice nun vows 5.

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དག་བན་པའ་^མ་པ། upasaka sarhvara/ layman vows 6. དག' པ^ན་མའ་^མ་པ། upasika sariivara/ lay woman vows 7. དག'

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^བ་མའ་^མ་པ། Siksamana sanivara/ probationary nun vows. ས་^ར་རགས་རས་བ^།

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The four classes of individual liberation vows. 1. དག'3ང'པ'

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མའ་^མ་པ། mjjy ordained monk and nun vows 2. དག'<་$ལ'^་ མ|མ'པ། novice vows 3. དག་བ^ན་§་§མ་པ། layperson's vows 4. བ་ན་གནས་་^མ་པ། one day ordination vows.


Prthagjana/ Ordinary person; beginner. Persons who have no knowledge of the reality of phenomena.


Pratisariikhyanirodha/ Analytical cessation. Cessation gained through the wisdom of meditation and anylysis on the four noble truths, e.g. the truth of cessation within the mental continuum of an Arya on the path of meditation.


Apratisarhkhyanirodha/ Non-analytical cessation. Cessation that is impermanent by nature and is not acquired through the wisdom of meditation and analysis on the four noble truths, e.g. cessation of rebirth into bad migration within me continuum of a Bodhisattva on the path of preparation.


Pratimoksa,/ Individual liberation (see so-thar-gyi sdom-pa).


Four specific perfect understandings. The four ways in which a Bodhisattva knows the distinct features, characteristics and states of phenomena 1. ས་ས་ས་ཡང་དག་རག་པ། Aharma

pratisamvid/ specific perfect understanding of dharma 2. ན་

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ས་ས་ཡང་དག་རག་པ། artha pratisamvid/ specific perfect understanding of meaning 3. ངས་ག་སས་ཡང་དག་རག་པ། nirukti pratisamvid/ specific perfect understanding of definitive words 4. §བས་པ་ས ^་ང་དག་ག་པ། pratibhana pratisamvid/ specific perfect understanding of confidence.



Pancariguli/ Five fingers. 1. མཐ་བང་། arigustha/ thumb 2. མཛབ་མ། ariguli/ index finger 3.3ང'མ། madhariguli/ middle


finger 4. ས,ན'ལག anama/ ring finger 5. མཐའ་ཆང་། ananiika/ little finger.


Pes!/ A. Evil spirit; a malignant spirit or devil born of a dead person resurrected in their previous locality who create truble in the vicinity. B. Miserliness. C. A disastrous event or period believed to be a common karma, e.g. evil accidents happening one after another in the same locality.


Exorcism. A type of tantric ritual to capture, bury and burn a malignant spirit (see sri, above).

-§ད་-བ1 jSSBS0^SBf:

Bhava/ A. Saihsara; cyclic existence. B. Existence.


Nine Gods of Tibet. O-de Gung-gyal, the ninth King of Tibet, son of Drigum Tzen-po and his eight sons believed to be residing and guarding Tibet throughout its three regions. 1. ཡར་་ཤམ་། YalaShampol^W'^I Nyan-chen Th