It gives us pleasure to bring out this second edition of the Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology. The present edition has been revised and upgraded since it's first, and has been expanded with hundreds of new entries from various sources. For example, many new words have been added to the selected lists of terms from the Mahavyutpatti (bye-brag tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-mo) and from many other collected writings and lexicons. Attempts have been made to provide Sanskrit equivalents wherever possible in Romanised transliterated form with care. The English translations and definitions have been selected to provide a general meaning aimed at leading to a deeper understanding of Buddhist concepts.

Of course, a project of such encyclopedic scope would be exceedingly difficult to complete single-handedly, if not impossible. Nonetheless, Mr. Tsepak Rigzin of the Library's Translation Bureau is to be recognized and congratulated for his vision in undertaking such a timely project, as well as for his painstaking labour.

It is hoped that this Dictionary will not only serve as a reference tool but also as a handy book for providing overview of Tibetan Buddhism. Both students and scholars of Tibetan Buddhist culture will find it useful.

Gyatsho Tshering DIRECTOR


When I was informed that a revised edition of my previous Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology was due, I was immediately reminded of both the features (and the flaws) of the first edition. Having never seen myself as a Tibetan Buddhist studies scholar or as a qualified translator, I must confess that the compliments and criticisms that I have received have been extremely rewarding. The entire process of compiling this dictionary, from beginning to end, has been an extremely rewarding learning experience. Over two thousand new entries have been incorporated in this edition—all within the short period of time derived from maximum usage of my office hours as well as of my weekend holidays. With the exception of some minor editing and changes, the majority of these new entries have been directly translated from the glossary found in the three volumes of the Grand Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary.

Many of the first edition's redundant entries have been reduced to a minimum by giving cross references wherever possible in Tibetan transliterated form following the Turrell Wylie system of transliteration. Attempts have been made to occasionally provide Sanskrit equivalents in romanised transliterated form based on the standard dictionaries (primarily splitting the words for better comprehension). The purpose of incorporating Sanskrit in romanised form is to enable more advanced students to go into a deeper study and research. Every care has been taken in revising and editing the Sanskrit words provided herein; although I do not claim these to be absolutely free of flaws. Readers are therefore advised to take care and caution while using these words. In all, I hope that the modifications and changes I have made will prove helpful to all readers. The unfortunate presence of any overlooked mistakes in this dictionary reflects the sheer gift of my own ignorance and carelessness.

Finally, I would like to add that the production of this edition has been a gross experience of the interdependent nature of my own life and the lives of my associates. The biggest change has been the Library's purchase of a computer (an advantage not known during its first edition); but also the assistance of many well wishers and scholars. It is to these people that I give my inexpressible thanks: to the many teachers in my life who taught me everything from the alphabet to philosophy; Ku-Ngo Gyatsho Tshering, Director of this institute, for his unflagging interest and encouragement; Jeremy Russell, for his many years of association at the Translation Bureau; Ms. Marguerite Mullins for her moral support; Robert Moyer for his editorial assistance in revising the english part and Mr. Sangye Tandar, LTWA's Tibetan Language Officer for revising the Tibetan spellings; Dr. Christoph Cuppers, a learned Tibetologist friend, for his generous time and erudition in revising and editing the Sanskrit equivalents and for providing extremely valuable suggestions; Mr. Tsering Dhendup, our Computer Geshe for his guidance through the computer world; and finally to Scott Heftier, for finalization—design, layout, formatting, proof-reading, and incorporating corrections. Mr. Heftler's work was done on a Macintosh Classic that was kindly made available by the Tibetan Medical Institute's Dr. Namgyal Qusa'r.

As always, I thank all those whose moral support has actually caused me to move along with this project.

Tsepak Rigzin

Research and Translation Officer

Library of Tibetan Works & Archives



This is a text of religious history, a will left by King Songtsen Gampo and concealed in a pillar marked with tree leaves in the Lhasa Cathedral, which was later discovered by the great teacher, Atisa. This text is also known by the name Guide to Lhasa (lha-sa'i dkar-chag).


Katyayana/ A direct disciple of Buddha Sakyamuni known especially for his knowledge of Vinaya, and who was also the founder of the Theravadin tradition, one of the four main schools of the Theravada tradition.


1. Primordially pure or pure from the beginning; the original mode of abidance of that which is basically unarisen; a term used in Nyingma teachings. 2. Emptiness.


Innately pure from the beginning; the primordial principle


The nature of primordial purity; the primordial reality.


The primordial breakthrough-path. A core transmission of the secret rDzog Chen practice, the quintessential instruction for liberating lazy disciples effortlessly. Through the mastering of this instruction one is able to maintain the meaning of primordial reality in its instinctive and natural mode by way of gaining awareness within oneself, reaching a conclusion upon hearing the words and introducing inner confidence upon liberation, through understanding the intrinsically abiding self-arisen primordial mind otherwise stabilized but to be released only by means of four modes of liberating it (see grol-lugs-chen-po bzhi).

Kadampa Desheg. His real name is Sherab Senge, but is also known by the name Pobpa Thaye. Born in the Water-Tiger year (1122) of the second sexagenerary at Dokham, eastern Tibet, he built Kathog monastery in the Palyul district of the Kham region. He was a great master belonging to the Nyingma tradition. He died in the Water-Mouse year (1192).


Spear-noose; harpoon; a spear with a noose at its end used as a tantric implement.


Kaniska/ An early Indian King. With his military power he conquered small kingdoms and built the Gandhola kingdom


This is a text of religious history, a will left by King Songtsen Gampo and concealed in a pillar marked with tree leaves in the Lhasa Cathedral, which was later discovered by the great teacher, Atisa. This text is also known by the name Guide to Lhasa (lha-sa'i dkar-chag).

Katyayana/ A direct disciple of Buddha Sakyamuni known especially for his knowledge of Vinaya, and who was also the founder of the Theravadin tradition, one of the four main schools of the Theravada tradition.

1. Primordially pure or pure from the beginning; the original mode of abidance of that which is basically unarisen; a term used in Nyingma teachings. 2. Emptiness.

Innately pure from the beginning; the primordial principle

The nature of primordial purity; the primordial reality.

The primordial breakthrough-path. A core transmission of the secret rDzog Chen practice, the quintessential instruction for liberating lazy disciples effortlessly. Through the mastering of this instruction one is able to maintain the meaning of primordial reality in its instinctive and natural mode by way of gaining awareness within oneself, reaching a conclusion upon hearing the words and introducing inner confidence upon liberation, through understanding the intrinsically abiding self-arisen primordial mind otherwise stabilized but to be released only by means of four modes of liberating it (see grol-lugs-chen-po bzhi).

Kadampa Desheg. His real name is Sherab Senge, but is also known by the name Pobpa Thaye. Born in the Water-Tiger year (1122) of the second sexagenerary at Dokham, eastern Tibet, he built Kathog monastery in the Palyul district of the Kham region. He was a great master belonging to the Nyingma tradition. He died in the Water-Mouse year (1192).

Spear-noose; harpoon; a spear with a noose at its end used as a tantric implement.

Kaniska/ An early Indian King. With his military power he conquered small kingdoms and built the Gandhola kingdom


during the first century, but at the end of his life became a Buddhist and erected many temples and stupas. He accepted [Acarya Aryasura] (rta-dbyangs) as his teacher and patronized Buddhist activities. He also invited many Arhats to Kashmir and composed the treatise known as Mahavibhanga (bye-brag chen-po).


Kamalasila/ An Indian [Acarya] professing the philosophy of the [Yogacarya] Madhyamaka school which developed in the eastern part of India during the eighth century A.D. During the reign of King Tri-Song Deu-Tsan he was invited to Tibet and defeated the Chinese monk Hashang Mahayana holding 'ton-mun', the instantaneous path of enlightenment, as opposed to the Bodhisattva doctrine of 'chen-min', the gradual path of enlightenment, in a philosophical contest. As a consequence, he wrote Triple Stages to Enlightenment (sgom-rim rnam gsum) and established the latter tradition of doctrine.


A stupa with four gates built on the highway north of the Lhasa cathedral. It is believed to be a holy place where the great meditator, Thangtong Gyalpo spent many years practising meditation before 1368 A.D.


The Karma Kagyud Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism; one of the many lineages of Kagyud traditions founded by the first Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa (1110-1193), who was a distinguished disciple of Gampopa (see sgam-po-pa). He established Tsurphu Monastery, the main seat of his tradition, in the north-west of Lhasa. In India, the main centre of Karma Kagyud has been re-established in Rumtek, Sikkim.


That which pronounces ki-li ki-li, one of the eight cemeteries (see dur-khrod chen-po brgyad).


[Kumarajlva]. A a great translator from Kotan (li-yul). His father, although of Indian origin, married a princess of a northern Kotan (li-yul) king, and gave birth to this translator there. At a young age he entered monkhood, and received the name Zhonu Tsering. He studied Sanskrit language and Hinayana Buddhist doctrines, but later entered into Mahayana tradition and became erudite in the Middle View philosophy. He was proficient in both Tibetan and Chinese language. He translated the Diamond Cut Sutra and major and minor texts of the Wisdom Perfection texts, the White Lotus Sutra, the Stainless Wisdom Sutra, the Root Middle Way text of Nagarjuna, Aryadeva's Four Hundred Stanzas and many other treatises. He had many disciples and passed away at the age of seventy.


A goddess of power called Rigje-ma (rig-byed-ma) common to Sakya's golden transmission lineage (gser-chos).


The Kusa grass, literally meaning that which dispels evil or the supreme grass. It has a fine and rich, crispy tassel of leaves, it is sweet flavoured, moderate to digest, and has the power to prolong one's life and increase the essential energy of the human body.


Kusinagari/ The city of Kusha, Kushinagara where Buddha

Sakyamuni passed away into parinirvana. Located close to the border of India and Nepal near Gorakhpur.


An Indian pandit who was invited to Tibet during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo. He translated many tantric texts of different levels from Sanskrit into Tibetan.


A Yogi mendicant; a yogi who practices the art of tantric exorcism and penance.


A cut-ritual (gcod) practice in which one offers one's body as a feast (tshog) to accumulate merit.


The ever-binding factors; fetters. Those categories of delusions that are responsible for making repeated obstacles for one's mind during meditation on calm-abiding (samatha) and equanimity (upeksa/ btang-snyoms). There are four (see kun-dkris bzhi) and three levels of wrong activities which can be categorized as follows. If a wrong activity is committed fulfilling all the four factors, such a wrong activity becomes great; if only the first, i.e. not regarding a breach as a fault, is present and the others are absent, such a wrong activity becomes middling; and if all other three are present, except not regarding a breach as fault, it becomes weak.


Asta paryavasthana/ The eight ever-binding factors; eight fetters. The delusions that disturbs the mind repeatedly during meditation on calm-abiding (samatha) and equanimity (btang-snyoms). These are: 1. གས་པ styana/ mental sloth 2. གད། middha/ sleep 3. ད་པ། auddhatya/ agitation 4. འད་པ།

kaukartyam/ regret 5.ག་ག irsya/ jealousy 6. ར་། matsarya/ miserliness 7. ་ཚ་ད་པ། ahrikya/ lack of shame 8. ལ་ད་པ། anapatrapyam/ lack of concern for others.


Dasa paryavasthana/ The ten ever-binding factors; the ten fetters: 1-8. (see above, kun-dkris brgyad) 9. ་བ། krodha/ anger 10. འཆབ་པ། mraksa/ concealment.

Catvari paryavasthana/The four ever-binding factors; the four fetters. A breach of the Bodhisattva or tantric vows is complete if these four factors are present: 1. ས་དགས་་་བ།

not regarding the breach as wrong 2. ད་འད་མ་ག་པ། not wishing to avoid it in the future 3. དགའ་མ་ད་པ། rejoicing in misdeeds 4. ་ཚ་དང་ལ་ད་པ། not being ashamed or embarrassed.


The Omniscient Lama Longchen Rabjam (1308-1363). A Nyingma Lama regarded as a great visionary by all the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism; who was influenced greatly by a vision of Acarya Padmasambhava. Out of more than two hundred treatises some of his major works include the Seven Treasures (see klong-chen mdzod-bdun), Triple Relaxation (ngal-gso skor gsum) and Triple Self Liberation (rang-grol skor gsum).


Sammatiya/ A school of Buddhist philosophy (see mang-pos bkur-ba'i sde).


The real name of Sakya Pandita (see sa-skya pandi-ta).


Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158). One of the five foremost masters of the Sakya tradition. He was the abbot of the Sakya monastic university at Sakya for forty-six years.


Ananda; one of the twelve close disciples of Buddha Sakyamuni known for his knowledge of scriptures. He was second of the seven hierarchs (see ston-pa'i gtad rabs-bdun) after the passing away of Buddha and recited by heart the Sutrapitaka during the first council held at Rajagrha. He was also one of the main disciples who attended Buddha's teachings on the four tantras of medicine.


A. Space B. Snake С Mental factor or factors (see below) that accompanies every instance of mind or mental activity.


Panca sarvagah/ Five ever-functioning mental factors. Mental factors that accompany every instance of mind and mental activity. These are: 1. ས་བ vedana/ feeling 2. འ་ས། sarnjna/ recognition 3. མས་པ centana/ perception 4. ག་པ sparsa/ contact 5.ད་ལ་ད་པ manasikara/ attention.


Ever-functioning cause. One of the six types of causes (see rgyu-drug). Those delusions (phra-rgyas) that occur in or travel through all the three realms of existence and act as an obstacle for attaining the state of liberation (nirvana).


The five feelings (see tsor-ba Inga) within the mental continuum of ordinary persons.


The five great disciples; the five ascetics (see 'khor lnga-sde bzang-po).


Maskarin Gosaliputra. One of the six non-Buddhist teachers; a self-professed teacher of Hindu philosphy during the time of Buddha Sakyamuni. He taught that the sufferings of all sentient beings were spontaneous without any reliance upon causes and conditions.


Adesana pratiharya/ Miracle of speech. The power of Buddha enables him to read others minds (meritorious or non-meritorious) and teach accordingly.


Parikalpita laksana/ Imputed phenomena. One of the three phenomena (see mtsan-nyid gsum). The existence of a thing by mere conceptual labelling, i.e. the confused mind labels persons and phenomena by misconception and identifies existents as I, self, mine or name, upon imputation.


Samantabhadra/ A. Those existents that are pure or virtuous throughout all of its parts. B. The sphere of reality (dharmadhatu) or the nature truth body (dharmakaya). С Tathagata Samantabhadra. D. Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, one of the eight close spiritual sons of Buddha Sakyamuni (see nye-ba'i sras-brgyad). E. According to the Bon tradition, the complete enjoyment body (sambhogakaya).


Samkalpa/ A. Thorough investigation; the process of

conceptual analysis. В. Thoughts, concepts, conceptualization and imagination.


Parikalpita/ Conceptual imputation; intellectual imputation; artificial labelling or imputation. Misconception of the true nature of phenomena developed through reasoning rooted in philosophical and intellectual study or training.

ུན་བགས་གས། fc

The two types of imputed phenomena 1. མ་ངས་པ་ན་བགས། pariyaya parikalpita/ nominally imputed phenomena 2. མཚན་ ད་ངས་་ཆད་པ་ན་བགས། alaksana parikalpita/ imputed phenomena lacking identity.


Parikalpita rupa/ Imputed form. Forms seen in imagination, e.g. horse, elephant, house, etc., seen in a dream, and seeing all surroundings filled with skeletons in concentration meditation (samadhi).


Parikalpita klesa/ Imputed delusions. Deluded views and such that disturb the peace of mind as a result of wrong conceptual labelling of the meaning of reality imposed by a mind tainted with a wrong philosophy.


Parikalpita avidya/ Imputed ignorance. Lack of understanding of the mode of reality of phenomena conjoined with deluded views of a wrong philosophy.

Parikalpita bala/ Power of imputation. Lack of attachment towards all outer and inner phenomena; having seen all

phenomena as being empty and lacking self nature through wisdom combined with concentration (samadhi).


A monastery established in the Wood-Tiger year (1794) located to the south-west of the Potala palace in Lhasa Tagtra Rinpoche was the chief Lama of this monastery. Two masters of this lineage have been regents of Tibet.


Seven abandonments of the truth of origin. The seven things abandoned by a person having seen the truth of origin of all sufferings within this desire realm. These are: 1. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 2. འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 3. ང་།

pratigha/ hatred-anger 4. ང་ལ། mana/ pride 5. ་མ། vicikitsa/ doubt 6. ག་། mithyadrsti/ wrong views 7. ་བ་མག་ན། drstiparamarsa/ views holding wrong moral disciplines as superior.


Literally 'all-shaking'. This refers to the central energy channel. It is called this because the central energy channel is responsible for generating the essential drop, bliss within energy, and bliss from wind-energy.


Samklesa/ Thoroughly afflicted phenomena The six primary delusions (see rtza-nyon drug) and twenty near-delusions (see nye-nyon nyi-shu) motivated by cause or intent that motivates.


Samklesa vaiyadanika/ Thoroughly afflicted and purified phenomena. The ever-afflictive and the ever-wholesome side of phenomena The truth of suffering and origin are the ever-


afflictive and the truth of cessation and path are the ever-wholesome side.


Samklesa satya/ The thoroughly afflicted phenomena This refers to the truth of origin of suffering.


The fourteen faculties of the ever-afflicted phenomena 1-6. ག་་དབང་་ནས་ད་་དབང་་བར་བ། eye faculty to mental faculty. 7. ་དབང་ purusendriya/ faculty of maleness 8. ་དབང་། strindriya/ faculty of femaleness 9. ག་་དབང་ jiviendriya/ faculty of life-force 10. བ་བ་དབང་། sukhendriya/ faculty of joy 11. ག་བལ་་དབང་། duhkhendriya/ faculty of suffering 12. ད་བ་དབང་། sauamasyendriya/ faculty of mental pleasure 13. ད་་བ་དབང་། daurmanasyendriya/ faculty of mental displeasure 14. བཏང་མས་་དབང་། upeksendriya/ faculty of neutrality.


The fifty three divisions of ever-afflicted phenomena: 1-5. ང་་། panca skandha/ five aggregates (see phung-po Inga) 6-11. དབང་་ག sad indriya/ six sense faculties (see dbang-po drug) 12-17. མ་ས་ག sad vijnana/ six consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tsogs-brgyad, 1-6)18-23. ལ་བ། ་མད་ག sad samvrta/ six sources of perception (see bskyed-mched drug) 24-29.ག་པ་ག sad sparsa/ six contacts (see reg-pa drug) 30-35. ར་བ་ག sad vedana/ six feelings (see tsor-ba drug) 36-41. འང་བ་ག sad bhuta/ six elements ('byung-ba drug) 42-53. ན་འལ་བ་གས། dvadasanga pratityasamutpada/ twelve links of interdependent origination (see rten-'brel уаn-lag bcu-gnyis).


A. Complete abandonment or thorough release. B. The

primary vein (rtza) of the heart. С A mendicant, a recluse. D. The state of liberation (nirvana).


The universal principle. A. Mind or consciousness. B. Emptiness. С. The god, Brahma D. In rDzogs-chen doctrine it refers to the basic mind, the Tathagata essence or Buddha nature which is the origin of all phenomena within samsara and beyond, or the basis or source of all misconceptions and liberation. E. A tantric text in Nyingma secret mantrayana. Its full name is: byang-chub-kyi sems kun-byed rgyal-po lta-ba nam-mkh'a ltar mth'a-bdus med-pa'i rgyud le'u brgyad-cu rtza-bzhi pa. (Sarva dharma mahasanti bodhicittakulayaraja) Translated by Sri Sengha and Vairocana.


The truth of origin of suffering. All those karma and delusions that become causes for the origination of the impure world and its inhabitants including the human body.


Catvari samvrttisatya guna/ The four features of the truth of the origin of suffering. 1. ། hetu/ cause 2. ན་འང་། samudaya/ origin of all 3. རབ་ས། prabhava/ production 4. ན། pratyayah/ condition.


Asta samudaya satyaguna/ The eight features of the truth of origin. 1. འད་ཆགས་དང་ལ་བ་མ་པ། turning away from desire-attachment 2. ་གནས་པ་མ་པ། non-abidance 3. ་བ་མ་པ། peacefulness 4. འད་ཆགས་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of desire-attachment 5. ་ང་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of hatred-anger 6. ག་ག་ ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of closed-mindedness 7. ན་ངས་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of delusion 8. མས་ཅན་ད་པ་མ་པ། lack of sentient beings.


Tri samyojana/ The three constant fetters; three ever-binding factors. These refer to the three types of delusions that are abandoned upon reaching the Path of Seeing (third of the five paths). 1. འག་་ན་བཏགས། satkayadrsti/ the intellectually acquired view of the transitory collection (of I or mine) that obstructs a person from achieving liberation 2. ལམས་དང་ བལ་གས་མག་འན། silavrata paramarsa/ the view that holds wrong moral disciplines and practices as superior and that obstructs a person by way of taking a wrong path as the right path 3. ་མས་ན་ངས་ཅན། klista vicikitsa/ doubt that obstructs a person by generating a wavering attitude towards the (right) path.


Nava samyojana/ The nine constant fetters; nine ever-binding factors. These are the ever-binding: 1. ས་་ཆགས་པ། raga/ attachment 2. ང་བ། krodha/ anger 3. ང་ལ། mana/ egotistic pride 4. མ་ག་པ avidya/ ignorance 5. ་བ། drsti/ wrong view 6. མག་འན། paramarsa drsti/ view of superiority 7. ་མ། vicikitsa/doubt 8.ག་ག irsya/jealousy 9. ར་ matsarya/ miserliness.


The obscuring conventional phenomena. One of the three conventional truths. For instance, an illusion, a mirage, a cataract (mi-yor), etc., that cannot perform their respective functions properly.


Samvrti sarana/ The conventional refuge; the conventional object of worship, e.g. an image of Buddha Sakyamuni.


The two conventional existences; the two types of relative existence. 1. ཡང་དག་ན་བ། samyag samvrti/ correct conventional truth, e.g. a pillar 2. ག་པ་ན་བ། mithya samvrti/ incorrect conventional truth, e.g. a mirror image.

Samvrti pratijnana/ A. Wisdom that has gained mastery over the five sciences of learning (see rig-pa'i gnas Inga). B. Wisdom understanding conventional phenomena; the discriminative awareness that understands things on the conventional level of truth, e.g. a wisdom understanding the illusory nature of phenomena.


Samvrti satya/ The conventional truth; the relative truth; generally referring to phenomena other than emptiness.

Samvrti bodhicitta/ The conventional bodhicitta; the conventional mind of enlightenment. This includes the wishing bodhicitta (see smon-pa sems bskyed) and the committed bodhicitta (see 'jug-pa sems-bskyed).


The three types of conventional truths. These are: 1. ན་བ་་ ན་བ། conventional nature of the conventional truth. 2.ཡང་ དག་པ་མ་ན་པ་ན་བ། incorrect conventional truth and 3. ཡང་ དག་པ་ན་བ། correct conventional truth. Or: 1. བཏགས་པ་ན་ བ། upacara samvrti/ the imputed conventional existence 2. ས་པ་ན་བ། the known conventional existence 3.བད་པ་ན་ བ།the expressed conventional existence.

Alayavijnana/ The foundational consciousness; mind basis of all; one of the eight types of consciousnesses (see rnam-shes tsogs-brgyad) asserted by the Mind Only school of Buddhist philosophy; believed to be primary and the store-house of all mental imprints.


The point at the heart level where all energy channels are collected.


Samantabhadra pujamegha/ A cloud of Samantabhadra's offerings; in the sutra tradition this refers to the panoply of offerings filling all of space and formed by Bodhisattva's holding one material of offering from which emanates many duplicates, each emanating further duplicates; in the tantra tradition this refers to an offering of non-duality of bliss and emptiness.


In the Nyingrna tradition this refers to the doctnne of Dzog-pa chen-po.


Samutthana/ Motivation; a primary consciousness directed towards a goal. There are two types of motivation. 1. ་ན་ ང་། causal motivation 2. ས་་ན་ང་། actual motivation at the time of action.


Kongtrul Yonten Gyatso (1813-1899). Also knows as Garwang Lodoe Thaye, was born in the Water-Bird year of the fourteenth sexagenerary at Dokham. He compiled The

Jewel Treasure (rin-chen gter mdzod), The Instruction Treasure (gdams-ngag mdzod) and The Secret Transmission Treasure (bka'-brgyud sngags-mdzod), and discovered The Treasure of Knowledge (shes-bya mdzod) and The Uncommon Secret Treasure (thun-min gsang-ba'i mdzod). These are known as the Five Treasures. He composed texts on medicine, poetry and others, comprising almost a hundred volumes in all.

Naga/ A kind of being regarded as belonging to the animal class; believed to abide in subterranean realms, having control over rain, ponds, rivers and soil productivity. Some are helpers while others can bring retribution if disturbed. Often in Buddhist art and in written accounts, they are portrayed as being half man and half snake. Generally serpents and snakes are recognised as nagas.


Nagarjuna/ The great Nagarjuna, founder of the Madhyamaka school of philosophy and of the lineage of the profound teachings of emptiness (see zab-mo lta brgyud). His works include The Six Treatises (see rigs-tshogs drug), Letter to a King (bshes-spring), and Jewel Garland (rin-chen phreng-ba).

The seven spiritual sons of Nagarjuna. 1.། Sakyamitra 2. ་ང་བ། Nagabodhi 3. འཕགས་པ་། Aryadeva 4. མ་ཏང་། Matariga 5. སངས་ས་བངས། Buddhapalita 6. གས་ན་འད། Bhavaviveka 7. བ་དན་དཔའ་། Asvaghosa


Asta maha nagaraja/ The eight naga kings. There are two ways of listing these. A. I. ་ལ་་མཐའ་ཡས། Nagaraja Ananta

2. ་ལ་་འག་། Nagaraja Taksaka 3. ་ལ་་བས་། Nagaraja Karkotaka 4. ་ལ་་གས་ན། Nagaraja Kulika 5. ་ལ་པ་ར་ས། Nagaraja Vasuki 6. ་ལ་་ང་ང་། Nagaraja Sahkhapala 7. ་ལ་་པད་མ། Nagaraja Padma 8. ་ལ་་ཕ་་ཎ། Nagaraja Varuna B. 1-7. as listed in A and 8. ་ལ་་པད་མ་ན་། Nagaraja Mahapadma.


A. Malignant or harmful nagas. B. Lord of the earth. There are two types of these, known as nagas or gnyan. These are spirits belonging to the category of animals or hungry ghost.

A treasure doctrine of the Nyingma tradition, mind-revelation of Rigzin Jigme Lingpa (1729-1798).

The seven treasure texts. The treatises composed by Longchen Rabjampa (see kun-mkhyen klong-chen rab-'byams), a fourteenth century master of the Nyingma tradition. These are: 1. བ་མཐའ་མད། The Treasure of Philosophy 2. ག་ན་མད།

The Greater Vehicle Treasure 3.ད་བན་མད། The Wish Granting Treasure 4. མན་ངག་མད། The Treasure of Transmission 5. ས་དངས་མད། The Treasure of Reality 6. གནས་གས་མད། The Treasure of Nature 7. ག་ན་མད། The Treasure of Words and Meanings.


The great master Longchen Rabjampa (see kun-mhyen klong-chen rab-'byams).


The Centrists. A transmission of Atiyoga practice within rDzogs-chen doctrine, the lineage of which comes from Longde Dorje Zampa, Acarya Sri Simha the great translator,

Vairocana and others. This doctrine professes that within the self-arisen primordial wisdom, i.e. the subjective ever wholesome wisdom, all appearances of objective phenomena dissolve into their own mode of appearance. Since both subjective wisdom and the objective phenomena do not exist as being subject and object, therefore, without applying analysis as to whether they are existent or not, all phenomena are by nature established in their primordial state of liberation and unlimited sphere of reality.


Tapas/ Asceticism; austere practices.


The three lay masters of Sakya tradition. 1. Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158) 2. Sonam Tzemo (1142-1182) 3. Jetsun Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1158).

The power of the white seed. The strong determination to collect merit and eliminate obstacles in order to develop an enlightened attitude; one of the five powers (see stobs-lnga); the wish to be able to develop the enlightened attitude in one's future lifetimes, generated at the time of death.

White karma; wholesome karma. The process of activity whereby happiness and fortunate consequences follow as the result of previously committed virtuous actions. Synonymous with all virtuous actions.

Catvari sukladharma/ The four white actions; the four wholesome actions. The four virtuous actions producing white karmic results which prevent the degeneration of

bodhicitta, the enlightened motive of a Bodhisattva, namely: 1. ག་གམ་ཐན་བཞད་གད་་ར་ཡང་ས་བན་་ན་་་བ། abandoning consciously telling lies at the cost of one's life or even for a joke 2. མས་ཅན་ལ་ག་་ད་པར་བསམ་པ་ང་ར་གནས་པ། being unbiased in helping all sentient beings without having ulteriour thoughts 3. མས་ཅན་ན་ལ་ན་པ་འ་ས་ད་ང་ན་གནས་ ་བགས་པ་བད་པ། recognizing all Bodhisattvas as teachers and praising them as they deserve throughout the four directions

4. གལ་་མས་་་བ་ག་པར་་འར་བར་གས་པ་ང་བ་འན་་

འག་པ།inspiring all sentient beings to strive for the attainment of supreme enlightenment.


The gods and goddesses of the white side. This includes all divinities that align with the virtuous and righteous factions.


Dhana/ Spiritual material. Offerings made to the objects of refuge, in a temple, to a monastic community or to an individual lama. It can also means offerings misused by a monk or nun or else monks and nuns spoiled by too many offerings.


Mandala/ A. Round shaped, e.g. the full moon. B. A complete feature of something, e.g. of face. С In (antra, this constitutes the complete celestial mansion or abode of a principal deity surrounded by his or her retinue, representing the paths and fruits of that particular cycle of practices. Often mandates may be either painted on a scroll, carved on wood or drawn with coloured sand.


The supramundane victorious mandala . Also called dkyil-'khor rgyal mchog-gi ting-nge-'dzin. Roughly translated as

meditation on the supramandane deity, one of the three stages of meditation on the generation stage practice of (antra, in which one visualizes and places all deities of a particular cycle of practice in their respective place of the mandala by imagining them as having emanated from the essential drop of the principal deity in union with his or her partner.


Buddha vacana/ Teachings or words of Buddha. Either originally spoken by Buddha himself, recorded in any of the three collections (lung-gi sde-snod gsum) or the insight and realizations (rtogs-pa'i chos) within Buddha's mental continuum.


Kagyud Tradition. One of the four Tibetan Buddhist traditions holding the commissioned lineage of Buddha Vajradhara. In Tibet, this transmission was divided into two schools, the Shangpa Kagyud started by Mahasiddha Kyungpo Nyaljor (978-1079) and the Dakpo Kagyud by Lhodrak Marpa (1012-1099). The Dakpo Kagyud tradition was further divided into four sub-schools known as the four major schools of the Kagyud tradition (see bКа'-brgyud che-bzhi) and its sub-school. Phagdu Kagyud developed into eight sub-schools known as Digung, Taglung, Drugpa, Yasang, Trophu, Shugseb, Yelpa and Martsang.


The four major schools of the Kagyud tradition. 1. འབའ་མ། Barong Kagyud established by Barompa Darma Wangchuk 2. ཕག་ Phagdru Kagyud established by Phagdru Dorjee Gyalpo (1110-1170) 3. ཀ་ཚང་། Karma Kagyud established by Karma Duesum Khyenpa (1110-1193) 4. ཚལ་པ། Tsalpa Kagyud established by Tsalpa Tsondru Dakpa, a disciple of Ongom Tsultrim Nyingpo.


Kangyur; the collection of Buddha's teachings translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan, generally consisting of 108 volumes, but the number varies according to different editions.


Kachen; the title or academic degree awarded at Tashi Lhunpo monastery, probably equivalent to the Geshe Degree of other monastic institutions.


Ajnakara/ Attendant; member of a retinue; minister.

A. The collection of Buddhist canons, the teachings of Buddha and their commentaries by Indian master-scholars; the former consists of 108 volumes and the latter 225, varying slightly according to the edition. B. The collection of sacred scriptures.


The Annals; the five prophetic texts. The five texts left as wills by Guru Padmasambhava as discovered by Ogyan Lingpa from Samye and Yeldag in the Wood-Bird year (1285) of the fifth sexagenerary. These are texts concerning: 1. ལ་་བཀའ་ཐང

the king (rgyal-po bka'-thang)2. བན་་བཀའ་ཐང་། the queen (btsun-mo bka'-thang) 3. ན་་བཀའ་ཐང་། the ministers (blong-po bka'-thang) 4. ་པཎ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the scholars and translators (lo-pan-bka'-thang) 5.་འ་བཀའ་ཐང་། the gods and spirits (lha-'dre bka'-thang).


Tri parigrahaka guru/ He possessing the three kindnesses. According to the sutra tradition, this refers to a spiritual

master from whom one has received vows, teachings and oral tansmission, and according to tantra, this refers to a spiritual master from whom one has received initiation, tantric teachings and oral transmissions.


Kadampa tradition. A tradition of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Atisa. Dromtonpa, Potowa and Chekawa are some of the great masters belonging to this tradition.


The three spiritual brothers of the Kadampa tradition. 1.་ང་པ་གན་་ལ་མཚན། Puchungwa Zhonu Gyaltsen 2. ་་བ་ན་ན་གསལ། Potowa Rinchen Sel 3.ན་བ་ལ་མས་འབར། Chengwa Tsultrim Bar.


The Kadampa tradition accepting the three doctrine and four deities (see bka'-gdams lha-chos bdun) passed down from Dromtonpa to'Je Tsong Khapa.


The Kadampa's teachings. These constitute the basic view or philosophy as transmitted by the founder of the Kadampa tradition, Atisa, to Chen-ngawa on the Four Noble Truths, the transmission of teachings on dependent arising as transmitted by Phuchungba, and the teachings on the two truths (conventional and ultimate) as transmitted by Naljorpa.


The father and son transmission of Kadampa doctrine. The secret transmission of the Kadampa tradition, rooted in Atisha as received by Dromtonpa Gyalwe Jungne, is known as the father-transmission (pha-chos): that received by Ngog Loden

Sherab and Khuton Tsondm is known as the son-transmission (bu-chos).


The ten innermost jewels of the Kadampa tradition. A. གཏད་པ་བ། The four entrustments: 1. ་གས་ས་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to the dharma as the simplest way of thought 2. ས་གས་ང་ལ་གཏད།

entrusting yourself to poverty as the simplest way of practising dharma 3. ང་གས་་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to death as the extreme consequence of poverty 4. ་གས་ག་་མ་་ལ་གཏད། entrusting yourself to an empty cave as the simplest place to die. B. ་་གམ། The three diamond hard resolutions: 1. བས་ད་་། the resolution to reject objections

from parents, etc. to one's practising in seclusion 2. ལ་ད་་། the resolution to face embarrassment 3. ་ས་་་དང་འགས་པ། the resolution to abide by promised practices. С ད་གས་བ་གམ། The three-expulsion, finding and attaining: 1. ་ལ་ནས་ད། self expulsion from human society 2. ་ལ་གས། finding the company of dogs 3. ་ལ་བ། attaining heavenly status.


The Kadampa palace, name of two chambers at Radreng and Tashi Lhunpo.


Kadampas of the instruction lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Chen-ngawa to Jayulwa, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with the Heart Sutra of Dependent Origination and oral transmission of the masters.


The fundamental texts of Kadampa tradition. Entering the Two Truths ་བན་གས་ལ་འག་པ and Instruction on Middle View

ད་མ་མན་ངག composed by Atisa, primarily concerning the middle way teaching; Lamp of Essential Moral Conduct ད་བས་ན་། and Essential Conduct ད་བས། primarily concerning activity or behavior; and Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment ང་བ་ལམ་ན། concerning both.


The six texts of Kadampa tradition. Treatises which formed the fundamental basis of practice of the past Kadampa masters. These are: Life Stories of Buddha ས་རབས། and Specific Teachings ད་་བད་པ་མས། for inspiring faith and devotion; Bodhisattva Grounds ང་ས། and Ornament of Collection of Sutras མ་་ན for producing meditative concentration; and Guide to Bodhisattva's Way of Life ད་འག and Compendium of Precepts བབ་བས། for developing wholesome behavior.


Kadampas of the textual lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Geshe Potowa to Sharawa, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with the major texts of the Kadampa tradition (see bka'-gdams gzhung-drug).


Kadampas of the path lineage. The lineage of Kadampa teachings coming from the Kadampa master Gonpowa to Neuzur, primarily based on study and practice of the Graded Path teachings combined with miscellaneous texts of the Kadampa tradition.


The four deities of the Kadampa tradition; the four divinities

of the Kadampas. 1. བ་པ། Buddha Sakyamuni 2. ན་རས་གགས། Avalokitesvara 3.་ལ་མ། Тага 4. ་ག་བ Acala.


The four deities and three texts of the Kadampa tradition. 1-4. (see bka'-gdams lha-bzhi). 5-7. (see sde-snod gsum).


The New Kadampa. The lineage of teachings directly originating from Tsong Khapa, based on the examples of the life and deeds of past Kadampa masters inclusive of the middle way view and secret mantrayana paths. This refers to the Gelug tradition.


The Three Buddhist Councils. The first council was held during the same summer of the Buddha's passing into parinirvana at Rajagrha sponsored by King Ajatasatru, in which Ananda recited the collection of Sutra teachings and Upali recited the collection of Abhidharma teachings. The second council was held 110 years after Buddha's pannirvana at Vaishali sponsored by King Ashoka. At that time, monks, especially from Magadha, who had transgressed their vows were expelled and thus the code of monastic discipline was revised. The third council was held at Pataliputra 137 years after Buddha's passing into parinirvana during the reign of King Kaniska. The purpose of this council was to create harmony amongst the different schools of philosophy.


The five major texts. The five subjects of Buddhist philosophy studied in the Geshe Degree curriculum in the great monastic universities of Tibet and India. 1. ཕར་ན། prajnaparamita/ Perfection of Wisdom 2. ད་མ། madhyamaka/

Middle Way 3. ཚད་མ Pramana/ Valid Cognition 4. མཛད། Abhidharma/ Treasure of Knowledge 5. འལ་བ། Vinaya/ Monastic Discipline.


A. The four great disciples of Marpa: 1. ག་ས་་་། Ngog Choku Dorje 2. མཚར་ན་དབང་་་། Tsurton Wangi Dorje 3. ས་ན་ན་། Meton Chenpo 4. ་ལ་རས་པ། Milarepa. B. The four commissioned lineages: 1. ་ས་དང་འ་བ་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of illusory body and consciousness transference 2. ་ལམ་་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of dreams 3. ད་གསལ་་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of clear light mind 4. གམ་་བཀའ་བབ། the yoga of psychic heat.


Kazhipa. A Geshe Degree conferred on someone who has merely studied and fulfilled the requirements of an examination after completing his study on the Perfection of Wisdom (phar-phyin), the Middle Way View (dbu-ma), the Monastic Discipline ('dul-ba) and the Treasure of Knowledge (mdzod).


Oral transmission; prophesy; prediction.


Pravasravanodaka cittotpada/ Fountain-water-like Bodhimind. The bodhicitta or motive of enlightenment associated with the power of retention (see gzungs/ dharani) and confidence possessed by the Bodhisattva on the three pure grounds, i.e. the 8th, 9th and 10th grounds.


Asta mahgalacihna/The auspicious signs; the eight auspicious emblems. 1. གགས chattra/ an umbrella 2. དར་ཉ།

suvarnamatsya/ a pair of golden fish 3.་མ་པ། kalasa/ a treasure vase 4. པད་མ། padma/ a lotus 5. ང་དཀར saiikha/ a white conchshell with whorls turning to the right 6. དཔལ་། srivatsa/ an endless knot 7. ལ་མཚན། dhvaja/ a banner of victory 8. འར་། dharmacakra/ a wheel of doctrine.


Asta marigala dravya/ The eight lucky articles; the eight auspicious substances. 1. ་ང་། adarsa/ a looking-glass/ mirror 2.་ཝང་། gorocana/ medicinal concretion from the brains of elephants 3. ། dadhi/ curd 4.་དར་བ། durva/ fine

green grass 5. གན་ག་ལ་བ། bilva/ sriphala/ a wood-apple 6. ང་དཀར་གཡས་འལ། daksinavartasaiikha/ a right-whorled

conchshell 7. ་ sindhura/ vermillion 8. ངས་དཀར། sarsapa/ white mustard seed.


Human thighbone trumpet; femur trumpet. This is used as a ritual implement in certain tantric practices of exorcism to remind one of death and impermanence.


Rsi Aksapada/ Rishi Akshapada. Founder of the non-Buddhist school of philosophy called Nyaya (see rig-pa can-pa).


Steyasarhvasika/ Living a lie. The lifestyle of living like a monk without having received monk vows; or without changing one's heart, even though one has externally taken the vows.


Lalana/ The left energy channel. The left channel in our body which is white in colour and stands adjacent to the central channel. It runs from the level of The eyebrows to the point

between the navel. The specific details vary according to the lineage of the practice concerned.


Pratyaya/ Conditions. Conditions or circumstances which are a necessary prerequisite for a cause to produce an effect.


Tri pratyayah/ The three types of conditions. 1. ག་བ་ད་པ་ན།

nriha pratyaya/ unchanging condition 2. ་ག་པ་ན། anitya pratiyaya/ impermanent condition 3. ས་པ་ན།

samartha pratyaya/ effective condition.


Catvari pratyayah/ The four conditions; the four conditions for a cognition. 1. ་ན། hetu pratyaya/ causal condition 2. དགས་ན། alambana pratyaya/ objective condition 3. བདག་ན། adhipati pratyaya/ fundamental condition 4. ་མ་ཐག་ན།

samanantara pratyaya/ immediate condition.


Paroksa/ Hidden phenomenon; obscure phenomenon. A phenomenon that cannot initially be cognized by a direct perception but can only be understood by an inference generated in dependence upon a correct reason, e.g.

impermanence of a vase.


Paroksa dharma/ The secret transmission. Oral transmission of certain doctrines handed down by Lamas only to ripe and deserving disciples.


Ekaksana/ Momentary. An impermanent thing—the definition of impermanence.


Ksanikaprayoga/ The momentary training; the training of a single-instant; the yoga of the last moment before enlightenment. The seventh of the eight topics (see dngos-po brgyad), exclusive to the path of Arya Bodhisattva.


Catvari ksanika prayoga dharmah/ The four topics that

characterize the momentary training. 1. མ་པར་ན་པ་ད་ག་ར་པ། vipaka ksanika prayoga/ the fruitional or matured momentary training 2. མ་པར་མ་ན་པ་ད་ག་ར་བ། avipaka ksanika prayoga/ non-fruitional or immature momentary training 3. མཚན་ད་ད་པ་ད་ག་ར་བ། alaksana ksanika prayoga/ momentary training lacking characteristics 4. གས་་ད་པ་ད་ག་ར་བ།

advaya ksanika prayoga/ non-dual momentary training.


He who sees the three times; the gods. Metaphorically used for the gods who see the three times (past, present and future) through clairvoyance.


Sabhaga hetu/ Congruent cause; equal-state cause. A cause that subsequently produces something of similar type to itself; one of the six types of causes (see rgyu-drug).


Sad sampanna bhaga/ The six fortunate possessions; six excellent riches. Excellent: 1. དབངག isvara sampanna bhaga/ power and wealth 2. གགས། rupa sampanna bhaga/ physical form 3. དཔལ། dhanya sampanna bhaga/ glory 4. གས་པ། kirti sampanna bhaga/ fame or reputation 5. ་ས། jnana sampanna bhaga/ wisdom 6. བན་འས། virya sampanna bhaga/ enthusiastic perseverance.


Kaya niyata/ Certainty of body; certainty of physical form. The feature of a Buddha's Complete Enjoyment Body (sambhogakaya), who is adorned with the 32 major marks (see mtsan bzang-po sum-cu rtsa-gnyis) and 80 minor marks (see dpe-byed bzang-po brgyad-bcu).


Panca kaya/ The five bodies of a Buddha. A. The five bodies

of a Buddha. 1-3. (see sku-gsum) 4. ་་ད་ svabhavakaya/ Nature Truth Body 5. ་འར་་་ avikara vajrakaya/ Immutable Varja Body. B. In some Nyingma tantra these are listed as: 1-3. (see sku-gsum) 4. ་འར་་་ avikara vajrakaya/ Immutable Vajra Body 5. མན་པར་ང་བ་པ་ abhisambodhikaya/ Fully Enlightened Body.


Dvi kaya/ The two bodies of a Buddha. 1. གགས་ mpakaya/ Form Body 2. ས་ dharmakaya/ Truth Body.


Thangka painting; scroll painting. Traditional Tibetan Buddhist art of painting Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, deities and various mystical representations upon a canvas.


The union of body and mind. The unity of the illusory body and the clear light mind of a yogi.


A. Dead body. B. Relics. С A stupa containing relics or remains of a holy being.


Incarnate lineage. The lineage of successive incarnate lamas or a single incarnation who is such a succession.

Kaya rddhi pratiharya/ Physical miraculous activity. One of the three miraculous activities of a Buddha (see cho-'phrul rnam-gsum) by which sentient beings are tamed and lead to the righteous path.


Catvari kaya/ The four bodies of a Buddha. 1. ་་ད་

svabhavakaya/ Nature Truth Body 2. ་ས་ས་ jnanakaya/ Wisdom Truth Body 3. ངས་ sambhogakaya/ Complete Enjoyment Body 4. ལ་ nirmanakaya/ Emanation Body.


The three bodies of a Buddha. 1. ས་ dharmakaya/ Truth Body 2. ངས་། sambhogakaya/ Complete Enjoyment Body 3. ལ་། nirmanakaya/Emanation Body.


Taking the three bodies of a Buddha as paths. The tantric practice of taking death as the dharmakaya, the intermediate state of rebirth as the sambhogakaya and the rebirth as the nirmanakaya of a Buddha in one's meditation practice.


Abhyakhyana/ Depreciation; underestimation. The assertion of the existence of something that does not exist conventionally, or to under rate somebody's qualities below deserving limits. For instance, asserting the non-existence of the law of causality.


Pandava/ The Pandavas. 1. ལ་ར་བན་པ། Yudhisthira 2. འགས་། Bhlmasena 3. གས་ད། Nakula 4. ད་བ། Arjuna 5.

་བཅས། Sahadeva.


Tri sarana/ The three objects of refuge; the three protectors-Buddha Dharma and Sangha.


Sarana dana/ The generosity of giving protection; the way of giving protection to somebody afraid of or in a crucial situation. One of the three types of giving (see sbyin-pa rnam-gsum).


Tri saranagrahaka upasaka/ a lay person ordained by refuge precepts. A Buddhist layman who has taken formal refuge or vow of precepts to accept the Three Jewels as the ultimate object of refuge for one's life-time. One of the four nominally ordained lay persons (see dge-bsnyen btags-pa-ba bzhi).


The Avalokitesvara of Kyidrong. According to a common belief among Tibetans, the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo once emanated himself in the form of a Gelong and came to Nepal, where he fell a sandal tree in which he is said to have found four self-born images of Avalokiteshvara. The Kyidrong Phagpa is one of them.


Catvari paryanka/ The four cross-legged positions. 1-3. three vajra cross-legged positions (see next) 4. བ་ང་་ལ་ང་། cross-legged position of non-dual bliss and void.


Tri paryahka/ The three vajra cross-legged positions of the energy channels, wind and drops ་ང་ག་་་་ལ་ང་གམ། Synonymous with rdo-rje skyil-krung gsum.

་ད་ །

Praja/ Sentient being; living being. Lit: nine-fold births refering to all beings for they take rebirth from the desire realm within the three realms; the form realm within the three realms; and from the formless realm within the three realms.


Ayatana/ Sources of perception; the senses and their respective objects.


Dvadasa ayatanani/ Twelve sources of perception. A. 1-6. Six outer sources of perception (see yul-drug) B. 7-12. Six inner sources of perception (see dbang-po drug).


Sad ayatana pratityasamutpada/ The interdependent link of six sources of perception; the link of six cognitive faculties. The fifth link in the twelve linked chain of interdependent origination; the period of time when the six sense powers of a foetus first emerge although they are still unable to distinguish objects of sense.


Catvaro yonayah/ The four types of birth. The four types of sentient beings differentiated according to the way they are born. 1. མངལ་ས། jarayu jah/ those born from a womb 2. ང་ས། anda jah/ those born from an egg 3. ད་གར་ལས་་བ།

sarhsveda jah/ those born from heat and moisture 4. ས་ས། upapaduka jah/those born miraculously.


Jati/ The birth-state; birth. One of the four states of existences of a being (see srid-pa bzhi) in genial; for human beings, the very moment of conception in the mother's womb.


Utpattinih svabhavata/ One of the three lackings of identity. Because all phenomena are generated, or come into being in reliance upon causes and conditions, not only does a multicoloured rope lack a snake's existence, but also, it's inherent existence as a rope, as it is the product of many threads wound together. Therefore, it lacks inherent existence.


Janma nirmanakaya/ The Emanation Body of a Buddha by birth. The way a Buddha takes an emanated form of a god, animal, bridge and living beings in order to tame sentient beings.


The ultimate teachings lacking birth. One of the five teachings (see gsung lnga) of a Buddha according to Nyingma tradition. This refers to the inexpressible reality itself which forms the basis or root of all meanings. Consequently, it is also called the ultimate teaching of the unborn truth body (chos-sku skye-med don-gyi gsung).


Ajata mahasukha/ The unborn great bliss. This refers to the state of liberation or state beyond suffering.


Upapattibhava/ The state of birth or existence. One of the four states of existence, e.g. the consciousness that has just connected to the conception taken place in the womb.


A non-Buddhist by birth. Those who hold the wrong view that phenomena exist truly by way of their own accord.


The three types of persons (see skys-bu chung-ngu, spyes-bu'-bring and skyes-bu chen-po).


Adhama purusa/ Person of small scope. A practitioner who merely seeks a higher state of rebirth impelled by fear of the lower rebirths.


Visesakadhama purusa/ The superior person of small scope. A practitioner who has generated disgust of the expenence of this life and has produced an uncontrived or natural interest in a better future life through contemplating the difficulty and significance of finding a human rebirth endowed with leisure (see dal-ba brgyad) and endowments (see 'byor-ba bcu), and impermanence.


Adhama purusa marga/ The paths of a person of small scope. The intent or wish for, primarily, seeking a higher rebirth within cyclic existence (samsara) for the sake of oneself alone.


Uttama purusa/ Person of great scope. A practitioner with

great spirit who voluntarily seeks to place all sentient beings throughout the expanse of space in the state of complete enlightenment (Buddhahood), and who therefore is able to work extensively for the sake of others.


Uttama purusa marga/ The paths of a person of great scope. All paths of the greater vehicle (Mahayana) that are conjoined by resolute intent (lhag-bsam), the sixth of the seven-fold causes and result (see rgyu-'bras man-ngag bdun) transmission.


Anta purusa/ The person of small scope (same as skyes-bu chung-ngu).


Madhyama purusa/ Person of middling scope. A practitioner who wishes himself or herself to be free of the sufferings of cyclic existence and seeks to achieve the state of liberation.

Madhyama purusa marga/ The paths of a person of middling scope. All those paths that are conjoined with a wish primarily to achieve the state of liberation for one's own sake by being disgusted with the marvels of cyclic existence (samsara).


Catvari yampurusa/ Four categories of a person (on the paths). 1. ན་གས། srotapanna/ Stream-winner 2.ར་ང་། sakrdagamin/ Once-returner 3.ར་་ང་། anagamin/ Never-returner 4. ད་བམ། arhat/ Foe-destroyer.


The stages of paths of the three types of persons and the texts that explain these paths.


Pauruseya phala/ Fruit produced by a person. The commonly shared environment and the general conditions of life in this universe as experienced by an individual being, who is dependent upon them.


Jataka/ Life stories (jatakas); rebirth stories. Accounts of Bodhisattva practices that Buddha encountered in his previous lives; a geniune examplary teaching.


Kheda/ Attitude of disgust. A subdued state of mind which is disgusted with the uncontrolled cycle of birth, sickness and death that ultimately desires liberation, thus transforming into renunciation.


Dosa and guna/ Faults and good qualities; merits and demerits.


Kyopa Jigten Gonpo (1143-1217). The founder and one of the foremost masters of the Drikung Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


Class monitor in a monastic university.


A regular class in a monastery where students recite the texts by heart at an assembly after they have memorized them.


Kesonduka/ A false appearance of falling hair. An example of what a person with a cataract seems to see with distorted non-conceptual sensory perception.


Full-length prostration.


The small aeon. According to the Abhidharma tradition, a small aeon refers to the extent of time it takes for the human life-span to increase from ten years of age up to a maximum of eighty-thousand at a rate of only one year every century, as well as to decrease down to a minimum often years of human life span at the same rate, i.e. one year every century. This comes to billions of human years.


Mahakalpa/ The great aeon. According to Abhidharma tradition, every cycle of eighty small aeons comprises one great aeon. This comes to trillions of human years. A great aeon consists of eighty intermediate aeons divided into twenty aeons of formation, persistence, dissolution and vacuity.


Asamkyeya kalpa/ An incalculable aeon. One sixtieth of a great aeon, i.e. the sixty digit number of years in calculation. Thrice this limit of calculation becomes the three great countless aeons (skal-chen grangs-med gsum).


Obstructions. Obstructions caused either by an object, time or nature that do not allow, the visual perception of something.


The three-fold obstructions. 1. ས་་བལ་ན། obstruction by time, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to a duration of time 2. ལ་་བལ་ན། obstruction by object, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to distant location of the object of perception 3. རང་བན་ནམ་་་བལ་ན། obstruction by nature or identity, e.g. not enabling one to perceive something due to the inherent subtlety.

Kalpa/ An aeon; world age.


The two aeons. 1. ན་བལ། The aeon of light (sgron-bskal), referring to that period when the doctrine of Buddha flourishes. 2. ན་བལ། The aeon of darkness (mun-bskal), referring to that period when the doctrine of Buddha does not flourish.


The two-fold aeon. Following the further degeneration of the three-fold aeon, it is believed that people will observe only two of the ten virtuous activities; this period is known as the two-fold aeon and is equivalent to eight hundred and sixty-four thousand human years.


Antara kalpa/ The intermediate aeon. According to the Abidharma tradition, two small aeons make an intermediate aeon. This comes to billions of human years.


The aeons that falls within eighteen intermediate periods. This comprises the three aeons known as the aeon of starvation, the aeon of sickness and the aeon of weapons.


Krtayuga/ The perfect aeon; the excellent aeon. According to the Abhidharma tradition, it is explained that after the origination of human beings in this universe for a long period the system of private ownership did not exist and the people were perfectly pure in their moral conduct committing no non-virtues, i.e. they upheld all of the ten virtuous activities. This period is known as the perfected aeon and is said to be equivalent to one million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand human years.


The earliest aeon. This refers to the fortunate aeon (bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan) during which human beings lived to the age of ten thousand years, and were nourished by natural oil from the ground and unharvested crops such as rice seedlings.


Treta yuga/ The three-fold aeon. Following the degeneration of the perfected aeon, it is said that people will observe only three of the ten virtuous activities; this period is known as the three-fold aeon. This period is equivalent to one million two hundred and ninety-six thousand human years.


The four periods of an aeon: 1. the fortunate (see bskal-pa rdzogs-ldan) 2. the three-fold (see bskal-pa gsum-ldan) 3. the two-fold (see bskal-pa gnyis-ldan) 4. The corrupt age (see rtsod-idam-gyi dus).


Utpattikiama/ The generation stage practice. The tantric practice of transforming appearance, sound and wisdom respectively into a deity, mantra and wisdom of that particular meditalional deity in order to purify the four types of birth along with their latencies.


The subtle generation stage practice. Meditation on the implements of a deity, i.e. the subtle vajra meditative concentration.


The gross generation stage practice. Tantric meditation on the face and arms of a deity.


A limit of calculation. The fifty-fifth fraction of the sixtieth limit of counting according to the Abhidharma tradition.


Complementary fire-puja. A commitment of performing the rite of fire-puja at the conclusion of a retreat on a particular deity in order to purify the omissions and commissions one may have made in the course of meditation on that deity.


Opponent: another view point. Proponents of a philosophical position other than one's own or other than those held by the author of a philosophical treatise, who introduces his opponent's views by the phrase 'kha-chig', then proceeds to refute them.


An oral will. An oral testament given, especially at the time of death, describing how one's affairs are to be handled.


The four surpassing concentrations on colors. One of the eight surpassing concentrations, in which a yogi visualizes the four colors blue, yellow, white and red as radiant and luminous through the power of meditation and thus gains control of magical hallucinations.


Welcoming the day through reciting words of auspiciousness. This refers to the custom of greeting everybody with the words, "Good luck and happy New Year. May you be prosperous forever," thereby offering and accepting bits of chang, and phye-mar, i.e. sweet ground roasted barley.


Avadya/ Misdeeds. All wrong doings, non-virtues and negative activities prone to produce pain and suffering as their consequences.


The two types of misdeeds; two kinds of non-virtues. 1. བཅས་པ་ཁ་ན་མ་་བ། pratiksepana savadya/ proscribed misdeed 2. རང་བན་་ཁ་ན་མ་་བ། natural misdeed.


Avadyavarana/ The obscuration from misdeeds. The ten non-virtues and other wrong doings. These are also called karmic obscurations (las-kyi sgrib-pa).


The four great rivers coming from the four directions of Mt. Kailash. 1. ག The Ganges from the opening of a rock like an elephant to the east; 2.  the Sindhu from the opemng of a rock like a peacock to the south; 3.པ[k+Shu]།| the Pakshu from the

opening of a rock like a horse to the west, which is also known as the Yarlung river, and 4. ་། Sita from the opening of a rock like a lion to the north.


Saptanga sarhbhukta/ The seven features of divine embrace; the seven features of Buddhas in sambhogakaya form. 1. ངས་ད་གས་པ་ཡན་ལག sambhoganga/ complete enjoyment 2. ཁ་ར་་ཡན་ལག sambhuktaiiga/ kissing 3. བ་བ་ན་་ཡན་ལག

mahasukhanga/ great bliss 4. རང་བན་ད་པ་ཡན་ལག abhavahga/ non-inherent existence 5. ང་ས་ངས་་གང་པ་ཡན་ལག sarhpurnakarunahga/ completely overwhelmed by compassion 6. ན་་ཆད་པ་ཡན་ལག anacchedariga/ uninterrupted contuinity 7. འག་པ་ད་པ་ཡན་ལག anirodhahga/ non-cessation.


Lapana/ Flattery. One of the five means of wrong livelihood (see log-'tso Inga), getting someone to give you something by flattering him or her.


Monastic house. A smaller community within a monastic univeristy in which monks from one geographical area live.


Dhatu/ A. A locality, region, domain or realm. B. A family or caste. С Elements or nature. D. Cause or seed. E. Spheres, faculty or senses.


The white and red constituents; semen and blood.

Panca dhatu/ The five elements. A. Generally the: 1. ས། bhu/

earth 2. ། water 3. ། tejas/ fire 4. anila/ wind 5. ནམ་མཁའ akasa/ space. B. In medical tantras and astrology these are identified as: 1. ང་། vrksa/ wood 2. ། tejas/ fire 3. ས། bhu/ earth 4. ག loha/ iron 5.  jala/water.


The natural qualities of the five elements. The earth element has five qualities—sound, touch, taste, form and smell; the water element has four—sound, touch, taste and form; the fire element has three qualities—sound, touch and taste; the wind element has two qualities—sound and touch; and the space element has only one quality—being capable of producing sound.


Astadasa dhatu/ The eighteen spheres of perception. 1-6.

དགས་པ་ལ་་ཁམས་ག the six objects as the bases 1. གགས།

rupa/form2.  sabda/sound 3.  gandha/ smell 4. ། rasa/ taste 5. ག་། sprastavya/ tangible object 6. ས། dharma/ phenomena 7-12. ན་དབང་་ཁམས་ the six sense powers as the reliance (see dbang-po drug) 13-18. བན་པ་མ་ས་་ཁམས་ག the six consciousnesses that rely upon senses (see rnam-shes tsogs-brgyad, 1 -6).


The six elements." 1-5. (see khams-lnga) 6. མ་ས vijnana/ consciousness.


Human beings possessing six elements. According to Vajrayana teachings the rebirth of human beings is superior for tantric practices due to the fact that human being possesses the six elements (see khams-drug).


Catvari dhatu/The four elements (see khams-lnga, 1 -4).


Traidhatu/ The three realms. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ the desire realm 2. གགས་ཁམས། rupa dhatu/ the form realm 3. གགས་ད་ཁམས། ашра dhatu/ the formless realm.


Traidhatu nava bhumi/ The three realms and nine levels. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ desire realm 2. བསམ་གཏན་དང་། prathama dhyana/ first concentration 3. བསམ་གདན་གས་པ། dvitiyadhyana/ second concentration 4. བསམ་གཏན་གམ་པ། tritiyadhyana/ third concentration 5. བསམ་གཏན་བ་པ། caturthadhyana/ fourth concentration 6. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས། akasantya/ infinite space 7. མ་ས་མཐའ་ཡས། vijnanantya/ infinite consciousness 8. ་ཡང་ད akirhcanya/ nothingness 9. ད་ bhavagra/peak of cyclic existence.


Pratijnabhiksu/ A nominal bhiksu; an insincere monk. A person who claims to be a monk without having received monastic vows or by having lost the vows through transgressing any of the root vows.


Semen and menstrual blood; semen and egg. Male and female substances.


The three principal disciples of Atisa the Great. They are ་ན་བན་འས་ང་ང་། Khuton Tsondru Yung Drung, ག་གས་པ་ས་རབ། Ngog Legpe Sherab, and འམ་ན་ལ་བ་འང་གནས། Dromton Gyalwe Jungne.


Catvari bhara/The four burdens. 1. ང་་ར། skandha bhara/ burden of aggregate 2. བན་འས་་ར། virya bhara/ burden of effort 3. ན་ངས་པ་ར klesa bhara/ burden of delusions 4. དམ་བཅ་ར

pratijna bhara/ burden of pledges.

ངས་པ། ངས་གས།

Stambha/ Conceit; pride; arrogance; haughtiness.

The three chapters of total comprehension. This refers to the first three durations of the ten sets of five hundred years being the life-span of Buddha Sakyamuni's doctrine. These three are known as ད་བམ་པ་ the chapter of Arhats,ར་་ང་པ་། the chapter of Never-returners and ན་་གས་པ་། the chapter of Stream-winners.


Cruel-minded; nasty; conniving.

Vaira/ Grudge. Stubbornly holding a grudge and seeking to take revenge.


The surrounding mountains. According to Abhidharma this refers to the iron mountains surrounding the outskirts of the four cardinal directions. The outer circumference of this is said to be three crores six lakhs twenty-six thousand and twenty five (3,602,625) yojanas.


Vaisnava/ Visnu worshippers. A propounder of non-Buddhist tenets who follow Visnu, asserting a permanent and partless


Catvari dhatu/ The four elements (see khams-lnga, 1 -4).


Traidhatu/ The three realms. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ the desire realm 2. གགས་ཁམས། dhatu/ the form realm 3. གགས་ད་ཁམས། arupa dhatu/ the formless realm.


Traidhatu nava bhumi/ The three realms and nine levels. 1. འད་ཁམས། kama dhatu/ desire realm 2. བསམ་གཏན་དང་། prathama dhyana/ first concentration 3. བསམ་གཏན་གས་པ། dvitiyadhyana/ second concentration 4. བསམ་གཏན་གམ་པ། tritiyadhyana/ third concentration 5. བསམ་གཏན་བ་པ། caturthadhyana/ fourth concentration 6. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས། akasantya/ infinite space 7. མ་ས་མཐའ་ཡས། vijnanantya/ infinite consciousness 8. ་ཡང་ད། akirhcanya/ nothingness 9. ད་། bhavagra/ peak of cyclic existence.


Pratijnabhiksu/ A nominal bhiksu; an insincere monk. A person who claims to be a monk without having received monastic vows or by having lost the vows through transgressing any of the root vows.


Semen and menstrual blood; semen and egg. Male and female substances.


The three principal disciples of Atis'a the Great. They are ་ན་བན་འས་གང་ང་།

Khuton Tsondru Yung Drung, ག་གས་པ་ས་རབ། Ngog Legpe Sherab, and འམ་ན་ལ་བ་འང་གནས། Dromton Gyalwe Jungne.


Catvari bhara/ The four burdens. 1. ང་་ར། skandha bhara/ burden of aggregate 2. བན་འས་་ར། virya bhara/ burden of effort 3. ན་ངས་པ་ར། klesa bhara/ burden of delusions 4. ^*r wg*| pratijna bhara/ burden of pledges.

Stambha/ Conceit; pride; arrogance; haughtiness.

The three chapters of total comprehension. This refers to the first three durations of the ten sets of five hundred years being the life-span of Buddha Sakyamuni's doctrine. These three are known as «Я'Ч&гча-пед me chapter of Arhats, 3**г&ча-Щ the chapter of Never-returners and j^SW4*^ the chapter of Stream-winners.

Ff4l ]

Cruel-minded; nasty; conniving.

Vaira/ Grudge. Stubbornly holding a grudge and seeking to take revenge.

The surrounding mountains. According to Abhidharma this refers to the iron mountains surrounding the outskirts of the four cardinal directions. The outer circumference of this is said to be three crores six lakhs twenty-six thousand and twenty five (3,602,625) yojanas.


Vaisnava/ Visnu worshippers. A propounder of non-Buddhist tenets who follow Visnu, asserting a permanent and partless

self. The practice of vase-like meditation and meditation on the syllable OM is asserted as their path of liberation.


The ten emanations of Visnu. 1. ཉ། matsya/ a fish 2. ས་ལ། kacchapa/ a tortoise 3. ཕག་ད། varaha/ a wild pig 4. ་ང་། narasirhha/ human-lion 5. ་མ་ཎ། rama candra/ the God Rama 6. ་ང་། vamana/a dwarf 7. ནག་། krsna/the God Krishna 8. པར་་་མ། rsi parkurama/ the Saint Parku 9. ་་བ་པ། Sakyamuni/ Buddha Sakyamuni 10. ཀ་། Krkici/ the son of a Brahmin.


Vyapti/ Pervasion. A logical relationship e.g., if "X" is pervasive with "Y," then all instances of "X" are necessarily "Y," but all "Y" are not necessarily "X."


Asta vyaptidvara/ Eight types of pervasion. A logical relationship, in which the eight requirements of congruency for two things are mutually inclusive. ན་བ་གས།1.if it is "X" it is "Y" 2. if it is "Y" it is "X" ནབ་གས། 3. if it is not "X" it is not "Y" 4. if it is not "Y" it is not "X" ད་བ་གས། 5. if there is "X" there is "Y" 6. if there is "Y" there is "X" ད་བ་གས།

7. if there is no "X" then there is no "Y" 8. if there is no "Y" then there is no "X".


Sarhskara dhuhkhata/ Pervasive suffering. The most subtle suffering inherent in the very nature of the five contaminated aggregates which, like a magnet, attract suffering directly or indirectly.


Mula vyapti/ Four positive pervasions. 1. ས་བ subsequent

pervasion (see rjes-khyab) 2. གབ། counter pervasion (see ldog-khyab) 3. འགལབ། contrary pervasion ('gal-khyab) 4. ར་བ། downward pervasion (see thur-khyab).


Spharanalambana/ Pervasive object. One of the four meditative objects (see rnal-'byor-gyi dmigs-pa bzhi) of a yogi practising mental quiescence meditation (zhi-gnas) in which the suchness that pervades all existents is taken as the object of developing samatha.


Catvari spharanalambana/ Four objects of pervasion. The pervasive objects of mental quiescence are: 1. མ་པར་ག་པ་དང་བཅས་པ་གགས་བན། savikalpa/ conceptual pervasive object 2. མ་པར་ག་པ་ད་པ་གགས་བན། nirvikalpa/ nonceptual pervasive object 3. དས་་མཐའ། vastvanta/ extreme of existence 4. དས་པ་ངས་་འབ་པ་དགས་པ། krtyanusthana/ perfectly established purpose.


The pervasive wind energy. One of the five principal winds (see rtza-ba'i rlung lnga) located at the heart, it spreads liquids such as blood throughout the body, and is responsible for the movements of the body and limbs.


Disturbing the householder's faith; an act of placing bad impressions about the Sangha community in the eyes of householders.

Six ornaments of a throne; six adornments of a throne. A. 1. ་ང་། an eagle 2. ་གངས་ཀ་ཅན། a water-spirit (naga) with multiple hoods behind the head 3. ་ན། a crocodile-like sea

monster (makara) with a criss-cross ornmental pattern on its body 4. མས་པ་་ང་། a fine looking youth wearing tree

leaves as garments 5.་གས་ཤ་རལ་ཅན། a large unicorn-like animal having a mane of flesh and a single horn 6. ང་་་ན་ན། an elephant adorned with ornaments and holding a vase in its trunk B. 1. ང་ sirhha/ a lion 2. ང་ན། hastin/ an elephant 3. ་མག asva/ a supreme horse 4. ་། mayura/ a peacock 5. ཤང་ཤང་། garuda/ a garuda bird 6. ད་་། vira purusa/ a strong man.


Discourse; teaching; explanation; transmission.


Lineage of a teaching. A transmission of the lineage of a teaching in which a scriptural text is explained word by word from written commentaries and oral tradition.


Oral transmission. A discourse in which a textual transmission is given by the recitation of a text, often with a brief explanation.


The eight great transmissions; the eight great teachings. A.ག་ན་ད་ན་བད། The eight great transmissions on the Great Seal (mahamudra): 1. ་མ་་གམ་་ད། teaching on guru devotion and the three bodies of a Buddha 2. མས་ང་་ད། teaching on love and compassion 3. ་འས་ན་འལ་་ད། teaching on causality and dependent origination 4. ་ན་བད་་གས་པད། the drop of nectar-like five-fold instructions on the Great Seal 5. ན་ག་ས་ར་་ད། teaching on simultaneous brith and unification 6. ་་ས་ག་་ད། teaching on the six yogas of Naropa (see na-ro chos-drug) 7. ས་བད་མ་མས་་ད། teaching on subduing the eight worldly concerns (see

'jig-rten chos-brgyad) 8. གསང་ད་ག་མ་ད། teaching on the reversed method of meditation on secret mantra doctrine. B. ལམ་མ་ད་ན་བད། The eight great texts on the Graded Path (lam-rim): 1. ལམ་མ་ཆན་། the extensive text 2. ལམ་མ་འང་། the midddling text and 3. ལམ་མ་་་། the short texts by Tsong Khapa 4. ལམ་མ་གར་ན་མ། Refined Gold by the Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso (1543-1588) 5. ལམ་མ་འཇམ་དཔལ་ཞལ་ང་། Instruction from Manjusri by the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682) 6. ལམ་མ་བ་ལམ། Convenient Path by the first Panchen Lama, Lobsang Choegyan (1570-1662) 7. ལམ་མ་ར་ལམ། Qmck Path by the Second Panchen Lama, Lobsang Yeshi (1663-1737) 8. ལམ་མ་གས་གང་ང་། Essence of Element Sayings by Dakpo Ngawang Dakpa.


Hasta/ Cubit. 1. The length measuring from the elbow to the main joints of the little finger with the hand in a fist or the length of measurement from the elbow to the tip of middle finger. The former is called the short cubit and the latter the full-length cubit. 2. According to Vinaya, dividing one's body into seven equal proportions, a cubit equals the length covered within two parts of the whole.


Taking a bath. One of the three requirements before a disciple is prepared to enter the mandala during an initiation. A disciple visualizes taking a bath from the water of the ritual vase. This is symbolically done by sipping, rinsing and spitting water just before entenng the hall of mitiation. The other two requirements are making prostration and offering a mandala to the master.


Taking a three-fold bath. A practice of Kriya tantra.་ས་ཡན་ལག་་ས། Taking the outer bath by washing the five limbs of the body, ནང་་ས་་ང་དག་པར་ད་པ། taking the inner bath by purifying the root downfalls and གསང་བ་ས་མཚན་ག་དག་པར་ད་པ། taking the secret bath by casting away all negative conceptual thoughts and imaginations.


Anapatrapya/ Inconsideration; indifference to blame. Lack of concern for the consequences of actions done to others or the lack of any sense of embarassment.


Apatrapyaadhana/ The wealth of sense of concern. One of the seven \vealths of the Aryas (see 'phags-nor bdun). Avoiding committing wrong doings because of sense of embarrassment in regard to others. In other words, one tries to protect the wholesome deeds and avoid committing wrong-doings. This is analogous to the precious minister.


Bhrkuti/ Wrinkles of wrathfulness. A sign of wrath on the nose or brow of a tantric meditational deity.


Khrophu Kagyud Tradition. A lineage of the Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism coming from Phagmo Drupa's disciple Rinpoche Gyaltsab and his younger brother Kunden Repa, through Khrophu Lotsawa, Jampa Pel and others.


Krodha/ Wrath; aggressiveness.


Ten wrathful deities; the ten protectors. 1. གན་་གད། Yamantaka 2. གཞན་ས་་བ་པ། Aparajita 3. ་མན། Hayagriva 4. བད་་འལ་བ། Amrtakundalin 5. ་ག་བ། Acala 6. འད་ལ། Takkiraja/ Kamaraja 7. དག་ན་ཅན། Niladanda 8. བས་་། Mahabala 9. གག་ར་འར་བར། Usmsacakravartin 10. གད་མས་ལ་། Sumbharaja. According to Guhyasamaja these are the ten wrathful deities of the four directions, four intermediate directions, zenith and nadir.


Eleven wrathful deities. 1-10. (see above, khro-bo-bcu) 11. ་་ས་ག Vajrapatala.


The eight terrifying laughs of a wrathful deity. གས་པ་གད་་ཧ་ཧ། Ha Ha as the threatening; དས་པ་གད་་་། He He

as the pleasing; ག་པ་གད་་་། Hi Hi as the elegant; and ལ་ས་གན་པ་གད་་་། Ho Ho as the outshining laugh.


The manner of being in a crowded assembly. One of the manners of visualizing the merit field (tshogs-zhing) in which one visualizes the principal deity in the center surrounded by other masters and disciples forming a circle of a crowded assembly.


Upadhyaya/ An abbot or abbess. The head of a monastery or the principal master from whom monastic vows are received.


Upadhyaya parampara/ The abbot lineage. A. The ordination

lineage of monastic vows. B. The lineage of abbots of a monastery, also called 'abbot lineage' (mkhan-rabs).


A. The master and his disciple. B. The Abbot and Assistant Abbot. According to the Vinaya tradition a spiritual master who fulfills the three qualities of being: 1. pure in the observance of moral discipline as the foundation of all qualities 2. learned in the ritual and rites explained in the Vinayapitaka scriptures 3. extremely compassionate towards the sick and friendless.


Six characteristics of the abbot and assistant abbots in general. 1. ལམས་དང་ན་པ། purity of moral discipline 2. འལ་བ་་ག་ས་པ། knowledge of monastic code 3. ནད་པར་ང་བ་བ། kindness towards sick people 4. ནང་འར་དག་པ། purity of close disciples 5. ས་དང་ཟང་ཟང་ས་ཕན་འགས་པ། benefiting others with dharma teachings and giving material aid 6. ས་་འམས་པ། knowledge of the proper time to give teachings.


A universal meditative concentration free of being biased or sectarian in nature.


Dakini/ sky-goer; sky-walker. Female celestial beings capable of flying through space, residing in a pure land or within cyclic existence. In tantras dakinis are the class of female deities embodying the wisdom aspect of a practitioner who has attained the uncommon siddhi. A goddess born in the pure land of a Buddha is also known as Dakini.


Panca dakini/ The five families of dakinis. 1. ཤར་་་མཁའའག

Vajra dakini to the east 2. ་ན་ན་མཁའ་འ Raina dakini to the south 3.བ་པད་མ་མཁའ་འ adma dakini to the west 4. ང་ལས་་མཁའ་འ Karma dakini to the north 5. དས་སངས་ས་མཁའ་འ Buddha dakini in the centre.


The Heart Drop Doctrine of Dakini. A secret Nyingma transmission of Guru Padmasambhava given to Khado Yeshe Tsogyal that was later discovered by Padma Ledrel Tsal from a treasure (i.e. Terma).


Khasarpana/ A. A practitioner who utilizes the sky as the realm of existence. B. A dakini.


Khasarpana siddhi/ The Siddhi of Khechari field. One who has either attained the eight worldly siddhis (see 'jig-rten pa'i dbang-phyug brgyad), one of the eight common siddhis (see thun-mong gi dngos-grub brgyad), or has the capability to travel into the celestial Khechari fields such as the land of six gods of the desire realm (see 'dod-lha rigs-drug).


The three cycles of Khasarpana dakini teachings of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. 1. ་་མཁའ་ད། Naro Khacho 2. ་མཁའ་ད། Indra Khacho 3. ་ཱི་མཁའ་ད། Metri Khacho.


The Lesser Khasarpana. Those practitioners who utilize space or fly in the sky of the form realm, six gods of the desire realm (see 'dod-lha rigs-drug), human world or otherwise being uncertain in terms of their destination.


The Greater Khasarpana Those practitioners who possess the following eight qualities: 1. ལ་་རབ་་་་ད་དང་། who can transform their body into a size as tiny as dust particles 2. ས་ཡང་བ་ད་དང་། who has a light body 3. འག་ན་གམ་་མཐའ་དག་བ་པར་ད་ད་དང་། who can fly throughout the three realms of existence (see khams-gsum) 4. སངས་ས་་ན་ཏན་འབ་པ་དང་། who are capable of attaining the qualities of a Buddha 5. ་ས་་ང་བ་གསལ་བ་དང་། whose primordial wisdom is penetrative 6. བན་པ་དང་། whose primordial body is stable 7. ་་ཐམས་ཅད་བདག་ད་་དབང་་ར་པ་དང་། who has the power of control over all creatures 8. འད་དར་ར་བ་བཅས་ན་ཏན་བད་དང་ན་པ་མཁའ་ད། who fulfills all wishes.


Khasarpana ksetra/ The Dakini Land.


The lord of the sky, garuda bird.


Khasarpana goddess.


The hungry ghosts travelling in the sky, e.g. the malignant spirits and dwarves (Vrang) of the human world.


Panditalarhbana/ The object of the wise ones. One of the four objects of calm-abiding (samatha) meditation (see rnal-'byor gyi dmigs-pa bzhi). One who has the wisdom to judge his or her objects of meditation with respect to the aggregates, the spheres, the sources of perception, the links of dependent

arising, and those that are and are not suitable to be taken as the object for developing calm abiding meditation.


Раnса panditalarhbana/ The five qualities of a master-scholar. 1. མནག་་ས་པ། extensive hearing & study 2. ན་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over meaning 3. ་་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over diction 4. ས་པ་ག་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over definite words 5. ན་དང་མ་མཐའ་དངས་པ་ལ་མཁས་པ། mastery over interpretation of the previous and latter contexts.


The three activities of a master-scholar. 1. འཆད་པ། preaching 2. ད་པ། debating 3. མ་པ། wnting.


Learned, pure, wise. A person who is knowledgeable in the sciences of learning, is morally pure with respect to the three gates of activity and unsullied by negativities, and has the pure spirit to benefit others.


Jnana/ Knowledge; wisdom; understanding; insight.


Two kinds of knowledge. 1. ་ལཏ་བ་ན་པ། yathavajjnana/ knowledge of all conventional phenomena 2. ་ད་པ་མ་ཀགཧན་པ། yavajjnana/ knowledge of all ultimate phenomen.


Three kinds of knowledge. 1. ག་ས། vastujnana/ the omniscient mind 2. ལམ་ས། margajnana/ the knowledge of paths 3. མ་མན། sarvajnana/the knowledge of bases.


The five knowledges. Same as the five wisdoms (see ye-shes Inga).


The thirty topics that characterize the three knowledges explained in the Ornament of Clear Realization (Abhisamayalankara). These constitute the ten topics that characterize the omniscient mind (see rnam-mkhyen mtshon-byed-kyi chos bcu), the eleven topics that characterize the knowledge of the paths (see lam-shes mtshon-byed-kyi chos bcu-bcig) and the nine topics that characterize the knowledge of the bases (see gzhi-shes mtshon-byed-kyi chos-dgu).


Meditation on the union of the three knowledges/wisdoms. Condensed, abbreviated meditation on the three wisdoms i.e. basic wisdom, path wisdom and omniscient wisdom.


The Khon lineage. The patriarchal lineage of the hierarchies of the Sakya tradition. It is said that a celestial being known by the name Yapang Kye (g.ya'-spang-skyes) tamed Kyareng Tragme (skya-rengs khrag-med), a demon, and accepted his wife Yadrag Silema (g.ya'-'brag si-le-ma) to his court as his bride who gave birth to a son. This being the result of combat between a demon and a celestial being the descendants of this lineage came to be known as Khon, the 'combat lineage'. The present lineage holder is His Holiness Sakya Trizin,. who is based at Rajpur, India.


The confession ceremony for pacifying disputes. One of the ceremonies of the monastic community held at irregular

intervals whenever there is a need to hold such an assembly to pacify a major dispute between Sangha communities.


The six qualities of the wheel of a universal monarch. These are: 1. ར་་འ་བ། speedy 2. གཞན་་འ་བ། migrant 3. མ་ལ་བ་ལས་ལ་བར་ད་པ། victorious over those uncaptured 4. ལ་བ་ལ་་འད་པ། controls those already captured 5. མ་བ་ལ་འཕར་བ། eliminates those above 6. དམའ་བ་ལ་འབབ་པ། debases those beneath.


The seven near precious articles of a universal monarch. These are: 1. རལ་་ན་་། precious sword 2. པགས་པ་ན་་། precious skin 3.མ་ན་་། precious householder 4. ཚལ་ན་་།

precious garden 5. ས་ན་་། precious garment 6. མ་ན་་། precious shoes 7. མལ་ཆ་ན་་། precious bedding.


Panca cakravartin/ The five universal monarchs. These are: 1. ང་ལས་། Mandhatr 2. མསཔ། Caru 3. ་མས་པ། Upacaru 4. མས་ན། Carumanta 5. ་མས་ན། Upacarumanta.


Certainty of disciples. A feature of a sambhogakaya Buddha who only teaches to a circle of Arya Bodhisattva disciples.


Panca bhadraparisadya/ The five ascetics. The group of five disciples who were the direct recipients of Buddha's First Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine at Varanasi. 1. ན་ས་་་། Ajnanata Kaundinya 2. ་ལ། Asvajit 3. ངས་པ། Vaspa 4. ང་ན། Mahanama 5. བཟང་ན། Bhadnka.


Catvari parisadyah/ The four types of followers of Buddha Sakyamuni. 1.མ་པ་་་གས། male and female householders 2. རབ་ང་་་གས། novice monks and nuns 3. ད་ང་ཕ་མ་གས།

fully ordained monks and nuns 4. ད་བན་ཕ་མ་གས། ordained layman and laywomen.


Sampanna parisadLa/ The perfect retinue. One of the five excellences (see phun-sum tshogs-pa lnga); the fact that a Buddha is being encircled by Bodhisattvas who have attained the spiritual grounds and the knowledge bearers (tantrikas).


Sarhsara/ Cyclic existence (samsara). The vicious beginningless cycle of rebirth, fraught with sufferings of birth, sic jiess, aging and death, arising from ignorance as contrast to the state of peace, liberation.


The practice of sarhsara. The practice of forbearance and willingly accepting the pains and sufferings within cyclic existence.


A. The household of sarhsara, family life. B. the queen's



The painting of the wheel of life traditionally depicted on the wall of the portico of a monastery.


The enemy of sarhsara. A. The wisdom realizing selflessness.

B. The state of liberation.


The ocean of sarhsara. The immeasurable and unlimited suffering that seems to have no beginning and no end of its own.


The continuity of sarhsara. The continuity of this aggregate propelled by karma and delusion that knows no beginning.


Samsara dvara/ The door of sarhsara. Karma and delusion.


Sarhsara bandhana/ The bindings of sarhsara. The karma and delusion that binds us within samsaric life.


Sarhsara duhkhata/ The sufferings within samsara. The sufferings of birth, old age, sickness, death and of hunger, thirst and the like.


The leader of sarhsara. The truth of origin of suffering; the karma and delusion that spearheads every experience within samsaric life.


Samsara mula/ The root of sarhsara. The six root delusions that bind us to sarhsara; desire-attachment, hatred-anger, pride, ignorance, deluded views or philosophy, and doubt.


Samsara marga/ The paths of sarhsara. A. The twelve links of interdependent origination (see rten'brel yan-lag bcu-gnyis). B. The non-virtuous activities.


The three paths within cyclic existence; the circle of three paths. 1. ན་ངས་པ་ལམ། klesa marga/ the path of delusions (

that give rise to accumulation of karmas 2. ལས་་ལམ། karma marga/ the path of karma that give rise to sufferings 3.་ག་བལ་་ལམ། duhkhata marga/ he path of suffering that give rise

to continuous generation of karmas and delusions.


Рanca cakra/ The five channel wheel. 1-4. (see 'khor-lo bzhi) 5. གསང་གནས་་བ་ང་འར་། the wheel of sustaining bliss at the secret organ.


Catvari mahacakra/ The four great wheels. 1. མན་ར་ར་བ་ལ་ན་གན་པ། living in a harmonious environment 2. ས་་དམ་པ་ལ་བན་པ། relying upon a holy or spiritual person 3. ན་ལམ་བཏབ་པ། making prayers 4. བད་ནམས་བསགས་པ། having accumulated merits. This is also called the four wheels of the god and men (lha-dang mi-rnams-kyi 'khor-lo bzhi).


The great wheel of four-fold blessings according to the completion stage practice of tantra. 1. ས་ན་བས། blessings of body 2. ངག་ན་བས། blessings of speech 3. ད་ན་བས། blessings of mind 4. ་་ན་ད་་ན་བས། blessings of the suchness.

The three-fold wheels. 1. ག་པ་ས་བསམ་་འཁར་། the wheel of study through reading, listening and contemplation 2. ང་བ་བསམ་གཏན་་འར་། the wheel of abandonment through concentration 3. ་བ་ལས་་འར་། the wheeel of service through activities.


Catvari cakra/ The four channel wheels 1. ང་ཁར་ས་་འར་།

3the wheel of great bliss at the crown 2. %^та'^'ЭТ* Щ %t wheel of enjoyment at the throat 3. >4*Tprwa|W^ Pthe wheel of phenomena the heart 4. 4^TqWTai^ |)the wheel of emanation at the navel.

г;рд;'гл!ч&'Ц'Ц|ад| The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine (see below).


Tri cakra/ A. The three-fold wheels (see above 'khor-lo rnam-gsum). B. The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine, (see below).

Prathama dharmacakra/ The first turning of the wheel of doctrine. The first teaching at Dear Park, Sarnath, in which Buddha Sakyamuni expounded the Four Noble Truths and set forth the basis of the Hinayana philosophy that phenomena have a truly eixstent nature.

Madhya dharmacakra/' The second turning of the wheel of doctrine. The teaching at Vulture Peak (Grdhrakuta) in which Buddha Sakyamuni taught the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, the teaching which is the basis of the Middle View philosophy, introducing the doctrine that all phenomena lack a truly eixstent nature.

Antya dharmacakra/ The third turning of the wheel of doctrine. The teaching at Vaishali in which Buddha Sakyamuni taught the Sutra of Clear Discrimination, the

teaching laying the basis of the Mind-Only School and introducing the doctrine that imputed phenomena lack a truly existent nature, but dependent and thoroughly established phenomena are truly existent.


Cakravartin/The universal monarch. The monarchs wielding wheels in their hands. These monarchs appear only during the time when the human life span stretches between infinite to eighty thousand years.


The three wheels. A. མན་ཆ་མདའ་་མང་གམ། The arrow, sword and spear B. The three turnings of the wheel of doctrine (see 'khor-lo gsum) С ད་པ་་དསང་། ་བ་ལས།་་བ་ལ་གམ། The three circles of an activity, e.g. the agent, the activity and the goal D.ས་ངག་ད་གམ། The body, speech and mind.


The purity of the three circles. The Bodhisattva's practice at the seventh Bodhisattva ground of sealing all the three-agent, activity and goal—as lacking inherent existence in nature.


The lack of conceptual imagination of the three circles. The wisdom that is free of any conceptual recognition of the three—agent, activity and goal—as having any inherent identity of their own, and knows these as being empty or free of inherent existence.


The three modes of yoga; the yogic practice of the triple

ways. 1. ང་བ་་འར་། the yoga of taking all appearances as

the body of a Buddha 2. ་གས་གང་་འར་། the yoga of taking all sounds as the speech of a Buddha 3. ན་ག་གས་་འར་། the yoga of taking all thoughts as the mind of a Buddha.


A compiled treatise. A treatise that is a compilation of fragments on a particular topic from all sutras, e.g., the Ornament of Discourses (mahayanasutralamkara/ mdo-sde-rgyan) or the Compendium of Precepts (siksasamucchaya/ bslab-btus).


The cause or condition of deceptive cognition. A. The ultimate cause of deceptive knowledge, e.g. mistaking all- that is selfless or non-inherently existent as having self or inherently existence. B. The temporary cause of deceptive perception, e.g. misjudging things through defective vision.


The four causes of deceptive perception or knowledge. 1. འལ་ནས་ལ་ད་པ། deception caused by the venue, e.g. seeing trees as running while one is journeying in a boat 2. འལ་་ན་ལ་ད་པ། deception caused by sense faculty, e.g. seeing falling hairs by a person with cataract 3. འལ་་ལ་ལ་ད་པ། deception cause by the object, e.g. seeing a wheel of sparks from swinging a flaming fire-brand or torch in a circle 4. འལ་་་མ་ཐག་ན་ལ་ད་པ། deception caused by immediate conditions, e.g. seeing the surroundings like a ball of fire when a person is in outrageous anger or wrath.


False appearance; deceptive appearance. The mode of appearance of seeing things as different from their actual mode of abidance.


One who has released all deceptions. A person who has realized emptiness through releasing all misconceptions.

Bhranta jnana/ A. Misconception; misunderstanding. Wrong ideas and ways of judging things because of one's misunderstanding or recognition. B. Deceptive cognition. An awareness that is deceived with respect to the object that appears to it (snang-yul), synonymous with apparent direct perception (see mngon-sum ltar-snang).


Resolution by the majority. One of the seven ways of pacifying quarrels and arguments (see rtsod-pa zhi-byed-kyi chos-bdun) within the Sarigha community according to the Vinaya rules. If any dispute could not be resolved through the eight appellate procedures (see mngon-sum brgyad kyis zhi-ba), it is then decided by throwing tooth sticks, and whichever of the sides gets the majority of the sticks is considered the winner.


Pudgala/ A person. Any person, man or creature imputed upon any of the five aggregates. Lit: ups and downs, meaning such beings have both merits and demerits occasionally growing (gang-ba) or waning (zag-pa/ 'jig-pa).


Dvi pudgalatmagraha/ Two kinds of grasping at the self of a person. 1. གང་ཟག་་བདག་འན་ན་ས། sahaja pudgalatmagraha/ innate grasping at the self of a person 2. གང་ཟག་་བདག་འན་ན་དཏགས། parikalpita pudgalatmagraha/ intellectual grasping at the self of a person.


The basis of imputation of a person. The five aggregates comprising form, feeling, recognition, perception and consciousness.


Pudgalasayabhipraya/ Determining the interest of a person. A type of interpretative teaching of Buddha, e.g. the teaching, highlighting the importance of the practice of generosity as the best, in which Buddha's basic intention is to teach the equal importance of the practice of six perfections.


Individual preparation. A ritual and rite for the Sahgha community preparing for their three months rainy season retreat.


The human whispered lineage. The lineage of the three inner yogas according to the Nyingma tradition—Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga transmissions passed to successive disciples stemming from Acarya Padmasambhava and the great scholar, Vimalamitra.


Pudgala nairatmya/ Selflessness of person. In its highest sense it is the lack of inherent existence of person. According to the Vaibhasika, Sautrantikas, Cittamatrins and Svatrantikas

selflessness of person is either the non-existence of a permanent, single, independent person or the non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person. According to Prasahgika the selflessness of person is either non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person or nonexistence of an inherently existent person.


Suksama pudgalanairatmya/ Subtle selflessness of person. According to Vaibhasikas, Sautrantikas, Cittamatrins and Svatantrikas it is the non-existence of a self-sufficient substantially existent person, and according to Prasahgika it is the non-inherently existent person.


Sthiila pudgalanairatmya/ Coarse selflessness of person-According to the Vaibhasika, Sautrantikas, Cittamatrins and Svatantrikas the coarse selflessness of person is the nonexistence of a permanent, single, independent person, and according to Prasahgika it is the non-existence of self-sufficient substantially existent person.


Pudgalatmagraha/ Grasping at the self of person. The misconception of the self of person as being truly existent. The perverted conception of a person being inherently existent.


Twenty-three impersonal, non-associated compositional factors; phenomena that are neither form or consciousness nor a person. 1. བ་པ། prapta/ attainment 2. འ་ས་ད་པ་མས་འག asamjnasamapatti/ meditative absorption without discrimiantion 3. འག་པ་མས་འག nirodhasamapatti/

meditative absorption of cessation 4. འ་ས་ད་པ་བ། asaminata/ one without discrinative awareness 5. ག prana/ life-force 6. གས་མན་པ། nikayasabhaga/ similar category 7. ་བ། jati/ birth 8. ་བ་། jara/ aging 9. གནས་པ། sthiti/sustenance 10. ་ག་པ། anitya/impermanence 11. ང་་གས། namakaya/ collection of names 12. ག་་གས། padakaya/ collection of words 13. ་་གས། vyanjanakaya/ collection of letters 14.

་་་་ད། prthagjanata/ state of being an ordinary person 15. འག་པ། pravrtti/ engagement 16. ་ར་གནས་པ། pratiniyama/ distinct existence 17. ལ་འར། yoga 18. Java/ rapidity 19. ་མ།

anukrama/order/system 20. ས། kaia/time 21. གནས།

desa/ place 22. ངས། samkhya/ number 23. གས་པ། bheda/ group.


Catvari pudgala/ Four types of persons; four categories of persons. 1. ན་པ་ནས་ན་པར་འ་བ། person moving from darkness to darkness 2. ན་པ་ནས་ན་པར་འ་བ། person moving from darkness to light 3.ང་བ་ནས་ང་བར་འ་བ། person moving from light to light 4. ང་བ་ནས་ན་པར་འ་བ། person moving from light to darkness.


Mt. Kailash. Also called the holy mountain (gangs rin-po-che) located in the district of Purang in Ngari region of western Tibet, and is venerated by Bonpos, Hindus and Buddhists alike. It is located ai a height of 6656 meters above sea к Д and is the source of the river Ganges. After every cycle of twelve years in the Horse year, a grand ceremony of special pilgrimage takes place.


The wooden stick used for beating the wooden gong used in a monastery to call the community for a congregation. Also called gandi-the'u.


Gandi/ Wooden gong. A long gong of wood, beaten as a bell to call the congregation of monks and nuns to bi-monthly ceremony, work, mourn at the demise of a fellow monk, and for other emergency matters.


Nava natakabala/The nine features of dance. 1. ག་པ། lasya/ charming 2. དཔའ་བ། vira/ heroic 3. ་ག་པ། asubha/ ugly 4. ག་ལ།

ugra/ aggressive 5. བཞད་གད། hasita/ smiling 6. krodha/ wrathful 7. ང་། karunika/ compassionate 8. མས་པ། adbhuta/ frightening 9. ་བ། santi/ peaceful.


Dancing, drawing and chanting. The three-fold trainings of the monks—performing monastic dance, learning how to draw or build a mandala and chanting of prayers.


The path of significant purification. According to Nyingma tradition, this is the third ground of a Yogi referring to the third level of the Path of Preparation (second of the five paths), where all manifest delusions obstructing the actualization of the clear light mind on the Path of Seeing (third of the five paths) are dispelled.


The eight manifestations of Guru Rinpoche. 1. ་་་། Guru Sakya Senge 2. ་་པ་སཾབྷ། Guru Padmasambhava 3. ་་་མ་ད་ར། GuruNyimaOdzer 4. ་་་་ག Guru Senge Dradog 5. ་་་་་ད། Guru Dorje Drolo 6. ་་མ་ས་་། Guru Tsokye Dorje 7. ་་པ་ལ་། Guru Padma Gyalpo 8. ་་་ན་མག་ད། Guru Loden Chokse.


Guru Padmasambhava. An Indian pandit of the eighth century, and an incarnation of Buddha, who introduced the tantric form of Buddhism into Tibet and is revered by ail traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, especially the Nyingma tradition.


Samnahapratipatti/ Achievement through armour. A Bodhisattva's practice of carrying out all the six perfections within the practice of each perfection. Synonymous with 'Bodhisattva wisdom' (byang-sems kyi mkhyen-pa).


Samnaha virya/ Armour-like effort. One of the three types of efforts or enthusiastic perseverence (see brtzon-'grus rnam-gsum) with which a practitioner would happily endure suffering in order to help liberate others from suffering.


The six goddesses of putting on the armour. These are 1. ་་ཕག་། Vajravarahi 2. གན་་མ། Yamini 3. ངས་ད་མ། Mohini 4. ང་ད་མ། Samcalini 5. ག་ད་མ། Samtrasini 6. ཙ་ཀ། Candika.


Gomi Upasaka. A layman who in addition to observing the eight precepts of the one day vows (see bsnyen-gnas yan-lag brgyad) receives permission to shave his head and wear robes if he so chooses.


Pancordhoa-bhagiya-klesa/ Five fetters with respect to the higher realm. 1. གགས་་འད་ཆགས། rupa raga/ longing desire

of the form realm 2. གགས་ད་པ་འད་ཆགས། arupa raga/ longing desire of the formless realm 3. ད་པ། auddhatya/ mental agitation 4.ང་ལ། manas/ egotistic pride 5. ངས་པ། avidya/ deluded ignorance.


The five constant fetters of the higher realms (see above, gong-ma'i cha-mthun lnga).


The four pure meditative absorptions of the higher (form and formless) realm. 1. གནས་པ་ཆ་མན། aid to existence 2. ཉམས་པ་ཆ་མན། aid to degeneration 3. ད་པར་ཆ་མན། aid to regeneration 4. ས་འད་ཆ་མན། aid to definitive discrimination.


The five pure states of gods in the higher realm (the form and formless realms). Synonymous with the five pure states (see gnas-gtsang lnga).


The meditative absorption of the higher realm, i.e. the meditative absorptions of the form and formless realms.


The lord of the higher realm. This may mean: A. Brahma, the lord of the form realm B. The sensory faculties within the higher realms.


The hard-fleshy foetus. The fourth of the five stages of foetus development of a human being in the womb of a mother during its fourth week when the foetus is just able to resist pressure.


Nilambaradhara/ The one with blue robes. This may mean: A. Sky B. Vajrapani С Saturday (Saturn) D. Mahabala (stobs-bzang) the brother of Visnu (khyab-'jug).


Sudarsana/ The excellent experience. The sixth state of the fourth level of concentration. The gods in this state enjoy ecstatic bliss of body and mind and see the supreme dharma (chos-kyi mchog). One of the five pure states of gods.


Upward-moving wind energy. One of the five energy winds (see rtza-ba'i rlung-lnga) that controls swallowing, speaking and breathing, and seated in the centre of the chest.


A. Ordinary person B. Inferior one С Lethargic.


The eighteen major texts. Eighteen major texts of Buddhist studies in the Sakya monastic universities. 1. ་ར་ཐར་པ་མ། Individual Liberation Sutra (pratimoksa sutra) 2. འལ་བ་མ་་བ། Root Discipline Sutra (vinaya sutra) 3. མན་གས་ན། Ornament of Clear Realisation (abhisamayalamkara) 4. མ་་ན། Ornament of Discourses (mahayanasutralamkara) 5. ད་་མ། Sublime Continuum (uttaratantra) 6. དས་མཐའ་མ་འད། Clear Distinction Between the Middle and Extremes (madhyantavibhaga) 7. ས་དང་ས་ད་མ་འད། Clear Distinction Between Phenomena and their Reality (dharmadharmatavibhaga) 8. ད་འག Guide to Boddhisattva's Way of Life (bodhicaryavatara) 9. ད་མ་་བས་རབ། Root Wisdom (mula madhyamaka karika) 10. བ་བ་པ། Four Hundred Stanzas (catuhsataka) 11. ད་མ་འག་པ། Entering the

Middle Way (madhyamakavatara) 12. མན་པ་ན་བས། Compendium of Knowledge (abhidharmasamuccaya) 13. མན་པ་མད། Treasure of Knowledge (abhidharmakosa) 14. ཚད་མ་ན་བས། Compendium of Valid Cognition (pramanasamuccaya) 15. ཚད་མ་མ་འལ། Commentary on Valid Cogntion (pramanavarttika) 16. ཚད་མ་མ་ས། Discernment of Valid Cognition (pramanaviniscaya) 17. ༐ད་མ་གས་གར། Treasure of Valid Cognition (pramanayuktinidhi) 18. མ་གམ་རབ་ད། Distinction Between the Three Vows (trisamvarapravedha).


Sakya Lama Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1216). A great master of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, said to have taken many previous births as Indian and Tibetan Mahasiddhas. He composed many works including commentaries to the Cakrasamvara tantra, Hevajra and so forth.


The six causes of defamation. 1. ན་་འད་པ། gambling 2. འས་པ་ལ་བ་བ། witnessing public fair 3. ་། laziness 4. ཆང་འང་བ། taking intoxicants 5. ག་གས་བན་པ། associating with non-virtuous friends 6. ནཚན་་ང་་འ་བ། wandering about at night.


Inference by notion. An inferential cognition based on popular convention. For instance, the idea infering that 'that with rabbit' can be called 'moon'. One of the three inferential cognitions (see rjes-dpag gsum).


Valid notion. Something that needs no explanation for it is obvious to all.


The exclusion by notion. A term used in Buddhist logic studies. Any expression or assertion that is absolutely contradictory to common notion, e.g. to call a vase a moon or to state that a human skull is a clean substance.


Asta sitanaraka/ Eight cold hells. 1. ་ར་ཅན། arbudah/ blistering 2. ་ར་ལ། nirarbudah/ broken blister 3. ་ཐམ། atatah/ chattering teeth 4. ཨ་་ར་བ། huhuvah/ 'a-chu' sneezing 5. ་ད་ར་བ། hahavah/ 'kye-hud' crying 6. ད་པལ་ར་གས་པ། utpalah/ utpala-Ике splits (on petals) 7. པད་མ་ར་གས་པ། padmah/ lotus-like spilts (on petals) 8. པད་མ་ར་ན་་་གསཔ། mahapadmah/ big lotus-like splits (on petals).


Sarhkhya/ The Enumerators. Propounders of non-buddhist tenets also called Kapilas, who assert that all objects of knowledge can be enumerated into twenty-five categories of phenomena (see she-bya nyer-lnga). They also assert that the Fundamental Principle which is partless, permanent and the agent of all actions, pervades all phenomena. There are two main schools of Samkhyas—the theistic and the non-theistic.


A curved knife. A curved knife with a vajra handle on the lateral face. A ritual implement held by a tantric deity.


Siddhanta/ Tenets; pholosophical theory. The study of philosophical positions and principles of the classical Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools of thought.


The two schools of philosophy. 1. ནང་པ་བ་མཐའ་་བ། school of Buddhist philosophy and 2. ་ལ་པ་བ་མཐའ་་བ། school of non-Buddhist philosophy.


The four schools of philosophy; the four classical schools of Buddhist philosophy. 1. ་ག་་བ། Vaibhasika 2. མ་་པ། Sautrantika 2. མས་ཙམ་པ། Cittamatra 4. ད་མ་པ། Madhyamika.


The set of actualized results. Birth, aging and death are the set of actualized results in the twelve links of interdependent origination.


Indivisible substances of simultaneous existence. Two separate substances that exist and are produced simultaneously; therefore their origination, sustenance and disintegration takes place at the same time. These two are both substances, and the appearance of one necessitates the appearance of the other, e.g. vase and its colour.


Substances of simultaneous existence. The simultaneity of different, reversed entities—the production, sustenance and disintegration of which takes place at the same time, and are necessarily substances.


The conduct of a Mahasiddha. One of the four ways of utilizing tantric realizations. An adept having actualized the feat of utilizing the sky through tantric practices, complements this with practices of the six perfections

according to tantra, and finally gains a state of three-fold vajra conduct of body, speech and mind of a deity.


A lord of actualization; Mahasiddha. One who has attained supreme realizations of either or both the Sutra and tantra traditions.


Kumbhanda/ A monstorous demigod somewhat like a vampire in western mythology; a kind of spirit.


Entering a corpse. The practice of entering a corpse. An exalted tantric practice through which a yogi having gained control of his energy winds and mind purposely abandons his body and transfers his consciousness into another serviceable corpse. This enables him to maintain his life even after the break up of his original body in order to fulfil the purpose of other sentient beings. The great yogi Dharma Dhode, the son of Lama Marpa, is said to have demonstrated this practice.


The four great releases or liberations. A transmission of rDzogs-chen practice in which four ways of releasing Rigpa (intutive mind) into dharmakaya are explained. These are: 1. ་ལ། Primordial release 2. རང་ལ། self-release 3. གར་ལ། bare release 4. མཐའ་ལ། limitless release.


The six continents. According to Kalacakra tantra these are: 1. ་བ་ང་། moon continent 2. ད་དཀར་་ང་། white light continent 3. ་ཤ་ང་། kusha grass continent 4. འམ་་ང་། probable human continent 5. ང་ང་་ང་། crane continent 6. ག་་ང་། agitated continent. These are also called the six

domains of riches because although the mountains, oceans and continents within the cool ranges do not get light from the sun and the moon, human beings survive by rays of light emanated from their bodies and enjoy as much wealth as the gods do.


The seven continents. 1-6. (see above, gling-drug) 7. འཛམ་ང་ན་། jambu dvlpa/ the world we live in.


Asta ksudradvipah/ The eight sub-continents. 1-2. ས་དང་ས་འཕགས། Deha and Videha around the east. 3-4. ་ཡབ་དང་་ཡབ་གཞན། Camara and Apara Camara around the south 5-6. ག་ན་དང་ལམ་མག་འ

Satha and Uttaramantrina/ around the west 7-8. ་ན་དང་་་ན་་། Kurava and Kaurava around the nonh.


The four continents. 1.ཤར་ས་འཕགས་། Purvavideha to the east 2. ་འཛམ་་ང་། Jambudvipa to the south 3. བ་བ་ལང་ད། Avaragodaniya to the west 4. ང་་་ན། Uttarakuru to the north.


The seven principles of sounds and chanting 1. ག་ས་་་ད་ར་ག drag-skyes like the sound of a peacock 2. ང་ང་བ་ང་ད་ས་མ། drang-srong like the sound of a mendicant 3. ས་འན་ས་་ར་་ད། sa-'dzin-skyes like the sound of a goat 4. བར་མ་ང་ང་ག་བན། bar-ma like the sound of a crane 5.་ན་་ག་ན་ས་། ་ག་ད་ན་ག་་། lnga-ldan like the sound of a kucoo during the spring 6. ་གསལ་་ད་་ར་འར། blo-gsal like the sound of a horse 7. འར་ཉན་ང་་་་། 'khor-nyan like the sound of an elephent.


Gitopama cittotpada/ The song-like bodhicitta. The Bodhisattva motive of enlightenment associated with primordial cognition possessed by the Bodhisattva on the tenth stage, surpassing the practice of primordial wisdom.


Scapegoat. A clay or dough effigy of a person consecrated and sent away as ransom to appease harmful spirits which causes sickness or interference.


The introductory teachings. One of the twelve scriptual categories (see gsung-rab yan-lag bcu-gnyis); teachings given by Buddha to specific people. For instance, the sutra that prescribes the act of stealing as a proscribed misdeed because of the behaviour of Nor-can, the son of a potter.


Adventitious defilement; incidental stains. Usually refers to all obscurations that temporarily obscure the pristine mind.


Nature truth body that is pure from adventitious stains. For instance, the noble truth of cessation within Buddha's mental continuum.


Pratisedha/ A negative phenomenon. An object which is realized through the explicit elimination of an object of negation. For instance, a non-vase thing.


Pratisedhya/ An object of negation. An object of refutation, or that which is to be disproved in a logical argument.


The two objects of refutation. 1. ལམ་་དགག་། marga pratisedhya/ refutation on the path of practice 2. གས་པ་གགག་། yukti pratisedhya/ refutation through logical analysis.


Pratisedhya dharma/ The object of refutation; antithesis. That which is to be refuted in a logical argument, the opposite of the subject and the predicate taken together in a logical syllogism.


Catvari pratisedhyanta/ The four extremes to be refuted. 1. ད་པ་མཐའ astyanta/ extreme of existence 2. ད་པ་མཐའ། nastyanta/ extreme of non-existence 3. གས་ཀ་མཐའ། ubhyanta/ extreme of being both 4. གས་ཀ་མ་ན་པ་མཐའ།

advyanta/ extreme of being neither.


Pratisedhyatman/ The self to be refuted. The self to be refuted, the direct opposite of the selflessness to be explicitly negated when one realizes the true selflessness.


The two kinds of self to be refuted. 1. གང་ཟག་་བདག pudgalatman/ self of a person 2. ས་་བདག dharmatman/ self of a phenomenon.


Pratisedhyarthasamanya/ Meaning generality or generic image of an object to be refuted.


Pravarana/ The ceremony of lifting the restrictions. Lifting restrictions particularly laid down for individual monks

during the three month rainy season retreat; the last day of the rainy season retreat.


The basis of negation. For instance, the vase being the basis of negation upon which the conception of that vase being a permanent phenomena is refuted or expelled.


Refutation, establishment and responding to an assertion. A traditional scholarly means of refuting the stand of others, through establishing one's own position and responding to the criticism of one's own position. A systematic debate in the study of Buddhist logic should fulfill these three essential factors.


Tusita/ A. The Heaven of Joy. The Tusita Buddha field; the pure land where the future Buddha, Maitreya would give teachings, also called the joyous field of virtue and mental happiness (dga'-ldan yid-dga' chos-'dzin); one of the six heavens of the gods of desire realm. It is also known to be the heaven for Bodhisattvas obstructed by a single birth from attaining Buddhahood. B. The Ganden monastery founded by JeTsong Khapain 1408.


The Mahamudra of the Gelug tradition. A transmission of developing calm abiding and penetrative insight meditation by taking one's mind as the object of meditation in the Gelug tradition as a means to finding the right view through meditation.


The holder of Ganden throne; the successor to the throne of Je Tsong Khapa


Immeasurable joy. One of the four immeasurables (see tsad-med bzhi). A meditation on joy in which one takes immeasurable sentient beings as one's object of meditation and wishes them never to be separated from a genuine Happiness free of suffering.


The four joys. The joys experienced through the flow of melting regenerative fluid in stages from crown to secret organ in the highest tantric practices. 1. དགའ་བ། mudita/joy 2. མག་དགའ། pramudita/ great joy 3. ད་དགའ visesa mudita/ exalted joy 4. ན་ས་་དགའ་བ། sahaja mudita/ innate joy.


Pntisarhbodhyanga/ The perfect joy as a limb to enlightenment. One of the seven limbs of enlightenment (see byang-chub yan-lag bdun), the contentment and benefit that is physically and mentally received by the joy of reaching the first Bodhisattva ground.


The miraculous cathedral of four-fold joy. Another name of the Lhasa cathedral. The name was given due to jubiliance shown by man, gods, nagas and spirits at the beginning of the building of the Lhasa cathedral.


A monk disciplinarian. The monk in charge of enforcing the monastic rules and regulations.


Upasaka/ Ordained lay person. A layman or laywoman who has taken any or all of the five precepts—not killing, not lying, not indulging in sexual misconduct, not stealing and not taking intoxicants.


The three fully fledged lay persons. 1. ངས་གས་ད་བན། а full

fledged ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death while remaining as a householder e.g. Marpa, the great translator. 2. ཚངས་ད་ད་བ་ན། a full fledged ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death and leading a

life of celibacy e.g. Candragomin. 3. ་་ད་བན། a full fledged ordained lay person observing all the eight vows of a one day vow holder (see bsnyen-gnas yan-lag brgyad) until death and who wears robes.


The four nominal ordained lay persons. 1. བས་འ་ཙམ་་ད་བན། a lay person ordained merely through seeking refuge in the three jewels 2. ་གག་ད་་བན། an ordained lay person observing only one of the four root vows 3. ་གས་ཙམ་བང་བ་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing only two of the four root vows 4. ་གམ་ཙམ་བང་བ་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing three of the four root vows.


The six kinds of ordained lay persons (upasaka). 1. བས་འ་ད་བན། an ordained lay person (merely) by having taken refuge in the three jewel 2. ་གག་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing only one of the five vows 3. ་དག་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing only two of the five vows 4. ཕལ་ན་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing three of the five vows 5. ངས་གས་ད་བན། a full-fledged ordained lay

person observing all the five vows 5. ཚངས་ད་ད་བན། an ordained lay person observing all the five vows until death, and leading a life of celibacy.


Emptiness of virtue and non-virtue. The lack of inherent existence of both virtue and non-virtue in their ultimate sense.


Sahgha/ The holy community; the supreme assembly; the Sahgha One of the three objects of refuge conventionally represented by the community of monks and nuns (above three or four) devoted to study and practice of the teachings of Buddha, and ultimately, the Sahgha comprises those on and above the path of seeing (Aryas).


The debate courtyard or the main assembly hall of a monastic community.


Creating a schism in the Sahgha community. Causing disunity in the monastic community with at least four people on each side. Such an act constitutes one of the five heinous crimes (see mtsams-med lnga).


The three schisms within a monastic community. 1. འར་་དན། schism by a defection, i.e., by way of diverting devotion to a non-Buddhist teacher and precepts during the presence of Buddha Sakyamuni himself or his hierarchies 2.ས་་དན། schism by behavior 3. འགས་ང་་དན། schism by dispute.

Vimsatih sahgha/ The twenty Sahgha members. The twenty

exemplary Sahgha members comprising 1-5. ན་གས་་། the five stream-winners 6-8. ར་ང་གམ། the three once-returners 9-18. ར་་ང་བ། the ten never-returners 19. ད་བམ་གས་པ། the enterers into Arhatship 20. བ་་་་རང་སངས་ས། the rhinoceros-like solitary realizer (see bse-ru lta-bu'i rang sangs-rgyas).


A Sahgha of different orders. The Sahgha members belonging to different schools within the same tradition.


The five Mahasanghika schools. 1. ཤར་་་་་པ། Purvasaila 2. བ་་་་། Aparasaila3. གངས་་་་། Himavata 4. འག་ན་ལས་འདས་པར་་བ་།

Lokottaravadin 5. ག་པར་་བ་། Prajnapativadin.


The two honourable classes of Sahgha. 1. རབ་ང་ད་འན་་། the ordained monks 2. ས་དཀར་ང་་ཅན་་། the tantrikas bearing matted hair knots on their head, as were honoured by King Tri Ralpa Chen, who spread two silken scarves bound to his head and let a member of each class of Sahgha be seated on these scarve cushions as a mark of his respect and devotion to them.


The honoured Sahgha, referring to the community of monks and nuns who hold moral disciplines as laid down in the Vinaya teachings.


The four-fold Sahgha members. A group of four fully ordained monks already on the paths of attainments or a gathering of four fully ordained monks in their ordinary state

having received their Biksu ordination by means of four-fold requests.


The three Saiigha members. 1. ་་་་ད་འན། the ordinary fully ordained Saiigha member—a group of four or more ordinary saiigha members who have all received their full ordination of a Biksu by means of four-fold requests 2. བ་པ་ད་འན། Saiigha member on the path of a trainee—any Saiigha member who is on or above the stream-winner's path, up to the path leading to Arhatship 3. ་བ་པ་ད་འན། Sangha member on the path of no-more learning—a person who has already attained the state of an Arhat.


The five prayers of Gelug tradition. 1. བཟང་ད་ན་ལམ། Prayer of Good Deeds 2. མས་ན། Prayer of Buddha Maitreya 3. ག་འཐའ་མ། Prayer of Beginning and the End 4. བ་ན Prayer of the Blissful Fields 5. ད་འག་ན་ལམ། Prayer of the Deeds of a Bodhisattva.


Dasakusalani/ The ten virtues. 1. ག་གད་ང་བ། pranatighatad virati/ abandoning the act of killing 2. མ་ན་པར་ན་པ་ང་བ། adattadanad virati/ abandoning the act of stealing 3. ག་གམ་ང་བ། kamamithyacarad virati/ abandoning the act of indulging in sexual misconduct 4. ན་ང་བ། mrsavadat prativirati/ abandoning the act of telling a lie 5. ་མ་ང་བ། paisunyat prativirati/ abandoning the act of slandering 6. ག་བ་ང་བ།

panisyat prativirati/ abandoning the act of using harsh words 7. ངག་འལ་ང་བ། Sarhbhinna pralapat prativirati/ abandoning the act of indulging in idle gossip 8. བབ་མས་ང་བ། abhidhyayah prativirati/ abandoning the act of being coveteous 9. གད་མས་ང་བ། vyapadat prativirati/ abandoning the act of harming others 10. ག་་ང་བ། mithyadrsteh

prativirati/ abandoning upholding wrong views or philosophies.


Eka dasa kus'alani/ Eleven virtuous mental factors. 1. དད་པ། sraddha/ faith 2. ་ཚ་ས་པ། sense of shame 3. ལ་ད་པ། apaltavyam/ sense of dread of blame 4. འད་ཆགས་ད་པ། alobha/ lack of desire 5. ་ང་ད་པ། advesa/ lack of hatred 6. ག་ག་ད་པ། amoha/ lack of stupidity 7. བན་འས། virya/ virtuous effort 8. བག་ད། apramada/ conscientiousness 9. ན་ངས། prasrabdhi/ suppleness 10. བཏང་མས། upeksa/ equanimity 11 མ་པར་་འ་བ། ahirhsa/ not harming others.


Dvadasa kusalavi/ The twelve virtues. 1. ་་ད་་ད་བ། svabhavakusala/ natural virtue 2. འལ་བ་ད་བ། sambandhakusala/ associate virtue 3. ས་་འལ་བ་དབ།

anubandhakusala/ concordant virtue 4. ན་ང་་ད་བ། samutthanakusala/ motivated virtue 5. ན་དམ་་ད་བ། paramarthakusala/ ultimate virtue 6. ་བས་བ་པ་ད་བ། upapattipratilambhikakusala/. virtue aquired by birth 7. ར་བ་ད་བ། prayogakusala/ virtue acquired through learning 8. ཕན་འགས་པ་ད་བ། upakarikusala/ beneficial virtue 9.ང་་འན་པ་ད་བ། parigrahakakusala/ fully acquired virtue 10. གན་་ད་བ། pratipaksakusala/ antidotal virtue 11. ་བར་་བ།ི་ད་བ། upasamakusala/ fully pacified virtue 12. ་མན་་ད་བ། nisyandakusala/ virtue congruent to its cause.


The two virtuous suchnesses; the two wholesome realities. 1.

གང་ཟག་་བདག་ད། pudgalanairatmya/ selflessness of a person 2. ས་་བདག་ད། dharmanairatmya/ selflessness of a phenomenon.


The three root virtues. 1. འད་ཆགས་ད་པ་ད་བ་་བ། alobha/ root virtue devoid of desire 2. ་ང་ད་པ་ད་བ་་བ། advesa/ root virtue devoid of hatred 3. ག་ག་ད་པ་ད་བ་་བ། amoha/ root virtue devoid of mental stupidity.


The two mental virtues; the two virtuous minds. 1. ས་བ་་ད་བ། virtuous mind by birth 2. ར་ང་་ད་བ། virtuous mind by training.


Kalyanamitra/ Spiritual master; spiritual friend; religious teacher; a Guru.


Dasa kalyanamitra guna/ The ten qualities of a spiritual master; the ten requisites of a Mahayanist teacher. l. ག་པ་ལ་མས་་བབ་པས་ལ་བ། being humble due to his higher training of morality 2. ག་པ་ང་་འན་་བབ་པས་་བ། being calm due to his higher training of concentration 3. ག་པ་ས་རབ་་བབ་པས་་པར་་བ། being pacified due to his higher training of wisdom 4. ང་་ན་ཏན་ས་ག་པ། being rich in oral transmission 5. ང་པ་ད་གས་པ། having realized emptiness 6. བ་མ་ལས་ན་ཏན་ག་པ། being more learned than his students 7.་མཁས་པ། being skillful in preaching 8. བ་བ་དང་ན་པ། being compassionate 9. བན་འས་དང་ན་པ། being hard working 10. ་ངལ་ང་པ། having no regrets or lamentation.


Nine attitudes of relying on a Guru/ spiritual master. 1. ་མཛངས་པ་་་མས། attitude Uke that of a wise son 2. ་་་་མས། vajra-like attitude 3. ས་ག་་་མས། attitude like the

foundational ground 4. ར་ག་་་་་མས། attitude like the surrounding mountain 5. ན་གག་་་མས། attitude like that of a servant 6. ག་པ་་་མས། attitude like that of a staircase 7. ་་་་མས། attitude like that of a watch-dog 8. ག་དར་་་ནས། attitude like that of a broom 9. གས་བཟང་་་་མས། attitude like that of a good friend.


The eleven virtuous levels of thought (see dge-ba bcu-gcig). These eleven levels of thought accompany a perfect virtuous state of mind.


Sramana/ A practitioner of virtue. A general name for any person ordained as a novice monk or nun, or a fully ordained monk or nun or the whole Sahgha, who have vowed to attain the state of liberation by means of observing the precepts of the individual liberation vows (pratimoksa) in his or her endeavour to eliminate delusions and pacify sufferings within samsara.


The four precepts of a monk; the four principles of a monk. 1. ག་ཡང་ར་་ག་བ། akrustena na pratyakrostitavyam/ not to scold another although being scolded 2. ས་ང་ར་་་བ། rositena na praiirositavyam/ not to become angry when incited to anger 3. བགས་ང་ར་་ག་པ། tadite na prativaditavyam/ not to hit another in return when being hit 4. མཚང་ས་ང་ར་མཚང་་འ་བ།

bhanditena na pratibhanditavyam/ not to reveal another's faults when he does so.


The four fruits of a trainee. ན་་གས་པ་འས་། the fruit of a Stream-winner 2. ར་ང་བ་འས་། the fruit of a Once-

returner 3. ར་་ང་བ་འས་། the fruit of a Never-returner 4. ད་བམ་པ་འས་། the fruit of an Arhat.


The fruit of a trainee. The path of thorough liberation which is compositional and the truth of cassation that is a non-compositional attainment.


Mula kusala/ The root of virtue. Any wholesome act or practice such as of giving and honouring that results in happiness and benefit.


Sramanera/ A novice monk. A monk observing thirty-six precepts according to the pratimoksa vows (dge-tsul-gyi blang-'das so-drug).


Dasa sramanera prahatavya dharma/ The ten precepts of a novice monk; the ten limbs of abandonment for a novice. 1. ག་གད་ང་བ། pranatighatad virati/ to avoid taking life 2. མ་ན་པར་ན་པ་ང་བ། adattadanad virati/ to avoid stealing 3. ་གཙང་ད་ང་བ། kamamithyacarad virati/ to avoid engaging in sexual misconduct 4. ན་ང་བ། mrsavadat virati/ to avoid telling lies

5. ས་ར་ང་བ། madyapana virati/ to avoid taking intoxicants

6. གར་གས་ང་བ། nataka virati/ to avoid dancing, etc. 7. འང་གས་ང་བ། malaya virati/ to avoid wearing garlands, etc. 8. མལ་ན་་མ་ང་བ། ucchaiayana mahasayana virati/ to avoid using high and luxurious beds and seats 9. ས་ན་ཁ་ཟས་ང་བ། vikata bhojana virati/ to avoid taking untimely food 10. གར་དལ་ན་པ་ང་བ། jataruparajata virati/ to avoid accepting gold

and silver.


The thirty-six precepts of a novice monk. 1. ་གད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid killing a human being 2. to ད་འ་དང་བཅས་པ་བག་པ་ང་བ། to avoid harming living beings 3. ད་འ་དང་བཅས་པ་ད་པང་བ། to avoid using water containing living creatures 4. ད་འ་གད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid killing animals 5. མ་ན་པ་ན་པ་ང་བ། to avoid stealing 6. ་གཙང་ད་ང་བ། to avoid indulging in sexual misconduct 7. ན་་བ་ང་བ། to avoid telling lies (about superhuman attainment) 8. ག་ད་ར་འབས་ང་བ། to avoid accusing a bhiksu or novice groundlessly of a defeat (pham-pa) 9. བག་ཙམ་་ར་༔བས་ང་བ། to avoid deprecating a bhiksu or novice by insinuation 10. ད་འན་འན་འད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid creating schism in the Sahgha community 11. ་ས་གས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid following such a faction 12. མ་པ་བན་འན་པ་ང་བ། to avoid disturbing the householders' faith 13. ས་བན་་ན་ང་བ།

to avoid knowingly telling a lie 14. ས་ར་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid making false accusations as a favour to a friend 15. འ་བ་ང་བ། to avoid despising a Sarigha steward 16. ཟས་ང་་ར་ར་བ་འབས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accusing a monk of teaching Dharma for material gain 17. ག་མ་ར་བ་འབས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accusing a bhiksu groundlessly of commiting a remaindertransgression 18. བབ་པ་་ང་བ། to avoid not listening to the advice of an elder 19. འས་ན་འབས་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accepting food that is more than one's share 20. ཆང་འང་བ་ང་བ། to avoid taking liquor 21. ་གས་ང་བ། to avoid singing 22. གར་གས་ང་བ། to avoid dancing etc. 23. ལ་་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid playing musical instruments 24. ན་གས་ང་བ། to avoid wearing ornaments 25. ་དང་ཁ་ག་འཆང་བ་ང་བ། to avoid using colourful costumes 26. ས་ག་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid using aromatic scents 27. ང་བ་གས་ང་བ། to avoid wearing garlands, etc, 28. ་ན་་མ་ང་བ། to avoid using luxurious seats and beds 29. ར་འག་པའམ་ཉལ་བ་ང་བ། to avoid sleeping or sitting upon luxurious seats and beds 30. ་གང་ག་་་ན་ད་པ་ང་བ། to avoid using high thrones or beds more than a cubit in height

31. ར་འག་པའམ་ཉལ་བ་ང་བ། to avoid sleeping or sitting upon high thrones or beds more than a cubit in height 32. ་་ཁ་ཟས་ང་བ། to avoid eating food after noon 33. གར་དལ་ན་པ་ང་བ། to avoid accepting and keeping gold and the like 34. མ་པ་གས་འཆང་བ་ང་བ། to avoid maintaining a layman's way of life 35. རབ་ང་་གས་ངས་པ་་ང་བ། abandoning a monk's way of life 36. མཁན་ར་གལ་བ་བཏབ་པ་ལས་མ་ཉམས་པ། to avoid refusing service to one's abbot and teachers.


The collection of virtues. The collection of merits (bsod-nams kyi tshogs) and the collection of insights (ye-shes kyi tshogs).


Bhiksu/ A fully ordained monk. A monk observing two hundred and fifty-three vows according to the Mulasarvastivadin tradition according to Tibetan monastic discipline.


Panca bhiksu/ The five types of fully ordained monks (gelong/ bhiksu). 1. ང་བ་ད་ང་། bhiksuta iti bhiksu/ an alm

seeking bhiksu 2. ང་་ད་ང་། sariijnabhiksu/ a bhiksu in name 3. ཁས་འ་བ་ད་ང་། pratijna bhiksu/ a nominal bhiksu 4. གལ་བ་ལས་་ད་ང་། jnapati caturtha karmano pasampanno bhiksu/ a bhiksu by four-fold request 5. ན་ངས་དང་ལ་བ་ད་ང་། bhinnaklesatvad bhiksu/ a bhiksu who is free of delusions.


The precepts of a fully ordained monk. The five classes of vows to be observed—the class of defeats, remainders, abandoning downfalls, propelling downfalls and faults, comprising all the two hundred and fifty-three precepts.


The precepts of a fully ordained nun. The three hundred and sixty-four vows classed as eight defeats, twenty remainders, thirty-three abandoning downfalls, one hundred and eighty propelling downfalls, eleven individual confessions and one hundred and twelve faults.


Siksamana/ A probationary novice nun. One of the seven types of individual liberation vow holders, who is a novice nun on two years probation before being ordained as a Bhiksuni, observing the six root dharmas (see rtsa-ba'i chos drug) and the six auxiliary dharmas (see rjes-mthun gyi chos drug) in addition to her novice vows.


The mind treasure teachings. Those cycle of teachings revealed spontaneously from within by a highly realized master and recorded in writing. This kind of teaching is particularly renowned in the Nyignma tradition of teaching Buddhism.


Abhipraya/ A. Thought, idea or view point. B. Honorific for mind. С The essential point. D. Permission.


Catvaro bhipraya/ The four interpretative Sutras primarily stressing the basic intention of Buddha 1. མཉམ་པ་ད་ལ་དངས་པ། samatabhipraya/ determining the samenesses 2. ན་གཞན་ལ་དངས་པ།

arthantarabhipraya/ determining some other

meaning 3. ས་གཞན་ལ་དངས་པ། kalantarabhipraya/ determining some other time 4. གང་ཟག་་བསམ་པ་ལ་དངས་པ།

pudgalantarabhipraya/ determining the interest of a particular



The teaching through symbolic gestures. One of the five ways of imparting teaching (see gsung lnga) by a sambhogakaya Buddha who transmits teachings to his circle of disciples through physical gestures and the meaning is understood by the disciples, A special lineage of transmission as asserted by the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


Complete fulfillment of the thought. One of the four objects of pervasion (see khyab-pa'i dmigs-pa bzhi). The experience of self-transformation from this impure body to a pure body as a result of repeated training of complete attention and familiarity with the chosen object of calm-abiding (zhi-gnas) and pene ative insight (lhag-mthong) meditation.


Monastery; monstic univerity; a hermitage.


A. A recluse. B. A hermit. С Gonpawa, a master of the Kadampa tradition.


Arhat drstiprapti/ Foe-destroyer by correct view; the intelligent Foe-destroyer.


Arhat sraddhadhimukta/ Foe-destroyer by devotion; faith; the less-intelligent Foe-destroyer.


The seven Arhats. The seven early Indian masters who were responsible for the compilation of the seven treatises on knowledge (see mngon-pa sde bdun). They were: 1. ཀ་། Katyayana 2. དག་བས། Vasumitra 3. མ་་་ད། Brahmin Devotsava 4. ་་། Sariputra 5. ་གལ་་། Maudgalyayana 6. གས་་ Mahakausthila 7. གང་། Purna.


The two types of Arhats. A. In regard to their degree of abandonments: 1. ས་རབ་ས་མ་པར་ལ་བ། onе who is liberated by means of the wisdom path 2. གས་ཀ་ཆ་ལས་མ་པར་ལ་བ། one who is liberated by means of both the wisdom and method paths. B. In regard to their status: 1. ཉན་ས་ད་བ་མ་པ། sravaka arhat/ the hearer Arhat 2.ང་ལ་ད་བམ་པ། pratyekbuddha arhat/ the solitary-realizer Arhat.


Six types of Foe-destroyers. 1. ངས་་ཉམས་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer liable to degeneration 2. འ་བར་མས་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer wishing to die 3. ས་་ང་བ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer protecting his state of realization 4. གནས་པ་ལ་་བད་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer immutably abiding in his state of realization 5. གས་པ་ས་་ར་བ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer destined to generation of realization 6. ་འགས་པ་ས་ཅན། Foe-destroyer never liable to transformation.

The three types of Arhats. 1. ཉན་ས་ད་བམ། sravaka arhat/ the hearer Arhat 2. རང་ལ་ད་བ་མ། pratyekabuddha arhat/ the solitary-realizer Arhat 3. སངས་ས་ད་བམ། buddha arhat/ the Buddha Arhat.


The state of a Foe-destroyer; Arhatship. The state of liberation or the 5th path of no-more learning, attained by Arhats after perfecting training of the 4th path. According to Lower Vehicle it is the culmination of four stages of perfection—the Stream-winner, Once-returner, Never-returner and Arhatship, and according to the Higher Vehicle, it is either the state of liberation or the state of omniscience.


The last aggregate of an Arhat. The aggregate of an Arhat who has attained nirvana with remainder (see lhag-bcas myang 'das) as asserted by the schools of Buddhist philosophy of and below Svatantrika Madhyamika.


Arhatphala/ The fruit of an Arhat. One of the four fruits of a trainee (see dge-sbyong-gi 'bras-bu bzhi). One who has released himself or herself of all the abandonments of the three realms to be eliminated on the path of meditation, and thereby has overcome all the foes of the four devils (maras) (see bdud-bzhi).


Arhatphalanisraya/ Abider in the fruit of an Arhat. One of the eight persons of enterer and abider amongst the Twenty Sarigha members. A person belonging to the lower vehicle who has eliminated all the nine delusions to be abandoned on the peak level (srid-rtse) of existence.


Enterer in the path of an Arhat. One of the eight persons of enterer and abider amongst the Twenty Sangha members. One who is engaged in the act or process of eliminating all the

delusions covering the first concentration stage up to the peak level of existence.


Vighna/ Expelling the interfering forces. A rite performed at the beginning of a mandala ritual and initiation, when all those forces interfering with the performance of a mandala ritual and initiation are given sacrificial cakes (gtor-ma) and sent away from the place by way of emanating wrathful deities through generating divine pride.


Alatacakra/ A fire-wheel. A circle of fire formed by swinging a flaming fire-brand or torch in a circle thereby creating the illusion of a flaming wheel.


Pleasing services. The offering of services such as washing dishes, shoe-shining and the like by an individual monk to the Sangha community of which he is a member, for having committed a breach of any of the thirteen remainders (lhag-ma).


The monk who does the invocation rite of a dharma protector in a monastery.


The four classes of guests; the four classes of guests of offering. 1. དནམག་་་མན། the Three Jewels as the guest of honor 2. མན་་ན་ཏན་་མ། the lords of protectors as the guest of qualities 3. འ་ག་ང་་མན། the six classes of beings as guests for compassion 4. གན་གས་ལམ་ཆགས་་མན། the spirits and malignant forces as guests of karmic retribution.


Viraddhavyapti/ Contrary pervasions. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is not the predicate in the given logical syllogism. One of the four positive pervasions (see khyab-pa rnal-ma bzhi). This pervasion is also called correct contrary pervasion fgal-khyab rnal-ma).


Viparyaya viruddhavyapti/ Wrong contrary pervasion. The pervasion in a logical syllogism that whatever is the reason is not that which is not the predicate, Synonymous with subsequent pervasion (see rjes-khyab).


Two types of contradictions. A, By means of their reverse identity there are two: 1. ན་ག་་གནས་འགལ། ekatrasthita viriiddha/ contradiction not abiding simultaneously, e.g. hot and cold 2. ཕན་ན་ང་འགལ། anyanyaparihara viriiddha/ contradictions canceling each other, e.g. is and isn't. B. By means of their manner of contradiction there are two: 1. དས་འགལ། bhava viriiddha/ direct contradiction, e.g. permanent and impermanent 2. བད་འགལ། avedhavirfiddha/ indirect contradiction, e.g. pillar and vase.


Viriiddha vipaksa/ Contradictory dissimilar factor. An opposite factor of the predicate in a logical syllogism.


Four types of contradictions, (see above, 'gal-ba gnyis A, 1-2 and B, 1-2).


Three types of contradictions. 1-2 (see A. 1-2 above) 3. ཚད་མ་ད་འགལ། contradiction by valid cognition.


A personal god or inhuman force. A god or inhuman force believed to be the personal protector of an individual inseparable from oneself like the shadow of one's body.


Panca deva/ Five personal gods or inhuman forces. I.ལ་། desa deva/ the local god 2. ་། purusa deva/ the male god of a man 3. ་། stri deva/ the female god of a woman 4. ད་། s'atru deva/ the enemy combating god 5. ག་། prana deva/ the life-force god.


Nirodha satya/ The noble truth of cessation. The total pacification of all karmas and delusions through application of the path within oneself.


Dvadasa nirodha satya/ The twelve types of truth of cessation.

1. མཚན་ད་་འག་པ། laksana nirodha/ characterised cessation

2. ཟབ་པ་འག་པ། gambhira nirodha/ profound cessation 3. ད་འག་པ། samketa nirodha/ symbolic cessation 4. ན་དམ་པ་འག་པ། parartha nirodha/ ultimate cessation 5.ངས་་མ་ག་པ་འག་པ། aparipurna nirodha/ unperfected cessation 6. ངས་་གས་པ་འག་པ། paripurna nirodha/ perfected cessation 7. ན་ད་འག་པ། salahkara nirodha/ adorned cessation 8. ན་ད་འག་པ། analankara nirodha/ unadorned cessation 9. ག་བཅས་འག་པ། avas'esa nirodha/ residual cessation 10. ག་ད་འག་པ། nirvasesa nirodha/ non-residual cessation 11. ད་པར་་འཕགས་པ་འག་པ།་

visesta nirodha/ exalted cessation 12. མ་ངས་པ་འག་པ། prayaya nirodha/ nominal cessation.


Catvari nirodhah satya guna/ Four attributes of the noble truth of cessation. 1. འག་པ། nirodha/ cessation 2. ་བ། santa/ peace 3. ་མ་པ། pranita/ excellence 4. ས་འང་། nihsaranam/ renunciation.


Sadasa nirodha satyakara/ The sixteen aspects of the noble truth of cessation. These are the aspects of internal emptiness and so on of the sixteen emptinesses (see stong-pa nyid bcu-drug).


Sapta nirodha satya prahatavya/ Seven abandonments of the path of cessation. These concern the objects of elimination having actualized the truth of cessation within this desire realm, which are: 1. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 2. འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 3. ང་། pratigha/ hatred-anger 4. ང་ལ།

mana/ ego/ pride 5. ་མ། vicikitsa/ doubt 6.ག་ mithya drsti/ wrong views holding wrong philosophy as right.


Nirodhasamapatti/ The meditative absorption in cessation. A state of meditation achieved in reliance upon the meditative absorption at the peak level of cyclic existence (srid-rtse), in which a yogi can remain for many aeons through stopping all gross feelings and perceptions. Synonymous with the emancipation of cessation ('gog-pa'i rnam-par thar-ba).


The unchangeable path. According to Nyingma teachings it

refers to the first ground attained on the level of the first yogic stage.


Viparinamaduhkhata/ The suffering of change. The fact that all happiness in cyclic existence changes to dissatisfaction and suffering. One of the three types of suffering (see sdug-bsngal gsum).


The four great feasts. The feast offered in Cut-ritual (gcod) practices. 1. དཀར་འད། the white feast 2. དམར་འད། the red feast 3. ་འད། the multi-colored feast 4. ནག་འད། the black feast.


Kaukrtya/ Regret; contrition. A secondary mind necessary for confession of negativities. One of the four changeable mental factors (see gzhan-'gyur bzhi).


Actualizing causes. Craving, grasping and becoming are the actualizing causes in the twelve links of interdependent origination, for these are responsible for activating, at death, the seeds of karmic instinct implanted in one's mind which determine one's next rebirth.


Gati/ Migrators; sentient beings. Generally classified into two categories: 1. the unfortunate beings (ngan-'gro) 2. the fortunate beings (bde-'gro).


The six types of beings; the six types of migrators. 1.  deva/ gods 2. ། manusya/ human beings 3. ་མ་ན། asura/

demigods 4. དལ་བ། naraka/ hell beings 5. ་གས། preta/ hungry ghosts 6. ད་འ། tiryak/ animals.


Coarse mental agitation. In the practice of single-pointed concentration, losing one's focal object after having held it for any penod of time is recognized as coarse mental agitation.


Subtle mental agitation. In the meditation to develop single-pointed concentration, when one part of the mind wanders to an object of attraction, and away from the focal object of meditation (even if not completely lost).


The seven codes of translation. The convention of translation followed by the Tibetan translators. 1. ག་འ་་འག་པ་ག་་། there must be a corresponding number of words per sentence 2. ག་ང་་འག་པ་ཤད་་། the number of full stops must

correspond to the number of sentences 3. ག་ན་་འག་པ་[???ལུ]་། the number of chapters must correspond to the number of subjects 4. ་་ཀ་་འག་པ་བམ་་ངས་་། each volume must contain a set of verses 5. བམ་་་འག་པ་བམ་་གངས་་། there must be a constitent number of volumes within a set 6. མཐའ་་འལ་བ་་ག་་་། there must be clear, consistent margins 7. ག་བམ་་འག་པ་གང་ག་་། there must be an identifying title on each volume.


Vaipulyatantra/ The lineage of extensive deeds. The lineage of teachings and practice coming from Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu mainly emphasizing the method aspect of Buddha's teachings.


Asta mada/ Eight types of Haughtinesses. Eight types of conceited delight. l. གས་བཟང་བས་གས་པ། conceited delight by family or lineage 2. གགས་ས་གས་པ། conceited delight by physical qualities 3. ལང་ས་གས་པ། conceited delight by youthful feature 4. ནད་ད་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being free of sickness 5. ར་ས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being wealthy 6. དབང་ད་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being powerful 7. བ་ག་ས་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being knowledgeable in arts and sciences 8. མང་་ས་པས་གས་པ། conceited delight by being a scholar.


Krosa/ Five hundred armspans. A measurement of length equal to 500 fathoms or armspans; the distance of about 1 kilometer, the reach of hearing or five hundred bows' length.


Carvaka/ The Hedonists. A proponent of non-Buddhist tenets who assert the non-existence of past and future lives and that the mind arises adventitiously from the body as light is kindled from the lamp.


The ornamented Foe-destroyer. A Hearer of lower intellectual capacity who is mainly concerned with the practice of mental quiescence meditation, who, when he attains the state of Arhatship is free both from the obscurtions to liberation and obscurations to meditative absorption, and also attains the six extra-sensory perceptions or clairvoyances.


The six ornaments and two excellences. The eight great Indian masters. 1. ་བ། Nagarjuna 2. འཕགས་པ་། Aryadeva 3.

གས་ད། Asanga 4.དག་གན། Vasubandhu 5.གས་ང་། Dignaga 6. ས་གས་ Dharmakirti 7. ན་ཏན་ད། Gunaprabha 8 ་ད། Sakyaprabha.


The six adornments and implements. 1. ས་པ ད་ན། human skull crown 2. མལ་ན། necklace 3. ན་ན། ear-ring 4. ག་། bracelets and anklets 5. ་ལ་ཁ jewel sash worn across shoulder (se-ral-kha) 6. ག་པག jewel net sash worn as a girdle or lower garment.


Analankararhat/ The unornamented Foe-destroyer. A hearer of higher level intellectual capacity who is mainly concerned with the practice of special insight meditation and, who, on attaining the state of Arhatship does not attain extra-sensory perceptions or clairvoyances.


The four ornaments; the four adorments. 1. ལ་མས་་ན ornament of moral discipline 2. ང་་འན་་ན། ornament of meditative concentration 3. ས་རཔ་་ན། ornament of wisdom 4. གངས་་ན ornament of retentive power.

The four great kings. The gods or evil spirits included in the category of the first level of gods in the desire realm 1. 4*fi" i^WW Karotapanayodeva W|W^W Maladhara 3.

The ten prophetic dreams of Krkiraja; the ten apocalyptic

dreams of King Krki. The dreams that correspond to various negative occurences in Buddha's teachings after his passing away. 1. ང་་་ས་ར་ང་ནས་ན་ང་མག་མ་་ལ་གས་པ། an elephant's body is outside but his tail is caught in the window 2. ང་་་ཕལ་པས་ས་་ང་་་ད་པ། 'an ordinary elephant is driving away a superior elephant 3. ་གཙང་པ་ས་པ་་ག་ས་་གཞན་ལ་་གཙང་བ་བད་པ། a monkey covered with excrement is spreading it on other monkeys 4. ་གག་ས་་གས་ལ་དབང་བར་བ།

a monkey is giving initiation to a group of monkeys 5.ཙན་དན་ལ་་ང་་དང་ང་ཕལ་པ་མ་་མས་པ།

the sandal-wood tree is counted equal with other trees 6.་་གང་དང་་ག་་གང་བ་བ། a bowl of pearl is exchanged for a bowl of barley flour 7. བག་ལག་ཁང་་་འར་ན་ད་པ་་ག་དང་འས་་ན་ས་འར་བ།


steal the flowers and fruits from around the temple 8. གཙང་ང་ད་་ང་བ་ན་པས་མ་པ་ས་ས་ལ་གས་ང་་འང་་ས་པ།

man dying of thirst finds clear water in a well but is unable to drink it 9.་་མང་་་ས་་བཅད་ནས་ད་པ། gathered in many groups are quarreling with each other 10རས་ ག་གག་་བ་བད་ས་བས་པས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ཆ་ཚང་བ་་བ་ང་་བ་རས་ུག་མ་ཉམས་པ།

piece of cloth is shared among eighteen people yet each receives the whole cloth and the original remains intact.


The king-like Bodhimind. The bodhicitta associated with the five extra-sensory perceptions possessed by a Bodhisattva on the three pure levels of the path—the eighth, ninth and tenth grounds.


Rajagrha/ A holy Buddhist place to the east of Bodhgaya. It is believed to be the place where Raja Bimbisara's palace stood during Buddha's time. Buddha taught many sutras here, and the first Buddhist Council was also held here.


Panca jina/ The five families of Buddha. 1. མ་པར་ང་མཛད། Vairocana, white 2. མབད་པ། Aksobhya, blue 3. ན་ན་འང་ གནས། Ratnasambhavi yellow 4. ད་དཔག་ད། Amitabha,red5. ན་ད་བ་པ། Amoghasiddhi, green. When Buddha ལ་བ་་་ འཆང་། Vajradhara, deep blue in colour, is added on top of this list, it becomes the six Buddha families.


Eight great festivals connected with Buddha Sakyamuni. 1. ་ལབས་པ། His descent from Tusita heaven 2.མས་་ཞགས་པ། His entenng of mother's womb 3. ་བམས་པ། His birth 4. རབ་ང་ང་བ། His renunciation of worldly life and becoming a monk 5 སངས་ས་པ། His attainment of complete enlightenment 6. ས་འར་བར་བ། His turning the wheel of doctrine 7. ཆོ་འལ་ བན་པ། His performance of miracles 8.་ངན་ལས་འདས་བ། His passing into parinirvahi


The seven precious royal emblems. 1. འཁོར་ལོ་རིན་་ཆེ། cakra ratna/ precious wheel for power and authority 2. ནོར་བུ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། mani ratna/ precious jewel for marvelous property 3. བན་མོ་ ན་པོ་ཆེ། stri ratna/ precious queen, as the queen 4.ན'་རིན་་ཆེ། mantri ratna/ precious mimster as the minister of state 5.ང་པོ་ ན་་ཆེ། hastin ratna/ precious elephant for power and courage

6. ་མག་ན་པོ་། asva ratna/ precious horse for strength and

discipline 7. དམག་དཔོན་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། senapati ratna/ precious military commander as the military force of a Universal Monarch.


The maturing Buddha nature; the transformational Buddha nature. The Buddha nature enlightened and developed through

sincere practice, that ultimately transforms into the form body of a Buddhi


Hetupratyaya/ Causes and conditions; causal condition.


Hetu sarana/ Causal refuge. The Buddhi Dharma and Sarigha in those who have already developed them. Buddhists accept them as their examplary objects of refuge.


The two types of causes. A. By nature: 1. ར་ལེན་་། upadana

hetu/ the fundamental cause 2. ན་ག་ད་ན། saha bhu hetu/ imultaneously arisen cause. B. By way of giving rise to results: 1. དས་་། bhava hetu/ direct cause 2. བད་། sambandha hetu/ indirect cause.


Nisyandaphala/ The results corresponding to its cause. The fruits of a karmic action experienced or ripened with its nature corresponding to its cause. This has two: 1. ས་པ་་མན་་འས་ བུ། the rruits corresponding to its actions, e.g. the fact that a person who may have been a sinner in the past life has the natural urge to do similar actions in this life. 2. ང་བ་་མཐུན་ི་ འས་། the fruits corresponding to its experience, e.g. the fact that a person who practices generosity in this life would become rich in his future life.


Sad hetavah/ The six types of causes; the six causes. 1. ད་། karana hetu/ acting cause 2. ན་ག་འང་བའི་། sahabhu hetu/ simultaneously arising cause; innately born cause 3. ལ་མཉམ་་། sabhaga hetu/ equal-state cause 4.མངས་ན་་། sarhprayukta hetu/ concomitant cause 5. ན་འའི་། sarvatraga

་་་འན་པ། a

hetu/ ommpresent cause 6. མ་ན་་། vipaka hetu/ ripening cause.


The adamantine cause. The primordial reality abiding within the mental continuum of sentient beings which is qualified by three basic features: 1. unchangeable 2. self-awarness 3. the great and supremse bliss.


the seven-fold cause and effect precepts. A lineage of meditation for cultivating the mind of eniightenment. 1. མར ཤེས། recognizing all sentient beings as one's mother 2. ིན་ན། being mindful of their kindness 3. ན་གཟོ། repaying their kindness 4. ད་ང་་མས་པ། heart-warming love 5. ང་། compassion 6. ག་བསམ། resolute intention 7. ང་བ་་མས། mind of eniightenment


Presumption or correct belief that is based on reason. One of the five types of presumptions resulting from some reason that is either incorrect or, if correct, not understood.


The causal form. Forms that retain the entity of elements. These comprise earth or soil, water or liquid, fire or warmth, and wind.


Tantra/ A. Tantra; classification of Buddha's teachings concerning the speedier method of attalning Buddhahood. B. Mental continuum; mind stream.


The four ways of explaining a tantric text. 1. ན་ག་ང་ས་ནམ་

མཁ་དངས་འཇལ་ར་བ། presenting the summary of the text in the manner of a garuda bird floating in the sky 2. དས་་ས་ག་་ངས་ལ་མང་བ་ར་བཅད།

explaining the body of text in the manner of a lion leaping in the forest 3. ག་་ན་རུས་ལ་ས་འ་བ་ར་བཤད། འSI་བ་ར་བཤད། explaining the meaning of the words literally in the manner of a tortoise's gait 4. མན་ངག་་ན་་ག་བར་ལ་བས་པ་བན་བ་བ།

passing the transmission in the manner of pearls woven on the string.


Two classes of tantri 1. ཕ་ད། father tantra 2. མ་ད། mother tantra.


The upper and lower tantric college of Gelug tradition. Tsong Khapa's disciple Jetsun Sherab Senge established Ihe lower tantric college in 1433, and the upper tantric college instituted by his disciple Neying Jetsun Kunga Dhondup in 1474 in Lhasi


Sad tantrapitaka/ The six classes of tantra. 1. ་ད། kriya tantra/ action tantra 2. ད་ད། carya tantra/ performance tantra 3. ལ་འར་ད། yoga tantra 4. ཕ་ད། pita tantra/ father tantra 5. མ་ད། mata tantra/mother tantra 6. གས་ད་ད། advayatantra/ non-dual tantn The first are known as the three outer classes of tantra and the latter three as the three inner classes of tantra.


Sapta tantra pitaka/ The seven classes of tantri According to Atisa's Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment these are: 1. ་བ་ད། kriya tantra/ action tantra 2. ད་པ་ད། carya tantra/ performance tantra 3. ག་པ་ད། savitarka tantra/ conceptual tantra 4. གས་ཀ་ད། ubhya tantra/ dual tantra 5. ལ་འར་ད།


7 ་ན་འལ་ག

mental quiescence meditation; the stage at which one increases one's attention on the object of meditation.


The seven regular confession practices. 1. f ག་པ་བཤགས་པ། papadeSana/ confession of non-virtues 2. gས་ས་ཡ་རང་བ། anumoda/ rejoicing in virtues 3. ན་དམ་Sང་བ་་མས་བSJད་པl paramarthacittopada/ generating the ultimate mind of enlightenment 4. SJབས་ས་འf བ། Sarana/ taking refuge 5. Iན་ སམས་བlད་པ། pranidhrcittopada/ generating the aspiring mind of enlightenment 6. འ£ག་མས'བ$jད་པ། prasthanacittopada/ generating the engaging mind of enlightenment 7. བt་བ། parinarna/ dedicating the virtues.


ns nb

The causal principle. The reality of mind that abides unchangeable like space withrn the minds of sentient beings and Buddhas. According to sUtras this refers to the Tathagata essence—the naturally abiding buddha nature. In the lower tantras this is known by various names like the suchness of self (bdag-gi de kho-na nyid), the mind of eniightenment and the mind of Samantabhadra (kun-tu bzang-po'i sems). According to the highest yoga tantra this principle is known as the union of E-VAM (e-vam zung-'jug).



Hetuyana/ Causal vehicle. The common vehicle known as the perfection vehicle, the slower path of practice for the attainment of Buddhahood.

n3 n3

Sad pratityasamutpada/ The six causal interdependent principles. The elements of the outer natural phenomena— earth, water, fire, wind, space and time.

yoga tantra 6. ལ་འར་ན་་ད། mahayoga tantra/ great yoga tantra 7. ལ་འར་་ན་ད་པ་དl anuttarayoga tantra/ highest yogatantri


Catvari tantra pitaka/ The four classes of tantn 1. ་བ་ད། kriya tantra/ action tantra 2. ད་པ་ད། carya tantra/ performance tantra 3. ལ་འར་ད། yoga tantra 4.ལ་འར་་ན་ད་པ་ད། anuttarayoga tantra/ highest yoga tantri


The three types of lineages. 1. གང་ད། family lineage 2. ་ད། reincarnation lineage 3. བ་ད། disciple lineage.


The three integerations; the three principles. A. ན་ཆགས་གསུམ། The three regular principles of practice at a teaching session: l.ག་འཚལ། making prostration 2. མ་འདོན་པ། reciting a sUtra 3. བ་བ་ད་པl making dedication. B. ས་་པ་ལམ་འས་ར་ད་གམ་ང་ལ། The integration of the actual path and fruit practice according to Sakya tradition, being the secret mantra vajrayana practice drawn into three principles: 1. ན་ག་་ད་ ལ་འར་འདས་དར་ད་་་བ་ང་བ། maimaining the view of the inseparability of sarhsara and nirvaha within the fundamental mental continuum (kun-gzhi rgyu-rgyud) as the causal principle. 2. ལས་ཐབས་ད་ལ་དབང་བ་དང་འལ་བ་ལམ་བམ་པ། meditating on the paths connected to the fourfold initiations


upon one's body as the method principle. 3. མཐར་ག་འས་འི' ད་ལ་་་་ས་་ན་ཏན་འཆར་བ། artaining the qualities of the five bodies and five primordial wisdoms at the end as the resultant principle.


་n> n5

Continual fixation. The second of the nine stages of mental fixation or placement (see sems-gnas dgu) in the practice of


The causal initiations. Those stages of initiations that are given to prepare a disciple to become a ripe receptacle, otherwise known as the initiation to ripen a disciple who is not yet ripe.


The four guardian goddesses. In the secret mantra mandalas the four gates or entrances of the mandala: 1གས་་མ། ArikuSi 2.ཞགས་པ་མ། 3. གས་ག་མ། Srrikhala 4. ལ་་མ། Ganta.

The three gates of activity. ལས་ངག་ད་གམ། Body, speech and mind.

The nine levels of delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.lམ་ང་་འང་ང་གམ་་ར་་འང་ང་གམ་་

ས་པ་ར་ད། The great, middling and small levels of delusiors of each of the great, middle and small delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation.


The ten delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. According to Abhidharmakosa there are four of the desire realm, three of the form realm, and three of the formless realm.


The sixteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. This follows the tradition of Abhidharma-samuccaya (see sgom-spang nyon-mongs bcu-drug).


Bhavanaheyavrttigrahyakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of objects of cultivation to be eliminated on the path of meditation.

Sodasa bhavananeyaklesa/ The sixteen delusions (which are obscurations to liberation) to be abandoned on the path of meditation. འད་པ་སས་བས་་་ག kamadhatu kleSa/ Six of the desire realm: 1. འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 2. Ffi། krodha/ anger 3. ང་ལ། mana/ pride 4. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 5. འག་། satkayadrsiti/ view of the transitory collection 6. མཐར་། antagrahadrsti/ extreme view. གགས་' སས་བས་་་་། pafica rupadhatu klesa/ Five of the form realm: འད་ཆག་་raga/ desire-attachment 2. ང་ལ། mana/pride3. མ ག་པ། avidya/ignorance 4.འག་། satkayadrsti/ view of the transitory collection 5. མཐར་l antagraha drsti/ extreme view. གགས་ད་སས་བས་་l panca arUpadhatu kleSa/ Five of the formless realm: L འད་ཆགས། raga/ desire-attachment 1 ང་ལ! mana/ pride 3. མ་ག་པ། avidya/ ignorance 4. འ£ག་། satkayadrsti/ view of the transitory collection 5. མཐར་། antagrahadrsti/ extreme view.


Bhavananeyaprajnaptigrahakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of imputed existence to be abandoned on the path of meditanon,

Bhavananeyanirvittigrahyakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of objects of elimination to be abandoned on the path of meditation.


Bhavanaheyadravyagrahakakalpa/ Conceptual apprehension of substantial existence to be abandoned on the path of meditation.


The four hundred and fourteen delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation. This list includes all delusions to be abandoned on the path of meditation within the three realms and nine levels (see khams-gsum sa-dgu). These are འད་པ་ མ་ང་་བ། the fifty-four of the desire realm, གགས་ཁམས་་མ་ང་བ་དང་བ་། hundred and eighty of the form realm, གགས་ད་ཁམས་་མ་ང་བ་དང་བད་། one hundred and eighty of the formless realm.


Six functions of the path of meditation; six benefits of the path of meditation. 1. མས་ན་་་བ། peacerul mind 2. ཐམས་ ཅད་ལ་འད་པ། self-disciplined and humble 3. ན་ངས་པ་གས་ ལས་ལ་བ། victory over defilements 4. ་ནང་་གད་པས་བབ་ད་པ། no occasion for attack from internal and external evils 5.ང་བ་ར་་བ་པ། ability to achieve eniightenment 6.རང་གང་་ གནས་པ་ས་གས་་ད་ང་མད་པ་ན་ད་་འར་བ། the worthiness of being worshipped wherever one abides.


The eight marks of irreversibility on the path of meditation. 1. ་བ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of production 2. འགག་པ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of stopping 3. ་བད་ད་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of reality 4. ས་རབ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of objects of knowledge 5.ད་པ་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of knowledge 6. profundity of practice 7. གས་ད་ལ་ཟབ་པ། prorundity of non-duality 8. ཐབས མཁས་ལ་ཟབ་པ། profundity of skillful means.


Bhavanamarga murdhaprayoga/ The peak training on the path of meditation. A path of practice within the continuum of a Bodhisattva on the path of meditation which is a direct antidote to the seed of eliminations to be abandoned on the path of meditaiton


T)vadasa mayopama/ The twelve examples of illusory nature; the twelve similes to prove lack of true existence of a conjurer's display. 1. ་མ nraya/ an illusion 2. ་། udakacandra/ a reflection of the moon in the water 3. ག་ར། pratibhasa/ hallucination 4. ག་། marici/ a mirage 5. ་ལམ། svapna/ a dream 6. ་བན། pratiSabda/ an echo 7. ་ཟ་ང་ར། gandharvanagara/ the city of smell-eaters 8. ག་འལ། indrajala/ a magic play 9. འཇའ་ན། indracapa/ a rainbow 10. ག vidyut/ a bolt of lightening 11. ་ར། budbud/ a water bubble 12. ་་ནང་་གགས་བན། pratibimba/ a reflection m a mirror.


The sixty-four arts. The thirty skills of arts and crafts (see bzo-rig-gi sgyu-rtsal sum-cu), the eighteen arts of music (see rol-mo'i sgyu-rtsal bco-brgyad), the seven principles of songs and chanting (see glu-dbyans-kyi nges-pa bdun), and the nine features of dance (see gar-gyi nyams-dgu), all rooted in the ancient Indian culture.


lm types of illusory body. 1. ན་བ་་་ས་་། sarhvrti mayakaya/ the conventional illusory body 2. ན'དམ་པ་་ས་་།|pammartha mayakaya/ the ultimate illusory body.


The seven types of illusory body. The seven different illusory bodies: 1. ད་་མ། exemplary illusory body 2. ང་བ་་་མ། appearance illusory body 3. ་ལམ་£་མ། dream illusory body 4. བར་་་མ། illusory body of the intermediate state of rebirth 5. ་གསལ་་མ། clear light illusory body 6. ལ་པ་་མ།emanation illusory body 7. ་ས་་མ།wisdom illusory body.


The eleven types of sound. 1. ཡད་་ང་བ་། pleasant 2.ད་་་ང་བ་། unpleasant 3. གས་ཀ་ན་པI neither pleasant nor unpleasant 4. ན་པ་། conjoined sound 5. མ་ན་པ་། unconjoined sound 6. མ་ན་པ་། neither conjoined nor unconjoined 7. འག་ན་་གས་པ། popular sound 8. བ་པས་བན་པ། philosophical expression 9. ན་བགས་པ། imputed sound 10. འཕགས་པ་ཐ་ད་བཏགསཔ། utterances pronced by Aryas 11. འཕགས་པ་མ་ན་པ་ཐ་་ད་བཏགས་པ། utterances pronounced by non-Aryas.


The delightful sound-like Bodhimind. The mind of enlightenment associated with the gaiety of dharma possessed by the Bodhisattva on the tenth level.


The suchness of sound. An action tantra meditation practice. A practitioner concentrates and analyses the sound of a mantra into its subtler and subtler forms and finally places his or her mind within the non-conceptual level of experiencing the suchness of sound at its final stage. This helps a meditator to produce the wisdom of penetrative insight meditation (vipasyana).


Logical sound. An expression or statement that fits the popular convention, e.g. the statement, 'sound is permanent'.


Illogical sound. An expression or statement that does not fit the popular convention, e.g. the statement, 'sound is impermanent'.


The conceptual cognition of sound generality (see sgra-spyi) and meaning generality (see don-spyi). For instance, the idea of conceptual cognition of a vase in the mind of a person learned in conventions.


Sound generality. Generic image based oniy on hearsay about an object, e.g. the image of a sound in one's mind having heared the expression, 'vase'.


Sabda pramana/ Valid cognition based on verbal indication. It is the sound generality based entirely on hearsay and not on previous direct apprehension of the object such as through sense consciousness,*etc. It is permanent and is the appearing object to a conceptual mind that apprehends the object.


Concentration on sound. One of the four types of recitation of mantra in meditation (see bzlas-brjod yan-lag bzhi). The practice of reciting the mantra according to performance tantra. This involves concentrating on the mantric syllables visualized upon a moon disk as self-resounding.



Sabda deva/ The sound deity. One of the six types of deities in action tantra. This involves meditation on the mantric syllables visualized in the mandala as self-resounding and emitting and drawing rays of light.


Suchness abiding upon sound. A practice of meditation on the suchness of concentration according to action tantra. This involves meditation on all the mantric syllables visualized as encircling the moon disk at one's heart along with the moon disk itself as producing sound similar to one's ritual bell, and thus maintaining concentration upon it. A basis for developing caim abiding meditation.


The five types of obscurations. According to some traditions these are: 1. འད་ཆགས། kamacchanda/ desire-attachment 2.གས་པ། styana/ mental sloth 3. གད་དང་འད་པ། nindra kaukrtya/ sleep and regret 4. གང་བ། viksepa/ mental distraction 5. ་་མམ། vicikitsa/ doubt.


The two obstructions; two obscurations. 1. ན་ངས'པ་བ'པ། klesavarana/ delusive obscuration to liberation 2.ས་་བ་པ། jnanavarana/ obstructions to omniscience.


The two types of Bodhicitta completely free from obscurations. 1. Bodhicitta like a flowing river (see chu-bo་i rgyun lta-bu'i sems-bskyed) 2. Cloud-like Bodhicitta (see sprin lta-bu'i sems-bskyed).


The four types of obscurations. A. ལམ་་དགག་་བ་པ་བ། The

four obscurations of the paths: 1. འད་ན་་བ་པ། obscurations of the desirous ones 2. ་གས་པ་བ་པ། obscurations of the hedonists (tirthikas) 3. ཉན'ཐོས''དམན'བ། obscurations of the

•v «v

hearers (Sravakas) 4. རང་ལ་'དམན'བ! obscurations of the

V Ov

solitary realizers (pratekyabuddhas). B. 1. ན་བ།

-་N »v

klesavarana/ delusive obscurations 2. ས་བ། jnanavarana/ obscurations to omniscience 3. ཆགས་བ། saragavarana/ obscurations of attachment 4 ག་བ།sapratigavarana/ impeding obscurations. C. 1. ལས'་བ་པ། karmakavarana/ karmic obscurations 2. ན'མངས'པ་བ་པ། klesavarana/ delusive obscurations 3. ས་་བ་པ། jnanavarana/ obscurations to omniscience 4.མས་འག་་བ་པ། samapattyavarana/ obscurations to meditative absorption.


The three obscurations. A. 1-2. (see sgrib-pa gnyis, above) 3. ལས་་བ་པ། karmakavarana/ karmic obscuration. B. 1. ཆགས་པ་བ་པ saragavarana/ obscuration to attachment 2. གས་པ་བ་པ།


sapratigavarana/ impeding obscuration 3. དམན་པ་བ་པ། hinavarana/ obscuration to the lower.


The nine obstructing stains. l-3 ག་གམ་་བག་ལ་ཉལ་བ་གམ། the three poisonous delusions in their latent state 4. ་དག་་ན་ནས ང་བ་ག the six secondary delusions (see rtsa-nyon-drug) arising from the three root delusions 5. མ་ག་བག་ཆགས་་ས། the instinctive level of ignorance 6. ག་དམན'་མང'ང'། the abandonments on the path of seeing of the lesser vehicle 7. the abandonག་ན་་མ་ངments on the path of meditation of the lesser vehicle 8. མ་དག་ས་བན། the abandonments on the seven impure levels of Bodhisattvas 9. དག་པ་ས་གམ་་

ང་། the abandonments on the three pure levels of Bodhisattvas.


The practice lineage. The lineage of reclusive lamas and their disciples who mainly do intensive meditation in isolated places and seldom give public teachings or compose texts.


ffirming perception; assertive perception. All direct perceptions affirming their objects of knowledge as they are as a whole without being specific with respect to different aspects of their object, e.g. the direct perception with regard to a vase.


^adhana/ The method of accomplishment (sadhana). The text of practice aimed at the actualization of reality through meditation. It involves an entire system of visualization, recitation, rituals and meditation concerning a deity or the cycle of deities.


Things of the same production and reverse identity. For instance, the idea or thought that the sound of a bell and flute are same with respect to their being produced from solid things.


X Positive phenomenon. A phenomenon that can be understood without having to understand what is opposite to it or, in general, without recourse to conception, e.g. a vase. B. Practice; accomplishment; achievement; attainment; realization.



l་he eight Kagyad deities. The eight deities of the Nyingma tradition primarily of the generation stage practice of tantra. These are: 1. འཇམ་དཔལ་། 'jam-dpal sku 2. པ་གང་། pad-ma gsung 3. ཡང་དག་གས། yang-dag thugs 4. བད་་ན་ཏན། bdud-rtsi yon-tan 5. ར་བ་ིན་ལསl phur-pa phrin-las 6. མ་་ད་གཏོང་། ma-mo bod-gtong 7. དམོད་པ་ག་གས། dmod-po drag-sngags 8.འག་ན་མད་པ། 'jig-rten mchod-bstod. The first five are transworldly deities and the latter three worldly deities.


The five paths of meditation of achievement, with respect to its:liམ་ལམIང'། nature2.འས'་ད་པར། fruits 3. ད་ལས་་ད་པར། function 4. གནས་བས་་ད་པར། temporary features 5. མཐར་ཐུག་་ད་པར། ultimatefeatures.


The three great accomplishments; the three great objectives of a Bodhisattvi 1. མས་དཔའ་ན་། mahasattva/ great being 2. ོང་བ་ན་པོ། mahaprahana/ great abandonment 3. གས་པ་ན་། mahadhigama/ great insight.


The offering of practice. The practice of offering one's own Dharma practices and collection of virtues as an object of offering. The best offering one can make to those worthy of making offerings.


ibe activity of practice. One of the four ways of utilizing realizations (see spyod-pa'i sgo-bzhi) according to action tantra in which one transforms articles of offering, body and resources into gods of desire realms and Vidyadharas or dakinis of the same rank.


The symbolic mandali A mandala arranged on an altar made of gold or metal bases or otherwise upon which the fivefold heaps of precious stones or grains are created and visualized as the five Buddha families. Such a mandala primarily syrabolizes the deities as objects of worship.

བ་པ་དགས་པ་བ་གག The eleven objects of accomplishment; the eleven objects of the Bodhisattva paths. 1. ང་་ད་བ། virtuous objects to be cultivated 2. དོལ་་་དགེ་བ། non-virtuous objects to be abandoned 3.ང་མ་བན་པ། unspecified objects which are neither 4. འག་ན་པ། worldly objects 5. འག་ན་ལས་འདས་པ། transworldly objects 6. ཟག་བཅས། contaminated objects 7. ཟག་ ད། uncontaminated objects 8. འས་ས། composite objects 9. འས་མ་ས། non-composite 10. ཐུན་ང་བ་ན་ཏན། common qualities ll.ན་ང་མ་ན་པ་ན་ཏན། uncommon qualities.


Samaropa/ Overestimation; exaggeration; superimposition; hypostatization. Exaggerating the meaning or significance of the mode of abidance of a phenomenon without any basis; taking something as existing in a certain way when it does not actually exist in that way.


The four types of lamps. The paths that allow direct perception of the eniightened body of the inseparable reality and awareness at the actual stage of rDzogs-chen meditation following the leap-over system (thod-rgal). These are: 1. ང་ ཞགས་་་ན་མ། the distant water lamp 2. ག་པ་དངས་་ན་མ། the lamp of reality of awareness 3. ཐག་ལ་fང་པ་fན་མ། the lamp of emptiness of drop 4. ས་རབ་རང་ང་་ན་མ། the lamp of self-born wisdom.


The Torma ritual of the eigth. A religious ceremony of the four-faced Mahakala held on the 8th of the 3rd Tibetan month. The ceremony involves offering of sacrificial cakes through invocation rites and rituals to Mahakala and all other dharma protectors.


The six lineages or transmissions. The six lineages of transmissions according to the Oral (bka'-ma) and Treasure (gter-ma) lineages in Nyingma tradition. These are: 1. ལ་བ་ དགོངས་པ་བུད་པ། Buddhals intention lineage 2. ག་འན་བ་ བད་པ། Vidyadhara's symbolic lineage 3. གང་ཟག་ན་ང་་བད་པ། disciple's whispered lineage 4. བཀའ་བབ་ང་བན་་བད་བ། the commissioned prophetic lineage 5. ན་ལམ་དབང་བར་་བད་་པ།

V «v

the lineage of prayers and empowerment 6. མཁའ་འ་གཏད་་བད་པ། the lineage protected by dakinis. The first three lineages are common to both the Oral and Treasure transmissions whereas the latter three are unique to the revealers of treasure teachings.


The five types of lineages. The five lineages of Buddhism


according to the way it spread in India. 1. འལ་བ་བད་པ། the vinaya lineage 2. གསང་གས་་བད་པ། the secret mantra lineage 3. ་ན་ད་བད། the extensive Dractice lineage 4. ཟབ་་་བད། the profound view lineage 5. ང་་ན་བད། the essential meaning lineage.


The three types of lineages. A. According to the graded path teaching tradition of Sutrayani these are: 1. ཟབ་་་བད། the profound view lineage 2. ་ན་ད་བད། the extensive practice lineage 3. ཉམས་ན་ན་བས་་བད། the blessed practice lineage.

B. According to the secret mantra teaching tradition of the Nyingma school, these are: 1. རིང་བད་བཀའ་མ། the distant oral lineage 2. ཉེ་བད་གཏེར་མ། the close treasure lineage 3. ཟབ་མོདག་ ང་་བད་པ། the profound pure vision lineage.


Interpretive sUtras for the purpose of encouragement. For instance, the sutras in which Buddha taught those of weak aptitude that, 'enlightenment can be achieved through striving hard in the accumulation of two types of merits'.


The ten heinous crimes. An enemy of the Buddha Dharma who has committed ten serious non-virtues and is therefore an object to be captured and killed. 1. སངས་ས་བན་པ་ག་པ། destroying the Buddha's teaching 2. དཀོན་མག་དབུ་འཕང་ད་པ། disparaging the three jewels of refuge 3. ད་འན་་འ་ར'འོག་པ། appropriating the wealth of the Sarigha community 4. ཐེག་ ན་ལ་ད་པ། disparaging the Mahayana 5. ་མ་་ལ་བ་བ། threatening the body of a guru 6. ་་ན་གས་ན་འན་པ། causing disunity amongst vajra friends 7. བ་པ་ལ་བར་་གད་པ། hindering the practice of Dharma 8. དམ་ག་མ་པ་དང་ལ་བ། dropping the spiritual pledges 9. བ་བ་ང་་གཏན་ནས་ད་པ། lacking compassion 10. ལས་འས་ལ་ག་པར་་བ། holding wrong views or philosophy.


The obscured unspecified phenomena. The delusive unspecified phenomena. The delusions within the form and formless realms that are obstructions to attaining Arya paths, and hence hinder actualization of uncontaminated paths, and are not non-virtues because these do not give rise to suffering or misery, therefore these become unspecified phenomena. For example, the innately born self or ego.


Accomplishment ceremony. A grand tantric ceremony involving the creation of a mandala, offering of services, and performance of the ritual and rites of generating oneself into a deity, generating the deity in front and into the vase, etc.


Sadhya/ The thesis; that which is to be established. The subject and the predicate in a correct logical syllogism taken together as that which is to be proved.


Sadhyadharma/ Predicate. That which is to be proved in relation to the subject in a given logical syllogism, e.g. 'impermanence' as the predicate when the given syllogism is, 'Take sound, it is impermanent because it is a functional thing'.


I; self; me. Mahayatia philosophical systems do not assert the existence of an independent, self-existent, unchanging self, because if such a self were to exist, a person would be unchanging and would be unable to purify himself of fettering passions etc, and attain Buddhahood. What is accepted is a relative, impermanent, changeable, conscious-entity self, which is the continuation of one's former life, to this and future lives and is also the basis for the ripening of karmi


Sapta mana/ The seven kinds of pride; the seven prides. 1. ང་ ལ། mana/ pride, a feeling of arrogance or superiority; one of the six root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug). 2. ཆེ་བའི་ང་ ལ། mahamana/ exalted pride, the feeling of superiority amongst the equals. 3. ང་ལ་ལས་ང་ང་ལ། manatimana/

exaggerated pride, a puffed-up feeling that you are higher than the extremely high 4ང་མ་པ་ང་ལ། asmimatia/ egotistic pride, a feeling that you are the oniy one who can do some specific thing correctly; more philosophically, the pride that mistakeniy appropriates any of the five aggregates as the T. 5. མན་པ་ང་ལ། abhimana/ presumptuous pride, a feeling that you have realized something, or that you know something, when actually you do not. 6.ང་ཟད་མ་པ་ང་ལ། Unamana/ modest pride, a feeling that though you may be equal with your friends you are a ་little better than them. 7. ག་པ་ང་ལ། mithyamana/ perverted pride, a feeling of pride in your unwholesome habits and qualities.


The divine pride and vision. A basic requirement of tantric practices in which one tries to counteract one's ordinariness by generating divine pride of being the deity of the respective practice, and visualizing both oneself and the surroundings as the celestial mansion or abode.


The mere 'I'; the conventionally existent T representing the person at a relative level.


The eight sound sources. 1. ་ག་པ། uvular 2. མན་པ། guttural 3. ན། palatal 4. tongue 5. ། nasal 6. ། dental 7 ་ alveolar 8. མ། labial.


Durgati dukha/ The sufferings of the unfortunate beings. The miseries and suffering encountered by the three types of beings in the lower realms. The suffering from heat and cold for hell beings, the suffering of hunger and thirst for hungry

ghosts, and the suffering of becoming a beast of burden and exploitation for animals.


Black magic. The art of casting spells and curses on others.


The ten states of bad rebirth. 1-8. states of the eight hot and cold hells (see tsha-dmyal brgyad and grang-dmyal brgad) 9.་གས། hungry ghost state 10. ད་འ animalstate.


Ahanikara/ Ego-grasping; self-grasping; self-preoccupation. The concept of taking the mere T upon oneself as the truly existent T or 'self.


The extreme of ascetic practice; the extreme practice of self-mortification by depriving the body of the means of living. One of the extremes of living to be avoided by monks.


The three cycles of relaxation. The three famous texts of practice composed by Longchen Rabjampa, a Nyingma master of the fourteenth century. 1. ■སེམས་ད་ངལ་ག། Relaxation of the Suchness of Mind, relaxation through meditation on the suchness of mind 2. ་མ་ངལ་ག། Relaxation ofthe Illusions, relaxation through pacifying lllusory appearances 3. བསམ་གཏན་ངལ་ག། Relaxation of Samadhi, relaxation through meditation on concentrations.ས་ན་་མ།

Nitartha sUtra/ Definitive teachings. Those teachings of Buddha acceptable as they are which do not require

interpretation, or those that concern mainly teachings on ultimate truth.


The definitive vajra and bell. The bliss and void.


The subtle life-sustaining energy wind (srog-'dzin phra-ba).


The three indispensable faculties; the three necessary faculties. 1. ག་་དབང་། faculty of life-force 2. ■དབང་། faculty of mind 3.བཏང་མས་དབང་། faculty of indifferent feeling.


The five certainties; the five definite features ofa Sambhogakaya Buddhi 1.གནས་ས་པ། certainty of place; that they always reside in the richiy adorned Buddha-field called 'Heaven-below-non' 2. ་ས་པ། certainty of body; they are always adorned with thirty-two major and eighty minor marks (see mtshan bzang-po sum-bcu rta-gnyis & dpe-byed bzang-po brgyad-bcu) 3. ས་ས་པ། certainty of time; that they will live for as long as sarhsara is not emptied of sentient beings 4.ས་ས་པ། certainty of teachings; that they always teach the greater vehicle doctrine 5. འར་ས་པ། certainty of disciples; that they always teach to a circle of Arya Bodhisattva disciples.


Niscaravayu/ The definitely running wind energy. The wind energy for the cognitive faculty of touch. One of the five secondary energy winds (see yan-lag-gi rlung lnga).


Niryana/ Renunciation; wish to be liberated. A thought of definite release from cyclic existence wishing freedom from the cycle of unending sufferings within sanisara. A prime necessity for carrying out a pure Dharma practice.

The definitely occuring achievement The path existing at the last three pure levels of the Bodhisattva grounds.


The eight definitely occuring achievements; definitely occuring achievement to: 1. ཆད་་་བ་གམ་་ངེས་པར་ འང་བ། the three great objectives 2. མཉམ་པ་ད་་ས་ པར་འང་བ། the samenesses 3. སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་་ན་

་■ས་པར་འང་པ། attain the purpose of all sentient beings 4. འབད་མེད་ན་བ་་ངེས་པར་འང་བ། effortless achievement 5. མཐའ་ལས་འདས་པར་ངེས་པར་འང་བ། the state beyond extremes 6. ཐོབ་པ་མཚན་ད་་ངེས་པར་ འང་བ། the actuality of achievement 7. མ་མན་་ངེས་ པར་འང་བ། omniscient knowledge 8. ལམ་་ཡུལ་ཅན་་ ངེས་པར་འང་བ། objects of the path.


Fictitious renunciation. Temporarily produced sense of renouncing worldly life that does not last.


Catvari nirvedhabhagiya/ The four levels of the path of preparation. 1.ད། usman/ heat level 2. ་མོ། murdha/ peak level 3. བཟོད་པ། ksanti/ patience 4. ཆོས་མཆོག lankikagradharma/ supreme Dharma.


Nirvedhariga/ Level of the path of preparation. One of the seventy topics of the perfection of wisdom training; the path of preparation at the level of aspirational Bodhicitta.


NihSreyasa hetu/ The cause of definite goodness. The wisdom paths: primarily the wisdom understanding selflessness as cause for attainment of either liberation or full enlightenment.


Svabhava/ A. The natural feature; natural identity. B. The mode of abidance of phenomena.


The natural virtue. The eleven virtuous secondary mental factors (see dge-ba bcu-gcig).


The natural non-virtue. The six root delusions (see rtsa-nyon drug) and the near delusions (see nye-nyon nyi-shu) that are mental factors responsible for producing all negative behaviours.


Svabhavatavyakrta/ The natural unspecified phenomena. Those classes of phenomena that are neither virtuous nor non-virtuous by their nature. For instance, the elements, aggregates and sources of perception.


Svabhavakaya/ The two types of nature truth body. The two bodies of a Buddha being totally pure of two stains: 1. རང་ བཞིན'མ་དག་གི་ངོ'་ད་། the natural truth body 2.་ར་

མ་དག་གི་ངོ་་ད་ the truth body free of adventitious defilements. In other words, these are the emptiness of a Buddha's mind and the truth of cessation within the continuum of a Buddha


The five features of a nature truth body. These are: 1. འས་ མ་ས་པ། non-compositional 2. དེར་མེད་པ། inseparable 3. མཐའ་གས་ངས་པ། free of tw0 extremes 4. ིབ་པ་ གསུམ་ལས་ོལ། free of three obscurations 5. རང་བཞིན་ ས་འོད་གསལ་བ། luminous by nature.

ངོ་བོ་ད་་ན་ཏན་་། The five qualities of nature truth body. These are: 1. གཞལ་་ ད་པ། incognizable 2. ངས་ད་པ། infinite 3. བསམ་་


inconceivable 4. མཉམ་པ་ད་པ། incomparable 5. ་མས་དག་པ། pure of stains.


Svabhava sunyata/ The emptiness of own nature. The lack of inherent identity of the reality of form and sound etc.


The three identityless phenomena; the three identitylessnesses. 1. མཚན་ད་་བོ་ད་མེད་པ། laksana nihsvabhavataV identitylessness of characteristics 2. ་བ་ངོ་བོ་ད་ད་པ།

utpatti n.ihsvabhavata/ identitylessness of production 3. དོན'དམ་པ་ངོ་་་ད་པ། paramartha nihsvabhavataV identitylessness of ultimate phenomena


The three natural existents. 1. ན་་བགས་པ་་་ད།

parikalpita svabhava/ imputed phenomena 2. གཞན་་དབང་་་་ད།

paratantra svabhava/ dependent phenomena 3.

ཡོངས་་བ་པ'ངོ་བོ་ད། parinispanna svabhava/ thoroughly established phenomena; ultimate phenomena.


The five-fold marvels of this world's treasure holders. These are the five supreme worlds of this continent: 1. དས་་་གར་་་གདན་་བ་པ་ང་། Bodhgaya of India in the centre, the land of Buddha Sakyamuni 2. ཤར་་་ནག་་་་་འཇམ་དཔལ་དངས་་ང་། Mt. Waute of China in the east, the land of Manjusri 3. ་ན་རི་་་ཏ་ལ་ན་རས་ གགས་་ཞིང་། Mt. Potala in the south, the land of Arya Avalokitesvara 4.བ་ན་་ན་མཁའ་འ་ང་པད་མ་འང་ གནས་'ཞིང་། Ogyan Dakini land in the west, the land of Padmasambhava 5. ང་ན་ཤམ་བྷ་ལ་ས་ལ་གས་ན་་ང་། Shambhala in the north, the land of Dharmaraja Kulikas.


The real fundamental cause. That cause which is responsible for producing its own substantial continuity as its result. For instance, a log of wood becomes the fundamental cause for producing coals from its burning.


The eight spiritual feats; the eight types of higher attainments. 1. རལ་ི། invisibily from a sword 2. རིལ་བུ། pills 3. ག་ ན། eye-lotion 4. ང་མགས། swift footedness 5. བཅུད' ལེན| elixir/extracting the essence 6. མཁའ་ད། walking in space 7. མི་ང་བ། invisibility 8. ས་ག walking underground. When the list concerns nine feats the feat of subduing and benefitting other is added.


Two types of attainments; two actual attainments. 1. མཆོག་གི་

དས་གབ། supreme higher attainments 2. ཐུན་མོང་གི་དངོས་ བ། common higher attainments.


Two types of direct contradictions. 1. ཕན་ན་ངས་འགལ། direct contradiction cancelling each other, e.g. is and is not 2. ་ག་མི་གནས་འགལ། contradiction not abiding simultaneously, e.g. hot and cold.


Sajnatkarana/ Direct cause; actual cause. A cause which generates its result directly, i.e. in the immediate next moment, e.g. fire as the cause of smoke.


Vastubalanumana/ Inferential cognition based on evidence.


V'astu/Thing; impermanence; functional phenomenon. དས་་བད།

Asta padartha/ The eight topics of the Ornament of Clear Realization (abhisamayalamkara). 1. མ་མེན། sarvajnana/ the omniscient mind 2. ལམ་ཤེས། margajfiana/ the knowledge, of the paths 3. གཞི་ཤེས། vastujnana/ the knowledge of the basis 4. མ་གས་ར་བ། sarvakarabhisarhbodha/ the complete training of all aspects 5. ་་ར་བ། mUrdhaprayoga/ the peak training 6. མཐར་ས་ར་བ། anupurvaprayoga/ the serial training 7. ད་ཅིག་མ་ས་། ksanikaprayoga/ the momentary training 8. འས་་ཆོས་ phalam dharmakaya/་ the resultant truth body.


Bhava sunyata/ The emptiness of things; the emptiness of the five aggregates. One of the four summarising types of


emptiness added to the sixteen to make up twenty types of emptiness (see stong-pa nyid nyi-shu).


Abhava sunyata/ The emptiness of non-things; the emptiness of impermanent phenomena, e.g. emptiness of nirvana. One of the eighteen emptinesses.


Abhava svabhava sunyataV The emptiness of reality of that which lacks true existence. One of the sixteen emptinesses.


Mula nama/ A real name. Any term or name initially given by an arbitrary designator to denominate a thing unmistakenly, e.g. the term 'vase'.


Proponents of true existence. School of Buddhist and non-Buddhist philosophy asserting the truly existent nature of phenomena


The object of the extreme of existence. One of the four objects of pervasion (see khyab-pa'i dmigs-pa bzhi). The assertion or acceptance of a limit of existence either of conventional reality or ultimate reality. For instance, the statement that all phenomena are included in the four noble truths and not otherwise. Or to say that all phenomena lack inherent existence and if not there is no other way of their existence.


Abhava svabhava purva prayoga/ The serial training in the entitylessness of phenomena The Bodhisattva path from the

Mahayana path of accumulation upto the moment preceding the last instant of the path of meditation.


The six constituents of a womb-born human of this world. ས་པ། asthi/ bone 2 ང་། majja/ marrow and 3. ཁུ་བ། Sukra/ regenerative fluid obtained from father 4. ཤ maihsa/ flesh 5. གས་པ། tvak/ skin 6. ག rudhira/ blood obtained from mother. According to some other systems these are 1. prthivi/ earth 2.  aba/ water 3.། teja/ fire 4. vayu/ wind 5. ། nadi/ energy-channels 6. ■ག་། sukra/ essential drops.


The five stages of growth in the womb; the five stages of foetal development in the womb. 1. the oral-

shaped foetus 2. ར་ར་། the viscous foetus 3.ར་ར་། the soft fleshy foetus 4. འང་འར། the hard fleshy foetus 5. ར་་་། the five protuberances—the two legs, two arms and head.


Pratyaksa/ Manifest phenomena Obvious phenomena that can be cognized directly by sensory perception.


The ten factors. The ten directly present factors for conducting a ceremony of full ordination. 1. ན་པ་མན་འར། accepting the teacher 2. སངས་ས་མན་འར། accepting the Buddha 3. ས་མན་འར། accepting the Dharma 4. མཁན་་མན་འར། accepting the abbot 5. དན་མན་འར། accepting the assistant abbot 6. པར་གས་པ་འད་པ་མན་འར། wishing to receive ordination 7. ་ད་མན་འར། the presence of monk's articles 8. ངས་་དག་པ་མན་འར། the performance of

the ordination ceremony 9. གལ་བ་མན་འར། requesting the ceremony 10. ལས་མན་འར། activity (of monks).


Higher status; superior rebirth. The attainment of a more fortunate rebirth such as a fully endowed human being's or a god's. One of the two basic human aims for making progress on the spiritual paths to Buddhahood.


Longing faith. Aspirational faith longing to attain one's desired spiritual goal.


A. The two abhidharmas: 1. དོན་དམ་པ་ས་མན་པ། paramartha abhidharma/ the ultimate abhidharma, e.g. the uncontaminated wisdom understanding emptiness 2. བར་བཏགས་པ་ས་མན་པ། sarhketikabhidharma/ the nominal abhidharma, e.g. the contaminated wisdom understanding emptiness and the Abhidharma texts. B. The two Abhidharma texts: 1. མན་པ་ན་བས། Compendium of Knowledge (abhidharmasamuccaya) by Arya Asariga 2. མན་པ་མད། Treasure of Knowledge (abhidharmakos'a) by Acarya Vasubandhu.


The seven treatises on phenomenology. The seven principal treatises of the Mulasarvasti-vadin school of philosophy. These are: 1. ཀ་ས་མཛད་པ་་་ས་ལ་འག་པ། Entering the Wisdom by Katyayana 2. དག་གན་ས་མཛད་པ་རབ་ཏ་པ། Thorough Discernment by Vasumitra 3. མ་་་ད་ས་མཛད་པ་མ་ས་་གས། Collection of Consciousnesses by Brahmin Devotsava 4. ་་ས་མཛད་པ་ས་་གས། Dharma Aggregates by Sariputra 5.


Treatise on Imputation by Maudgalyayana 6. གས་པོ་ཆེས་ མཛད་པ་འ་བ་མ་ངས། Enumeration of Migrators by by Mahakausfhila 7. གང་ས་མཛད་པ་ཁམས་་གས། Collection of Spheres by Purna.


Abhidharma pi|aka/ The basket of teaching on knowledge (abhidharmapitaka). That category of Buddha's teachings which reveals mainly the instruction on higher training of wisdom.


Formative existence. An epithet of the intermediate state of rebirth.


Sad abhijna/ The six extra-sensory perceptions; the six clairvoyances; the six extraordinary knowledges. 1. ་འལ་

་མངོན་ཤེས། rddhi vidhi jnana knowledge of miracles 2. ་ག་་མན་ས། divyam caksu/ knowledge of the divine eye 3. འི་་བའི་མངོན་ས། divyaim srotra jnanam/ knowlege of the divine ear 4. གཞན་མས་ས་པ་མན་ ཤེས། paracitta jnanam/ lmowledge of other's thoughts 5. ོན་ གནས་ས་ན་་མན་ས། pijrva nivasanusmrti jnanam/ knowledge of recollecting past lives 6. ཟག་པ་ཟད་པ་མངོན་ ཤེས། asrava ksaya jnanam/ knowledge of the extinction of contamination.


The teachings through enlightened energy or blessings. One of the five teachings (see gsung-lnga) of a Buddha. According to the Nyingma tradition this refers to the simultaneous and natural establishment of all sounds within their source of

reality that knows no cessation, also called the blessed teachings from intuitive awareness.


A. The five modes of enlightenment; a generation stage practice of visualizing a deity. 1. ་བ་ལས་ང་བ་པ། enlightenment from moon 2. ་མ་ལས་ང་བ་པ། enlightenment from sun 3. ས་ན་ལས་ང་ཆུབ་པ། eniightenment from the seed syllable 4. ག་མཚན་ལས་ང་ བ་པ། enlightenment from the deity's implements 5. གས་པ་ལས་ང་བ་པ། enlightenment from the entire entity of the body. B. The process of generating oneself into a My enlightened deity: 1. ་བ་་ལོང་ཡེ་ས་ལས་ང་བ་པ། visualizing the moon as the mirror-like wisdom of a Buddha 2 ་མ་མཉམ་ད་་ས་ལས་ང་ཆུབ་པ། visualizing the sun as the wisdom of sameness of a Buddha 3. ས་བོན་དང་ག་ མཚན་ར་ོགས་་ས་ལས་ང་བ་པ། visualizing the seed syllable and implements of a deity as the wisdom of individual discrimination 4. ཐམས་ཅད་འེས་པ་་བ་ཡེ་ ས་ལས་ང་བ་བ། visualizing the combination of all (moon, sun, seed syllable and implements) as the wisdom of accomplishments 5. ་ཛོགས་པ་ས་དིངས་ཡེ་ས་ལས་ང་ བ་པ། visualizing the full-fledged body of a Buddha as the wisdom of reality.


The four direct perceptions. 1. indriya pratyaksa/ sensory direct perception 2. citta pratyaksa/ mental direct perception

3. svasaniveda pratyaksa/ direct perception of self-awareness

4. yogi pratyaksa/ yogic direct perception.


Pratyaksa bhranta hetu/ Deceptive direct perception. A direct perception that is affected by a deceptive cause.