The Illuminator Dictionary was written from the ground up by Tony Duff. Significant editorial assistance was provided by the Ven. Karma Ozer and Mr. Peter Schaffranek. The dictionary has a number of distinguishing features as follows.

1. Accuracy and clearness of explication of terms
There has been considerable confusion over many Tibetan terms, especially terms of the Buddhist vocabulary. Therefore, many of the terms in this dictionary have extensive commentaries to elucidate their actual meaning.
There are a number of free Tibetan-English dictionaries available at the time of writing; many of them are not dictionaries with clear explanations of the meaning of terms but are merely compilations of terms extracted from various sources. They often provide multiple definitions from many differing sources without defining the meanings of the words or showing which connotations correctly fit and which do not. They also often include mistaken words or definitions and these have then found their way into mistaken translations because so-called translators these days seem to value the fact that these dictionaries are free over their quality and reliability. The Rangjung Yeshe Dictionary has been singled out by academics and trenchantly criticised for these faults. As the person who first prepared that dictionary for electronic distribution, I have seen its enormous faults first-hand and can only concur with the others who criticize it so heavily.
This dictionary takes a much more refined approach. Each entry has been composed by the author on the basis of his extensive study and practice over more than forty years with all of the major traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. It includes portions of translations of various texts as needed.

2. Comprehensive content
The dictionary contains both terms from the ཆོས་སྐད་ dharma vocabulary and from the ཕལ་སྐད་ colloquial vocabulary. Both are given full treatment though some of the dharma terms have very extensive explanations.
• It also has a fairly complete Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen (རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ which is translated as “Great Completion” throughout) vocabularies with it.
• It contains the entire contents of the ལི་ཤིའི་གུར་ཁང་ House of Cloves a rare text written by the Tibetan translator Skyogton Rinchen Tashi in the Fire Monkey year (1476 C.E.). The work is a lexical work (dag yig) which shows the difference between བརྡ་རྙིང་ old and བརྡ་གསར་ new signs; it contains over 1000 terms and is the only explication of its type available. Many of the entries cannot be found in any other dictionary at present.
• It contains the entire contents of the enumeration of dharmas text མདོ་རྒྱུད་དོ་རྒྱུད་བསྟན་བཅོས་དུ་མ་ནས་འབྱུང་བའི་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་ཤེས་ལྡན་ཡིད་ཀྱི་དགའ་སྟོན་ཞེས་བྱ་བ། A Festival for Intelligent Minds An Enumeration of Dharmas Taken From Many Sūtras, Tantras, and Śhāstras by དཀོན་མཆོག་འཇིགས་མེད་དབང་པོ་ Konchog Jigmey Wangpo.
• It contains an extensive range of terms connected with secret mantra ritual and commentaries are given where appropriate.
• There is a class of terms belonging to experiential vocabulary (see མྱོང་ཚིག་) which simply do not have equivalents in English. The bulk of these terms refer to various states of mind that are encountered on the path by a practitioner. Many of these terms have been misunderstood, even by translators, so a considerable effort has been made to collect the important ones and provide a clear enough commentary for the reader to be able to understand the particular quality of each term.

3. Verb listings
The verb listings are a major feature of the dictionary. To start with, the verb listings are very complete. Moreover, the verb entries were not made on an ad hoc basis as has happened with all other Tibetan-English dictionaries where entries have been added without checking and many errors in the verb listings have been included. In this dictionary, the verb listings are based on The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary, which is the most reliable of Tibetan dictionaries available. Some additional listings have been added but only after verification that they are authentic.
A further feature of the verb listings is that they clearly and correctly distinguish between transitive and intransitive verb forms. It is quite interesting to look up other Tibetan-English dictionaries and compare entries for two verbs which are exactly the same in meaning except that one is transitive and one intransitive. In many cases the verbs are listed with meanings that do not match! This dictionary always has consistency between transitive and intransitive definitions and the entries for transitive and intransitive forms aways cross-reference the other form.

4. Parts of speech identified
Entries are clearly marked as being nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and so on.

5. Tibetan script and Tibetan transliterated into English versions of the dictionary.
Many of our dictionaries come as two separate dictionaries, with the content being the same but with one dictionary having Tibetan primarily in Tibetan script and the other dictionary having it primarily in Tibetan transliterated into English. The latter form of the dictionary is for those who are not familiar enough with Tibetan script for it to be useful but who can understand Tibetan in transliteration. Regardless of which of the two forms of the dictionary is being viewed, the headwords of every entry are given in both Tibetan script and Tibetan transliterated into English. The transliteration into English follows a modified form of Turrell Wylie’s system; see the section on transliteration (TIBETAN TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM) in the preface.

6. Sanskrit represented using transliteration with diacriticals
The IATS academic system for transliteration of Sanskrit is used. The letters with diacriticals needed for that are fully supported in the software. To type any of those letters, for example as you would need to do in a search, press Ctrl+d and follow the prompts.
Note that the the search system has an option for finding letters with diacriticals as simply the base letter. For example, in the search box with that option turned on, simply type for example an “a” to find both “a” and “ā”. For more information see the section on transliteration (SANSKRIT TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM) in the preface.

7. Dates for persons
Dates for persons are difficult to ascertain reliably in Tibetan and Indian Buddhism for many reasons. The dates for persons where given do not represent an exhaustive investigation of the dates but are culled from relatively authoritative sources so that the reader will have some sense of the person’s times. Padma Karpo Translation Committee also offers a free dictionary of important figures of Tibetan history on its web-site, with each entry containing a significant amount of biographical information.

8. Operating systems
The dictionary is available with software programmed for a variety of operating systems. Details of the various operating systems supported are available on the Padma Karpo Translation Committee web-site: http://www.pktc.org/pktc.

Tony Duff,
Director of Padma Karpo Translation Committee,
October, 2015
Kathmandu,
NEPAL

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The Illuminator Dictionary is available for three operating systems:
• Windows: at the time of writing it was compatible with Windows XP to Windows 10, both 32 and 64 bit versions.
• Macintosh
• Apple iPhone, iPod, and iPad

The Apple iPhone, iPod, and iPad software is delivered with a single version of the dictionary. In this case, the dictionary displays Tibetan language in Tibetan script but allows lookups in transliterated Tibetan for those who find it difficult to type in Tibetan.

The Windows and Macintosh software is delivered with two versions of the dictionary.
1) Non-Transliterated Version
This uses Tibetan script to display Tibetan language. Use the Tibetan keyboards built into the TibetD Reader software to type Tibetan. If you want to see Tibetan script but type Tibetan using Wylie transliteration, use this version of the dictionary, with the Wylie keyboard that is built into the TibetD Reader software.
For serious students of the Tibetan language, it is better to use the non-transliterated version of the dictionary. Learning to read the Tibetan text directly will greatly improve your comprehension of the language. In conjunction with that, you will also increase your comprehension of Tibetan if you learn to type directly in Tibetan, rather than using the Wylie keyboard. Some scholars dispute that. However, it is a fact that, if you apply yourself to thinking of Tibetan on its own terms rather than in terms of English (or another language), your comprehension and ability with the language will increase markedly. Using a Tibetan keyboard forces you to do just that and hence is a good discipline for any serious student of the language.

2) Transliterated Version
This uses Tibetan transliterated into English lettering. This is best for those finding it difficult to type in Tibetan or who prefer to read Tibetan script in transliteration. The transliteration system used in this version is very similar to the Wylie system. It is not quite the same because Wylie's system did not include a system for transliteration of Sanskrit letters introduced into the Tibetan vocabulary and that is needed. Therefore, the transliteration system here uses a system very similar to Wylie's system but with the extensions needed to accommodate Sanskrit. That system is explained in TIBETAN TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM.

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In general, our dictionaries are accessed with the TibetD Reader software designed and programmed by Tony Duff and his Padma Karpo Translation Committee. The software is highly suited to presenting Tibetan and English in electronic form and is especially made to serve the needs of electronic dictionaries.
Several versions of the software are available for various operating systems, such as Windows, Macintosh OSX, Apple iOS and so on. The following applies specifically to the Windows software, though reading it will be useful regardless of the operating system because it describes many of the basis features of the dictionary.

1. How can you learn the software?
2. How to look up a word?
3. You are reluctant to learn to type Tibetan?
4. Moving through the dictionary
5. Multiple and External Dictionary Lookups
6. Learn the shortcuts!
7. Use the Hyperlinks!
8. Using the structure of the dictionary to your advantage
9. Selecting Records

1. How can you learn the software?
First and foremost, the built-in help is a complete book written to be a clear guide to the use of the software. The first several sections of the help documentation are most important because they give you a basic guide to the use of the software, including a complete description of how the navigation keys work.
Second, the help contains extremely detailed instructions on how to type Tibetan. For typing in Tibetan, you have the choice of using a Wylie-style keyboard, one of two standard keyboards for Tibetan, or of customizing one of the standard Tibetan keyboards to suit your own needs. Maps of the two standard Tibetan keyboard layouts are available on the help menu. You can print the maps and keep it with you until you learn the keyboard or you can keep it up on the screen while you are using the dictionary.
Third, understand that the standard Tibetan keyboards are not hard to learn! We made number one of the two standard keyboards to be as easy to learn as possible; you can learn it within half an hour if you try. It can be summed up as follows:
a) All of the consonants are listed in order across the keyboard (ka kha ga nga etcetera), so even if you don’t remember them you can still calculate where they are without looking at the map.
b) The vowels are all placed in the centre of the keyboard in Tibetan order (i u e o).
c) All of the stacked letters are made by first pressing the stack key (letter h) which is at the very centre of the keyboard, then typing the letters of the stack. This includes all of the Sanskrit stacks, too, so there is nothing else to learn for them.
d) Finally, you can access any letter in the Tibetan fonts by using the symbols window Ctrl+w.
Learning to type Tibetan is that simple.

2. How to look up a word?
Train yourself to use the dictionary as follows. There are three main ways to find something:
a) Start by using the headword search feature. To use it, type your word directly into the headword field. As you type each letter, the software will jump to the word that you have typed or the closest thing to it. It will often arrive on the word you are looking for even before you have typed the whole word. If you type the word correctly but it does not come up, then what you typed is not an entry in the dictionary.
The value of the headword search is that it allows you to find any main entry in the dictionary almost immediately. However, the headword search feature only finds words at the headword level. If you type something and do not find it at the headword level, there is still a very good chance that it is somewhere in the dictionary. So the next step is to look through the whole dictionary—everywhere in both headwords and definitions.
b) Use the search feature. Press F2 or Ctrl+F to bring up the search dialogue. You can type any combination of Tibetan, English, and/or text with Sanskrit diacriticals in the search box. You can use the controls of the search box to search in headwords, definitions, or both. There are many other controls too and these are all described in the help section.
For example, to look up a Tibetan word anywhere in the dictionary, type the word in the search box and press the find button.
A big hint for searching is not to type everything but only to type a short string. Especially, do not to type the tsheg normally required in Tibetan text at the very end of the string. Some words will be in the dictionary followed by a character other than a tsheg, so if you always type a tsheg at the end of a Tibetan word, you will sometimes not find words that are in the dictionary.
To repeat a search, do not press F2 or Ctrl+F again. Use F3 to repeat a search. The reason for doing so is that, when you first start a search you can make lots of choices about how to do the search; when you press F2 or Ctrl+F you lose those choices but when you press F3 those choices you made the first time are retained.
Searches are cyclic. That means you can start a search anywhere and the software will search all the way to the bottom of the dictionary and then from the top down to your present position without your having to do anything more.
Any text in the software that has been selected will automatically be copied into the search box. You gain use this as an easy way to put text into the box, especially Tibetan text.
What if you want to go backwards to a previous entry that you have already looked at? Easy, use F4 and Shift+F4 to go forwards and backwards through the last four thousand entries that you have looked at.
c) Finally, there are several other ways to look up text in the dictionary.
Any Tibetan text that appears in the definitions can be used for doing searches or lookups. Select Tibetan or English text a word at a time simply by clicking on it with the mouse (there are keyboard shortcuts too—look up the keyboard shortcuts in help). Once the text is selected, right click on it with the mouse to get a menu of options, including an option to do a direct look up on that word.
Or, once the text is selected, start a search. The selected text will be put straight into the search box and you can use the features of the search box to make an effective search.
You can also paste text into the headword field. As soon as you paste it, the software will do a look up on it! So, for example, you can select some text in a definition field, copy it to the clipboard (Ctrl+C or right mouse menu), and past it into the headword field. If the text is not exactly what you want, you can edit the text in the headword field to get what you want.

3. Are you reluctant to learn to type Tibetan?
a) Use the Wylie keyboard instead of one of the standard Tibetan keyboards.
b) Try using the transliterated version of the dictionary. Or, in the Tibetan script version of the dictionary, take advantage of the fact that all entries also have the headword in transliterated English—use the search feature and type transliterated English instead of Tibetan to find the entry you want.
d) The transliteration scheme used in here is slightly different from Wylie’s system. You can find all the details in the prefatory section called TIBETAN TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM.

4. Moving through the dictionary
a) There are many ways to navigate the dictionary. They are described at length in the early parts of the software help.
b) You have found an entry and now you want to go back to a previous entry: use F4 and Shift+F4 to go forwards and backwards through the last four thousand entries that you have looked at.
c) You want to scroll down through the contents of the dictionary. Put your cursor is in the headword field then press the up or down cursor keys to move up or down one entry at the time. Press the page up or page down keys to move several entries at a time. Or, use the scroll bar to the right side of the panel to move through the dictionary. Or, use the keyboard shortcuts to go to the top or bottom of the dictionary. There are several other possibilities, too.
d) You want to scroll down through the definition of the current entry. First, use the TAB key to jump from the headword field into the definition field or click on the definition field with a mouse. Then use standard keys to move backwards and forwards, up and down throughout the definition.
e) You are in the definition field and want to return to the head field. Either click on the headword field with the mouse or press Ctrl+TAB.
f) You want to see the current entry in the context of previous and succeeding entries in the dictionary. The software defaults to this mode but try pressing F9 a couple of times and you will see how to change the screen.

5. Multiple and External Dictionary Lookups:
a) One of the best features of the TibetD Reader software is the ability to look up any piece of text in one or more dictionaries at a time. This can be done from within a dictionary, text, or word-processing document in one of two ways.
b) Use the external dictionary lookup system as follows (you have to have one or more of our dictionaries installed for this to work). Select the text you want to look up by clicking on or dragging over it with the mouse or using the Shift + cursor keys. Then right click with the mouse (or use the Tools menu) to select the dictionary into which you want to do the lookup. A new window will open with the definition of the word. The window has a variety of controls to let you scroll up and down through nearby entries or do a lookup immediately in yet another dictionary.
While in an external lookup, you can also do hyperlink jumps within the external dictionary and return from those jumps, too. Moreover, the external lookup window can be moved and sized and your preferred size and location can be saved between sessions using the appropriate option under options on the menu. Moreover, you do not have to close the window after each lookup; you can leave it open while you continue to work. As soon as you are ready to do another lookup, simply highlight the desired text and repeat the lookup sequence and the new text will be looked up without closing and re-opening the window. In general, you can look up text very rapidly in several dictionaries at once using this system. You can also gain access to vast amounts of information in the various dictionaries in a very rapid and handy way. Text in the lookup window can be copied and pasted, for example, into our TibetDoc word-processor. Full information on the use of the external lookup system can be found in the help of the TibetD Reader program; look under menu, tools, and then at the external dictionary lookup information.
c) The other way is to open independently as many of our dictionaries you want to use. Select the text you want to look up with the mouse or shift and arrow keys, copy it to the clipboard (Ctrl+c), switch to the other dictionary, and paste the text into the headword box of the other dictionary. The headword lookup will be immediate. Alternatively, paste it into the Search tab’s box and do a search. You can do this with as many dictionaries as you want.

6. Learn the shortcuts!
a) There is a special use of the mouse in TibetD Reader software. You can use it to select text and then look up the text. Put your mouse over a Tibetan word and click once, then twice, and so forth. The word will be selected intertsheg by intertsheg (the correct name in Tibetan grammar for what is often incorrectly called a “syllable”). Now right click with the mouse and look at the possibilities. If you click on the first option, you can look up the word you have highlighted directly in the dictionary!
b) Use the bookmarks to mark your place while you go somewhere else. E.g., mark this spot here by pressing F5, then a number from 1 to 4. Go somewhere else in the dictionary then return to this exact spot by pressing Alt+bookmark numeral just chosen.

7. Use the Hyperlinks!
One of the key features of this dictionary is that it is has copious use of hyperlinks. Anytime you see a coloured entry like this སངས་རྒྱས་ simply click on it to jump to its definition. When you have read the definition, if you wish to return, press F4. Try it now! The system of hyperlinks and returns back through even a sequence of hyperlinks make the dictionary into a very powerful learning tool.

8. Using the structure of the dictionary to your advantage
The Illuminator Dictionary has been put together in a highly ordered way and you can use that to your significant advantage, like this.
a) Many Tibetan words are given in the definitions followed by their English translation. That means there is a dictionary within a dictionary. As you read, when you find some Tibetan, the English following it is the translation. Many times the Tibetan will be hyperlinked so you can jump to the full definition of the word if needed.
b) There are quotations from many different texts in the dictionary. Each quotation is carefully marked with its own marker. All of the markers are listed under REFERENCES CITED. So, for example, if you specifically wanted to find the entries from the very old text called House of Cloves, you would first lookup its marker, which is [LGK]. You would then do a search for that.
c) All of the verbs are marked . So you can look up just the verbs by looking up that. Likewise, most of the nouns are marked so you can look them up separately, too. Furthermore, all of the verbs are marked as being transitive or intransitive with “v.t.” and “v.i”. Furthermore, each tense form is marked as past, pres. or future, so you can look those up, too.
d) In fact, there are a wide range of abbreviations and markers in use in the dictionary, all of which can be used when searching in order to find specific needs. All of them are listed under ABBREVIATIONS AND MARKERS.

9. Selecting Records
There is a special version of the find feature called the “Select” feature, which you will find on the find menu of the main menu. If you use it, you will get a box that looks exactly like the search box but which says “Select” at the top instead of “Find”. If you type some text in the box to search for then press Enter, the software will find all of the entries that contain the string you searched for and will make them into a small dictionary containing only the words you have searched for which will appear on-screen instead of the main dictionary. This allows you to collect together all the entries containing some particular text.
You can repeat this selection procedure as many times as you want, in order to make specialized mini-dictionaries. For example, you could make a sub-dictionary containing only the verbs or a one containing only the transitive or intransitive verbs. When you are finished with a sub-dictionary, remove it using one of the appropriate items on the search menu.
All of the controls for the select feature are found on the Search menu on the menu bar.

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Tibetan culture created three major dictionaries in the twentieth century that were made to correspond to the style of a Western dictionary. Prior to that, Tibetans did not create or use many dictionaries and the few that were created before that time were usually word lists without alphabetic arrangement. These were not intended as reference works, rather, they were intended as items to be read from cover to cover and absorbed by the reader, with no further reference being required or intended. One well-known such dictionary was actually a sort of story which defined words as part of the story. It is an interesting read but of little use to people from other cultures.
Thus, earlier Tibetan dictionaries are almost useless as reference works, which is why neither there has been no interest in digitising them for computerized use. However, their content for the most part can be found in modern day dictionaries such as this one in a form that does work for people of other cultures.
One Western scholar came to me saying that he wanted to track down the changes in meanings of certain words through the centuries and wanted to see these early dictionaries as part of that research. I pointed out that, unlike with English and other European languages, the meanings of Tibetan words stayed the same over a period of nearly thirteen centuries (650 C.E. to 1950 C.E. roughly stated). This was because the culture was dedicated to preserving spiritual meaning rather than inventing new meanings. As part of that, any given word had a certain value and that was faithfully transmitted down through the centuries. Thus, if you were to read these early word lists, you would find that the definitions in them are no different to what is being used today.
Personally, I went through a period where I hunted down and collected all of the early dictionaries, ever hopeful that I would find something of use in its own right. I had a plan to make as many of these dictionaries available as possible for the use of other translators. However, I found that it was an un-necessary task. The contents of these dictionaries were not really different from the contents of modern dictionaries and their arrangement made them of little use. In the end, I incorporated the content of several important ones into the Illuminator, rather than publishing them separately. So, doing one liberated all, which is an exceptionally bad pun on a famous Tibetan saying གཅིག་ཤེས་ཀུན་གྲོལ་ “knowing one liberates all”, where the word «liberates» also means to decode or decipher. One dictionary, the Illuminator, does it all, so to speak.

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There are two or three, similar schemes for alphabetizing Tibetan words. This dictionary has its entries ordered according to the most common Tibetan alphabetization scheme, which is used in the བོད་རྒྱ་ཚིག་མཛོད་ཆེན་མོ་ The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary. That alphabetization scheme has six levels of ordering the Tibetan words. In order from most to least significant they are as follows.
1) Head words are alphabetized on the basis of their མིང་གཞི་ “name-base” consonants. Alphabetization proceeds in the order of the Tibetan syllables: ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་ཅ་ཆ་ཇ་ཉ་ཏ་ཐ་ད་ན་པ་ཕ་བ་མ་ཙ་ཚ་ཛ་ཝ་ཞ་ཟ་འ་ཡ་ར་ལ་ཤ་ས་ཧ་ཨ།
2) Next, for a given Tibetan syllable, words using just the bare syllable are presented first, followed by words consisting of the syllable plus a vowel sign. This latter order is in the normal order of the four vowel signs of the Tibetan language: ི ུ ེ ོ (which roughly correspond to the English vowels i u e o respectively). As each vowel sign is presented, any words with suffices are also presented according to the normal, syllabic order of the suffix.
3) Next, the syllable with a sub-scribed letter is presented. The sub-scribed letters are presented in normal syllabic order, and then in accordance with #2.
4) Next, the syllable with a prefix letter is presented. The prefixes are presented in normal syllabic order, and then in accordance with number #2 and #3.
5) Next, the syllable with a superscribed head-letter is presented. The superscribed letters are presented in the normal syllabic order, and then in accordance with #2 to #4.
6) Sanskrit transliterated into Tibetan is alphabetized according to the order of Tibetan syllables as mentioned in #1 to #5 but is also done in the left to right fashion of Sanskrit within a word where necessary. Sanskrit vowels, which include a subscribed ཨ་ཆུང་ achung, and so on are ordered after the end of a normal Tibetan sequence. Thus, the word ཀཱ་ will appear after ཀ་ However, the unusual letter combinations which do not appear in normal Tibetan writing, such as ཀྵ, are ordered as though they were normal Tibetan combinations. So, for instance, the word ཀྵེཏྲ་པཱ་ལ་ would appear in order after the words with ཀླ་ as their name-base and གྷ་ would appear in order after words with གླ་ as their name-base.

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1. The Spellings, Tense Forms, and Definitions of Verbs
Tibetan verb theory is complex in its own right. However, that complexity is compounded by spelling variations that existed in Tibet. And it is compounded even further by the fact that the bulk of Tibetan manuscripts were mostly prepared by scribes who were not great scholars and often did not know of the rules surrounding verbs and their spelling. As a result, Tibetan literature abounds with variations in the ways of writing verbs and their tenses, many of which are mistaken.
Earlier compilers of Tibetan-English dictionaries often did their work by looking through Tibetan texts and assuming that the spellings of verbs and their tenses were correct or at least worthy of an entry in the dictionary. Because of this, every non-native Tibetan dictionary produced up to the time of beginning this dictionary (1998) includes large numbers of spelling errors, especially of verbs. For example, Sarat Chandra Das’s Tibetan-English Dictionary is an excellent dictionary but has many errors in its listing of verbs.
Native Tibetan dictionaries usually do not have this fault; the verb listings in them follow the correct spellings of Tibetan verbs, noting alternative forms here and there. For example, the Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary, which is regarded as one of the foremost Tibetan dictionaries available, was not created in the empirical fashion of non-native dictionaries discussed just above. It was created by native Tibetan scholars who set down the correct spellings of verbs according to their own grammatical tradition. Those scholars also included many of the common variants which are accepted as correct spellings. However, they did not include mistaken spellings the way that Sarat Chandra Das and so forth have done in their dictionaries.
One of the important features of the Illuminator Tibetan-English Dictionary is that it contains the most complete and reliable listing of Tibetan verbs available in one place.
To achieve this we began by creating correctly-spelled listings of verbs. We did this by relying on the spellings of the listings of verbs given in the Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary and some other ancient Tibetan dictionaries which correctly lay out the details of verbs.
We continued by developing the English definitions for each verb in close association with various Tibetan scholars. The categories of meaning in our verb definitions often follow the categories given in The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary, since those are correct. However, there are cases where the demands of a Tibetan-English dictionary meant that additional categories or a different ordering of categories was needed and they were added accordingly.
To get a base set of examples for all the verbs and their various meanings, we started by translating all the verb examples in The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary. However, we would like to state that the rumour that has gone around that the verb definitions contained in The Illuminator are merely a translation of the verb contents of The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary is completely mistaken. As mentioned above, we used that dictionary as a basis for obtaining a reliable and complete listing of Tibetan verbs and their spellings, and we also used the examples as a basis for our the examples in The Illuminator. However, the verb definitions in The Illuminator go far beyond the definitions found the The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary.
After we had done the basic work of creating correctly spelled verbs with a set of examples, we went on to expand each definition greatly and to add many improvements to the verb definitions.
We added extensive information on the meanings of verbs to the point that the verb definitions in The Illuminator are by far the most complete and extensive available. We also added many more examples, both our own and from other sources. In particular, there are many examples from a very wide range of texts of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. We made the listings of tense forms clearer, marked every verb as transitive or intransitive, and also added hyperlinks connecting each transitive form to its intransitive form and vice versa. We added information on opposites. We added pointers to similar verbs where possible. Moreover, we went to some trouble to differentiate the meanings of several groups of verbs which always to be translated with one term in English, but which in fact have different meanings, for example, the several verbs for “to fear / be afraid” (see སྐྲག་པ་).
All in all, we are very pleased with the result of our work. For the first time, a complete collection of Tibetan verbs, correctly laid out and spelled according to the Tibetan grammatical tradition has been assembled and reliable translations of the meanings provided.

2. The Layout of Verb Definitions in this Dictionary
1) Just as verbs in English are listed by their infinitive forms (to go, to do, etcetera) so verbs in Tibetan are listed by their present forms (which effectively becomes the infinitive tense in Tibetan grammatical usage). Therefore, in Tibetan grammar and following that in this dictionary, the complete entry for any verb is shown under the present tense form of the verb. Every tense form other than the present form of a verb has a brief definition showing what tense it is (in Tibetan grammar there are present, past, future, and possibly imperative tenses). The definition also has a hyperlink to the present tense form, which then contains the main definition for the verb. For example, the entry for the verb form ཀླུབས་ gives:
Imp. of v.t. ཀླུབ་པ་ q.v.
In other words, it is the imperative form of the transitive verb whose present form is ཀླུབ་པ་. By clicking on the coloured text the dictionary will jump to the present form where the main definition will be found. Some entries have more information, indicating that there are other meanings for that word as well.

2) Once the present tense form of a verb has been located, the verb is first shown as being either a ཐ་དད་པ་ transitive or ཐ་མི་དད་པ་ intransitive verb. Transitive verbs are shown with “v.t.”, intransitive ones with “v.i.” E.g., the listing for the verb རྐོ་བ་ starts out by showing that it is a verb of the transitive type:
v.t.

3) Following that, a complete table of the tense forms is given for the verb. The tenses are shown separated by a slash and a space. Tibetan verbs have only three tenses for simple verbs: past, present, and future. In addition to these, an imperative mood (not tense) is available for some verbs. The custom in Tibetan literature is to list simple verbs in the order: present, past, future. If a listing includes the imperative mood, the imperative is listed last, after the future tense. Since English speakers are not used to that ordering and it would cause confusion to give it that way, the tenses have been put in their English order, with each tense separated by a forward slash, like this: past འདས་པ། present ད་ལྟ་བ། future མ་འོངས་པ། imperative སྐུལ་ཚིག. Using the verb རྐོ་བ་ again as an example:
v.t. བརྐོས་པ། རྐོ་བ། བརྐོ་བ། རྐོས།
In other words: past = བརྐོས་པ་, present = རྐོ་བ་, future = བརྐོ་བ་, and imperative = རྐོས་.

4) Following that the definition of the verb is given. Where there are multiple meanings for a verb, these are marked off numerically with 1) and so on and the definitions placed within. For any given meaning, the definition is given first, usually in quotation marks. It is important to read the longer definitions because Tibetan verbs often have a set of connotations not contained in a similar English verb. Following the definitions, there are examples. The examples always have a marker to show the source; if there is no maker, it means that we have provided the definition from our own knowledge. For example E.g., [ZGT] means that the following example comes from the source [ZGT]. The sources can be found from their abbreviated form in the list given in the REFERENCES CITED section.

5) Some Tibetan verbs have both transitive and intransitive forms with the same spelling of the present tense. In that case a listing for each form will be found together under the present tense. For example, the verb འཆད་པ་ has both transitive and intransitive forms:
I. v.t. བཤད་པ། འཆད་པ། བཤད་པ། ཤོད།. “To explain” i.e., to expound on something so that it is more clearly …
II. v.i. ཆད་པ། འཆད་པ། འཆད་པ།།. “For the continuity of something to be cut off, stopped” …

6) Some Tibetan verbs have both transitive and intransitive forms with different spellings of the present tense. For example, the verb with present tense སྒྲུབ་པ་ is the transitive form and འགྲུབ་པ་ is the intransitive form. Where possible, this dictionary cross-references these forms.

7) Some Tibetan verbs have two transitive or intransitive forms with the same spelling of the present tense. In this case, each set of forms are listed separately under the present tense. E.g., the verb སྐོང་བ་་ has two forms of the transitive:
I. v.t. བསྐངས་པ། སྐོང་བ། བསྐང་བ། སྐོངས། 1) “To satisfy the mind” …
II. v.t. བསྐོངས་པ། སྐོང་བ། བསྐོང་བ། སྐོངས།. “To summon up” …

8) Some Tibetan verbs also function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. If these meanings exist, they are shown underneath the verb definitions. E.g., for the word སྐྱོར་བ་ there are two transitive verb forms, an adverbial form, and an adjectival form.
I. v.t. form I བསྐྱོར་བ། སྐྱོར་བ། བསྐྱོར་བ། སྐྱོར།. 1) “To support” …
II. v.t. form II བསྐྱར་བ། སྐྱོར་བ། བསྐྱར་བ། སྐྱོར།. “To repeat” …
III. Form II is …
IV.

9) Tibetan intransitive verbs can and sometimes do have imperative forms!

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Tibetan verbs are similar to English ones in many ways but there are some differences. In English, if you want to use a dictionary to help with the language, you must know or learn something about the way compound and auxiliary verbs work. Without knowing that, it will be very hard to understand a verb phrase such as “will have gone”. Similarly, in Tibetan, if you want to use a dictionary to help with the language, you must know or learn something about how the Tibetan compound and auxiliary verbs work and these are quite different from English compound and auxiliary verbs.
Tibetan language has simple verbs. These are always a single grammatical name followed by a single phrase assistant. For example, འགྲོ་བ་ is the verb “to go”. It is made of the single grammatical name འགྲོ་ which is a primitive of the language meaning “go” and the phrase assistive བ་. Other examples of simple verbs are ལབ་པ་ “to say”, བྱེད་པ་ “to do”.
Tibetan allows for a type of compound verb. In it, two or more grammatical names are put together to make one verb and the necessary phrase assistive is added to the end.
Tibetan language has auxiliary verbs. However, these are not called verbs. They are called phrase assistives. An explanation of phrase assistives involves a long and difficult explanation. Suffice it to say that a verb is one of the two things just mentioned. Anything that would be an auxiliary verb in English language is not defined as such in Tibetan. These auxiliary verbs are used for two purposes. 1) They make compound tense forms such as “is going”, “will speak”, “has done”. 2) They are used with verbs to provide a specific tense where the tense forms of the verb have the same spelling and hence are otherwise indistinguishable. For example, look at our example simple verb ལབ་པ་ and you will see that past, present, and future tense forms are all spelled the same. The tense either has to be known from context (which it sometimes can be) or something else has to be added to specify the tense. For example, the verb འགྱུར་བ་ is widely used as an assistive that functions as a specific indicator of the past and future tenses. For example, with the verb ལབ་པ་, to make the past tense definite, the past tense form of འགྱུར་བ་ which is གྱུར་པ་ is put together with the verb like this: ལབ་པར་གྱུར་བ་. To make the future tense definite, the future tense form of འགྱུར་བ་ which is འགྱུར་བ་ is put together with the verb like this: ལབ་པར་འགྱུར་བ་. Note how the main verb ལབ་པ་ has a ར་ letter added to the phrase assistive to give ལབ་པར་ which is then joined to the so-called auxiliary verb. There is a small group of verbs that are used for this kind of “auxiliary” purpose.
HINT: adverbial constructions in Tibetan are often (though not always) made by adding a ར་ letter to the phrase assistive at the end of a word that will become the adverb and the whole then has a verb written after it. For example, the adjective / adverb མགྱོགས་པོ་ has the letter ར་ added to become མགྱོགས་པོར་ which then has the needed verb connected after it, for example, མགྱོགས་པོར་འགྲོ་བ་. This is a phrase meaning “to go quickly”. This has a very similar form to the simple verb + auxiliary verb form just shown above. Novices should understand that they need to differentiate the two.
The next possibility with Tibetan verbs enters a very complex subject. There is yet another verb construction that looks like the simple verb + auxiliary verb shown above. However, this construction is different in meaning and the explanation of it is very complex. This kind of construction comes only in the case of a transitive verb situation. For transitive verbs in Tibetan, there is a special possibility, which is that a second verb can be added and the two verbs together provide significant information about the subject and object relationship of the overall sentence. Doing so also provides information about the tenses involved. All simple transitive verbs can be involved as the main verb. However, only a small grouping of transitive verbs can be involved as the second verb.
There are two sides to a transitive verbal action. They are the subject and object. Tibetan grammar further divides each into two. On the side of the subject there is always an agent of the action and possibly a complement, the means by which the agent carries out the action. For example, a wood-cutter is an agent who cuts wood and an axe is the complement, the instrument he uses to do the action. On the side of the object, there is the actual thing which is the place where the action is done. The future tense form of the second verb usually indicates the side of the object of the transitive action. The present tense form of the second verb usually indicates the side of the subject of the action. For example, there is the simple transitive verb གཅོད་པ་ “to cut”. We can make the complex phrase གཅད་པར་བྱ་ and since the second verb is in the future tense, it conveys the meaning that the object side of a transitive action is being mentioned. Since the main verb is in the future tense, it conveys something that will be done. The two together give a noun sense to a verb construct. It means “that which will be cut”. Similarly, we can make the complex phrase གཅོད་པར་བྱེད་ and since the second verb is in the present tense, it conveys the meaning that the subject side of a transitive action is being mentioned. Since the main verb is in the present tense, it conveys something that is being done. The two together give a noun sense to a verb construct. It means “that which is doing the cutting” and comes to mean the complement of the action, the thing actually used to cut. For example, in the case of a woodsman it is the “cutter”, the thing which is the doer of cutting.
There is not space here to write a whole book on the grammar of these types of verbs. The point of this section is that when you see these kinds of constructs in Tibetan, you cannot understand them simply by looking up the component parts in the dictionary. You can possibly use the dictionary to get the meanings of the individual parts but since the sum is greater than the parts, you also have to understand the theory behind the grammar and know the meaning from that. Without that knowledge, you will definitely miss the meaning of these kinds of constructs.
Some people have criticised this dictionary for not including these kinds of forms. For example, there is a listing for གཅོད་པ་ but there is no listing for གཅད་པར་བྱ་, གཅད་བྱ་, གཅོད་པར་བྱེད་, གཅོད་བྱེད་ or any of several other, similar variants that can occur because of transitive verb theory. The reason is simple. These are all structures of the language produced according to the theory of transitive verbs just shown. They are not individual “words” that can easily be defined but are complex structures of the language whose meaning depends both on the rules of grammar and the surrounding context.
A complete set of books on Tibetan grammar, with translations of native grammar texts and complete explanations of the various issues mentioned above is available from Padma Karpo Translation Committee, through their web-site.

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Tibetan language has a unique system for word construction. One of the effects of the system is that correct spellings are pre-determined by a complex set of rules. Thus, all spellings of the morphemes of the language were pre-determined at the time the rules were set down. As a result and unlike in English, new spellings cannot be created according to whim. This unique system and its effects are mostly not understood outside of Tibetan culture.
A seemingly separate issue is that Tibetan publications, until the early 1990’s, were guaranteed to have at least a few and often many spelling mistakes in them. It is important to understand that this is not because the language lacks a system for the proper spelling of words. Rather, it is a direct result of the way that publications were traditionally made. Tibetan literature was usually dictated by an erudite person who knew the spellings but was dictated to a not-so-well educated scribe who then wrote it down with spelling mistakes. Alternatively, something in writing was carved into wood-blocks by not-at-all educated wood-block cutters who then introduced mistakes unknowingly. Furthermore, reproductions of texts were often made by hand and often by people who were not so well educated, with the result that corruptions readily crept into the manuscripts and these only multiplied as further rounds of copies were made over time. This caused a unique facet of Tibetan literary life which was the situation that any important reproduction of a text had to have an accompanying correction process go with it, in order to root out the earlier mistakes. This process over longer periods of time, often also introduced its own mistakes.
Non-Tibetans, not knowing the difficult points of Tibetan grammar have frequently decided that Tibetan language does not have a spelling system despite the fact that it does have an extremely refined system for determining the spelling of words. When they meet the average manuscript with its sprinkling or more of mistakes, their opinion seems to them to be confirmed.
Moreover, this lack of knowledge has become entrenched because nearly every Tibetan-English “dictionary” that has been produced by non-Tibetans is not really a dictionary of the correct spellings of the language, but a listing of Tibetan words that have been found here and there and compiled without regard to whether the spellings of the words picked up like that are correct. Even worse, many of these so-called dictionaries confuse the spellings of words and provide the wrong information for a particular spelling. Sarat Chandra Das’s famous Tibetan-English Dictionary is a case in point. Sarat Chandra Das used an empirical approach to collecting words for his dictionary. If he saw a spelling in print, he included it in his dictionary and then gave a definition for it. This kind of approach could work fairly well with European languages where there are relatively few spelling errors in published books, but not with Tibetan literature where publications often have entrenched spelling errors. The result is that the perfectly precise lexical system that does exist in the Tibetan culture disappears from view and a mistaken system appears in its place.
For example, the word སྔངས་ is given as a main entry in Sarat Chandra Das’s Dictionary. This word has then been dutifully copied, definition and all, word for word into a number of modern Tibetan-English dictionaries, for example into the so-called Rangjung Yeshe dictionary. However, there is no such word in Tibetan, quite literally; such a spelling is not possible by the rules of the རྟགས་ཀྱི་འཇུག་པ་ Application of Gender Signs, Thumi Saṃbhoṭa’s root text on grammar that contains the rules for which spellings in Tibetan are allowed and which not. The correct spelling for the definition given is དངངས་པ་ q.v. This is a flagrant example of a scribe’s error which is then passed on by non-Tibetan people who make dictionaries of the language but who have not studied the Tibetan grammar itself and who then pass on all sorts of errors in their work, whilst spewing claims of how good their work is.
Look at another example. There is the word ལྟེབ་པ་ which is the verb for “to fold over”. Sarat Chandra Das gives ལྡེབ་པ་ with the meaning “to fold”, “to bend over” when in fact, that is the meaning of ལྟེབ་པ་, and on top of that misses altogether the correct meanings for ལྡེབ་པ་! Even worse is that the recent producers of so-called dictionaries have copied this set of errors and parade their works as “dictionaries based on Tibetan” when in fact they are just copies of other people’s mistakes!
I have frequently had users of the Sarat Chandra Das Dictionary and Rangjung Yeshe’s so-called dictionary contact me and tell me that I have to include these incorrect spellings / mis-matched meanings in The Illuminator Dictionary! In other words, we now have the situation where non-Tibetans are using these Tibetan-English dictionaries that have been produced carelessly and on top of that, assuming that, because they have the name “dictionary”, they are correct! And even to the point of insisting that the mistakes contained in them are correct!
It is very important to recognize at the outset that there is a proper system of Tibetan spelling and grammar. It is equally important to understand that many Tibetan-English dictionaries have a substantial number of entries which are mis-spellings at least or complete errors, even.
The whole point of The Illuminator is to present the Tibetan tradition and not a corrupted form of it. To that end, this dictionary has been made exceptionally carefully, giving only correct spellings for words and likewise providing only correct descriptions for those particular spellings. (I have included some common mis-spellings, but always with a note to the effect that they are mis-spellings.)
You simply will not find in the Illuminator Dictionary any of the sloppiness so evident in the other Tibetan-English digital dictionaries available today. Instead, you will find correct statements of the spellings and meanings of Tibetan words, just as you would find in native Tibetan dictionaries. Thus, you can rely on this dictionary for accuracy of meaning, accuracy of spelling, accuracy of representation of the language, and fine definitions, too.
Corruption of the Tibetan spelling system is especially evident with Tibetan verbs. This dictionary has many special features in regard to verbs. One of them is the presentation of correct forms and careful labelling of variant forms; you will find more about this in the prefatory section called DICTIONARY AND VERBS.

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Different methods for representing Tibetan letters using the English alphabet have been employed since the early 1800’s. In the 1940’s Turrell Wylie published an academic paper with a system for transliterating Tibetan into English. His system has been widely adopted and is called “Wylie” transliteration. Unfortunately, other schemes have been invented and persist, so there is no one standard for transliteration.

The Wylie transliteration system for the Tibetan vowels is as follows:
ཨ་ a ཨི་ i ཨུ་ u ཨེ e ཨོ་ o

The Wylie transliteration system for the Tibetan consonants is as follows:
ཀ་ ka ཁ་ kha ག་ ga ང་ nga
ཅ་ ca ཆ་ cha ཇ་ ja ཉ་ nya
ཏ་ ta ཐ་ tha ད་ da ན་ na
པ་ pa ཕ་ pha བ་ ba མ་ ma
ཙ་ tsa ཚ་ tsha ཛ་ dza ཝ་ wa
ཞ་ zha ཟ་ za འ་ 'a ཡ་ ya
ར་ ra ལ་ la ཤ་ sha ས་ sa
ཧ་ ha ཨ་ a

Note how all of the consonants are represented by one to three English consonants followed by a vowel except for the last consonant which is just written as a vowel. The writing of the last consonant, called an achen, with only a single vowel is the one mistake in Wylie’s scheme. By not representing the consonant with one letter followed by a vowel, his system cannot distinguish between ཨཱ་ and ཨའ་, both of which are valid combinations in the Tibetan system. His system results in these two different combinations appearing indistinguishably as a'a. To resolve this, we have done what some others have done and made the transliteration of the achen into “aa”; the first letter always represents the consonant and the second represents the vowel. In this system ཨཱ་ becomes a'a and ཨའ་ becomes aa'a so that there is no ambiguity.

When the vowels are added to a consonant, the vowel letter is changed according to the consonant added. Thus, for the first consonant, letter ཀ་ ka:
ཀི་ ki ཀུ་ ku ཀེ་ ke ཀོ་ ko

Wylie’s system, with the modification given for the achen, makes a system that can accurately represent all grammatically correct forms of written Tibetan. However, Wylie’s system has no means for representing Sanskrit transliterated into Tibetan and has no system for representing punctuation, both of which are needed for representing written Tibetan in English. Thus we have added extensions for Sanskrit transliterated into Tibetan and punctuation.

Our complete system for representing written Tibetan is as follows.

1) The thirty Tibetan consonants without an explicit vowel are as follows:
ཀ་ ka ཁ་ kha ག་ ga ང་ nga
ཅ་ ca ཆ་ cha ཇ་ ja ཉ་ nya
ཏ་ ta ཐ་ tha ད་ da ན་ na
པ་ pa ཕ་ pha བ་ ba མ་ ma
ཙ་ tsa ཚ་ tsha ཛ་ dza ཝ་ wa
ཞ་ zha ཟ་ za འ་ 'a ཡ་ ya
ར་ ra ལ་ la ཤ་ sha ས་ sa
ཧ་ ha ཨ་ aa

For example, the first Tibetan consonant with each of the standard four Tibetan vowels is:
ཀི་ /ki ཀུ་ ku ཀེ་ ke ཀོ་ ko

Note how the last Tibetan consonant is written with each of the vowels:
ཨ་ aa ཨི་ ai ཨུ་ au ཨེ ae ཨོ་ ao

2) The sixteen Sanskrit vowels transliterated into Tibetan then transliterated into English are as follows:
ཨ་ aa ཨཱ་ a'a ཨི་ ai ཨཱི་ a'i ཨུ་ au ཨཱུ་ a'u
རྀ་ rI རཱྀ་ r'I ལྀ་ li ལཱྀ་ l'I
ཨེ ae ཨཻ་ aai ཨོ་ ao ཨཽ་ aau
ཨཾ aM ཨཿ aH

For example:
ཀཱ་ k'a ཀཱི་ k'i ཀཱུ་ k'u ཀྲྀ་ krI ཀྲཱྀ་ kr'I
ཀཻ་ kai ཀཽ་ kau ཀཾ་ kaM ཀཱཾ་ k'aM ཀཿ kaH
ཨཱོཾ་ a'oM ཨཽ་ aau ཨཽཾ་ aauM

3) The application of a སྲོག་མེད་ halanta is shown with the forward slash “/”. And the application of a ྃ chandrabindu is shown with “(M”.
For example:
ཕཊ྄་ phaT/ པྃ་ pa(M

4) The five Sanskrit retroflex letters transliterated into Tibetan are as follows:
ཊ་ Ta ཋ་ Tha ཌ་ Da ཎ་ Na ཥཾ་ Sha ཀྵ་ k+Sha

5) The aspirated Sanskrit consonants transliterated into Tibetan are as follows:
གྷ་ gha ཌྷ་ Dha དྷ་ dha བྷ་ bha ཛྷ་ dzha

6) Ambiguous stacks:
A few very rare but correct Tibetan stacks from བརྡ་རྙིང་ “old orthography” and any compound Sanskrit stacks that would be ambiguously transliterated with the above system are transliterated using a + sign to remove the ambiguity. The plus sign is only used where ambiguity would result.
For example, in old Tibetan:
སྷོ་ is transliterated as “s+ho”
For example in Sanskrit transliterated into Tibetan:
གྒྷ་ “ggha” does not need a plus sign because the transliteration is not ambiguous;
གྙ་ g+nya does need a plus sign because gnya is ambiguous;
ནྱ་ n+ya does need a plus sign because nya is ambiguous (it could be ཉ་ or ནྱ་).
སེངྒེ་ seng+ge does need a plus sign because sengge is ambiguous, etc.

7) Punctuation:
i) Tshegs: Tshegs are represented by a space “ ”.
ii) Shad: Shad are represented by a vertical bar “|”.
iii) Spaces: Spaces are represented by spaces “ ”.

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General
Sanskrit terms are provided in this dictionary as a matter of importance. Much of Tibet’s dharma vocabulary is derived from Sanskrit or related Indian languages. In Sanskrit, the nominative case is the correct way, strictly speaking, to show a noun and, in the nominative case, masculine nouns end in visarga (ḥ); feminine ones end in long a (ā); and neuter nominatives end in aṃ but in a dictionary they are usually given without the final ṃ. Despite this, when Sanskrit is given in an English text, these subtleties are usually abandoned in favour of a more readable wording. For example, skandhamāra is commonly seen but skandhamāraḥ is most correct.
In this dictionary, where possible, I have simply quoted Sanskrit from other, reliable sources. When that is done, the source is always marked immediately before the Sanskrit term, e.g.:
ཀུན་འབྱུང་ “Origin, source”. Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] “samudaya”.
In that case, the [NDS] prior to the Sanskrit means that it comes from the work [NDS] which (together with all other sources) is listed under ABBREVIATIONS AND MARKERS. Each author quotes Sanskrit differently and not always consistently. For instance, [NDS] sometimes gives nouns with the requisite vowel at the end and sometimes not. Please note that, where there is no attribution provided prior to the term, it means that I have provided the word from my own knowledge and I often quote the word according to the simplified English representation where the nominative ending is not always observed.
Finally, readers not thoroughly familiar with Sanskrit should understand that it is a highly inflected language and because of it, a word in general can often be quoted, quite correctly, in more than one way.
Thus, this dictionary tries to be accurate with regard to Sanskrit but has to bow to the difficulties mentioned above.

Mantra
The dictionary does include some stock phrases from the secret mantra tradition. However, the explanations of the terms of secret mantra are not intended for public distribution—they are secret! Therefore, you will not find many explanations of mantric phrases in here.

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Sanskrit is transliterated into English using the standard IAST system (the system developed and preferred for use in academic circles) as a basis. That system is as follows:
The vowels in order:
a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ
e ai o au aṃ aḥ

The consonants in order:
ka kha ga gha ṅa
ca cha ja jha ña
ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa
ta tha da dha na
pa pha ba bha ma
ya ra la va
śa ṣa sa ha

Three modifications have been introduced to make the Sanskrit more readable: h’s and i’s are added as needed. This system was the invention of Nalanda Translation Committee. It was invented to keep an accurate system for Sanskrit transliteration but to make it more understandable to non-specialists.
In this system, the letters that are rendered differently from the standard IAST system are marked out in the table below in bold. Essentially, 1) the liquid vowels ṛi and so on have an i added to them to approximate the actual pronunciation and make the spelling of words containing them more readable; 2) the two consonants ca and cha have an extra “h” added for the same reasons; and 3) the two types of sha-sounding consonants śa and ṣa have an extra “h” added for the same reasons. Thus for example, the terms ṛddhi, ācārya, and aśvagoṣa in IAST become ṛiddhi, āchārya, and aśhvagoṣha in the system used here

The vowels in order:
a ā i ī u ū ṛi ṝi ḷi ḹi
e ai o au aṃ aḥ

The consonants in order:
ka kha ga gha ṅa
cha chha ja jha ña
ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa
ta tha da dha na
pa pha ba bha ma
ya ra la va
śha ṣha sa ha

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PARTS OF SPEECH
A. Tibetan Defined
= consonant letter
<མིང་ grammatical name>
<ཚིག་ grammatical phrase>
<ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector>
<ཚིག་གྲོགས་ phrase assistive>
= single intertsheg verb
verb> = a word which is defined as a ཚིག་གྲོགས་ phrase assistive, not a verb, in Tibetan grammar but which is the equivalent of an English linking verb.
phrase> = multi-intertsheg (not the same as compound) verb


= a listing of items belonging to one group. Such listings are called ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་ enumerations of dharmas / items.

B. English-Defined
= noun
= adjective
= adverb
= pronoun
= personal pronoun
= preposition
= gerund
= conjunction
= any phrase
phrase> = noun phrase
phrase> = adjectival phrase
phrase> = adverbial phrase

= the proper name of something or someone
= exclamation, interjection
= a saying of any kind, including proverbs
ABBREVIATIONS
acc. = according to
altern. = alternative
abbrev. =abbreviation
[Bon] = Bon terminology
cf. = compare with
[Chinese] = Chinese language
[Communist] = Communist Chinese way of talking or Communist terminology
coll. = colloquial, colloquially
[Dialect] = local usage in a particular area
e.g. = for example
etc. = etcetera
[Exp] = མྱོང་ཚིག་ experiential term
freq. = frequently
fut. = future tense
[Hon] = honorific form of a term
i.e. = that is
imp. = imperative
infreq. = infrequently
lit. = literally
[Mngon] = མངོན་བརྗོད་ synonymy (alliteration, metaphor, synonyms, etc.)
[Modern] = new terminology that has been introduced in recent times, which is not part of the classical vocabulary.
[Mongolian] = A term from Mongolia introduced into Tibetan language.
[Non-Hon] = non-honorific form of a term
[Old] = Terms from the original formulation of the language (called བརྡ་རྙིང་ «old signs” prior to the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions that affected to the spelling and/or usage of words)
[Onomat] = onomatopœtic term, representing the sound of something.
opp. = opposite
past = past tense
[Poetic] = སྙན་ངག་ poetic usage
pres. = present tense
Pron. = pronounced / pronunciation
q.v. = que vide, i.e., see that entry just mentioned.
sim. = similar in meaning to
[Syn] = synonyms which includes other terms of the same meaning derived from the [Mngon] literature
Tib. = Tibetan
v.i. = intransitive verb
v.t. = transitive verb
[Zhang Zhung] = terminology from ཞང་ཞུང་ Shang Shungonyms which includes other terms of the same meaning derived from the [Mngon] literature
Tib. = Tibetan
v.i. = intransitive verb
v.t. = transitive verb
[Zhang Zhung] = terminology from ཞང་ཞུང་ Shang Shung

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[ADR] = Adeu Rinpoche, various writings, letters, translated by Tony Duff.
[AKR] = Andreas Kretschmar, principal translator to Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, private communication.
[BCA] = བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པ་ Bodhicaryāvatāra by Śhāntideva
[BKN] = བླ་མའི་ཐུགས་སྒྲུབ་བར་ཆད་ཀུན་སེལ་གྱི་སྔོན་འགྲོའི་ཁྲིད་ཡིག་བླ་མེད་བྱང་ཆུབ་སྒྲུབ་པའི་སྒོ་ཆེན་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། Accomplishing the Mind of the Guru, Dispeller of All Obstacles’ Written Instructions on the Preliminaries called «The Great Doorway to the Accomplishment of Unsurpassed Enlightenment». From the མཆོག་གླིང་གཏེར་གསར་ Chogling Tersar. The edition used is the new electronic edition published by Chogling Rinpoche using Tony Duff’s TibetD Reader system called the མཆོག་གླིང་ཟབ་གཏེར་ Chogling Zabter.
[BKM] = Any of the texts in the མི་གཡོ་བ་ section of the བླ་མའི་ཐུགས་སྒྲུབ་བར་ཆད་ཀུན་སེལ་ Accomplishing the Mind of the Guru, Dispeller of All Obstacles cycle of the མཆོག་གླིང་གཏེར་གསར་ Chogling Tersar. The edition used is the new electronic edition published by Chogling Rinpoche using Tony Duff’s TibetD Reader system called the མཆོག་གླིང་ཟབ་གཏེར་ Chogling Zabter.
[BYT] = བོད་ཡིག་གི་གནས་དང་བྱེད་རྩོལ་ངོས་འཛིན་ཚུལ་གསར་བུའི་གཏམ་གྱི་མྱུ་གུ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། by དབྱངས་ཅན་གྲུབ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Yangchen Druppa’i Dorje.
[CHR] = Personal communication from Dr. Charles Ramble at Oxford University who spent many years living in the East.
[CSG] = དྲིན་ཆེན་ཆོས་རྗེའི་སྐྱེས་རབས་རྣམ་ཐར་གསལ་བྱེད་ཤེལ་གྱི་མེ་ལོང་བཞུགས། «The Glass Mirror that Shows Clearly the Life Examples of the Successive Births of the Kind Dharma Lord». A text detailing the histories of the various incarnations of Chagdud Tulku provided by Olover Boldizar.
[CTNJ] = Chos ’gyur gling pa’i gter gsar; zhal gdams snying byang cycle, concerning the bkra shis gter gyi bum pa bzang po, composed by Adeu Rinpoche, translated by Tony Duff.
[DBT] = དེབ་ཐེར་ཀུན་གསལ་མེ་ལོང་། «The Historical Annals, A Mirror that Reveals All», a modern publication (1987) in book form from the Tibetan People’s Publishing House, ISBN 7-223-00005-8 / K 1
[DCM] = བརྡ་དཀྲོལ་གསེར་གྱི་མེ་ལོང་ཞེས་བྱ་བ། «The Decoding Golden Mirror». A modern Tibetan-Tibetan Dictionary with clear definitions of older terms.
[DCW] = རྣམ་ཤེས་ཡེ་ཤེས་འབྱེད་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས། «The Treatise that Distinguishes Consciousness and Wisdom» by the third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje.
[DDT] = རྣལ་འབྱོར་བཞིའི་བཤད་པ་དོན་དམ་མཛུབ་ཚུགས་སུ་བསྟན་པ་བཞུགས་སོ། «An Explanation of The Four Yogas Points Out the Superfactual», by Kunkhyen Padma Karpo, translated by Tony Duff.
[DGT] = མདོ་རྒྱུད་བསྟན་བཅོས་དུ་མ་ནས་འབྱུང་བའི་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་ཤེས་ལྡན་ཡིད་ཀྱི་དགའ་སྟོན་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། Konchog Jigmey Wangpo’s «A festival for Intelligent Minds: An Enumeration of Dharmas Taken From Many Sūtras, Tantras, and Śhāstras», translated by Tony Duff.
[DHT] = གནས་ལུགས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་མཛོད་ «The Precious Treasury of Actuality» by Longchenpa.
[DKS] = དུས་གསུམ་མཁྱེན་པའི་གསུང་འབུམ་ The Collected Works of Dusum Khyenpa
[DJA] = Personal communication from Prof. David Jackson, art historian
[DSM] = བརྡ་དཀྲོལ་གསེར་གྱི་མེ་ལོང་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། «The Golden Mirror that Decodes Signs» by Tsanlha ngawang Tshulthrim. Published by Peoples’ Publishing House, 1996, ISBN 7-105-02233-7
[EBD] = «Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary» by F. Edgerton, published by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, India, 1998 reprint. ISBN: 81-208-0997-1
[EGS] = E. Gene Smith, private communication.
[EHS] = Eric Schmidt.
[FLK] = བཤེས་སྤྲིངས་ཡིག། Nāgārjuna’s suhhṛlleka «Friendly Letter to a King».
[FPR] = ཉམས་རྟོགས་ནོར་བུའི་འབྱུང་གནས་ལྔ་ལྡན་ཁྲིད་ཡིག་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ལྟ་བུ་བཞུགས་སོ། «The Source of the Jewels of Experience and Realization, The Ocean-Like Instructions on the Five Parts» by Drigung Jigten Sumgon, a text on the Five Part Mahāmudrā Instructions of Phagmo Drupa as passed on to Jigten Sumgon. The text is found in the Damngag Dzod.
[GCD] = བརྡ་དག་མིང་ཚིག་གསལ་བ་ A comprehensive dictionary of the Tibetan language by Sog po dge shes chos grags. Obtained from the 1949 Lhasa hor khang gzim zhag blocks.
[GCL] = རི་ཆོས་བསླབ་བྱ་ཉམས་ལེན་དམར་ཁྲིད་གོ་བདེར་བརྗོད་པ་གྲུབ་པའི་བཅུད་ལེན་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། «The Alchemy of Accomplishment», The Instructions of Mountain dharma; Innermost Guidance on The Practice Expressed in Easy to Understand Way». By Terton Dudjom Lingpa, from his Collected Works, translated by Tony Duff.
[GCH] = The དགོངས་གཅིག་ of Jigten Sumgon per the major commentary on it དགོངས་གཅིག་འགྲེལ་བ་ཉི་མའི་སྣང་བ་ by Rigdzin Chokyi Dragpa.
[GMD] = གངས་ཅན་མཁས་གྲུབ་རིམ་བྱོན་མིང་མཛོད། A Dictionary Of Accomplished And / Or Learned Beings Who Appeared In The Snowy Land published in 1992 by the People’s Publishing House of Sitron.
[GMM] = རྗེ་བཙུན་ཏིལླི་པས་ནཱ་རོ་པ་ལ་གདམས་པའི་ཕྱག་ཆེན་གངྒ་མ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ།། Tillipa’s instructions to Naropa on the banks of the Ganges called «Ganges Mahāmudrā», from the Collected Works of All-Knowing Padma Karpo.
[GSB] = From one of the texts included in དྭགས་པོ་པའི་གསུམ་འབུམ་ The Collected Works of Gampopa.
[HNL] = «The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism», Dudjom Rinpoche, translated by Gyurmey Dorje and Matthew Kapstein.
[JKK] = Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo Kabum
[JKE] = ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་ An Enumeration of Dharmas; an enumeration of dharmas text by Jamgon Kongtrul the first.
[JWL] = སུམ་ཅུ་པའི་སྙིང་པོའི་དོན་གསལ་བྱེད་ལེགས་བཤད་ལྗོན་པའི་དབང་པོ་ «The Fine Explanation Great Living Tree», The Clarifier of the Meaning of The Essence of «The Thirty» by དབྱངས་ཅན་གྲུབ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Yangchen Druppa’i Dorje.
[JWP] = ཐོན་མིའི་ལེགས་བཤད་སུམ་ཅུ་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་ལྗོན་པའི་དབང་པོ་ «The Great Living Tree», The Essence of Thonmi’s Fine Explanation, The Thirty» by དབྱངས་ཅན་གྲུབ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Yangchen Druppa’i Dorje.
[KBC] = བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་ཚིག་འགྲེལ་འཇམ་དབྱངས་བླ་མའི་ཞལ་ལུང་བདུད་རྩིའི་ཐིག་པ་ «A word by word commentary on the Bodhisatvacaryāvatāra called Drops of Nectar According to the Personal Statements of the Mañjughoṣha-like Teacher». A famous commentary on the Bodhisatvacaryāvatāra by Khenpo Kunphel (1872-1943). Published in Western book form by the Mi Khron Mi Rigs publishing house, 1990, ISBN 7-5409-0405-4/B, 14.
[KCD] = Extracts of the original terma of the དཀོན་མཆོག་སྤྱི་འདུས་ «Summation of the Jewels» treasure revealed by Rigdzin Jatson Nyingpo as seen in various Nyingma liturgies.
[KCG] = Oral teachings from Khenpo Choga. A khenpo with complete training at the famous Dzogchen Shri Singha Insitute of Dzogchen monastery. He escaped from Tibet and lives outside it. He supports the Nyingma perspective.
[KHG] = ཀློང་ཆེན་སྙིང་གི་ཐིག་ལེ་ལས༔ གཅོད་ཡུལ་མཁའ་འགྲོའི་གད་རྒྱངས་བཞུགས༔ «From Longchen Nyingthig: Chod Practice, Sound of the Ḍākiṇīs». Jigmey Lingpa’s practice of Chod in the root volumes of Longchen Nyingthig. Translated by Tony Duff.
[KHN] = Any one of a number of learned Tibetans (khenpo or similar rank) who were regularly consulted to obtain definitive statements about terms.
[KJG] = མཁས་པའི་ཚུལ་ལ་འཇུག་པའི་སྒོ་ཞེས་བྱ་བའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་བཞུགས་སོ།། «Treatise called «The Doorway to Expertise» by Ju Mipham (from his collected works).
[KLC] = བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་དུས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་ལྷན་སྐྱེས་ཀྱི་རྒྱུན་ཁྱེར་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་ by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye (from his Collected Works). «The Daily Practice of The Co-Emergent Bhagavat Kālachakra». Translated by Tony Duff, 2002.
[KLZ] = ཀར་གླིང་ཞི་ཁྲོ་ Karling Zhi Thro bardo cycle of texts.
[KPC] = ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་ཀྱི་བརྗེད་བྱང་། «An Enumeration of Dharmas Memorization List». An enumeration of dharmas by the early and great Tibetan translator Kawa Paltsheg, written in the 9th century C.E., and preserved in the Tibetan Tangyur (Derge Edition used).
[KSM] = རྟགས་འཇུག་དཀའ་གནད་གསལ་བའི་མེ་ལོང་གི་འགྲེལ་པ་རིག་ལམ་གསེར་གྱི་ལྡེ་མིག་ཅེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ།། The Commentary to «The Mirror that Illuminates the Difficult Points of Application of Signs» by དབྱངས་ཅན་གྲུབ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Yangchen Druppa’i Dorje.
[KTG] = Khenpo Tsultrim Gyatso. Personal communication or communication via his translator Ari Goldfield.
[KTT] = Kunzang Thugtig cycle of texts, from Chos ’gyur gling pa’i gter sa, translated by Tony Duff.
[KYL] = བོད་ཡིག་གི་གནས་དང་བྱེད་རྩོལ་ངོས་འཛིན་ཚུལ་གསར་བུའི་གཏམ་གྱི་མྱུ་གུ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། A New Bud of the Story Of How The Production Places, Producers, And Efforts of Tibetan Letters Are Identified by དབྱངས་ཅན་གྲུབ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Yangchen Druppa’i Dorje. From a compilation of grammar texts published by the Sakya Student’s Union, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath-221007 Vārāṇasi, U.P., India.
[KZZ] = ཀུན་བཟང་བླ་མའི་ཞལ་ལུང་ «The Words of My Perfect Guru»; Nyingma ngondro text by Patrul Rinpoche.
[LCJ] = ཀློང་ཆེན་པའི་ཆོས་བྱུང་ «Longchenpa’s History of the Arising of Dharma».
[LDD] = བློ་སྦྱོང་དོན་བདུན་མ་ «The Seven Topics of Mind Training» by Jowo Je Atīśha.
[LGK] = ལི་ཤིའི་གུར་ཁང་ Lishi’i gur khang, «House of Cloves», From a modern Chinese Publication in Lhasa; Accession Number 043141, Santarakshita Library, Tibetan Institute for Higher Studies, Sarnath, India, translated by Tony Duff.
[LKL] = courtesy of Sakya Loppon Karma Lodro
[LMC] = བྱང་ཆུབ་ལམ་རིམ་ཆེན་མོ་ «The Great Stages of the Path to Enlightenment» by Lord Tsongkhapa, translated by Tony Duff.
[LMK] = ལུས་མེད་མཁའ་འགྲོའི་ཆོས་སྡེའི་རྣམ་པར་བཤད་པ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉིང་ཁུ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ།། «A Complete Explanation Of The Dharma Section Of The Bodiless Ḍākiṇī» by Padma Karpo, translated by Tony Duff.
[LNN] = རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ཀློང་ཆེན་སྙིང་ཐིག་གི་སྔོན་འགྲོའི་ངག་འདོན་ཁྲིགས་སུ་བསྡེབས་པ་རྣམ་མཁྱེན་ལམ་བཟང་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ།། «Liturgical arrangement made for the Preliminary Practices of the Longchen Nyingthig Great Completion», an arrangement made by Jigmey Thrinley Ozer from the teachings of Jigmey Lingpa. Translated by Tony Duff.
[LOM] = སེང་གེའི་གདོང་ཅན་མའི་སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་ཉུང་འདུས་བདུད་ལས་རྒྱལ་བའི་བཞད་སྒྲ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་། A Brief sadhana of Siṃhamukha, «The Sounds of Laughter Victorious Over Māra». A text from the tradition of the Golden Dharmas of Glorious Sakya.
[MDR] = སྨན་སྡོང་མཚམས་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་གསུང་འབུམ་པོད་གཉིས་པ། Mandong Rinpoche’s writings from his Collected works, Vol II. Translated by Tony Duff.
[MGR] = Mingyur Rinpoche (Terton Mingyur Dorje’s 8th incarnation), oral teachings translated by Tony Duff.
[MMA] = Madhyamakavatara by Chandrakīrti.
[MMM] = སྙིང་པོ་དོན་གྱི་མན་ངག་སེམས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་བཞུགས་སོ། «Mirror on Mind, Foremost Instructions on the Heart Meaning» by All-knowing Padma Karpo and translated by Tony Duff.
[MMZ] = ཕྱག་ཆེན་གྱི་ཟིན་བྲིས། «Notes on Mahāmudrā» by All-knowing Padma Karpo and translated by Tony Duff.
[MVP] = «Sanskrit-Tibetan-English Vocabulary». The name of a publication of the Mahāvyutpatti by Alexander Csoma Koros. Reprinted from the first edition and published by Gaurav Publishing House, 1991, New Delhi.
[MWS] = «Myriad Worlds, Buddhist Cosmology in Abhidharma, Kālacakra, and Dzog-chen» by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, translated and edited by the International Translation Committee of Kunkhyab Choling founded by the V.V. Kalu Rinpoche. Published by Snow Lion Publication, Ithaca, New York, USA ISBN 1-55939-033-6.
[NDS] = Dharmasaṃgrahaḥ. «The Excellent Collection of Doctrine». A large collection of dharma terms written by Āchārya Nāgārjuna. Book with original Sanskrit, Tibetan and English published by Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, Vārāṇasi, India, 1993.
[NOC] = བརྡ་གསར་རྙིང་གི་རྣམ་གཞག་བློ་གསལ་ཡིད་འཕྲོག། «Presentation of Old and New Terms Clarifying the Intellect and Ravishing the Mind».
[NSN] = ཡུལ་གངས་ཅན་གྱི་བརྡ་སྤྲོད་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་སུམ་ཅུ་པ་དང་རྟགས་ཀྱི་འཇུག་པའི་ཚིག་དོན་གྱི་ཆ་ལེགས་པར་རྣམ་པར་བཤད་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ།།, «The Elegant Essence of A Thorough Explanation, The Literal Meaning of the Śhāstras of the Snowy Land’s Grammar, The Thirty and Guide to Gender Signs by mkhan po nges don ’jam dbyangs. Tibetan pecha obtained from Traleg Rinpoche. Translated by Tony Duff.
[NTC] = Nālandā Translation Committee Glossary in TibetD electronic format prepared by PKTC.
[OBZ] = Oliver Boldizar, translator from Chagdud Gonpa, private communication.
[OEE] = «An Ocean of Elegant Explanation». The overview text for the three resting up trilogies by Longchen Rabjam, found in the first volume of the trilogy.
[OTT] = སྒྲོལ་མའི་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་བྱུང་ཁུངས་གསལ་བར་བྱེད་པའི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་གསེར་གྱི་ཕྲེང་བ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ། «A Garland of Gold», The History of the Origins of the Tārā Tantra» by Jonang Tārānatha. A popular text from Tārānatha’s collected works.
[PAM] = ཕྱག་ཆེན་སྨོན་ལམ་ Prayer of Aspiration to Mahāmudrā by the third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje.
[Pek] = Refers to a reprint of the Peking Kangyur and Tangyur as prepared in 1737 under the Qianlong Emperor. A modern photographic reprint of the original edition with a catalogue was made between 1955 and 1961 and published as The Tibetan Tripiṭaka, Peking Edition. Reprinted under the supervision of the Otani University, Kyoto. Edited by Daisetz Suzuki. Tokyo Kyoto, Tibetan Tripiṭaka Research Institute. The contents are: bka' 'gyur, Peking. Vols. 1-45: Vols. 1-11 rgyud; Vols. 12-21 sher phyin; Vols. 22-24 dkon brtsegs; Vols. 25-26 phal chen; Vols. 27-40 mdo sna tshogs; and Vols. 41-45 'dul ba. Both sūtras and tantras are considered to be the direct words of the Buddha [sangs rgyas kyi bka']. bstan 'gyur, Peking. Vols. 46-150: Vol. 46 bstod tshogs; Vols. 46-87 rgyud 'grel; Vols. 88-150 mdo 'grel. Vol. 151 dkar chag. Vol. 152-165 Extra (btsong kha pa / lcang skya). Vol. 165-168 Catalogue.
[PHY] = ཕྱག་ཆེན་སྔོན་འགྲོའི་བསྒོམ་རིམ་གསལ་འདེབས་ངག་འདོན་རྒྱས་སྤེལ་དངོས་གཞིའི་རྩ་ཐོ་དང་བཅས་པ་ཟབ་དོན་རྒྱ་མཚོའི་ལམ་ཚང་བཞུགས་སོ།ཕྱག་ཆེན་སྔོན་འགྲོའི་བསྒོམ་རིམ་གསལ་འདེབས་ངག་འདོན་རྒྱས་སྤེལ་དངོས་གཞིའི་རྩ་ཐོ་དང་བཅས་པ་ཟབ་དོན་རྒྱ་མཚོའི་ལམ་ཚང་བཞུགས་སོ། by Khamtrul Kunga Tenzin, translated by Tony Duff.
[PKN] = ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ལྔ་ལྡན་གྱི་ཁྲིད་དམིགས་ཡིད་ཀྱི་སྙེ་མ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ། by Kunkhyen Padma Karpo. From his sungbum of collected works.
[PCT] = ཨོ་རྒྱན་པདྨས་མཛད་པའི་བཀའ་ཐང་བསྡུས་པ། «The Condensed Chronicle By Padma»; an condensed autobiography with predictions of the future by Padmasambhava. Revealed as a treasure by Orgyan Lingpa.
[POD] = Practice of Dzogchen, by Tulku Thondup.
[PSN] = དཔལ་གསང་བའི་སྙིང་པོའི་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་སྤྱི་དོན་ཉུང་ངུའི་ངག་གིས་རྣམ་པར་འབྱེད་པ་རིན་ཆེན་མཛོད་ཀྱི་ལྡེ་མིག་ oral instructions from Khenpo Padma Tsewang.
[PTA] = གནས་ལུགས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་མཛོད་ «The Precious Treasury of Actuality» by Longchenpa.
[RNG] = རི་ཆོས་ངེས་དོན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་མཐར་ཐུག་ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་མན་ངག་ «Ultimate Uncommon Upadeśha «The Mountain Dharma Which is an Ocean of Definitive Meaning» by ཀུན་མཁྱེན་དོལ་པོ་པ་ཤེས་རབ་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ All-knowing Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen. (See རི་ཆོས་ངེས་དོན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་).
[RHW] = «Random House Webster’s Electronic Dictionary and Thesaurus», College Edition, Version 1.5, Published by WordPerfect Corporation, 1994.
[RTZ] = རིན་ཆེན་གཏེར་མཛོད་ Rinchen gter dzod by Jamgon Kongtrul
[RYD] = «Rangjung Yeshe Dictionary» formerly known as the «Concise Dharma Dictionary» from Eric Schmidt at Rangjung Yeshe Publications.
[SCD] = Sarat Chandra Das’s Tibetan-English Dictionary. The new electronic edition produced by Padma Karpo Translation Committee.
[SGC] = ཡུལ་གངས་ཅན་པའི་བརྡ་ཡང་དག་པར་སྦྱོར་བའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་ཀྱི་བྱེ་བྲག་སུམ་ཅུ་པ་དང་རྟགས་ཀྱི་འཇུག་པའི་གཞུང་གི་རྣམ་པར་བཤད་པ་མཁས་པའི་མགུལ་རྒྱན་མུ་ཏིག་ཕྲེང་མཛེས་ཤེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། «A Beautiful String of Pearls to Adorn the Necks of the Wise, A Thorough Explanation of the Specific Texts The Thirty and Guide to Gender Signs of the Śhāstras that Authentically Set Forth the Signs of the Snowy Land». Usually referred to just as སི་ཏུའི་འགྲེལ་ཆེན་ si tu'i 'grel chen, Situ’s Great Commentary. The eighth Situ Rinpoche’s great commentary on grammar.
[SNT] = ཕྱག་ཆེན་ལྔ་ལྡན་གྱི་ཁྲིད་ཡིག་ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་འབྱུང་གནས་ཀྱིས་མཛད་པ་བཞུགས། «A Written Instruction on Five-Part Mahāmudrā by All-Knowing Chokyi Jungney». By the eighth Situ Rinpoche. Translated by Tony Duff.
[SKD] = ཐེག་པའི་སྒོ་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་གསུང་རབ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་མཛོད་བསླབ་པ་གསུམ་ལེགས་པར་སྟོན་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་ཤེས་བྱ་ཀུན་ཁྱབ་ཅེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ།། «The Treasury which is an Encyclopaedia of Knowledge» by Jamgon Kongtrul the Great. All references given per the electronic edition produced by the Padma Karpo Translation Committee.
[SZL] = ཡུལ་གངས་ཅན་གྱི་སྐད་ཀྱིས་བརྡ་སྤྲོད་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་སུམ་ཅུ་པ་དང་རྟགས་ཀྱི་འཇུག་པའི་རྣམ་བཤད་མཁས་མཆོག་སི་ཏུའི་ཞལ་ལུང་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ།། «The Supremely Learned Situ’s Words, A Thorough Explanation of the Grammar Śhāstras of the Language of the Snowy Land, The Thirty and Application of Gender Signs by Ngulchu Dharmabhadra, from the Collected Works of the author published as part of the US Library of Congress PL40.
[TC] = བོད་རྒྱ་ཚིག་མཛོད་ཆེན་མོ་ The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary, translations by Tony Duff.
[THV] = ལུང་སྟོན་པ་རྩ་བ་སུམ་ཅུ་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ། «The Root of Grammar, The Thirty», the root text of grammar by Thumi Saṃbhoṭa, translated by Tony Duff
[TMT] = Tibetan English Dictionary of Modern Tibetan by Melvyn Goldstein, Bibliotheca Himalayica series II, volume 7. Published by Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu, Nepal 1983.
[TNR] = Oral instructions of Bengchen Tenga Rinpoche.
[TOE] = The Other Emptiness, unpublished book on Zhantong by Tony Duff.
[TRD] = Tibetan-English Dictionary by Tsepag Rigdzin
[TSD] = ༄༅། །གསང་བ་བླ་ན་མེད་པ་འོད་གསལ་རྡོ་རྗེ་སྙིང་པོའི་གནས་གསུམ་གསལ་བར་བྱེད་པའི་ཚིག་དོན་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་མཛོད་ཅེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས།། «The Precious Treasury of the Words and Meanings which Clarifies the Three topics of the Secret, the Unsurpassed Luminosity Vajra Core». Usually called ཚིག་དོན་མཛོད་. One of the Seven Treasuries of Longchenpa, translations by Tony Duff.
[FEG] = མཁས་པ་ཤྲཱི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་ «Feature of the Expert Glorious King» by Patrul Rinpoche, translated by Tony Duff. Also known as ཚིགས་གསུམ་གནད་དུ་བརྡེག་པ་ «Three Phrases that Hit the Key Points».


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This is a list of Tibetan numbers from one to one thousand in both numeric and written forms. Note that the spelling of the written forms given in the list is correct; just as English has unusual spellings throughout the number series, so does Tibetan, and the following is a correct representation of all of the numbers and connectors used to make them in the whole series up to one thousand.
The written forms in the list below represent the original written forms as they were standardized at the time of King Ralpachen (9th century C.E.) when the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ second language revisions were made by royal decree. Subsequently, in the 11th century C.E., during the third language revision, the great translator རིན་ཆེན་བཟང་པོ་ Rinchen Zangpo tried to revise this system in order to remove the oddities in it. However, the new system that he proposed did not stick and the earlier one remained in force.
There are three inconsistencies in the old system and the new system rectified them all. Even though most writers have used and continue to use the older system, the spellings of the newer system are seen, so one has to understand both systems.
The three inconsistencies and the rectifications of them are as follows.
1) In the old system, the spelling of the tens and hundreds numerals does not always match the spelling of the base numerals. For example, the numeral 3 when used as the number three is spelled གསུམ་ but when used as the 3 in thirty and three hundred is spelled as སུམ་. This was rectified by Rinchen Zangpo who declared that all numerals would henceforth be spelled using the base numeral’s spelling. Thus in the new system, the numeral three is always spelled གསུམ་ regardless of whether it refers to three, thirty, or three hundred.
2) In the old system, the spelling of the word for ten in the numbers from twenty to ninety-nine is not always the same as the spelling of the word for ten. The spelling of ten is བཅུ་. In twenty, it changes to ཤུ་, in thirty it changes to ཅུ་, in forty it reverts to བཅུ་, and so on; the variations can be seen in the list below. In the new system, the change to ཤུ་ for twenty is kept because of the need for ease of pronunciation, however after that, from thirty to ninety-nine, it is always spelled like the base བཅུ་.
3) When writing numbers from twenty to nine-nine, a ཚིག་ཕྲད་ connector is always put between the tens and units to distinguish them. In the old system, this connector changes according to the tens value. For example, for the twenties it is རྩ་ for the thirties, སོ་, and so on; the details are in the list below. However, in Rinchen Zangpo’s system, these were made the same; they were all set to the རྩ་ used at the beginning of the range. Thus, in the old system twenty-three would be ཉི་ཤུ་རྩ་གསུམ་ and thirty-three would be སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གསུམ་ whereas in the new system they would be གཉིས་ཤུ་རྩ་གསུམ་ and གསུམ་བཅུ་རྩ་གསུམ་ respectively.

The numbers below are listed from left to right as:
1) Arabic numeric form
2) Tibetan numeric form
3) Tibetan full written form
4) Standard Tibetan abbrev. form for use in numbering the pages of pecha (དཔེ་ཆ་). Note the presence of a space after the numbers indicating one, two (and so on) hundred, which is the standard method of abbreviating hundreds in pecha numbering. Furthermore, when making pecha, two variations on the number format are permissible:
1) A tsheg is or is not placed at the end of the number. Placing a tsheg there follows the general rule of Tibetan lettering that a letter or word should always be followed by a tsheg however, some scribes prefer the aesthetic of not placing a tsheg at the end of the number. We prefer the first method because it follows the general rules of Tibetan text formatting.
2) The sign ཐམ་པ་ is normally written at the end of numbers which are tens and multiples of ten. It is also correct always to put it after the even hundred numbers. Some writers will leave it off one or both circumstances. The following text has the connector included after all tens and hundreds. We prefer this method since it is the most elegant.

ཀ་ [ka] I. The first of the གསལ་བྱེད་སུམ་ཅུ་ thirty consonants of the Tibetan language. 1) The enunciation of the consonant is defined as having: སྐྱེ་གནས་ place of production = the throat; བྱེད་པ་ producer = the throat; ནང་གི་རྩོལ་བ་ inner effort = inner connection of the throat; and ཕྱིའི་རྩོལ་བ་ outer effort = unaspirated and un-sounded. 2) i) When used as a མིང་གཞི་ name-base, the consonant is defined as a ཕོ་ཡིག་ «male letter» q.v. ii) Due to that definition, when a མིང་མཐའ་ name-ending (i.e., a single-letter ending which is added to another word and becomes part of it) is required, of the three possible choices ཀ་, ཁ་, and ག་, the letter ཀ་ is the one that must be used where a male letter ending is required. A good example is the word གཉིས་; the ending letter is male so གཉིས་ཀ་ is correct not གཉིས་ཁ་ or གཉིས་ག་. However, the old form of the word གཉི་, since it has a female འ་ ending on it (it is invisible but there by the rules of grammar), gets a female name ending and becomes གཉི་ག་ not གཉིས་ཀ་ or གཉིས་ཁ་.
II. <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> Placed following other words to indicate i) the whole set that the word represents, everything associated with that word, e.g., འདི་དེ་གཉིས་ means «the two things, this and that» whereas འདི་དེ་གཉིས་ཀ་ means «the two things, this and that, taken together as a whole». In this usage it is used to form new noun-words, e.g., དཔྱིད་ཀ་ and སྟོང་ཀ་ are the words for spring and autumn respectively. They are formed by taking the word that describes a period of time («pleasant» and «going-empty» respectively) and then adding the connector ཀ་ to connote that period taken as a whole and hence, spring and autumn. ii) It also commonly used to create a new noun that indicates that very thing, the culmination of something, e.g., འགྲོངས་ཀ་ the culmination of the death process which is the actual moment of death itself. The word is created by adding connector ཀ་ to the verb for dying, འགྲོངས་.
III. 1) Meaning the first, the earliest, the primordial one. This usage is like the usage of the first letter of the alphabet in English, a, to indicate the first one, the first of a series, and the one at the beginning point. Just as the Greek letter alpha is placed for this usage in English, so it is suggested that, in some circumstances alpha will be a good way to translate this usage of ཀ་. For example, in རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion the term ཀ་དག་ Alpha Purity is a crucial term. It means the purity (དག་) which was there first, before anything else, so it is alpha-purity. 2) Used as an indicator of sequence number, like the English system of A, B, C, for marking volumes of books etcetera in which case it is the «1st».

ཀ་ཀ་ [ka ka] 1) Corrupted form of ཀཱ་ཀ་ q.v. 2) The ཨ་ཅུག་ of a sheep q.v. 3) [Dialect] The clothing of a young child. 4) Slang term for སྐྱག་པ་ faeces.

ཀ་ཀ་ཎི་ལ་ [ka ka Ni la] Mis-spelling of ཀ་ཀ་ནཱི་ལ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཀ་ནའི་ལ་ [ka ka n'i la] The semi-precious stone «amethyst». Note that amethyst is chemically related to the gem stone ཨིནྡྲ་ནཱི་ལ་ «sapphire» q.v. and is therefore said in some Tibetan dictionaries (and Tibetan-English dictionaries literally translating the Tibetan ones) to be a darker form of sapphire. However, the meaning in that case is amethyst, not sapphire.

ཀ་ཀ་མུ་ཁ་ [ka ka mu kha] «Crow-faced». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kakamukha». The original Sanskrit means lit. «crow-faced» but has the meaning that the being concerned has the head of a crow. One of ཕྲ་མེན་བརྒྱད་ the eight Tramens.

ཀ་ཀོ་ལ་ [ka ko la] «Kakola». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kakola». The plant «cardamom» and its seeds. There are two major species of Cardamom, one with larger seed pods and one with smaller ones. This is specifically the species with larger seed pods.
In Tibetan medicine, it is [DGT] called one of སྨན་བཟང་པོ་དྲུག་ the six excellent medicines; the one excellent for the spleen. It is used medicinally to clear cold disease of the spleen.
It is also called ཟླ་བའི་བྱེ་མ་ and ཟླ་བའི་གཞོན་ནུ་མ་.
Note that the spelling is sometimes confused with ཀཱ་ཀོ་ལ་ q.v. and some dictionaries (e.g., [SCD] and [GCD]) then confuse this for the meanings of ཀཱ་ཀོ་ལ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཀཱ་ [ka kA] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kakā». An onomatopoeic name for the crow which is བྱ་རོག་ in Tibetan q.v.

ཀ་རྐ་ཏ་ [ka rka ta] Probable mis-spelling of ཀརྐ་ཊ་ q.v.

ཀ་སྐེ་ [ka ske] «Shaft of a pillar or column».

ཀ་སྐེད་ [ka sked] «Shaft of a pillar or column».

ཀ་བཀྱག་ [ka bkyag] «Pedestal / foot / base of a pillar». The pedestal or other basis at the bottom of a ཀ་བ་ pillar q.v.

ཀ་སྐྱོར་ [ka skyor] «Prop», «stanchion». Name for a post or beam that is pushed up against houses or similar structures or the ཀ་བ་ pillars that support them in order སྐྱོར་བ་ to prop them up. E.g., [TC] ཁང་གོག་ལ་ཀ་སྐྱོར་བརྒྱབ། «the fallen house was shored up with props».

ཀ་ཁ་ [ka kha] The first two consonants of the Tibetan lettering system and equivalent to saying in English «abc» which implies the whole alphabet.

ཀ་ཁ་པ་ [ka kha pa] A student studying the Tibetan ཀ་ཁ་ q.v. i.e., someone learning the Tibetan alphabet.

ཀ་ཁའི་རིམ་པ་ [ka kha'i rim pa] Lit. «ka kha order» meaning Tibetan consonant order which runs in sequence starting with ཀ་ ka then ཁ་ kha and on down to ཨ་ a. The term is roughly equivalent to saying «alphabetic order» or «abc...» in English except that the English alphabet includes the vowels in with the consonants whereas Tibetan ཀ་ཁ་ q.v. order is the order only of the consonants.
Note that there is an «alphabetic» order for the vowels. It is the sequence: consonant with no added vowel (i.e., the natural inbuilt ཨ་ a vowel) followed by ི , ུ , ེ , ོ (called གི་གུ་ gigu, ཞབས་ཀྱུ་ zhabkyu, འགྲེང་བུ་ drengbu, and ན་རོ་ naro). Where a sequence of items numbering more than the consonants needs to be made using the consonants as a numbering system, the vowels and then the vowels and consonants together are used to increase the numbering span up to 30 consonants times 5 vowels =150. There is no set way of doing this, e.g., is can be the plain consonants followed by the consonants plus gigu, and so on, or it can be each consonant with the vowels rotated on it, one by one, and there are other ways to do it, too. Additionally, the Sanskrit consonants and vowels can be included to increase the total of the sequence even further. This system is common e.g., in numbering volumes in a single collection of books.

ཀ་ཁོལ་མ་ [ka khol ma] «Ka to Khol Document». The name given to a document that was composed by སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ King Songtsen Gampo and concealed under the ཀ་བ་ཤིང་ལོ་ཅན་ leaved pillar of the Jokhang. It was unearthed by ཇོ་བོ་རྗེ་ཨ་ཏི་ཤ་ Atīśha. The document contained a series of chapters from the final testament of the King—from the first ཀ་བ་ ka ba through to the one called ཁོལ་བཏོན་ khol bton hence the name.

ཀ་གིས་ [ka gis] Mis-spelling of ཀག་གིས་ q.v.

ཀ་འགོ་ [ka 'go] 1) «The top of a pillar or column». The top portion of a ཀ་བ་ pillar q.v. Note that this is not the same as the གཞུ་ bow of a pillar; it just refers to the top area of a pillar in general, not to the specific part called the bow. 2) «Shaft collar / ring». The name of the steel band placed at the projecting end of the main shaft of a water wheel e.g., as used in a grain mill. The band is a collar that locks the wheel in place.

ཀ་རྒྱན་ [ka rgyan] «Pillar decoration / ornamentation». The name given to the decoration or decorative designs worked onto the outer surface of a ཀ་བ་ pillar q.v.

ཀ་རྒྱུག་ [ka rgyug] «Tent-pole».

ཀ་སྒྲོགས་ [ka sgrogs] «Cawer». The bird, i.e., a crow, that makes cawing sounds.

ཀ་ཅ་ [ka ca] I. [Old] Acc. [LGK] this and དཀོར་ q.v. were revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and were, when written in new signs, general names for ནོར་, with meaning below.
II. Acc. [DDT], ནོར་དངོས་པོ་སྤྱིའི་མིང་. Acc. [TC] ནོར་རྫས་སྤྱིའི་མིང་. A general name for «goods and possessions constituting one's material wealth». In Tibet, goods and possessions included one's provisions, hence «the physical things that one has of value».

ཀ་ཅི་ [ka ci] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kaci». The name of a fine and smooth, white cloth. Probably in reference to the fine cotton muslin that was well-known as an Indian product and was a major trading commodity in ancient times.
The name is most likely a corruption of the Indian name ཀ་ཤི་ Kaśhi q.v., which is the old name for Vārāṇasi, the home of the finest Indian textiles, including Benares cotton muslin.

ཀ་ཅོག་ཞང་གསུམ་ [ka cog zhang gsum] Mis-spelling of སྐ་ཅོག་ཞང་གསུམ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཆ་ [ka cha] Acc. [GCD] and [TC] same as ཀ་ཅ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཆུག་ [ka chug] [Old] for དེ་ལྟར་ meaning «like that / this / so», «in this way».

ཀ་ཆེན་བཅུ་ [ka chen bcu] «The ten great pillars». See བཤད་བརྒྱུད་འདེགས་པའི་ཀ་ཆེན་བཅུ་ «the ten great pillars who supported the exegetical tradition».

ཀ་ཆེན་བཞི་ [ka chen bzhi] «The four great pillars» an epithet for the four best disciples of མར་པ་ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་ Marpa the translator. They were: 1) རྔོག་ཆོས་སྐུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Ngog Choku Dorje; 2) མཚུར་སྟོན་དབང་གི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Tsurton Wanggi Dorje; 3) མེས་སྟོན་ཚོན་པོ་ Meton Tsonpo; and 4) མི་ལ་རས་པ་ Milarepa q.v.

ཀ་གཉིས་པ་ [ka gnyis pa] «Two ka's». Acc. [GCD] another term for a བྱ་རོག་ raven. The name is derived from the fact that ravens (and crows) tend to caw twice at a time. For example, their more common names are ཀ་ཀ་ and ཀྭ་ཀྭ་ for that reason.

ཀ་ཊོ་ར་ [ka To ra] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kaṭora».
I. A general name for a metal vessel such as a basin or bowl. Acc. [GCD] it is ཟངས་སྣོད་གཞོང་པ་ i.e., a copper bowl / basin however this indicates the prevalence of copper as the material for bowls in the author's time; [TC] gives more correctly as ཟངས་རག་སོགས་ལས་བཟོས་པའི་གཞོང་པ། «a bowl / basin made of copper, brass, etc.»
II. [LGK] says that this, having the Tibetan equivalent སྣོད་ «container», by corruption becomes ཀ་ཏོ་ར་ q.v., which is then sometimes mistaken as an བརྡ་རྙིང་ old sign of the Tibetan language.

ཀ་ཏ་པུར་ [ka ta pur] Corrupted form of ཀཏྤཱུ་ར་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏ་པུར་འཛག་ [ka ta pur 'dzag] phrase> [Mngon] «Dripping camphor». [GCD] gives an epithet for the moon.

ཀ་ཏ་བུ་ར་ [ka ta bu ra] Corrupted form of ཀཏྤཱུ་ར་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏ་ཡ་ན་ [ka ta ya na] Mis-spelling of ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏ་རུ་ [ka ta ru] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kataru». Translated into Tibetan with རེའུ་མིག་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏན་ [ka tan] «Cotton». Corrupted form of the English meaning cotton cloth, not cotton thread. [GCD] gives as རས་དཀར་པོ་ཞིག་ལའང་ meaning «another name for white (cotton) cloth».

ཀ་ཏའི་བུ་ནོག་ཅན་ [ka ta'i bu nog can] Mis-spelling of ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ནོག་ཅན་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏའི་བུ་མོ་ [ka ta'i bu mo] Acc. [GCD] same as ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་མོ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏི་ [ka ti] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kati», a term that was never translated into Tibetan. 1) The name of a རྩ་ channel that runs from the heart centre directly to the eyes. The channel is not mentioned anywhere except in རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion literature, where it is of crucial importance in the མན་ངག་གི་སྡེ་ Upadeśha section teachings of ཐོད་རྒལ་ Direct Crossing. The channel is said to be smooth, pipe-like, and clear, like crystal. 2) The name of a bird.

ཀ་ཏི་ཤེལ་གྱི་སྦུ་གུ་ཅན་ [ka ti shel gyi sbu gu can] phrase> «Kati crystal tube». A རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion term. The name of a special channel not mentioned in other tantras. See ཀ་ཏི་ kati.

ཀ་ཏི་ཤེལ་གྱི་རྩ་ [ka ti shel gyi rtsa] phrase> «Kati crystal channel», «Kati crystal nāḍī». See ཀ་ཏི་ kati.

ཀ་ཏི་གསེར་གྱི་རྩ་ [ka ti gser gyi rtsa] phrase> «Kati golden channel», «Kati golden nāḍī». See ཀ་ཏི་ kati.

ཀ་ཏི་གསེར་གྱི་རྩ་ཆེན་ [ka ti gser gyi rtsa chen] phrase> «The great golden channel of Kati», «the great golden nāḍī of Kati». See ཀ་ཏི་ kati.

ཀ་ཏུ་ [ka tu] Probable mis-spelling of ཀེ་ཏུ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏོ་ར་ [ka to ra] Corrupted form of ཀ་ཊོ་ར་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏྱ་ཡ་ན་ [ka tya ya na] Mis-spelling of ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏྱ་བུ་མོ་ [ka tya bu mo] Mis-spelling of ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་མོ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ [ka tyA ya na] Translit. of the Sanskrit «katyāyana» (some sources e.g., [MVP] give as kātyāyana). Indian name of a person which in Buddhist literature usually refers to one of two well-known people in Buddhist history: 1) Kahuda Katyāyana; see ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ནོག་ཅན་; 2) Mahā Katyāyana, see ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ཆེན་པོ་. Note that both people are also referred to with the name ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ Katyāputra q.v.

ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ཆེན་པོ་ [ka tyA ya na chen po] «Great Katyāyana». Translit. + translation of the Sanskrit «mahā katyāyana». The name of an arhat who was in the retinue of the ten closest ཉན་ཐོས་ śhrāvaka disciples of the buddha. He was regarded as foremost in terms of knowing the Vinaya and was the first lineage holder of the teachings after the buddha passed away (the first of the སྟོན་པའི་གཏད་རབས་བདུན་ seven successors). There were a number of disciples and non-disciples at the time called Katyāyana so he was called «The Great Katyāyana» to distinguish him from the others. Also known as ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ Katyāyana, ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ Katyāputra, and ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahā Katyāputra.

ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ནོག་ཅན་ [ka tyA ya na nog can] «The Hunch-backed Katyāyana» or «Katyāyana the Hunchback». Translation of the Sanskrit «kahuda katyāyana». Name of a Indian person of the Buddha's time who was one of the six heretic teachers (མུ་སྟེགས་པའི་སྟོན་པ་དྲུག་ q.v.) had their own religious systems and followers. He and the others all disagreed with the Buddha and taught their teachings in opposition to the Buddha's teaching. His particular tenet was that he did not assert anything at all. Also known as ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ Katyāyana and ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ and Katyāputra.

ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ [ka tyA'i bu] «Katyā's Son» or «Son of Katyā». Translation of the Sanskrit «katyāputra». An alternative name for two persons well-known in Buddhist history who were usually called ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ q.v.

ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ཆེན་པོ་ [ka tyA'i bu chen po] «Great Son of Katyā». Translation of the Sanskrit «mahākatyāputra». An epithet of the ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ Katyāyana who was one of the Buddha's main disciples, ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ཆེན་པོ་ q.v. He was the greatest of several people around at the time, all of whom were called «Son of Katyā».

ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ནོག་ཅན་ [ka tyA'i bu nog can] «The Hunch-backed Son of Katyā». From the Sanskrit «kahudakatyāputra». An epithet of the Kahuda Katyāyana who was one of མུ་སྟེགས་པའི་སྟོན་པ་དྲུག་ the six founding teachers of the Tīrthika q.v.

ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་མོ་ [ka tyA'i bu mo] «Daughter of Katyā». From the Sanskrit «katyāputrī». Acc. [GCD] an epithet of the goddess ཨུ་མ་ Uma, i.e., Parvati, wife of the great Indian god Śhiva.

ཀ་རྟི་ཀ་ [ka rti ka] Corruption of ཀརྟི་ཀ་ q.v.

ཀ་སྟེགས་ [ka stegs] «Pedestal (of a pillar)», «pillar support». The supportive portion at the base of a ཀ་བ་ pillar q.v. [GCD] gives as ཀ་བ་འདེགས་བྱེད་གདན་ལྟ་བུ་ «the support for a pillar which sits underneath it».

ཀ་བསྟོད་ [ka bstod] «Alphabetical praise». A praise (e.g., to the buddhas) ཀ་རྩོམ་ composed in alphabetic style q.v.

ཀ་ཐམ་ [ka tham] «Ka tham». Acc. [GCD] སྣོད་སྤྱད་ཅིག་ i.e., the name of a particular type of utility vessel.

ཀ་ཐོ་ [ka tho] «Alphabetic listing». 1) Acc. [GCD] ཀ་ཁ་རིམ་བཞིན་བཀོད་པའི་ཐོ་ཡིག་ meaning any kind of listing made in alphabetical order. Note that an index is usually called a དཀར་ཆག་ and these might or might not be in alphabetical listing; the use of ཀ་ཐོ་ would imply alphabetic listing but not indexing. 2) Any kind of list where the consonants of the alphabet are used instead of numerals to number the entries of the list instead. It is very common in Tibetan literature to used letters instead numbers in this way.

ཀ་ཐོག་ [ka thog] See ཀ་ཐོག་དགོན་.

ཀ་ཐོག་དགོན་ [ka thog dgon] «Kathok Gonpa». A gonpa in the སི་ཁྲོན་ district of the Derge region of Kham [East Tibet]. Founded by the younger brother of Phagmo Drupa, Kadampa Desheg, in 1159. Also spelled ཀཿཐོག. By the end of the nineteenth century there were six principal Nyingma gonpas in Kham. Kathok Gonpa was the first of them and is regarded as the «mother» of the other five, all of the dharma lineages that were brought to Kathok having gone off to the other five as they developed later.

ཀ་དག་ [ka dag] Abbrev. of ཀ་ནས་དག་པ་ q.v.
I. Meaning «pure from the ground up, pure from the beginning».
II. «Alpha purity». A unique རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion term meaning ཀ་ནས་དག་པ་ and referring to the purity that has been there in the essence of mind from the first, i.e., primordial purity. Here, the letter ཀ་ has the meaning གདོད་མ་ as is explained in the oral instructions of the system and also per the possible definition for ཀ་ given in the native Tibetan dictionary called དག་ཡིག་ལེགས་བཤད་ཚིག་གཏེར་.
The most common translations, «primordial purity» and «original purity» more accurately translate the commonly used terms ཡེ་དག་ and གདོད་མའི་དག་པ་ respectively. Another translator suggests «essential purity» which at least does not translate other Tibetan terms and does capture the meaning intended. However, there is a further, deeper problem with translating this term with words that belong to other terms, such as those just given. This term is one of the key terms of the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut path of the མན་ངག་གི་སྡེ་ Upadeśha section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion teachings. In Tibetan, when this term is seen in writing, one immediately knows it as distinct from these other terms and especially, knows that it is the unique terminology of the Great Completion teachings. Therefore, it is imperative that the term be translated in a way that makes it distinct. The Tibetan ཀ་དག་ literally translated is equivalent to saying «a-pure» in English. In English, when the sense of the first letter of the alphabet as «the first», «the beginning» is required, it is usual to use the Greek «alpha» which is the origin of the letter «a». Therefore, it not only makes sense to translate it as «alpha pure» but meaning-wise it is also perfectly correct to do so. The main argument that has been put up against this is that it sounds «odd» on the ears. But that is not a sufficient argument; amongst other things it shows a lack of understanding of both Tibetan and English languages and how they operate.
Now as for the term itself, in the Great Completion teachings, it is said that, by practising the Thorough Cut teachings correctly, the practitioner cuts through the solidity of confusion to the purity of mind that has been there from the very beginning i.e., to the alpha purity that exists in the mindstream. Because of this, the teaching as a whole is sometimes called ཀ་དག་ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ «Alpha-Purity Thorough Cut».
The term is mainly a path term of Thorough Cut, being used to refer to the alpha-purity of mind that is reached during the practice of Thorough Cut. In these teachings it can be used to mean primarily the ངོ་བོ་སྟོང་པ་ empty essence of the essence of mind, though sometimes it refers to both ཀ་དག་ and ལྷུན་གྲུབ་.
Again, in this usage it is similar in meaning to ཡེ་དག་, དང་པོ་ནས་དག་པ་, and གདོད་ནས་དག་པ་ but is a particular technical term of the tradition that is unique and which needs to be distinguished from these more generic terms.

ཀ་དག་ཀློང་ [ka dag klong] Abbrev. of ཀ་དག་གི་ཀློང་ q.v.

ཀ་དག་ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ [ka dag khregs chod] «Alpha-purity Thorough Cut». A longer name for the practice of ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut given because the practitioner ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ decisively cuts through into ཀ་དག་ alpha purity q.v. See also ཀ་དག་རང་བྱུང་རང་ཤར་ «Alpha Purity, Self-arising/Self-Shining Forth».

ཀ་དག་གི་ཀློང་ [ka dag gi klong] phrase> «Alpha purity's space» meaning the experienced space of alpha purity.

ཀ་དག་གི་སྤྱི་གཞི་ [ka dag gi spyi gzhi] phrase> «Alpha purity's general ground». A རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion term. In Great Completion texts that explain the nature of the ground, such as [TSD], it is stated that the ground itself can be the ཀ་དག་གི་འཁྲུལ་གཞི་ ground of confusion and also the ཀ་དག་གི་གྲོལ་གཞི་ ground of liberation from that confusion. [TSD] says, གཞི་སྣང་དུ་ཤར་དུས་གྲོལ་འཁྲུལ་གཉིས་ཀའི་གཞི་བྱེད་པའི་ཆ་ནས་སྤྱི་གཞི་ཟེར་ལ། «when the ground shines forth into appearance, from the factor of functioning as the ground of both liberation and confusion, it is called «the common ground»...». [TSD] makes the point that there are not three grounds but that one ground can be seen in various ways and hence has these various names.

ཀ་དག་གི་གཞི་ [ka dag gi gzhi] «Alpha purity, the ground». Ground term. The term གཞི་ ground here refers to ground of གཞི་ལམ་འབྲས་བུ་ ground, path, and fruition. According to the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut system q.v., the ground of sentient beings is ཀ་དག་ alpha purity.

ཀ་དག་གི་ཡེ་གཞི་ [ka dag gi ye gzhi] «Alpha purity, the primordial ground». Same meaning as ཀ་དག་གི་གཞི་ q.v. but with the additional sense that alpha purity is the ཡེ་གནས་པའི་གཞི་ ground that has always existed in the mind-streams of sentient beings.

ཀ་དག་གི་རིག་པ་ [ka dag gi rig pa] «Alpha purity's rigpa». Path term. The རིག་པ་ rigpa that is experienced by a practitioner on the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut path is the knowing aspect of ཀ་དག་གི་གཞི་ alpha purity which is the ground of the practitioner, according to that system. When this rigpa is finalized by practice, it becomes the fruition of this path, ཀ་དག་ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ alpha purity's dharmakāya.

ཀ་དག་གི་ལམ་ [ka dag gi lam] «Alpha purity's path». The ལམ་ path followed by a practitioner on the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut path is based on ཀ་དག་གི་ཡེ་གཞི་ alpha purity which is the primordial ground of the practitioner, according to that system.

ཀ་དག་ཆེན་པོ་ [ka dag chen po] phrase> «The great alpha purity». A རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion term. See under གཞི་ཀ་དག་ཆེན་པོ་ for explanation.

ཀ་དག་ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ [ka dag chos kyi sku] «Alpha purity's dharmakāya». Fruition term. The term refers to the ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ dharmakāya that is the fruition specifically of a practitioner on the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut path. This fruition is present to begin with as ཀ་དག་གི་གཞི་ the ground which is alpha purity and is developed by practising the path which is ཀ་དག་གི་རིག་པ་ the rigpa of alpha purity. In this system, rigpa is dharmakāya but not fully seen. When rigpa has all obscurations removed, it becomes the fruition, which in this path based on alpha purity, is called alpha purity's dharmakāya.

ཀ་དག་ཆོས་སྐུའི་རིག་པ་ [ka dag chos sku'i rig pa] «Rigpa of the alpha purity dharmakāya». Path term. The term ཀ་དག་ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ alpha purity (style of) dharmakāya refers to the fruition specifically of a practitioner on the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut path. The term རིག་པ་ rigpa refers to that fruition as it appears to the practitioner who knows it and works with it on the path. Practically speaking, the whole term conveys the sense of rigpa which is the practitioner's handle in the Thorough Cut path to the fruition, dharmakāya».

ཀ་དག་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་ [ka dag stong pa nyid] «Alpha purity emptiness» meaning the སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་ emptiness that is connected with ཀ་དག་ alpha purity in particular. The ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut path uses the special terminology «alpha purity» to refer to the ground state of sentient beings; this is where emptiness is found, in this system, hence the name.

ཀ་དག་ཡེ་གཞི་ [ka dag ye gzhi] Abbrev. of ཀ་དག་གི་ཡེ་གཞི་ q.v.

ཀ་དག་རང་བྱུང་རང་ཤར་ [ka dag rang byung rang shar] «Alpha Purity, Self-arising/Self-Shining Forth». An epithet of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion which describes the reality in the words of that system, especially using the terminology of the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut system. See རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ཀ་དག་རང་བྱུང་རང་ཤར་ for a full explanation.

ཀ་དག་ལྷུན་གྲུབ་ [ka dag lhun grub] «Alpha purity and spontaneous existence». A term used in རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion to refer to the two main parts of the innermost system of practice by referring to the fundamental realities that each one accesses. The two parts of the innermost system of practice are ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut and ཐོད་རྒལ་ Direct Crossing. Terminology of the Thorough Cut is built around the ཀ་དག་ alpha purity that the practitioner cuts through to; terminology of the Direct Crossing is built around the ལྷུན་གྲུབ་ full, self-existing reality of spontaneous existence that a practitioner accesses.

ཀ་དམ་པ་ [ka dam pa] «Kadampa». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kadam». 1) The name of a tree that gives rise to a flower also of the same name. 2) The name of a type of water-bird called ཆུ་བྱ་མཐིང་རིལ་ or ཆུ་སྐྱར་ in Tibetan.

ཀ་དམ་པ་བདེ་གཤེགས་ [ka dam pa bde gshegs] «Kadampa Deshek» [1122-1192]. The founder of ཀ་ཐོག་དགོན་ Kathok Gonpa q.v.

ཀ་དམ་པའི་མེ་ཏོག་ [ka dam pa'i me tog] phrase> «Kadampa flower» see ཀ་དམ་པ་ Kadampa q.v.

ཀ་དར་ [ka dar] «White scarf». The name for a ཁ་བཏགས་ white scarf tied to a ཀ་བ་ pillar (or other vertical object, such as a tree). It was a practice in Tibet to tie a scarf to an upright like this as part of making an auspicious connection. It would be tied there after making a prayer in the place or as a sign of wishing that there be a good connection with the place in the future.

ཀ་གདན་ [ka gdan] Acc. [GCD] same as ཀ་སྟེགས་ q.v.

ཀ་གདུང་ [ka gdung] «Pillars and joists / beams». Abbrev. of ཀ་བ་ and གདུང་ q.v.

ཀ་བདར་ [ka bdar] The act of arranging or positioning each of several things into its own respective position within the group. E.g., ཐེག་དགུའི་ལྟ་བ་ཤན་འབྱེད་ཀ་བདར་བྱས། འབྲས་བུ་ཡོངས་རྫོགས་ཆེན་པོ་ཚོམ་བུར་བཀོད། «the views of the nine vehicles are separately distinguished and positioned then the full fruitions are set out individually».

ཀ་དྲུའི་བུ་ [ka dru'i bu] «Son of Kadru». Acc. [GCD] the name of a certain ཀླུ་ nāga.

ཀ་སྡེ་ [ka sde] «The ka group». 1) The name given to the first of the eight sections of the གསལ་བྱེད་ consonants of the Tibetan lettering set. The group consists of the letters: ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་། ka, kha, ga, and nga. 2) From the Sanskrit «ka varga». The name of the first section of the five sections of contact consonants in the Sanskrit lettering set. It consists of letters: ཀ་ཁ་ག་གྷ་ང་། ka, kha, ga, gha, and nga.

ཀ་ཎ་ཡ་ [ka Na ya] «Kaṇaya». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kaṇaya». The name of a weapon. A spear with a ring forged at the throwing end and with rope attached to the ring. Thus the spear could be thrown and retrieved.

ཀ་ན་ཀ་ [ka na ka] «Gold». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kanaka». One of several Sanskrit words for «gold». Translated into Tibetan with 1) གསེར་ the general name for gold or 2) ས་ལེ་སྦྲམ་ the name for the best quality of gold.

ཀ་ན་ཀ་མུ་ནི་ [ka na ka mu ni] «Kanakamuni». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kanakamuni». Translated into Tibetan with གསེར་ཐུབ་ q.v.

ཀ་ནི་ཀ་ [ka ni ka] «Kanika». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kanika»; term was never translated into Tibetan. The name of a king of ancient India. Late in life he took refuge in the Buddha's teaching and erected many monasteries and stūpas. He became a student of སློབ་དཔོན་རྟ་དབྱངས་ Āchārya Aśhvaghoṣha q.v.

ཀ་ནས་དག་པ་ [ka nas dag pa] I. «Pure from the beginning» in the sense of pure from the ground up. E.g., [GCD] gives as རྩ་བ་ནས་དག་པ་ pure from its very root.
II. 1) General meaning of «that which is pure from the beginning». 2) Specialized terminology usually of the tantras. [GCD] gives the general definition ཆོས་ཀྱི་དབྱིངས་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་ཀྱི་དོན་དུ་གསུངས་ i.e., it is taught to have the meaning of dharmadhātu emptiness. This usage appears most freq. in the ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāmudrā and རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion system. In those systems it refers to dharmadhātu not as the expanse of all ཆོས་ཅན་ itemized dharmas per se but as the expanse of ཆོས་ཉིད་ dharmadhātu containing all of the dharmas with an emphasis on the fact that all of those dharmas have been empty from the beginning. In those traditions the term is usually abbrev. to ཀ་དག་ alpha purity q.v. for further entries and information.

ཀ་པ་ [ka pa] «A», «the first one». The first one in a series where the numbering is done in alphabetic order. E.g., དཔེ་ཆ་ཀ་པ་ «pecha number A».

ཀ་པ་ལ་ [ka pa la] Mis-spelling of ཀ་པཱ་ལ་ q.v.

ཀ་པཱ་ལ་ [ka pA la] «Kapāla». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kapāla». Translated into Tibetan with ཐོད་པ་ q.v. 1) «Skull». The མིའི་ཐོད་རུས་ upper portion of a human skull-bone in general. 2) «Skull-cup». In the system of secret mantra, the upper portion of the skull is made into the shape of a large cup which is used in the practices of that system.

ཀ་པཱ་ལི་ [ka pA li] Sometimes seen instead of ཀ་པཱ་ལ་ «kapāla» q.v.

ཀ་པི་ལ་ [ka pi la] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kapila». Translated into Tibetan with སེར་སྐྱ་ q.v.

ཀ་དཔེ་ [ka dpe] «Lettering Book», «Letter Primer». The name given to books that show the letters of the alphabet clearly so that beginners can learn them. It is not a «primer» in the English sense where primer refers to books with the simplest of English for beginners. In the Tibetan system, a beginner first learns the individual letters and their compound forms then goes on to learn how to read words made from them. The Tibetan lettering system is considerably more complex than the English one so beginners spend much more time on learning the letters. The first book they use is thus specifically about the letter forms in all of their variety. This type of book has many large examples of letters in it.

ཀ་ཕྲེང་ [ka phreng] «Ka string». Translation of the Sanskrit grammatical term ཀཱ་ལི་ «kāli» q.v. for important notes. It means «the string of consonants starting with the (first consonant) letter ka» and is used to mean the གསལ་བྱེད་ consonants of the Tibetan alphabet taken as a group. The related term for the vowels taken as a group is ཨ་ཕྲེང་ «a string» q.v.

ཀ་འཕན་ [ka 'phan] «Pillar hanging», «pendant», «chevron». The ornamental hangings that are sewn of brocade or other fine cloth and hung on the ཀ་བ་ pillars / columns of Tibetan structures for decoration.

ཀ་འཕྲེང་ [ka 'phreng] Altern. spelling of ཀ་ཕྲེང་ q.v.

ཀ་བ་ [ka ba] «Pillar», «column», «post». Tibetan buildings were usually constructed by placing pillars inside a room as the main supports. Since this was the ubiquitous style of Tibetan buildings, the concept of «pillar» pervades Tibetan mentality and literature e.g., ཀ་བུམ་ «pillars and pots» are the usual examples of things and of words used to describe things.
The parts of a pillar and its related structural supports are: ཀ་བ་ meaning the whole pillar; the ཀ་སྟེགས་ or ཀ་གདན་ or other names meaning the pedestal of the pillar; the ཀ་བྲེ་ meaning the «shaft» of the pillar; the གཞུ་ meaning the «bow» at the top of the pillar that bears the weight of the beams that support the ceiling. The beams sitting on the bow and supporting the ceiling are the གདུང་མ་ joists (a term that covers all supported beams and rafters in general). E.g., [GCD] gives the definition of a pillar as ཁང་པའི་གདུང་མ་འདེགས་བྱེད་ཤིང་ a beam of wood that holds up the joists of a building. In larger rooms, the joists were of two kinds, called ལྕམ་དྲལ་ main beams and rafters q.v.
The size of a room or a building that consisted of a large room was usually described by mentioning the number of pillars used to hold it up. E.g., «a four pillar shrine-room» was a moderately large room; a ten pillar assembly hall was a very large hall, by Tibetan standards. See e.g., ཀ་མང་མ་ «many-pillared» and ཀ་མིག་ «pillar area».

ཀ་བ་ཅན་ [ka ba can] phrase> 1) A building that has pillars as part of its structure. 2) Any structure that has pillars / columns.

ཀ་བ་བུམ་པ་ཅན་ [ka ba bum pa can] «Vase Pillar». The name of one of four special pillars in the Jokhang in Lhasa. The temple was built by སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ King Songtsen Gampo. Each pillar has a unique capital—this one has a vase. Each had something buried beneath it by the king—this had a prayer for the flourishing of dharma that was made by the king. See also ཀ་བ་སྦྲུལ་མགོ་ཅན་, ཀ་བ་ཤིང་ལོ་ཅན་, and ཀ་བ་སེང་མགོ་ཅན་.

ཀ་བ་སྦྲུལ་མགོ་ཅན་ [ka ba sbrul mgo can] «Snake-headed Pillar». The name of one of four special pillars in the Jokhang in Lhasa. The temple was built by སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ King Songtsen Gampo. Each pillar has a unique capital—this one has a vase. Each had something buried beneath it by the king—this had powerful mantras underneath it. See also ཀ་བ་བུམ་པ་ཅན་, ཀ་བ་ཤིང་ལོ་ཅན་, and ཀ་བ་སེང་མགོ་ཅན་.

ཀ་བ་ལི་ [ka ba li] «Kavali». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kavali». Acc. [GCD] ཤོ་ཀ་ལིའམ་དཔེ་ཆ་འཇོག་སྣོད་ i.e., «a case for either printed pages or text». The case would be made of wood and be shaped like a དཔེ་ཆ་ Tibetan text.

ཀ་བ་ཤིང་ལོ་ཅན་ [ka ba shing lo can] «Leaved Pillar». The name of one of four special pillars in the Jokhang in Lhasa. The temple was built by སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ King Songtsen Gampo. Each pillar has a unique capital—this one has a design of leaves. Each had something buried beneath it by the king—this had valuables underneath it. See also ཀ་བ་བུམ་པ་ཅན་, ཀ་བ་སྦྲུལ་མགོ་ཅན་, and ཀ་བ་སེང་མགོ་ཅན་.

ཀ་བ་སེང་མགོ་ཅན་ [ka ba seng mgo can] «Lion-headed Pillar». The name of one of four special pillars in the Jokhang in Lhasa. The temple was built by སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ King Songtsen Gampo. Each pillar has a unique capital—this one has a lion's head. Each had something buried beneath it by the king—this had a prayer for the flourishing of livestock that was made by the king. See also ཀ་བ་བུམ་པ་ཅན་, ཀ་བ་སྦྲུལ་མགོ་ཅན་, and ཀ་བ་ཤིང་ལོ་ཅན་.

ཀ་བའི་བྲེ་ [ka ba'i bre] See the usual abbrev. ཀ་བྲེ་.

ཀ་བུམ་ [ka bum] Abbrev. of ཀ་བ་ and བུམ་པ་ «pillars and pots».

ཀ་བེ་ཀོ་བེ་ [ka be ko be] «Stiff» meaning gone hard and not supple any longer e.g., like leather that has become old and hard.

ཀ་བྲེ་ [ka bre] phrase> «The shaft of a pillar / column». The actual shaft of the ཀ་བ་ pillar used to hold up Tibetan buildings q.v. Note that this is not the «capital» of a pillar as [RYD] mistakenly gives. The term lit. means «the bulk of the pillar» which is the shaft itself.

ཀ་དབྲག་ [ka dbrag] phrase> The open «space between pillars» meaning the intervening space between two pillars. It is not the middle part of a column as one dictionary mistakenly gives; that is the ཀ་བྲེ་ q.v.

ཀ་རབའུ་ར་ [ka rb'u ra] Transliteration of the Sanskrit ཀ་རྦཱུ་ར་ «karbūra» q.v. [MWS] gives five meanings. One refers to a bright yellow pigment used by artists and made from arsenic trisulphide. The related term ཀ་རྦཱུ་རཾ་ is an epithet for gold.

ཀ་རྦུ་རི་ [ka rbu ri] Corruption of the Sanskrit ཀ་རྦཱུ་ར་ «karbūra» q.v.

ཀ་མ་རུ་པ་ [ka ma ru pa] From the Sanskrit «kamaru». 1) The name of the white, hard rock «alabaster». 2) The name of the hard, multi-coloured rock «marble». 3) For the town «Kamarupa» ([SCD] gives as Kāmarūpa), the name of a town / region which in ancient India was in the area of East of Bengal and the Western part of Assam.

ཀ་མ་ལ་ [ka ma la] I. «Kamala». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kamala»; never translated into Tibetan. The name of a flower. [GCD] gives the general comment that it is ཆུའི་རྒྱན་མེ་ཏོག་པདྨ་ i.e., «the flower that ornaments waters, the lotus». [TC] gives specifically that it is the blue, eight-petalled lotus.
II. «Kamala». Translit. of the Mongolian «kamala». [TC] gives that it is the name of a Mongolian king of the fourteenth century A.D., called ཐའི་ཏིང་ཡེ་སོན་ཐེ་མུར་ Tha'i Ting Yeson The Mur.

ཀ་མ་ལ་གུཔྟ་ [ka ma la gupta] «Kamalagupta». The name of one of the early translators of the Kangyur and Tangyur.

ཀ་མ་ལ་ཅན་ [ka ma la can] Lit. «having kamala» i.e., «having lotuses»; see ཀ་མ་ལ་. 1) Acc. [GCD] ཁྱབ་འཇུག་ཆུང་མ་ i.e., the wife of the god of the Indian pantheon, Viṣhṇu who is Lakṣhmi. 2) Meaning «having lotuses». E.g., a poetic way of referring to a river or body of water.

ཀ་མ་ལ་ཤི་ལ་ [ka ma la shi la] Mis-spelling of ཀ་མ་ལ་ཤཱི་ལ་ q.v.

ཀ་མ་ལ་ཤའི་ལ་ [ka ma la sh'i la] «Kamalaśhīla». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kamalaśhīla». An Indian disciple of སློབ་དཔོན་ཞི་བ་འཚོ་ Āchārya Śhāntarakṣhita. Both master and student were masters of the Svatāntrika Madhyamaka view and both were རང་རྒྱུད་ཤར་གསུམ་གྱི་སློབ་དཔོན་གསུམ་ principal figures involved in putting forth that view. Kamalaśhīla was one of the སློབ་དཔོན་ཆེན་པོ་ལྔ་ five great masters that visited Tibet in the 8th century A.D. at the request of the Tibetan king of the time, ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན་ King Trisong Deutsen. At the King's request he and a Chinese monk Ha-Shang engaged in debate with the idea that the system of the winner of the debate would become the system of Buddhism followed in Tibet. Kamalaśhīla won the debate and the Indian style of Buddhism prevailed in Tibet because of it. Amongst other things Kamalaśhīla is well-known for his text on meditation called དབུ་མའི་སྒོམ་རིམ་གསུམ་ «Stages of Meditation on the Middle Way in Three Parts».

ཀ་མང་ [ka mang] [GCD] gives as equivalent to ཀ་དཔེ་ q.v.

ཀ་མང་མ་ [ka mang ma] phrase> Lit. «many pillared» used to refer to a house / building with many pillars / columns. It was common in Tibet to measure the size of a building by stating the number of ཀ་བ་ pillars per room. A room / house / hall of many pillars was a large room. See also ཀ་མིག་, the area of room that is supported per pillar.

ཀ་མད་སུམ་ཅུ་ [ka mad sum cu] phrase> «The thirty starting with ka»; meaning «the Tibetan consonant set which starts at letter ཀ་ ka and has 29 letters beneath it, making thirty in all». Used in Tibetan grammar to indicate the consonant set of the Tibetan letter set, གསལ་བྱེད་སུམ་ཅུ་ «the thirty consonants» q.v.

ཀ་མལ་ [ka mal] Abbrev. of ཀ་མ་ལ་ q.v. E.g., ཀ་མལ་ལས་འཁྲུངས་པད་མ་རྒྱལ་པོ། «King born from a Kamala flower».

ཀ་མིག་ [ka mig] phrase> «Pillar area». It was common in Tibet to measure the size of a building by stating the number of ཀ་བ་ pillars per room. This term means «the floor space provided per pillar supporting a room».

ཀ་མེད་ [ka med] «Powerless». 1) In coll. one person who sees another facing some difficulty which they cannot help alleviate will say «ཀ་མེད་» to the other person indicating kindly concern for the fact that the other person is stuck with their suffering; the English equivalent would be something like, «I am sorry, there is nothing I can do!» In this usage, it is never used by oneself in reference to oneself. 2) Generally and in classical literature, it is also used in the more direct sense that «one is powerless regarding something», «one has no choice not to», «one is forced to do something because the situation demands it», «one cannot help but...», etc. For example, in [SKD]: «Nāgārjuna stated his position that way so, those who declare that they are the ones who follow him have ཀ་མེད་ no choice but to assert as I am saying that he does.»

ཀ་རྩོམ་ [ka rtsom] phrase> «Alphabetic composition». The name for verse where each line contains, in order, a letter of the Tibetan alphabet in alphabetic order. The writing of such poetry is considered a sign of great literary erudition. The ultimate form is where the first word of each line contains the next letter of the alphabet from the one of the previous line.

ཀ་གཞུ་ [ka gzhu] «Pillar and bow» or «pillar and capital». Abbrev. of ཀ་བ་ and གཞུ་ meaning the actual pillar and the large, thick, bow-shaped capital which functions as the support for the roof beams. The bow in Tibetan architecture has a particular style. Thus the term does not mean «pillar» and «ornament on top» but means column and structure on top which is a further support for the roof beams.

ཀ་ཡིག་ [ka yig] phrase> «Letter ka»; the consonant letter ཀ་ ka.

ཀ་ཡེ་ [ka ye] Altern. spelling of ཀྭ་ཡེ་ q.v.

ཀ་ར་ [ka ra] 1) «Sugar». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kara». Acc. [GCD] same as ཀ་ར་དཀར་པོ་ q.v. «white sugar» however, ཀ་ར་ by itself refers to sugar generally, starting with all of the non-refined versions thereof, whereas ཀ་ར་དཀར་པོ་ is specifically white, refined sugar. 2) «Tentpole». A pole or post used to hold up a tent.

ཀ་ར་དཀར་པོ་ [ka ra dkar po] «White sugar». Acc. [GCD] ཤེལ་ཀ་ར་དང་བྱེ་མ་ཀ་ར་ལྟ་བུ་ i.e., like ཤེལ་ཀ་ར་ or བྱེ་མ་ཀ་ར་ which are general names for sugar.

ཀ་ར་ཤིང་ [ka ra shing] The plant «sugar-cane». See ཀ་ར་ sugar and ཤིང་ tree-type plant. From the Sanskrit name for sugar mixed with the Tibetan name for tree. The name in Tibetan is བུ་རམ་ཤིང་ q.v.

ཀ་ར་ཧ་རི་ [ka ra ha ri] Translit. of the Sanskrit «karahari». Translated into Tibetan with བུ་རམ་ q.v.

ཀ་རཉྫ་ [ka rany+dza] Translit. of the Sanskrit «karañja». Translated into Tibetan with ལག་པའི་ཐལ་སྦྱོར་. The name of a ཤིང་སྨན་ tree-derived medicinal substance.

ཀ་རཎྜ་ [ka raNDa] Translit. of the Sanskrit «karaṇḍa»; never translated into Tibetan. The name of a particular type of duck that has a very sweet cry.

ཀ་རན་དཧ་ [ka ran dha] Mis-spelling of ཀ་རཎྜ་ q.v.

ཀ་རི་ཀ་ [ka ri ka] Mis-spelling of ཀཱ་རི་ཀཱ་ q.v.

ཀ་ལ་ [ka la] I. Translit. of the Sanskrit «kala». Translated into Tibetan with ནག་པོ་ black. Some dictionaries confuse this with the Sanskrit «kāla» meaning དུས་ time.
II. The letter ཀ་ ka with the la-equivalent phrase-connector ལ་ added to it, which puts the letter ka into the second, fourth, or seventh རྣམ་དབྱེ་ grammatical case. See the cases for possible meanings. E.g., གཉིས་ཀ་ལ་ཡོད། «both have it» which is an example of the seventh case.

ཀ་ལ་ཐིང་ཀ་ [ka la thing ka] Mistaken for ཀ་ལ་བིངྐ་ q.v. Alternatively, it can be seen as a mixture of Sanskrit and Tibetan, where the kala refers to the pleasing cry of the bird and the ཐིང་ཀ་ could be a corruption of མཐིང་ག་ referring to the bird's very dark blue colour.

ཀ་ལ་པིང་ཀ་ [ka la ping ka] Corruption of ཀ་ལ་བིངྐ་ q.v.

ཀ་ལ་པིངྐ་ [ka la ping+ka] Corruption of ཀ་ལ་བིངྐ་ q.v.

ཀ་ལ་བིངྐ་ [ka la bing+ka] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kalaviṅga». Acc. [MWS] the name of the Indian Cuckoo, however, it is very important to note that [MWS] under other entries names the Indian Cuckoo as the Keorl. The Keorl is a common cuckoo of India which is correctly identified as Eudynamys scolopacea where the Indian Cuckoo is correctly identified as Cuculus mircopterus.
This name was not translated into Tibetan but was used directly in Tibetan texts, where it is seen mainly in the sūtras of the Buddha. It is the name of a bird found at least in Northern India in the regions travelled by the Buddha; in the དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པའི་མདོ་ «Stack of Jewels Sūtra» the buddha identifies it as a bird with སྐད་གཟི་བརྗིད་ཆེན་པོ་ meaning not a «beautiful» song as is seen in a number of dictionaries but a most striking song.
Some Tibetan dictionaries have identified it in English as «the sparrow» and that has been copied thoughtlessly into a variety of other dictionaries. Learned Tibetans universally agree that, in terms of the bird mentioned in the Buddha's sūtras, it is definitely not the cuckoo.
It should be noted that «kala» means having a sweet or pleasant song for a bird and this is used in a number of words to indicate what [MWS] usually calls the Indian Cuckoo but which he specifically identifies as the Keorl as mentioned above. [SCD] claims that it is the Indian Cuckoo but, as with [MWS], this most likely refers to the specific cuckoo found in India called the Keorl. [TC] claims that it is a bird that lives around bodies of water but this would not be the cuckoo and learned Tibetans feel that this is completely in error.
The author has personally investigated this on the northern plains of India. It is universally agreed amongst Tibetans living there that it refers to a member of the Cuckoo family. It is not the common cuckoo that makes the «cuck-koo» sound; that is called ཁུ་བྱུག་ q.v. in Tibetan and has several other names in Sanskrit different to this one. There are three other birds of the cuckoo family that live in the area and are the most likely candidates. One is the real Indian Cuckoo, Cuculus mircopterus. It has a four-part cry that is melodious though not very striking. I do not think that this is the bird. One possibility is the cuckoo which is known throughout India and Nepal as the «Keorl» or Keorlie» after the sound of its cry. It is a bird about the size of a crow, with a long tail, and with a very dark blue colour. It hides in the tops of trees. This is the bird that [MWS] identifies, even though he calls it in a number of places the «Indian Cuckoo». Since [SCD] also calls it the Indian Cuckoo, it seems mostly likely that at that time (mid to late 19th century) the Indian Cuckoo was the name for the Keorl amongst the British. A third possibility is the Hawk Cuckoo, Hierococcyx sparverioides, which the British named «Brainfever Bird» because of its crazed-cry. It is similar to the Keorl but has a brown front, like a hawk. It is never mistaken for the Indian Cuckoo. The Keorl and Brainfever bird have similar cries. Both are very, very striking. Both have a crazed quality to them, with the cry being repeated again and again each time at a higher note until sounding like a madman's screech. Of the two, the Keorl overall has the louder and more pleasing cry. In sum, after much research, it seems most likely that the name Kalapingka refers to the bird commonly called the Keorl.

ཀ་ལ་བིངྒ་ [ka la bing+ga] Corruption of ཀ་ལ་བིངྐ་ q.v.

ཀ་ལ་ཤ།་ [ka la sh/] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kalaśh». The name of a particular type of vessel used for holding water. The vessel is smallish, from six inches to about one foot high. It has a flared base, bulging belly, long spout, and is open at the top. It is probably the progenitor of the Tibetan བུམ་པ་ which has a very similar shape. The difference is that the Tibetan form has a curved spout where the Indian / Nepalese version has a longer spout that sticks straight out from the vessel. The vessel has been used for millennia as the basic water container inside a house or building. People on the Indian sub-continent still keep one beside them in the house as their source of drinking water. It is also kept in temples and so on as the holder for water for ablutions, as is done with a Tibetan བུམ་པ་.
Although the term བུམ་པ་ is usually translated as «vase» or «pot», the kalash is really a «water pitcher».

ཀ་ལཱ་པ་ [ka lA pa] «Kalāpa». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kalāpa». 1) Lit. meaning the accumulation of various items. 2) The name of the capital of the Kingdom of Śhambhala. 3) Abbrev. of ཀ་ལཱ་པ་བྱཱ་ཀ་ར་ཎ་ «Kalāpa Grammar» q.v.

ཀ་ལཱ་པ་བྱཱ་ཀ་ར་ཎ་ [ka lA pa byA ka ra Na] «Kalāpa Grammar». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kalāpa vyākaraṇa». The name of one of the eight principal Sanskrit grammars of ancient India. The text was composed by བདུན་པའི་གོ་ཆ་ Āchārya Saptavarma. It is counted as one of the three Sanskrit grammars most well known in Tibet; see སྒྲ་ཀ་ཙན་དབྱངས་གསུམ་ «The three grammars of Kalāpa, Chandra, and Sarasvati». It also counted as one of the སྒྲ་མདོ་བཞི་ four Sanskrit grammars most well-known in Tibet q.v.

ཀ་ལི་ [ka li] 1) «Skull». Derived from Sanskrit and sim. to ཀ་པཱ་ལི་ q.v. 2) Sometimes mistakenly for ཀཱ་ལི་ «kāli» q.v.

ཀ་ལི་ཀ་ [ka li ka] «Kalika». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kalika». Translated into Tibetan with ཙམ་པ་ཀ་ q.v. Some dictionaries give this as the magnolia flower but that is not correct.

ཀ་ཤི་ [ka shi] «Kaśhi». 1) Corrupted form of the original Sanskrit «kāśhī», ཀཱ་ཤཱི་ q.v. 2) Acc. [TC] the name of a particular type of deer.

ཀ་ཤི་ཀ་ [ka shi ka] Corrupted form of the original Sanskrit «kāśhīka», ཀཱ་ཤཱི་ཀ་ q.v.

ཀ་ཤི་ཀ་ཕྲ་མོ་ [ka shi ka phra mo] «Fine kashika» meaning very fine ཀ་ཤི་ཀ་ kashika cloth q.v.

ཀ་ཤུ་ཀ་ [ka shu ka] «Kaśhuka». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kaśhuka». The name of a black stone which is rubbed against gold in order to determine the quality of the gold.

ཀ་ཤུབས་ [ka shubs] «Pillar cover». Cloths used to cover and decorate a pillar.

ཀཱ་ཀ་ [kA ka] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kāka». The Sanskrit term is a word for the bird «crow» derived from the «caw caw» sound of the crow. The term is used to mean 1) «cawer» i.e., the crow itself and also the 2) the «caw caw» or «cawing» of the བྱ་རོག་ crow. The term is freq. corrupted to ཀ་ཀ་ in Tibetan.

ཀཱ་ཀོ་ལ་ [kA ko la] «Kākola». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kākola». Note that the spelling is sometimes confused with that of ཀ་ཀོ་ལ་ q.v. and some dictionaries (e.g., [SCD] and [GCD] then confuse the meanings. 1) One kind of very large raven. 2) A poisonous plant substance called བོང་ང་ནག་པོ་ in Tibetan q.v.

ཀཱངྐ་ [kAng+ka] «Kāngka». This is the correct spelling of what Tibetans write in corrupted form as ཀང་ཀ་ q.v.

ཀཱ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་ [kA tyA ya na] [MVP] gives as the spelling of the person called «Kātyāyana». See ཀ་ཏྱཱ་ཡ་ན་.

ཀཱ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་ཆེན་པོ་ [kA tyA'i bu chen po] [MVP] gives as the spelling of the person called «Kātyāputra». See ཀ་ཏྱཱའི་བུ་.

ཀཱ་ཡ་ [kA ya] «Kāya». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kāya». Translated into Tibetan with སྐུ་ q.v. Kāya does mean «body» in Sanskrit but it also has the meaning «collection», «assemblage». Tibetan commentaries point out that both meanings are applicable when speaking of kāya and སྐུ་. Sometimes mis-spelled as ཀ་ཡ་ and ཀཱ་ཡཱ་.

ཀཱ་རི་ཀཱ་ [kA ri kA] «Kārikā». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kārikā». Translated into Tibetan with ཚིག་ལེའུར་བྱས་པ་ q.v.

ཀཱ་ལ་ཙ་ཀྲ་ [kA la tsa kra] «Kālachakra». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kālachakra». Translated into Tibetan with དུས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་ q.v.

ཀཱ་ལི་ [kA li] «Kāli» or «ka string». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kāli». The Sanskrit grammatical term used to refer to the consonant section of the Sanskrit alphabet. The related term for the vowels is ཨཱ་ལི་ āli q.v. The term means the «ka string» where ka is the first consonant of the Sanskrit consonant set and «string» is the other consonants, which are written as a string of letters after it to make the set. The term is often used in Tibetan grammar texts to refer to the Tibetan གསལ་བྱེད་ consonant set, which also starts with the Tibetan consonant letter ཀ་ «ka» and has the other consonants written in a string after it. The term ཀཱ་ལི་ translates literally into Tibetan as ཀ་ཕྲེང་ «ka string».
Note that, because this is sometimes visualized as a circular garland of letters in Buddhist rituals, it has been translated regularly as «garland». However, that is not the meaning of the original Sanskrit. It means a string, one after the other, making a set and the Tibetan ཕྲེང་བ་ translating it in this case means exactly «string».

ཀཱ་ཤི་ཀ་ [kA shi ka] «Kāśhika». Corruption of ཀཱ་ཤཱི་ཀ་ q.v.

ཀཱ་ཤའི་ [kA sh'i] «Kāśhī». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kāśhī». The name originally refers to the race of people of North India. The placed they lived in was known at first as the place of the Kāśhī and later as གསལ་ལྡན་ Vārāṇasii (the British called it Benares). The town has a very, very long history of producing and selling the finest cloths because of which there is a general name ཀཱ་ཤཱི་ཀ་ Kāśhīka q.v. for the fine cloths from the place. The term is usually corrupted to ཀ་ཤི་ in Tibetan.

ཀཱ་ཤའི་ཀ་ [kA sh'i ka] «Kāśhīka». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kāśhīka». A general term for the very fine textiles that came from (and still do come from) the place in North India originally inhabited by the ཀཱ་ཤཱི་ Kāśhī tribe q.v. and which later became known as Vārāṇasii.
Some dictionaries give as «cotton» or the especially fine «muslin» cloth that Vārāṇasi was and is known for. The muslin was and is regularly worn by Indians in the hot summer heat of the northern plains. Others give as the fine linen that also comes from there. However, Vārāṇasi is famous for a wide variety of textiles, including cotton, linen, silks and brocades made from the silks and the term was a general term for fine cloths of any or all of these types coming from the place of the Kashis. The term is usually corrupted to ཀ་ཤི་ཀ་ in Tibetan.

ཀཱ་ཤཡ་པ་ [kA shya pa] «Kāśhyapa». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kāśhyapa». Translated into Tibetan with འོད་སྲུང་ q.v.

ཀའི་རྟེ་ཙི་ [k'i rte tsi] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kīrteci». The name of the ཁྱབ་འཇུག་གི་འཇུག་པ་བཅུ་ «ten incarnations of Viṣhṇu» q.v.

ཀཿཐོག་དགོན་ [kaHthog dgon] See ཀ་ཐོག་དགོན་.

ཀཀྞི་སྒོ་བཞི་ [kakNi sgo bzhi] A stupa with four doors below the terraces, one door on each of the four sides. The doors can be used as entrances.

ཀག་ [kag] 1) Seen as a mis-spelling of སྐག་ q.v. 2) Used with a sense of སྐག་ to mean a specific difficulty or obstacle of some kind, usually in terms that are directly translated into English with «difficult» e.g., in དཀའ་ལས་ཁག་པོ་. 3) [Old] Glossed as གློ་བུར་ in various texts that give old terms and meaning «all of a sudden». Usually seen in the adv. form e.g., [TC] ཀག་གིས་ལངས་པ། «got up all of a sudden» or «happened all of a sudden»; ཀག་སྟེ་ཡོང་བ། «arrived suddenly» but with the same sense as the English «arrived unexpectedly».

ཀག་གིས་ [kag gis] [Old] meaning གློ་བུར་ with the sense of «all of a sudden» q.v.

ཀང་ཀ་ [kang ka] «The Kangka (bird)». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kāngka». It has a black head and white back and feeds on corpses. It is also called དུར་བྱ་ «charnel ground bird».

ཀྞྜ་ཀ་རི་ [kaNDa ka ri] «Kaṇḍakari». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kaṇḍakari». The name of a tree and the ཤིང་སྨན་ tree-derived medicinal substance from it. The tree has thorns on it.

ཀཏ་པུ་ར་ [kat pu ra] Corrupted form of ཀཏྤཱུ་ར་ q.v.

ཀཏྤཱུ་ར་ [katp'u ra] «Camphor». Translit. of the Sanskrit «katpūra». The Sanskrit term was corrupted to the Tibetan forms ག་པུར་ and ག་བུར་. The substance «camphor» is one of the ཕྱིའི་རྩ་བ་སྨན་བརྒྱད་ eight outer principal medicines q.v.

ཀན་ [kan] 1) «Kan» [Chinese] The name in Chinese medicine of one of the veins of the human wrist that is pressed on in order to do pulse diagnosis. Usually referred to as ཀན་རྩ་ «the Kan vein». 2) Derived from meaning 1), གུང་མོ་ the middle finger of the hand. 3) [Dialect] meaning «over there», «yonder» and with the sense of it being pointed out. E.g., [TC] རི་འགོ་ཀན་ལ་དར་དམར་ཚུགས། «erected a red flag at the bottom of the hill over there» or «...at the bottom of the far hill», «at the base of the hill, over yonder».

ཀན་ད་ཤམ་མ་ཀ་ [kan da sham ma ka] Incorrect spelling of ཐམ་ག་ q.v. (According to the rules of letter gender, the མིང་མཐའ་ name-ending after letter མ་ has to be a female ending which is ག་ not ཀ་).

ཀབ་ཀོབ་ [kab kob] Abbrev. of ཀ་བེ་ཀོ་བེ་ q.v.

ཀམ་ཀུམ་ [kam kum] Abbrev. of ཀམ་མི་ཀུམ་མི་ q.v.

ཀམ་པ་ [kam pa] «Kampa». Derived from the Indian name. One of several names for the ཧོར་ཟླ་དང་པོ་ first month of the Tibetan calendar.

ཀམ་མི་ཀུམ་མི་ [kam mi kum mi] «Shrivelled», «dried and wrinkled», «shrunken»; a term applied to skins and fabrics that have dried up, contracted, and become wrinkled in the process.

ཀམ་མེ་ཀོམ་མེ་ [kam me kom me] «Blinking», «blinking and blinking», «blinking a lot». A term that describes the eyes «blinking» open and shut repeatedly.

ཀའང་ [ka'ng] The name-ending ཀ་ with the ornament འང་ joined into it q.v. Equivalent to ཀ་ཡང་.

ཀའམ་ [ka'm] The name-ending ཀ་ with the connector འམ་ joined into it q.v. Equivalent to ཀ་འམ་.

ཀར་ [kar] «Acute», «intense», «deep and acute / intense». A term for anything that is happening very strongly from deep down. Often used in the form ཀར་ཀར་ to emphasize the acute sense. E.g., [TC] ནད་ཟུག་ཀར་གྱིས་ལངས། «(deep,) acute pain erupted»; ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཀར་ཀར་དུ་ལངས། «his anger was deep and intense».

ཀར་ཀ་ཏ་ [kar ka ta] Mis-spelling of ཀརྐ་ཊ་ q.v.

ཀར་ཀ་ཊ་ [kar ka Ta] Mis-spelling of ཀརྐ་ཊ་ q.v.

ཀར་ཀ་ཏའི་ཁྱིམ་ [kar ka ta'i khyim] Mis-spelling of ཀརྐ་ཊའི་ཁྱིམ་ q.v.

ཀར་ཀར་ [kar kar] Intensified form of ཀར་ q.v. for meaning.

ཀར་བརྒྱུད་ [kar brgyud] 1) Mis-spelling of བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ q.v. 2) Mis-spelling of དཀར་བརྒྱུད་ q.v.

ཀར་ཏི་ཀ་ [kar ti ka] See ཀརྟི་ཀ་ q.v.

ཀར་ཤ་པ་ཎི་ [kar sha pa Ni] Corrupted form of ཀརྴ་པ་ཎི་ q.v.

ཀར་ཤ་པ་ན་ [kar sha pa na] Corrupted form of ཀརྴ་པ་ན་ q.v.

ཀར་སྲས་ཀོང་སྤྲུལ་ [kar sras kong sprul] «Karsay Kongtrul». [1904-1953] One of the subsequent emanations of Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thayay. His dharma name was འཇམ་དབྱངས་མཁྱེན་བརྩེའི་འོད་ཟེར་ Jamyang Khyentse Ozer.

ཀརྐ་ཏ་ [karka ta] Mis-spelling of ཀརྐ་ཊ་ q.v.

ཀརྐ་ཊ་ [karka Ta] «Crab» or «Cancer (the crab)». Translit. of the Sanskrit «karkaṭa». The name of the animal of the fourth house of the sun's zodiac, which is the crab. Note that some Tibetan dictionaries e.g., [TC] give this as སྦལ་པ་ «frog» but that is mistaken, the term refers to the crab as the sign of the fourth house. [GCD] correctly gives སྡིག་སྲིན་ which refers to the crab in this case.

ཀརྐ་ཊའི་ཁྱིམ་ [karka Ta'i khyim] «The house / mansion of the crab / cancer». Note that the term ཀརྐ་ཊ་ is a translit. of the Sanskrit «karkaṭa» q.v. The fourth of སྐར་ཁྱིམ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ the twelve houses of the sun's zodiac.

ཀརྐོ་ཊ་ [karko Ta] «Karkoṭa». Translit. of the Sanskrit «karkoṭa». The name of one of the ཀླུ་ཆེན་བརྒྱད་ eight great nāgas q.v.

ཀརྞི་སྒོ་བཞི་ [karNi sgo bzhi] Same as ཀཀྞི་སྒོ་བཞི་ q.v.

ཀརྟི་ཀ་ [karti ka] «Kartika». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kartika». There are other spellings too, such as ཀཱརྟི་ཀ་ kārtika.
In the ancient Indian way of thinking, stars and constellations in the sky were the appearances seen by humans of various gods. One such god / constellation was called «Kartika». The constellation has six bright stars in it. Thus, the Tibetan name for the constellation is སྨིན་དྲུག་ «Six Brights» q.v. (the Tibetan name is not a translation of the Indian one). The constellation is the same as the one called «The Pleiades» in English.
In Indian mythology, Kartika the god is the youthful son of ལྷ་དབང་ཕྱུག་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahādevendra or Mahādeva. Kartika has six heads (hence his appearance as six bright stars) so he is also called གདོང་དྲུག་པ་ «Six-faced one». Given that he has six heads, he is also called བཅུ་གཉིས་མིག་ལྡན་ «Twelve-eyed». He is also said to have had six nurses, hence he is also called མ་དྲུག་བུ་ «Son with six mothers». He is an army general of the gods hence he is also called ལྷའི་དམག་དཔོན་ «General of the Gods».
The constellation Kartika rises with the full moon in the ཧོར་ཟླ་བཅུ་པ་ tenth Tibetan lunar month hence that month is also called Kartika.

ཀརྨ་ [karma] Translit. of the Sanskrit «karma». Translation equivalents were officially set at 1) ལས་ and 2) འཕྲིན་ལས་ q.v.
Karma is a derived from the root of the verb «to do». It generally means «action», «activity». However, it has special meanings. 1) In general Buddhism, it refers to action done with ignorance which implants a seed for future experience in cyclic existence. 2) In Sanskrit grammar it is the name given to «the object» of a transitive verb. I.e., it is the place where the «work» of the verb is done. The Tibetan term for the object where a transitive action is done is བྱ་བའི་ཡུལ་ site of the action, however, the Tibetan grammars also use the Sanskrit term karma, brought into their language as ལས་. 3) In Buddhist tantra, it refers to i) «the karma» family, one of the five families of conquerors; and to ii) «the four karmas», ལས་བཞི་ q.v.; and to iii) «server», «assistant», «worker» i.e., someone who has a «work» position at a secret mantra ceremony, such as the shrine-master and other assistants. 4) «Karmapa». It is an epithet of a line of incarnate lamas who head one of the four major traditions of Buddhism in Tibet. These lamas are usually called ཀརྨ་པ་ «Karmapa» q.v.

ཀརྨ་ཀམ་ཚང་ [karma kam tshang] «Karma Kamtsang». Lit. «the family of kaṃ». One name of the ཀརྨ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Karma Kagyu school q.v. The name originated when ཀརྨ་པ་རང་བྱུང་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Karmapa Rangjung Dorje went to East Tibet. While meditating there, the tamarisk shrubs on the mountain took the shape of a ཀརྨ་ཀཾ་, the initial of Karmapa. The story is retold in Born in Tibet, p.89, by Chogyam Trungpa.

ཀརྨ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ [karma bka' brgyud] «Karma Kagyu». The name of a branch of the བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ tradition of Tibetan Buddhism; it is one of great of the བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ཆེ་བཞི་ཆུང་བརྒྱད་ «The Four Greater and Eight Lesser Kagyu Schools». The tradition originated with དུས་གསུམ་མཁྱེན་པ་ Dusum Khyenpa who was one of the main disciples of སྒམ་པོ་པ་ Gampopa.

ཀརྨ་གླིང་པ་ [karma gling pa] «Karma Lingpa». [14th century] One of the ཆོས་བདག་གླིང་པ་བརྒྱད་ dharma-owning, eight Lingpas.

ཀརྨ་ངེས་དོན་བསྟན་རྒྱས་ [karma nges don bstan rgyas] «Karma Ngedon Tangyay». The ordained name of སྨན་སྡོང་མཚམས་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ q.v.

ཀརྨ་ཆགས་མེད་ [karma chags med] «Karma Chagmey». The name of the a very famous line of Karma Kagyu practitioners [1613-1678]. The first one was known as Karma Chagmey Rāga Asyas.

ཀརྨ་པ་ [karma pa] «Karmapa». The name given to the hierarchs of the Karma Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism. They are usually referred to as རྒྱལ་བ་ཀརྨ་པ་ «The Conqueror Karmapa» in recognition of their realization. The name is derived from the complete epithet ཀརྨ་ཕྲིན་ལས་པ་ «The One of Enlightened Activity». The first Karmapa was one of the heart disciples of སྒམ་པོ་པ་ Gampopa; his name was དུས་གསུམ་མཁྱེན་པ་ Dusum Khyenpa q.v. The Karmapa's are considered to be later manifestations of བྲམ་ཟེ་ཆེན་པོ་ས་ར་ཧ་ the great Brahmin, Saraha.

ཀརྨ་པ་ཆོས་གྲགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ [karma pa chos grags rgya mtsho] «Karmapa Chodrak Gyatso». The name of the seventh ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa. He was especially famous for his texts on logic.

ཀརྨ་པ་ཆོས་དབྱིངས་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [karma pa chos dbyings rdo rje] «Karmapa Choying Dorje». [1604-1674] The tenth Karmapa.

ཀརྨ་པ་ཐེག་མཆོག་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [karma pa theg mchog rdo rje] «Karmapa Thegchok Dorje». [1797-1867] The name of the fourteenth ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa.

ཀརྨ་པ་མཐོང་བ་དོན་ལྡན་ [karma pa mthong ba don ldan] «Karmapa Thongwa Dondan». The name of the sixth ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa.

ཀརྨ་པ་དུས་གསུམ་མཁྱེན་པ་ [karma pa dus gsum mkhyen pa] «Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa». [1110-1193]. The name of the first ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa. The name means «Karmapa, Knower of the Three Times». He was also known as དབུ་བསྲེ་ grey hair and was one of the three «men of Kham» who were great yogis and the principal yogin disciples of Gampopa. Dusum Khyenpa later became known as Karmapa and became the first of a long line of incarnations. He founded Tsurphu Monastery in Tolung which became the seat of the Karmapas and the Karma Kagyu lineage in Tibet and also Karma Gon in Riwoche.

ཀརྨ་པ་དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་ [karma pa de bzhin gshegs pa] «Karmapa Deshin Shekpa». [1384-1415]. The name of the fifth ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa.

ཀརྨ་པ་བདུད་འདུལ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [karma pa bdud 'dul rdo rje] «Karmapa Duddul Dorje». [1733-1797]. The name of the thirteenth ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa.

ཀརྨ་པ་མི་བསྐྱོད་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [karma pa mi bskyod rdo rje] «Karmapa Mikyo Dorje». [1507-1554]. The name of the eighth ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa. He was the principal guru of the great Kagyu guru Pawo Tsuklag Trengwa. He is known as one of the great authors of the Kagyu tradition.

ཀརྨ་པ་རང་བྱུང་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [karma pa rang byung rdo rje] «Karmapa Rangjung Dorje». [1284-1339]. The name of the third ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa. He was a disciple of Urgyenpa Rinchen Pal. He is known for his treatises on the nature of mind.

ཀརྨ་པ་རང་བྱུང་རིག་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [karma pa rang byung rig pa'i rdo rje] Karmapa Rangjung Rigpay Dorje». [1924-1981] The sixteenth Karmapa.

ཀརྨ་པ་རོལ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [karma pa rol pa'i rdo rje] «Karmapa Rolpa'i Dorje». The name of the fourth ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa.

ཀརྨ་པཀྵི་ [karma pak+Shi] «Karma Pakshi». The name of the second ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapa q.v.

ཀརྨ་ཕྲིན་ལས་ [karma phrin las] «Karma Trinley» is the name of a line of incarnate lamas of the ཀརྨ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Karma Kagyu Lineage q.v. They are recognized as great scholars of the lineage.

ཀརྨ་ཕྲིན་ལས་པ་ [karma phrin las pa] «The man of enlightened activity». 1) The full name from which the name ཀརྨ་པ་ is derived. Referring to the Gyalwa Karmapa. 2) The name of a line of Kagyu tulkus who were renowned as great scholars.

ཀརྨ་མ་ལེ་ [karma ma le] «Karma Ma Le». The name of a tantra. See འཕྲིན་ལས་ཀྱི་རྒྱུད་ཀརྨ་མ་ལེ་ for details.

ཀརྨ་རབས་བརྒྱད་ [karma rabs brgyad] «The eight Karma successors». This means the first eight ཀརྨ་པ་ Karmapas.
[DGT] gives them as: 1) ཀརྨ་དུས་གསུམ་མཁྱེན་པ་ «Karma Dusum Khyenpa»; 2) ཀརྨ་པཀྵི་ «Karma Pakshi»; 3) ཀརྨ་རང་བྱུང་རྡོ་རྗེ་ «Karma Rangjung Dorje»; 4) ཀརྨ་རོལ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ «Karma Rolpa'i Dorje»; 5) ཀརྨ་དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་ «Karma Dezhin Shegpa»; 6) ཀརྨ་མཐོང་བ་དོན་ལྡན་ «Karma Thongwa Dondan»; 7) ཀརྨ་ཆོས་གྲགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ «Karma Chodrag Gyamtso»; 8) ཀརྨ་མི་བསྐྱོད་རྡོ་རྗེ་ «Karma Mikyo Dorje».
Many non-Tibetans will be used to these names being given as Karmapa. However, it is part of Tibetan culture that these people are known as the ཀརྨ་ people with the names as listed above. See ཀརྨ་པ་དུས་གསུམ་མཁྱེན་པ་ «Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa»; ཀརྨ་པཀྵི་ «Karma Pakshi»; 3) ཀརྨ་པ་རང་བྱུང་རྡོ་རྗེ་ «Karmapa Rangjung Dorje»; 4) ཀརྨ་པ་རོལ་པའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ «Karmapa Rolpa'i Dorje»; 5) ཀརྨ་པ་དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་ «Karmapa Dezhin Shegpa»; 6) ཀརྨ་པ་མཐོང་བ་དོན་ལྡན་ «Karmapa Thongwa Dondan»; 7) ཀརྨ་པ་ཆོས་གྲགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ «Karmapa Chodrag Gyamtso»; 8) ཀརྨ་པ་མི་བསྐྱོད་རྡོ་རྗེ་ «Karmapa Mikyo Dorje».

ཀརྨ་རིན་ཆེན་དར་རྒྱས་ [karma rin chen dar rgyas] «Karma Rinchen Dargyay». The name of a lama from the 19th Century in Tibet. He was a contemporary of the first Chogyur Lingpa who held the lineage of Chogyur Lingpa. He wrote many commentaries on and arranged many the termas of Chogyur Lingpa into liturgies. He is also known as མཁན་པོ་ཀརྨ་རིན་ཆེན་ «Khenpo Karma Rinchen» and ཀརྨའི་མཁན་པོ་ «Karma'i Khenpo».

ཀརཤ་པ་ཎི་ [karsha pa Ni] «Karśhapaṇi». Translit. of the Sanskrit «karśhapaṇi»; never translated into Tibetan. The name of a particular two-armed form of སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ Avalokiteśhvara.

ཀརཤ་པ་ན་ [karsha pa na] «Karśhapana». Translit. of the Sanskrit «karśhapana»; never translated into Tibetan. The name of a silver coin of ancient India. [TC] gives that it was the equivalent in value to one ཞོ་ or ཊམ་ q.v.

ཀལ་པ་ [kal pa] Corrupted form of ཀལྤ་ q.v.

ཀལྤ་ [kalpa] «Kalpa». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kalpa». Translated into Tibetan with བསྐལ་པ་ q.v. [LGK] says that the translated form is sometimes mistakenly taken as an བརྡ་རྙིང་ old sign of Tibetan language.

ཀསྨིར་ [kasmira] «Kashmir». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kasmir». The name of a place which, in ancient India, was considered the land of the Muslims. Translated into Tibetan with ཁ་ཆེ་ which refers to both the land and people.

ཀཱརྟི་ཀ་ [kArti ka] «Kārtika». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kārtika». Altern. spelling of ཀརྟི་ཀ་ q.v.

ཀི་གུ་ [ki gu] Probable mis-spelling of གི་གུ་ q.v.

ཀིངྐ་ར་ [king+ka ra] «Kingkara». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kingkara». [LGK] says that this means ཅི་བགྱི་ q.v. and has Tibetan equivalents ལས་བྱེད་ «worker / underling» or ཕོ་ཉ་ «messenger / attendant» or གཡོག་ «servant» and that after corruption is commonly known as གིང་པ་ (neuter meaning both are included) གིང་ཕོ་ (male) and གིང་མོ་ (female).

ཀི་ལ་ [ki la] «Kila». Corrupted translit. of the Sanskrit «kila». Translated into Tibetan with ཕུར་པ་ q.v.

ཀི་ལ་ཡ་ [ki la ya] «Kilaya». Corrupted translit. of the Sanskrit «kīlaya». Used in secret mantra language to mean the yidam རྡོ་རྗེ་ཕུར་པ་ Vajrakīlaya q.v.

ཀི་ལི་ཀི་སྒྲོགས་ [ki li ki sgrogs] Abbrev. of ཀི་ལི་ཀི་ལཱའི་སྒྲོགས་ q.v.

ཀི་ལི་ཀི་ལཱའི་སྒྲོགས་ [ki li ki lA'i sgrogs] «Kilikilārava». Lit. «Giving off sounds of Kili Kili!». From the Sanskrit «kilikilārava». The name of one of དུར་ཁྲོད་བརྒྱད་ the eight charnel grounds q.v.

ཀིང་ [king] Abbrev. of ཀིངྐ་ར་ q.v. See also གིང་ which is a corruption of this abbrev.

ཀིང་ཀ་ར་ [king ka ra] Same as ཀིངྐ་ར་ q.v.

ཀིམ་པ་ཀ་ [kim pa ka] Corrupted form of ཀིམྤཱ་ཀ་ q.v.

ཀིམཔཱ་ཀ་ [kimpA ka] «Kimpaka». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kimpāka». The name of the fruit body of a plant which is very attractive to the eye and pleasant tasting but which is poisonous once ingested. [SCD] gives that the plant is «a cucurbitaceous plant Trichosanthes palmata; also possibly Cucumis colocynthis». The fruit is probably a gourd or melon. It is used as ཤིང་སྨན་ a medicinal substance q.v. and [TC] gives its particular qualities. It has a particularly bad taste so is used in literature as an example of something that is attractive but of very bad taste., from Nāgārjuna's Letter to a Friend: འདོད་པ་རྣམས་ནི་ཕུང་བ་བསྐྱེད་པ་སྟེ། །རྒྱལ་བའི་དབང་པོས་ཀིམ་པའི་འབྲས་འདྲར་གསུངས། «Desires caused you to be dragged down; the leader of conquerors said that it is like the Kimpaka's fruit».

ཀུ་ཀུ་ར་ཙ་ [ku ku ra tsa] «Kukurāja». Lit. «Dog King». Mistaken translit. of the Sanskrit «kukurāja». The name of one of the Buddhist mahāsiddhas of ancient India. He was one of the gurus of མར་པ་ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་ Marpa the Translator. He is also one of the gurus in the མ་ཧཱ་ཡོ་ག་ Mahāyoga lineage. Also known in Tibetan as ཀུ་ཀུ་རི་པ་ «Dog man». He derives his name from the fact that he surrounded himself with bitch dogs, who were all said to be emanations of the protectors of Vajrayoginī.

ཀུ་ཀུ་རི་པ་ [ku ku ri pa] Lit. «Dog-man». From the Sanskrit «kukkuri». See ཀུ་ཀུ་ར་ཙ་ «kukurāja».

ཀུ་སྒྲ་ [ku sgra] [GCD] gives as དོན་མེད་ཆུའི་སྒྲ་ལྟ་བུ་ i.e., «meaningless noise like the sound of water» and says that it is the same as ཀུ་ཅོ་ཆེ་ and ཀུ་ཅོ་འདོན་པ་. See ཀུ་ཅོ་ for explanation.

ཀུ་ཅོ་ [ku co] «Noise», «roar», «clamour», etc. This term refers to «noise» with the additional two connotations that the noise could be: 1) non-human noise, e.g., the noise of a river; or 2) could be the noisiness of people as in the general clamour of a crowd or the specific noisiness of people gibbering / gossiping to each other without restraint in a place where they should not. The term is like the English «noise» where there is the sense of un-restrained production of sound. It is slightly pejorative. Note that the term ཅ་ཅོ་ refers more specifically to noise made by humans. There are many English words that can be used according to context e.g., «clamour of the marketplace», «burbling of the brook», «crashing of waves», etc.

ཀུ་ཅོ་སྒྲོག་པ་ [ku co sgrog pa] I. phrase> v.t. see སྒྲོག་པ་ for tense forms. «To make a noise»; see ཀུ་ཅོ་ for the correct sense of «noise».
II. phrase> per the verb.

ཀུ་ཅོ་ཆེ་ [ku co che] phrase> A loud or great form of ཀུ་ཅོ་ «noise» q.v. E.g., «loud noise», «a great noise», «very noisy», etc.

ཀུ་ཅོ་འདོན་པ་ [ku co 'don pa] I. phrase> v.t. see འདོན་པ་ for tense forms. «To make a noise», «to give off any kind of noise / sound», «to be noisy». See ཀུ་ཅོ་ for the correct sense of «noise».
II. phrase>phrase> [GCD] gives that this is the same as ཀུ་སྒྲ་ and ཀུ་ཅོ་ཆེ་ q.v.

ཀུ་བེ་ར་ [ku be ra] «Kuvera». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kubera». In ancient Indian history, the son of རྣམ་ཐོས་སྲས་ Vaiśhravaṇa q.v. In Buddhist ritual, he is regarded as an aspect of Vaiśhravaṇa and is supplicated as a source of wealth.

ཀུ་མཱ་ར་ [ku mA ra] «Kumāra». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kumāra». Translated into Tibetan with གཞོན་ནུ་ q.v.

ཀུ་མཱ་ར་ཛི་བ་ [ku mA ra dzi ba] «Kumārajiva». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kumārajiva». The name of Indian master who translated numerous Buddhist sūtras into Chinese. He was born in the fourth century A.D.

ཀུ་མུ་ད་ [ku mu da] An Altern. spelling of ཀུ་མུད་ q.v.

ཀུ་མུ་དའི་གཉེན་ [ku mu da'i gnyen] Same as ཀུ་མུད་གཉེན་ q.v.

ཀུ་མུ་དའི་ [ku mu d'i] [GCD] gives as ཟླ་བའི་འོད་ཟེར་ i.e., «moonlight».

ཀུ་མུཏ་ [ku mut] Mis-spelling of ཀུ་མུད་ q.v.

ཀུ་མུད་ [ku mud] «Kumud». This name is believed to be a corruption of the Sanskrit ཀུནྡ་ Kunda. It is said in Buddhist scriptures to be a white flower that grows in or near water and blossoms at night, and induces extreme hallucinations if eatent. This fits exactly with the Datura plant—which it is generally regarded to be. It is a member of the Lily family, grows close to streams, has a very large, white, trumpet-like flower that opens into a wide blossom at night, especially in the moon-light, because of which it is also known as the «moon lily». It is exceptionally hallucinogenic and kills in small doses.
The name is also freq. spelled ཀུ་མུ་ད་. [GCD] gives ཨུཏྤལ་དཀར་པོའི་མིང་ i.e., «another name for the white ཨུཏྤལ་ Utpala lotus (flower)» but this would be a mistake made by Tibetan authors who do not know the Datura plant.
This flower is very white, so is also used as an example of being very white.

ཀུ་མུད་དགའ་ [ku mud dga'] phrase> [Mngon] «Lover of the Kumud (flower)». The name of a bird. [GCD] gives as ཙ་ཀོ་ར་ཀ་.

ཀུ་མུད་དགྲ་ [ku mud dgra] phrase> [Mngon] «Enemy of the Kumud». A metaphor for the sun, because daylight causes the ཀུ་མུད་ Kumud flower to close during the day. [GCD] A cognate term is ཀུ་མུད་གཉེན་ q.v.

ཀུ་མུད་གཉེན་ [ku mud gnyen] phrase> [Mngon] «Friend of the Kumud». A metaphor for the ཟླ་བ་ moon, because the light of the moon causes the ཀུ་མུད་ Kumud flower to blossom at night. [GCD] A cognate term is ཀུ་མུད་དགྲ་ «Enemy of the Kumud» q.v.

ཀུ་མུད་ཕན་ [ku mud phan] phrase> [Mngon] «Helper of the Kumud». A metaphor for «moonlight», because the light of the moon causes the ཀུ་མུད་ Kumud flower to open at night. [GCD] A cognate term is ཀུ་མུད་གཉེན་ q.v.

ཀུ་མུད་བཞད་དུས་ [ku mud bzhad dus] phrase> [Mngon] Lit. «time when the Kumud (flowers) open» which is a metaphor for «night time» since the ཀུ་མུད་ Kumud flower only opens at night. E.g., [GCD] gives མཚན་མོའི་དུས་ i.e., «night time».

ཀུ་མུད་ཟས་ཅན་ [ku mud zas can] phrase> [Mngon] Lit. «having food of the Kumud (flower)». [GCD] gives as (the bird) ཙ་ཀོ་ར་ཀོ་.

ཀུ་མུད་ལོ་མ་ [ku mud lo ma] phrase> [Mngon] Lit. «leaved with Kumud (flowers).» 1) [GCD] gives as དཔག་བསམ་ཤིང་ i.e., the wish-fulfilling tree. 2) [TC] gives as ཤིང་ཡོངས་འདུ་ས་བརྟོལ།.

ཀུ་ཙན་དན་ [ku tsan dan] phrase> «Ku sandalwood». There are various kinds of sandalwood; this refers to sandalwood of inferior variety. E.g., [GCD] gives ཙན་དན་ངན་པ་ «inferior sandal-wood».

ཀུ་ཡངས་ [ku yangs] [Old] spelling of གུ་ཡངས་ q.v.

ཀུ་རུ་ཀུལལེ་ [ku ru kulle] «Kurukulle». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kurukulle». The name of a Buddhist ཡི་དམ་ yidam of secret mantra. A female deity, red in colour, holding a bow and arrow. Also known as རིག་བྱེད་མ་ and, because her principal quality is magnetizing, དབང་གི་ལྷ་མོ་ «Magnetizing Devi» q.v.

ཀུ་རུ་ཁ་ [ku ru kha] «Cross». The name given to any «X-like» figure. The kuruka character when written in Tibetan looks like this: ྾ . In Tibetan texts, it is freq. used as an alternative way of writing the སོགས་རྟགས་ (coda / repeat / ditto sign) which is more correctly written as ྎ .

ཀུ་རུ་བིན་ང་ [ku ru bin nga] [GCD] gives as རྡོ་ཞིག་ i.e., that it is the name of a mineral substance.

ཀུ་རེ་ [ku re] A word used to indicate diversion with laughter, joking, playing around. 1) Used in the sense «joking around / kidding around / playing in jest / playing with you / teasing». 2) Used in the sense «not being serious but being frivolous / just fooling around (instead of doing something worthwhile) / just joking and playing (and not getting down to it)». E.g., in books on meditation practice, it can mean the frivolity of not being attentive to practice.

ཀུ་ལཱེ་ལ་ [ku l'e la] «Kulaila». [GCD] gives as «the name of a bird». [SCD] lists ཀུ་ལཱ་ལ་ which may be the same.

ཀུ་ཤ་ [ku sha] «Kusha». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kuśha». 1) Meaning རྩྭ་ཀུ་ཤ་ «Kusha grass». Kusha grass is regarded as important in the Buddhist tradition because the Buddha made a seat of it once. It is used in various Buddhist rites e.g., it is one of the བསྲེག་རྫས་བཅུ་ ten substances for burning in fire pūja. It is also used as a medicine. The grass was very common in ancient India and is readily obtainable these days, even in the West. Brushes and brooms of old Asia were generally made from this grass and that is still the case today. 2) The name of དུས་འཁོར་ལས་བཤད་པའི་ཁོར་ཡུག་གི་གླིང་བདུན་ one of the seven encircling continents as explained in Kālachakra q.v. 3) «Kusha». [MVP] gives as འཁོར་ལོས་སྒྱུར་བའི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་མིང་ name of a descendant of the Wheel-wielding monarchs.

ཀུ་ཤ་བྷཾན་དཧ་ [ku sha bhan dha] «Kuśhabhanda». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kuśhabhanda». The name of a gem which is said to come from kuśha grass and which has curative properties.

ཀུ་ཤའི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར་ [ku sha'i grong khyer] «City of Kusha», «Kushinagar». Translation of the Sanskrit «kuśhinagara». The name of the town in North Indian where Buddha Śhākyamuni entered parinirvāṇa. One of the four places that Buddha told his followers they should visit at least once in a lifetime.

ཀུ་ཤི་ [ku shi] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kuśhi». An abbrev. of the Sanskrit ཀུ་ཤི་ན་ག་ར་ «kuśhinagara» q.v.

ཀུ་ཤི་ན་ག་ར་ [ku shi na ga ra] «Kushinagar». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kuśhinagara». Translated into Tibetan with ཀུ་ཤའི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར་ and རྩྭ་མཆོག་གྲོང་ཁྱེར་ q.v.

ཀུ་ཤུ་ [ku shu] The fruit «apple».

ཀུ་ས་ར་ [ku sa ra] «Kusara». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kusara». The name of an Indian āchārya who was invited to come and stay in Tibet by སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ King Songtsen Gampo. He assisted the Tibetans with the translation of many tantras.

ཀུ་སཱ་ལི་ [ku sA li] «Kusali». Transliteration of Sanskrit «kusāli». The term has many meanings in Sanskrit. In Tibetan Buddhist works it mainly refers to someone who takes a very simple approach to life, who doesn't appear to do much in the way of conventional activity but who meditates internally. various spellings are seen: ཀུ་སཱ་ལི་, ཀུ་ས་ལི་, ཀུ་སུ་ལི་, ཀུ་སུ་ལུ་ q.v.

ཀུ་སུ་མ་ [ku su ma] «Kusuma». Translit. of the Sanskrit «kusuma». The name of a flower found in the god realms. It is mentioned in Indian Buddhist literature e.g., in the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra where ལྷའི་དབང་པོ་བརྒྱ་བྱིན་ Lord of the Gods, Kauśhika, specifically says that it is a flower of the god realms.

ཀུ་སུ་མ་པུ་རིའི་གཙུག་ལ་ཁང་ [ku su ma pu ri'i gtsug la khang] «Kusmapuri Vihara». Corruption of ཀུསྨ་པུརིའི་གཙུག་ལ་ཁང་ q.v. the Sanskrit «kusmapuri vihara». The name of the Buddhist monastery in the north Indian town of Pataliputra where the བཀའ་བསྡུ་གཉིས་པ་ Second Council was held.

ཀུ་སུ་ལི་ [ku su li] See ཀུ་སཱ་ལི་ q.v.

ཀུ་སུ་ལུ་ [ku su lu] «Kusulu». Derived from Sanskrit; see ཀུ་སཱ་ལི་ q.v. In ancient India there were some yogins who did not appear to put much effort into their path externally but who internally were practising the yoga taught them by their guru. Thus they had the appearance of an ordinary person and often a lazy one at that. They apparently did nothing but «eat, sleep, and shit» and were named for that approach; the three syllables in «ku su lu» refer (in Sanskrit) to eating, sleeping, and excreting respectively.


ཀུ་སུ་ལུའི་འཇོག་སྒོམ་ [ku su lu'i 'jog sgom] phrase> «The resting meditation of a kusulu». Buddhist meditation can be reduced to two styles of meditation. This is one of them. The other is པཎྜི་ཏའི་དཔྱད་སྒོམ་ «the analytical meditation of a paṇḍita» q.v.

ཀུག་ [kug] Sometimes seen as an incorrect spelling of words connected with འགུགས་པ་ (including བཀུག་པ་) and its two main meanings of bending / bent, and drawing up / summoning. Note that this is a mistaken spelling for the word given despite the various references given in [RYD] and [NTC] glossary, and so on.

ཀུག་ཀུག་ [kug kug] 1) Slang in some areas for the bird ཁུ་བྱུག་ «cuckoo»; the name is derived from the sound of the bird. 2) Mistaken for འགུག་འགུག་ see the notes under ཀུག་. E.g. in ཀུག་ཀུག་བྱེད་པ་ meaning «to make bent» or «to perform a summonsing».

ཀུངྐུ་མ་ [kung+ku ma] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kungkuma». [LGK] says that this is corrupted to གུར་གུམ་ which is then sometimes mistaken as an བརྡ་རྙིང་ old sign of the Tibetan language.

ཀུན་ [kun] «All». There are several terms in the Tibetan language having the general sense of «all» but ཀུན་, like the term «all» in the English language, is a generic word covering all of the other meanings. See other common Tibetan terms with the general meaning of «all» but with different nuances than the root sense of ཀུན་: ཐམས་ཅད་, མ་ལུས་པ་, and ཚང་མ་. In translations, ཀུན་ was used to translate a wide variety of Sanskrit constructions into Tibetan. E.g., in sarvajñā by ཀུན་མཁྱེན་.
I. «All» as an indefinite pronoun e.g., མི་ཀུན་ «all humans».
II. Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་ q.v. which is the adverbial form.

ཀུན་དཀྲིས་ [kun dkris] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་དཀྲིས་བརྒྱད་ [kun dkris brgyad] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་བརྒྱད་ q.v.

ཀུན་དཀྲིས་བཅུ་ [kun dkris bcu] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་བཅུ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཁྱབ་ [kun khyab] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་ཁྱབ་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ [kun mkhyen] I. phrase> «All-knowing». An epithet that appeared in the Tibetan tradition of Buddhism and applied to a rare few individuals in the Tibetan tradition over the centuries. It is applied to those who seem to have total mastery of all areas of knowledge. It does not mean «omniscient» as in meaning II and it is a mistake to translate it that way. Great beings who have been given this epithet are ཀུན་མཁྱེན་དོལ་པོ་པ་ཤེས་རབ་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen (Jonang tradition), ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ Longchen Rabjampa (Nyingma tradition), ཀུན་མཁྱེན་པདྨ་དཀར་པོ་ Padma Karpo (Drukpa Kagyu Tradition).
Note: for the most part, when this term is used in Tibetan literature, it has the second main meaning above and in nearly every case should be translated as «all-knowing». For the most part, the term is used specifically to indicate someone with an exceptional range of intellectual knowledge and then, when the omniscient qualities of a buddha's type of knowing is needed, མཁྱེན་པ་ either by itself or in combinations such as ཐམས་ཅད་མཁྱེན་པ་ are used.
Note also that this epithet is similar to ཀུན་གཟིགས་ «all-seeing» q.v. but is not the same as it, is not used interchangeably with it, and should not be confused with it. All-seeing implies realization that has total insight into the reality of phenomena where this term implies total comprehension of phenomena.
II. phrase> «Omniscient», «all knowing». Translation of the Sanskrit «sarvajñā». 1) Literally meaning knowing everything, the state of being omniscient, like the Buddha. This term should not be confused with རྣམ་མཁྱེན་ q.v. which refers to the specific aspect of buddha-mind that knows all aspects. 2) One of the many epithets of Buddha; a buddha is the only type of being who is truly omniscient.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཀློང་ཆེན་པ་ [kun mkhyen klong chen pa] phrase> «All-Knowing Longchenpa»; an epithet of ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v. given to himself by himself.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ [kun mkhyen klong chen rab 'byams pa] «All-Knowing Longchen Rabjam»; an epithet of ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཆེན་པོ་ [kun mkhyen chen po] phrase> «The Great All-Knowing One». An epithet often—but not solely—for ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v. E.g., [KBC] ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཆེན་པོས་ནི། འབྲས་བུ་ལ་དམ་བཅའ་བ་སྨོན་སེམས་དང་རྒྱུ་ལ་དམ་བཅའ་བ་འཇུག་སེམས་སུ་གསུངས། «The Great All-Knowing One (Longchen Rabjam) said, «Committing to the fruition is the bodhicitta of aspiration and committing to the cause is the bodhicitta of application». See ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ meaning II. for more.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཆེན་པོ་དྲི་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་ [kun mkhyen chen po dri med 'od zer] phrase> «The Great All-knowing One, Drimey Ozer», an epithet for ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v. The more usual epithet for Longchenpa is simply ཀུན་མཁྱེན་དྲི་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་ meaning «All-knowing Drimey Ozer». However, in Tibetan culture, Longchenpa was often regarded as the greatest of all the Tibetans who were regarded as ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ «all-knowing» q.v. and because of that, this extended title, emphasizing him as being the greatest of all in this category, is given.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ [kun mkhyen chos kyi rgyal po] «The All-Knowing King of Dharma». 1) One of several epithets for ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v. [FEG]. 2) An epithet used for other great spiritual leaders who had been given the epithet ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ «All-Knowing» q.v. E.g., the great Drukpa Kagyu master Padma Karpo, who had the epithet «All-Knowing», could also be given this title.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་འཇིགས་མེད་གླིང་པ་ [kun mkhyen 'jigs med gling pa] «All-knowing Jigmey Lingpa». One of several epithets for འཇིགས་མེད་གླིང་པ་ q.v. See also ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ «all-knowing».

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཉི་མའི་གཉེན་ [kun mkhyen nyi ma'i gnyen] «The All-knowing Kinsman of the Sun»; ཉི་མའི་གཉེན་ «kinsman of the sun» q.v. is a poetic name for Śhākyamuni Buddha and this phrase builds on that by adding the Buddha's all-knowing quality.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་དོལ་པོ་པ་ཤེས་རབ་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ [kun mkhyen dol po pa shes rab rgyal mtshan] «All-Knowing Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen», an epithet of དོལ་པོ་པ་ཤེས་རབ་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen q.v.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་དྲི་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་ [kun mkhyen dri med 'od zer] phrase> «The All-knowing Drimey Ozer», an epithet for ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v. In Tibetan culture, Longchenpa was often regarded as the greatest of all the Tibetans who were regarded as ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ «all-knowing» q.v. and because of that, this title is also extended to ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཆེན་པོ་དྲི་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་ q.v.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་པདྨ་དཀར་པོ་ [kun mkhyen padma dkar po] «All-Knowing Padma Karpo». [1527-1592 CE] The name with epithet of འབྲུག་ཆེན་སྐུ་འཕྲེང་བཞི་པ་ the fourth incarnation of the Drukchens, the line of spiritual leaders of the Drukpa Kagyu. He was the greatest scholar of the འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drukpa Kagyu lineage and is also regarded as one of the greatest scholars within the Kagyu lineage as a whole. He was a prolific but very elegant and profound writer, his collected works encompassing approx. 24 volumes (depending on the edition). He is usually counted as the fourth emanation. However, sometimes he is counted as the third, because the source of the lineage, Tsangpa Gyare is usually but not always counted as the first Drukchen incarnation. See also འབྲུག་ཆེན་ and ཀུན་མཁྱེན་.

ཀུན་མཁྱེན་བུ་རམ་ཤིང་པ་ [kun mkhyen bu ram shing pa] «The Omniscient Sugar-Caner». An epithet of Śhākyamuni Buddha. As a buddha, he is ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ omniscient and his clan name Śhākya means བུ་རམ་ཤིང་པ་ «Sugar-caner».

ཀུན་གྱིས་བཀུར་བ་ [kun gyis bkur ba] 1) «Respected / revered / honoured by all»; an epithet for someone who is highly regarded by everyone. 2) Altern. for མང་པོས་བཀུར་བ་ «Greatly Revered» q.v.

ཀུན་གྱིས་བཀུར་བའི་སྡེ་པ་ [kun gyis bkur ba'i sde pa] phrase> Altern. Tibetan term for མང་པོས་བཀུར་བའི་སྡེ་པ་ q.v. Note that this is an altern. translation; the official translation established by the translators in King Tri Ralpachen's time and hence the one most used in Tibetan literature was [MVP] མང་པོས་བཀུར་བའི་སྡེ་པ་.

ཀུན་དགའ་ [kun dga'] I. «Kunga». A common man's name in Tibet. Not to be confused with ཀུན་དགའ་བོ་ Ananda, q.v.
II. Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་དགའ་བ་ meaning «totally pleasing», something that makes the mind joyful without exception. Often used to describe gardens or pleasant places.
III. Abbrev. of ཀུན་དགའ་ར་བ་ q.v.
IV. [Mngon] an epithet of the 48th year in a རབ་བྱུང་ 60 year cycle, the ཤིང་ཕོ་སྟག་ལོ་ «Male Wood Tiger Year».

ཀུན་དགའ་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ [kun dga' rgyal mtshan] «Kunga Gyaltsen». The personal name of ས་སྐྱ་པཎྜི་ཏ་ Sakya Paṇḍita q.v.

ཀུན་དགའ་སྙིང་པོ་ [kun dga' snying po] 1) Translation of the Sanskrit «ānandagarbha». 2) «Kunga Nyingpo». [1092-1158]. The name of the first official hierarch of the Sakya lineage of Tibetan Buddhism, hence also called ས་ཆེན་ཀུན་དགའ་སྙིང་པོ་ «The Great Sakya Kunga Nyingpo». He is one of ས་སྐྱ་པ་དཀར་པོ་རྣམ་གསུམ་ «The Three White Sakyapas». He was the son of Khon Konchok Gyalpo. 3) The common name of ཏཱ་ར་ན་ཐ་ Tāranātha q.v.

ཀུན་དགའ་བསྟན་འཛིན་ [kun dga' bstan 'dzin] See under ངག་དབང་ཀུན་དགའ་བསྟན་འཛིན་ q.v.

ཀུན་དགའ་དཔལ་འབྱོར་ [kun dga' dpal 'byor] «Kunga Paljor». Drukchen II [1428-1476]. The second incarnation of the hierarchs of the འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drukpa Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism who are known as the འབྲུག་ཆེན་ Drukchens.

ཀུན་དགའ་བོ་ [kun dga' bo] «Ananda». Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «ānanda». The name of one of the ten closest ཉན་ཐོས་ śhrāvaka disciples of the Buddha; he was the Buddha's principal attendant and was with him all of the time and thus was regarded as foremost in terms of having heard the most teachings. He was not the first lineage holder after the Buddha died though because, having spent all of his time attending to the Buddha, he did not practice much and hence did not attain the realization of an arhat. However, after the Buddha died, the other arhats chastised him for his lack of attainment, whereupon he went into retreat and attained the realization of a Śhrāvaka arhat. Having done that, when the time came, he was appointed the second lineage holder of the teachings, (the second of the སྟོན་པའི་གཏད་རབས་བདུན་ seven successors to the Founder). He was a key figure at the first great council which met for the purpose of codifying the Buddha's teachings. He had an indelible memory and recited many of the teaching that he had heard from the Buddha to the council where they were written down.

ཀུན་དགའ་ར་བ་ [kun dga' ra ba] Lit. «an enclosure which is totally joyful». This term has several meanings, all referring to some kind of enclosure that is well regarded. 1) An enclosure for housing representations of enlightened body/speech/mind usually as found in a religious institution. This could be shelves for scriptures, a housing for statues, etc. The name is also given to a library containing the sacred texts of the Tripiṭaka in a monastery, etc. 2) An assembly place for the saṅgha in a religious institution, usually a courtyard. 3) A debating ground for the saṅgha in a religious institution, usually a courtyard. 4) A pleasure grove or garden, usually fenced-in (Indian style of a garden/pleasure grove).

ཀུན་འགྲོ་ [kun 'gro] I. 1) Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ་ q.v. meaning «that which always goes together with» something else or which is always operative. E.g., see ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ་ «the five omni-present (mental events)».
II. [Mngon] 1) Epithet for ནམ་མཁའ་ the sky (because it is always present). 2) «Serpent» an epithet of snakes (because they go everywhere, all over the ground).

ཀུན་འགྲོ་ལྔ་ [kun 'gro lnga] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ་ལྔ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འགྲོའི་རྒྱུ་ [kun 'gro'i rgyu] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བའི་རྒྱུ་ q.v.

ཀུན་གཅེས་ [kun gces] «All-important», abbrev. of ཀུན་ལ་གཅེས་པ་, i.e., «important to all ...». Found in the context of the explanation of the Drukpa Kagyu lineage's teachings on development stage, which are characterized as five-fold, the first four being view, meditation, conduction, fruition and the fifth being ཀུན་གཅེས་བླ་མ་རྣལ་འབྱོར་ «all-important» guru yoga, so-called because it is required in each of the other four.

ཀུན་མཆོག་ལྡན་ [kun mchog ldan] Abbrev. of རྣམ་པ་ཀུན་གྱི་མཆོག་དང་ལྡན་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་བརྗོད་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་ [kun brjod pa'i cho 'phrul] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྗོད་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཉོན་ [kun nyon] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཉོན་གྱི་དབང་པོ་ལྔ་ [kun nyon gyi dbang po lnga] phrase> «The five faculties of total affliction». This is the set of five དབང་པོ་ items which have the power to cause the side of ཀུན་ཉོན་ total affliction i.e., cyclic existence. They are the ཚོར་བ་ལྔ་ five feelings which belong to the mind-stream of individualized sentient beings. In Buddhism, these five are taught as part of the factors of mind that cause sentient beings to create further existence in saṃsāra. Their opposite is the set of རྣམ་བྱང་གི་དབང་པོ་ལྔ་ five faculties of complete purity, five items which have the power to cause the complete purification of total affliction, i.e., enlightenment.

ཀུན་ཉོན་དང་རྣམ་བྱང་ [kun nyon dang rnam byang] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཉོན་རྣམ་བྱང་ [kun nyon rnam byang] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཉོན་རྣམ་བྱང་གཉིས་ [kun nyon rnam byang gnyis] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་གཉིས་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཉོན་ཕྱོགས་ [kun nyon phyogs] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ཕྱོགས་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ [kun nyon mongs pa] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཉོན་གསུམ་ [kun nyon gsum] «The three total afflictions»; see ཉོན་མོངས་གསུམ་

ཀུན་ཏིང་ [kun ting] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་སྣང་བའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་ [kun tu] Form of ཀུན་ and often found in abbrev. as ཀུན་ in compound words e.g., ཀུན་འགྲོ་ for ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ་ and ཀུན་བརྟགས་ for ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ q.v. etc. 1) With reference to place or position: «in all places», «everywhere», «all over». 2) With reference to extent: «totally», «completely», «top to bottom», «through and through», «throughout». 3) With reference to time: as in «always», «ever-». 4) As an intensifier of a verb: it increases the strength of the verb so that it is «very much that way», «strongly that way», «every bit that way».
Note. This term ཀུན་ཏུ་ is regularly translated into English with «all-» but this lacks elegance. E.g., in a recent translation of a Chod rite the title ཀུན་ཏུ་དགའ་བའི་ར་བ་ was translated as «The Garden of All-joy». In good English, the adverbial form is not usually made as «all-» but as «totally», «fully», etc. In the example given, the title would be much better rendered as «Totally Joyful Garden» or, in cases where it was referring to time, it would be «Ever-Joyful...».

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྐྱོབ་བྱེད་མ་ [kun tu skyob byed ma] «Saṅtrāsanī». Translation of the Sanskrit «saṅtrāsanī». One of རྣལ་འབྱོར་མ་དྲུག་ «the six yoginīs» q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་ཁྱབ་པ་ [kun tu khyab pa] I. phrase> v.i. see ཁྱབ་པ་ for tense forms. «To be all-pervading / all pervasive / pervasive».
II. phrase> 1) «All-pervading», «all-pervasive». Note that although the «all-» is often used, the term in many cases exactly matches the English «pervasive» which is often a completely adequate translation. 2) «All-embracing» or «overarching». In Buddhist tantra, the term is often used to describe the chief of the various chiefs of a maṇḍala. In this case it means that that one chief embraces the qualities and activities of all the others in one personage.
III. phrase> [Mngon] 1) space or 2) the sky.

ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ་ [kun tu 'gro ba] I. That which is always present, or always operating. For one thing to be present all the time. Usually abbrev. to ཀུན་འགྲོ་ e.g., in ཀུན་འགྲོ་ལྔ་ q.v.
II. [Mngon] An epithet for 1) «a parrot»; 2) «a river» (because it is always running); 3) «the wind» (because it is always blowing).

ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ་ལྔ་ [kun tu 'gro ba lnga] «The five omnipresent (mental states)». One of the six categories of སེམས་བྱུང་ mental events in the སེམས་བྱུང་ལྔ་བཅུ་ང་གཅིག་ fifty-one mental events. This first group of five mental events occurs with every moment of consciousness, i.e., with every གཙོ་སེམས་ main mind. Hence they are called the group of «ལྔ་ five which འགྲོ་ go with ཀུན་ all» instances of a main mind.
The five mental events in the group are: 1) ཚོར་བ་ «feeling»; 2) འདུ་ཤེས་ «perception / recognition»; 3) སེམས་པ་ «apprehension / intention»; 4) རེག་པ་ «contact»; and 5) ཡིད་ལ་བྱེད་པ་ «attention».
The ཀུན་འགྲོ་ in the name is an abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ་ meaning that which goes along with, or comes along with every instance of some other thing. The term has variously been translated as «omnipresent», «all-accompanying», «universal», and «ever-present». The first and second capture the meaning though are not literal. The last two are not accurate.

ཀུན་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བའི་རྒྱུ་ [kun tu 'gro ba'i rgyu] «Omnipresent cause». One of the རྒྱུ་དྲུག་ six causes. Some of the six causes are not always operative; this cause is always operative.

ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་ [kun tu rgyu] I. 1) Abbrev. of the name ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་གནག་ལྷས་ཀྱི་བུ་ q.v. 2) Secret mantra terminology regarding ཚོགས་འཁོར་ feast gathering; གསང་བའི་སྐད་ secret term for certain foods used in a feast [AKR].
II. [Mngon] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་བ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་གནག་ལྷས་ཀྱི་བུ་ [kun tu rgyu gnag lhas kyi bu] phrase> «Maskarigośhāliputra», «Totally Happening, Son of Goshali». Translation of the Sanskrit «maskarigośhāliputra». The name of one of the མུ་སྟེགས་པའི་སྟོན་པ་དྲུག་ six founding teachers of the Tīrthika q.v. His tenet was that the cause of the happiness and suffering experienced by sentient beings does not arise in cause and conditions (as the Buddha taught) but as a natural occurrence of the state of things. His common name was གནག་ལྷས་ཀྱི་བུ་ but the name of his tenet ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་བ་ «everything just happening» was regularly prefixed to it to give the name presented here.

ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་བ་ [kun tu rgyu ba] phrase> Lit. «going off here and there and everywhere». Translation into Tibetan of the Sanskrit «parivrājaka». Used as a metaphor for anything that moves about here and there.
1) A widely used term in Indian religions altogether to indicate a person who has «gone wandering», meaning that they have left normal life in pursuit of spiritual aims. Therefore it is used also to describe specific groups of spiritual seekers. E.g., it is a metaphor for Buddhist monks who, having gone forth into homelessness, travel about everywhere with no root.
2) Any other kind of mendicant, wanderer, spiritual seeker.
3) Used at the front of the name of a spiritual teacher who was in India at the time of the Buddha and who several times had conversations with him. His name was གནག་ལྷས་ཀྱི་བུ་ «Gośhāliputra». Some texts call him ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་གནག་ལྷས་ཀྱི་བུ་ meaning «the spiritual wanderer Gośhāliputra». In Sanskrit it should be «parivrājaka gośhāliputra» but some sources give it as «maskarigośhāliputra». In Pali it is «vacchagotta». Regardless of that, he taught that everything just happens, without there being cause and effect (i.e., the opp. of what the Buddha was teaching).
4) A name for the «wind».

ཀུན་ཏུ་རྒྱུ་མ་ [kun tu rgyu ma] «Saṅcāranī». Translation of the Sanskrit «saṅcāranī». One of རྣལ་འབྱོར་མ་དྲུག་ «the six yoginīs» q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྗོད་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་ [kun tu brjod pa'i cho 'phrul] phrase> «Miraculous feats of total expression (speech)». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «ādeśhanaprātiharyam». One of the ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ «three types of miraculous feats (of a buddha) q.v. This is the Buddha's ability to perform miracles with his speech. It means that a buddha is totally able to express the dharma to another being because, knowing their mind streams in full, he knows exactly what to say in order to be able to communicate with them.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ [kun tu btags pa] There is some difficulty with this term. It is a very commonly used, but incorrect, way of writing ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ when talking of the མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ «three characters» and the various terms derived from that concerning the སེམས་ཙམ་ Mind-only school's philosophical stance. The literal meaning of the term is «(perceptions which are approached) ཀུན་ཏུ་ through nothing but བཏགས་པ་ conceptual designation (giving them conceptual labels)». Because of this it has been variously translated as «imaginary / all-labelled / conceptual designation / etc.» However, and it is very important to understand this, its use in this case actually has the meaning of ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ «omni-examination» not the literal meaning of ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ «omni-labelling».
It is very unfortunate that translators have not understood that this term is a secondary way of writing ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་. Because of it they have introduced the various translations «labelled / designated / imaginary» for the term ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ which did not have those meanings originally in Sanskrit. The term used correctly in its lit. meaning has the following meanings.
I. phrase> v.i. past of ཀུན་ཏུ་འདོགས་པ་. Freq. abbrev. to ཀུན་བཏགས་པ་. «Totally labelled / designated» per the discussion above.
II. phrase>phrase> Cognate to the verb. Freq. abbrev. to ཀུན་བཏགས་པ་ q.v. or ཀུན་བཏགས་.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ [kun tu btags pa'i ma rig pa] phrase> See ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ for meaning. Important: see discussion under ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་. E.g., although this has been called «the ignorance of imputation» it is actually an alternative way of writing ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ meaning «the ignorance of omni (conceptual) examination».

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ [kun tu btags pa'i mtshan nyid] phrase> See under the usual abbrev. ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ for meaning. Important: see discussion under ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ regarding the meaning of the term. E.g., although this has been called «the character of imputation» it is actually an alternative way of writing ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ meaning «the character of omni (conceptual) examination».

ཀུན་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ་ [kun tu rtog pa] I. phrase> v.i. see རྟོག་པ་ for tense forms. Freq. abbrev. to ཀུན་རྟོག་པ་. 1) For mind to comprehend its perceptions through nothing but conceptual examination / process which consists of understanding through both རྟོག་པ་ coarse conceptual examination and དཔྱོད་པ་ fine conceptual analysis. The term is usually fairly pejorative; it is often used to refer to someone who is engaged only with understanding through «thinking» or conceptual understanding of one sort or another. NOTE: that the meaning is NOT the same as ཀུན་ཏུ་འདོགས་པ་ «to approach perception entirely through the attachment of mental labels i.e., «to do nothing but conceptually designate / label / impute». Unfortunately, the noun form of ཀུན་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ་ which is ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་, is often written as ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ and then translators have made the mistake of using a translation of the latter for the former; see discussion under ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་. 2) A synonym for རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་ «to think discursively».
II. per the verb.
III. phrase>phrase> Freq. abbrev. to ཀུན་རྟོག་པ་ or ཀུན་རྟོག་. 1) See the past form ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ for the meaning in the context of the མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ «three characters». 2) i) A synonym for རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་ «discursive thought» in the sense of mere thought, «mere concept». E.g., ཀུན་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ་ཙམ་ཡིན། «was nothing but concepts». E.g., [NTC] ཀུན་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ་འཆིང་གཅོད་ «who cut the fetters of discursive thoughts». ii) Meaning «discursive thought / all concept / all thinking» in the sense of that which is divorced from reality, which is either «falsely imagined» / «just imagined» or which is merely «hypothetical / assumed» or which is «fanciful (thinking)».

ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ [kun tu brtags pa] Usually abbreviated to ཀུན་བརྟགས་ or ཀུན་བརྟགས་པ་ q.v.
I. phrase> v.i. past of ཀུན་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ་ q.v.
II. phrase>phrase> Meaning exactly «that which is known through nothing but conceptual process». Usually referring to the ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ «totally conceptualized characteristic» q.v. which is the third of the མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ three characters q.v. The term ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ is moderately pejorative. It means «perceptions being known ཀུན་ཏུ་ totally and completely བརྟགས་པ་ through conceptual consideration». It refers to that fact that, when dualistic mind is in full swing, it creates and lives in a world which for the most part is not even the direct perception of a dualistic sense consciousness but is just a mentally created reflection of that world, in which all the perceptions are seen, known, understood through nothing but conceptual means.
The term has been translated in many ways. Unfortunately, the translations are often confused with the term ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ which is often used indiscriminately to mean the same thing. Whereas ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ means «being apprehended only though conceptual consideration of the content of perception», the term ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ means has «phenomena produced (and hence known) only though attachment of a conceptual label». The translation «imagined / imaginary», «imputed / imputation», «labelled», «conceptual imputation / conceptually imputed», «conceptually designated», «mental labelling» and so on all are very common but all refer to the term ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ not the current term. I believe it is important for translators to distinguish these terms precisely and translate them correctly rather than simply mixing them up.
The term has also been translated as «false conception» and «artificial labelling» and «false / erroneous» however, some of these not only contain the fault just mentioned but the use of «false / erroneous / artificial» stray considerably from the wording of the term itself.
The exact meaning is «examination only» where the word བརྟགས་པ་, the noun form of རྟོག་པ་ specifically means the comprehension of something through the use only of conceptual thought processes that examine it and pigeon-hole it using conceptual constructs. It refers to the mode of understanding that uses concepts and which is happens in སེམས་ mind which by definition is dualistic. The term is used in reference to the way that the contents of perception are apprehended.
When it is used in reference to the first of the three characters, it specifically refers to the phenomena that have been made up by this concept-only process and which belong to the world it creates, i.e., which have that kind of «character». Thus, in the context of the མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ three characters as the main tenet of the སེམས་ཙམ་ Mind-only school, at this level, དངོས་པོ་ things, i.e., phenomena which are experienced with the mind, exist merely as things apprehended through the concepts used in conceptual examination of those perceptions; they have no real, external establishment. All apparent phenomena—things and non-things alike—appearing as external objects are actually concept's names that ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ have been designated by rational mind (note the difference in spelling and meaning) and, through the process of confusion, grasped at as external phenomena.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ [kun tu brtags pa'i mtshan nyid] Usually abbrev. to ཀུན་བརྟགས་མཚན་ཉིད་ or ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ q.v. See also ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ [kun tu brtags pa'i ma rig pa] Usually abbrev. to ཀུན་བརྟགས་མ་རིག་པ་ or ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ q.v. See also ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་.

ཀུན་ཏུ་ལྡན་པ་ [kun tu ldan pa] I. Translation of the Sanskrit «sarvadin». 1) Lit. «The all-possessing one» meaning the one that is fully possessed of some attribute, quality, etc. 2) [Mngon] An epithet of the 34th year in a རབ་བྱུང་ 60 year cycle, the ལྕགས་ཕོ་བྱི་ལོ་ «Male Iron Mouse Year».
II. That which is «fully possessed of», «fully endowed with».

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྣང་བའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་ [kun tu snang ba'i ting nge 'dzin] «Samādhi of total appearance» or «total appearance samādhi». The third of ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གསུམ་ the three samādhis according to the Mahāyoga yidam practice of the རྙིང་མ་པ་ Old Translation school q.v. This has been translated as «the samādhi which illuminates everything / all-illuminating samādhi» but it is the samādhi in which all of the appearances corresponding to the world of the deity being visualized appear hence «samādhi of total appearance». Following the cause, which is the development of compassion within the space of emptiness giving rise to a seed-syllable, the entire set of appearances of the deity and its maṇḍala arises as the result.
Here is a quote from a Nyingma Mahāyoga sadhana of «Shaking Out the Narak Pits» which clearly illustrates the complete progression of the three samādhis:
«(1) I am the great emptiness wisdom, the vajra nature. Like this, all apparent phenomena are unreferenced and free from elaboration. For sentient beings not realizing that to be so, compassion not grasping but seeing them as illusory streams out across all of space. (2) The unification of emptiness and compassion ... appears clearly as a white letter a, with a nature of bliss, luminosity, and emptiness. (3) Its sound ... radiates out, filling space, producing a vajra base over which a tent of massed wisdom fire billows out infinitely, filling every direction; this is the indestructible protection circle. Within it a magnificent blaze of wisdom, the immeasurable mansion with all the characteristics, is perfectly complete... (followed by the complete description of the deity within the palace.»

ཀུན་ཏུ་དཔའ་བ་ [kun tu dpa' ba] Translation of the Sanskrit «sarvaśhūra». Meaning of the Sanskrit: Courageous in Everything; A Hero for the Sake of All; All-Heroic.

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་ [kun tu spyod pa] I. phrase> v.t. see སྤྱོད་པ་ for tense forms. See below for meaning.
II. phrase> per the verb.
III. phrase> Both སྤྱོད་པ་ q.v. and this term are general terms for conduct / behaviour. However, this one has a more specific sense. It means a particular style of behaviour, a style of behaviour that has been taken up for some reason. It is the particular form of conduct that follows on from the motivation, view, etc. and which is needed to carry that out. E.g., there are several activities in Buddhism that are taken up by Buddhists as behaviours that are should be followed in light of the Buddhist tenets. One of them is making the offerings of the offering bowls in the morning. That would be described as a ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་; it is a particular behaviour that one has adopted for a specific purpose. The term is often mentioned in relation to ཀུན་ནས་སློང་བ་ «motivation». The motivation sets the drive for one's actions and the ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་ is then the specific actions / style of actions that one always follows / would need to follow in order to carry that out.
The true noun form is written ཀུན་སྤྱོད་. E.g., [KBC] གཉིས་པ་སློབ་མས་ཇི་ལྟར་ཉན་པའི་ཚུལ་ལ། ཀུན་སློང་དང་། ཀུན་སྤྱོད་གཉིས། «Second, how a student should listen (to the dharma) has two parts: motivation and conduct» meaning the motivation and then the specific type / style of conduct needed to in order to listen to dharma. The specific style of conduct of someone who is a Buddhist practitioner is generally defined as being of two types: [KBC] ཀུན་སྤྱོད་ལའང་། སྤང་བྱའི་ཀུན་སྤྱོད་དང་། བླང་བྱའི་ཀུན་སྤྱོད་གཉིས། «Conduct also has two parts: conduct to be rejected and conduct to be adopted».
Some have translated as «customary» or «habitual». This could be correct but it is only one of many possibilities encompassed by the term. It has also been translated as «righteous» behaviour but this is a mistake that has come from seeing it used only in relation to virtuous activity. It is used in relation to any activity—good or bad—that is an applied kind of behaviour. Finally, the term is used to refer to the actions of ལུས་ body, ངག་ speech, or ཡིད་ mind individually or collectively.

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [kun tu spyod pa gtsang ba'i dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark, pure in all manners of conduct». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «śhucisamudacāra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. It is one of ཀུན་སྤྱོད་སྤྱིའི་ཡོན་ཏན་གསུམ་ «the three general qualities of conduct» q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱིན་པའི་འོས་སུ་གྱུར་པ་ [kun tu sbyin pa'i 'os su gyur pa] Translation of the Sanskrit «ahavanīya». This phrase is used in the sutra called the recollection of the noble sangha as an indicator of one of the noble sangha's good qualities. The good quality mentioned for the noble sangha immediately before this good quality is simply སྦྱིན་པའི་འོས་སུ་གྱུར་པ་ «they are worthy of (being a place for) one's generosity». This next good quality expands on that good quality. Commentaries on the Tibetan give the ཀུན་ཏུ་ as meaning «everywhere in all worlds, not only in this world». This differs from [MVP] which glosses this as «worthy of every oblation or sacrifice».

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ [kun tu sbyor ba] «Enmeshment» or «enmesher». Translation of the Sanskrit «saṃyojana». An epithet of the ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ afflictions. Because of them, one does not realize that cyclic existence is unsatisfactory and hence do the things necessary to escape from it. Instead, because of them, one continues to do only those things that create the causes for staying literally «totally joined to» cyclic existence. The term has a pejorative sense beyond the literal sense which corresponds exactly to the flavour of «things that cause you to be thoroughly enmeshed in cyclic existence».

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་དགུ་ [kun tu sbyor ba dgu] «The nine enmeshments». [DGT] gives the nine ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ enmeshments as: 1) རྗེས་སུ་ཆགས་པའི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment following attachment»; 2) ཁོང་ཁྲོ་བའི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of anger»; 3) ང་རྒྱལ་གྱི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of pride»; 4) མ་རིག་པའི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of ignorance»; 5) ལྟ་བའི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of views»; 6) མཆོག་ཏུ་འཛིན་པའི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of grasping as supreme»; 7) ཐེ་ཚོམ་གྱི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of doubt»; 8) ཕྲག་དོག་གི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of jealousy»; 9) སེར་སྣའི་ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ «enmeshment of miserliness».

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ལྔ་ [kun tu sbyor ba lnga] «The five enmeshments». The five ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ enmeshments are of two types: 1) ཐ་མའི་ཆ་མཐུན་ལྔ་ «the five consistent with the lower part» and 2) གོང་མའི་ཆ་མཐུན་ལྔ་ «the five consistent with the upper part» q.v. Upper and lower refer to higher and lower realms of cyclic existence and have a specific meaning.

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་གསུམ་ [kun tu sbyor ba gsum] «The three enmeshments». These are three specific ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ enmeshments that are to be abandoned on the མཐོང་ལམ་ path of seeing. They are: 1) འཇིག་ལྟ་ «Wrong views of the perishing collection»; 2) ཚུལ་བརྟུལ་མཆོག་འཛིན་; «holding as supreme disciplines and ascetic practices»; 3) ཐེ་ཚོམ་ཉོན་མོངས་ཅན་ «doubt with affliction».

ཀུན་ཏུ་ཤིས་མ་ [kun tu shis ma] Epithet of ལྷ་མོ་ཨུ་མཱ་ «Devi Uma» [GCD] q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་རྨོངས་པ་ [kun tu rmongs pa] I. «Thoroughly ignorant», «totally stupid», etc.; see རྨོངས་པ་.
II. «The one(s) who are totally ignorant / completely blind to the meaning» etc.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ [kun tu bzang po] Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «samantabhadra». 1) Samantabhadra is commonly used as a person's name in Sanskrit. The term literally means good throughout, and comes to mean «totally good», «nothing but good». It is often translated as «all-good». 2) «Samantabhadra». The name of the primordial principle of buddhahood according to the སྔ་འགྱུར་ early translation system. In the གསར་འགྱུར་ newer translations, རྡོ་རྗེ་འཆང་ Vajradhara is regarded as the primordial principle of buddhahood. There is a difference between the two; Samantabhadra as the འདོད་མའི་སངས་རྒྱས་ adibuddha is regarded as the actual dharmakāya whereas Vajradhara is regarded as the saṃbhogakāya of the dharmakāya. 3) «Samantabhadra». The name of one of the ཉེ་བའི་སྲས་བརྒྱད་ eight mahābodhisatvas who were the closest disciples of Śhākyamuni Buddha. Samantabhadra was known for his ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོའི་སྤྱོད་པ་ conduct, which exemplifies the activity of the Mahāyāna and the vast motivation that goes with it. 4) «Samantabhadra», the name of a particular, former buddha.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཀློང་དྲུག་ [kun tu bzang po klong drug] See ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཀློང་དྲུག་པའི་རྒྱུད་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཀློང་དྲུག་པའི་རྒྱུད་ [kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud] «The Tantra, The Six-fold Expanse of Samantabhadra». The name of one of the རྒྱུད་བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen tantras of the མན་ངག་གི་སྡེ་ Upadeśha section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཆེ་བ་རང་ལ་གནས་པའི་རྒྱུད་ [kun tu bzang po che ba rang la gnas pa'i rgyud] «The Tantra of Staying in the Greatness of Samantabhadra Remaining Within Itself». Acc. [POD], the name of a tantra which is one of the six branch tantras of ཨ་ནུ་ཡོ་ག་ Anuyoga.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་ [kun tu bzang po thugs kyi me long] See ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་གི་རྒྱུད་ «The Tantra, The Mirror of the Enlightened Mind of Samantabhadra».

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་གི་རྒྱུད་ [kun tu bzang po thugs kyi me long gi rgyud] «The Tantra, The Mirror of the Enlightened Mind of Samantabhadra». Name of one of the རྒྱུད་བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen tantras of the མན་ངག་གི་སྡེ་ Upadeśha section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ནམ་མཁའ་ཆེ་ [kun tu bzang po nam mkha' che] «The Great Space of Samantabhadra». Acc. [POD], the name of one of the major tantras of the ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ Space Section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion. These tantras were brought to Tibet by Vimalamitra and Vairochana.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཞེས་བྱ་བའི་གཟུངས་ [kun tu bzang po zhes bya ba'i gzungs] «The Dharani called «Samantabhadra». Translated by the Indian Preceptors ཛི་ན་མི་ཏྲ་ Jinamitra and དཱ་ན་ཤཱི་ལ་ Dānaśhīla and the Tibetan Lotsāwa ཞང་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ་ and then revised and finalized by them in སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ revised language.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོའི་སྤྱོད་པ་ [kun tu bzang po'i spyod pa] phrase> «The conduct of Samantabhadra». The bodhisatva ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ Samantabhadra, one of the eight heart-sons of Buddha Śhākyamuni, was renowned for the vastness of his Mahāyāna-style vision and conduct based on it. The vastness of his vision and the way he expressed it, summed up in the phrase «the conduct of Samantabhadra», perfectly exemplifies the vastness of vision and style of conduct of someone in the Mahāyāna. Hence his conduct is freq. used as a reference point for the conduct of a bodhisatva. In particular, his prayer of aspiration, འཕགས་པ་ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་སྤྱོད་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ «The King of Aspirations, Samantabhadra's Conduct» makes offerings and aspirations for carrying out the conduct of a bodhisatva in this vast way. It is freq. recited by Mahāyāna followers and pieces of it, especially the offering section, are freq. used in other liturgies.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོའི་སྤྱོད་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ [kun tu bzang po'i spyod pa'i smon lam gyi rgyal po] «The King of Aspirations, Samantabhadra's Conduct». Altern. name for འཕགས་པ་ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་སྤྱོད་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་མོ་ [kun tu bzang mo] Translation of the Sanskrit «samantabhadri». 1) The name of the female consort of the primordial buddha of the early translation tantras, ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ Samantabhadra q.v. 2) Abbrev. of the Sanskrit name «caturaṇga sādhana samantabhadri nāma». One of the ཆོས་བཅུ་བཞི་ fourteen treatises on the Guhyasamaja by སངས་རྒྱས་ཡེ་ཤེས་ Sangyay Yeshe.

ཀུན་ཏུ་འོད་ [kun tu 'od] «Total Light». Translation of the Sanskrit «samantaprabha». See ཀུན་ཏུ་འོད་ཀྱི་ས་ «The bhūmi of Total Light». The original Sanskrit literally means «light everywhere» and the closest to that in English is «total light».
When explained, this level is referred to as སྤྲུལ་སྐུའི་ས་ «the nirmanakaya level». The buddha at this level is sending out the light of nirmanakayas everywhere. This name for the eleventh level or the level of a buddha above the ten levels of bodhisatvas is given in the general sutra teachings.

ཀུན་ཏུ་འོད་ཀྱི་ས་ [kun tu 'od kyi sa] Translation of the Sanskrit «samantaprabha bhūmi». «The bhūmi of Total Light». When the levels of a buddha are enumerated in the ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Vehicle, they are given as either one or three. 1) When there is one, this is the name of it; it corresponds to the eleventh of ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་ས་བཅུ་གཅིག་ the eleven bhūmis of the Great Vehicle. 2) When there are three, they are called སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ས་གསུམ་ «the three levels of a buddha» and this is the name of the highest level of three levels, corresponding to the thirteenth of ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་ས་བཅུ་གསུམ་ the thirteen bhūmis of the Great Vehicle.

ཀུན་ཏུ་ཤིས་མ་ [kun tu shis ma] Acc. [GCD] epith. of ལྷ་མོ་ཨུ་མཱ་ «Devi Uma» q.v.

ཀུན་ཏུ་སྲུང་བ་ [kun tu srung ba] I. phrase> See v.t. སྲུང་བ་ for tense forms. «To totally guard», «to guard in every way» and the other similar meanings for this word. E.g., when speaking of vows, it means to keep the vows in every way. E.g., [HUC] ཡང་དག་པར་སྒྲུབ་པ་ཀུན་ཏུ་སྲུང་བ་ «to totally guard one's work (on the bodhisatva path) of truly accomplishing».
II. phrase> cognate to the verb.

ཀུན་ཏུ་གསལ་བ་ [kun tu gsal ba] phrase> See གསལ་བ་ for meanings. This phrase specifically means for everything everywhere to have become highly visible, obvious.

ཀུན་བཏགས་ [kun btags] form of ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་བཏགས་པ་ [kun btags pa] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་བཏགས་པ་.

ཀུན་བཏུས་ [kun btus] 1) Abbrev. of ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ «compendium» q.v. 2) Abbrev. of ཆོས་མངོན་པ་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་རྟགས་ [kun rtags] Probable mis-spelling of ཀུན་བརྟགས་ q.v.

ཀུན་རྟོག་ [kun rtog] Noun form of ཀུན་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ་ q.v. 1) Specifically the approach of conceptual mind in which all things are apprehended through examination / consideration / analysis with concepts. E.g., [SKD] གཞན་དབང་གི་ཀུན་རྟོག་སྤོང་ཞིང་ཡོངས་གྲུབ་མངོན་དུ་མཐོང་བས་ལམ་ལ་འཇུག་གོ «by abandoning the totally conceptual approach of other-powered phenomena and directly seeing the thoroughly existent phenomena, the path is entered». 2) «Thinking and nothing but thinking» i.e., a synonym for རྣམ་རྟོག་ discursive thought q.v. In this case, it can also have the sense of «fiction», that which is just imagined due to thinking and only thinking about something.

ཀུན་རྟོག་པ་ [kun rtog pa] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་རྟོག་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་ [kun brtags] 1) Form of ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ q.v. 2) Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ «all-labelled characteristic», the first of the མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ three characters q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་བདག་འཛིན་ [kun brtags kyi bdag 'dzin] phrase> «Self grasping of total conceptualizing». The particular level of self-grasping that corresponds to the particular level of fundamental ignorance called ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ «the ignorance that is conceptual process only» q.v.
It has also been translated as «imputational self-grasping» because of confusing ཀུན་བཏགས་ and ཀུན་བརྟགས་ q.v. However, the literal meaning is self-grasping at the level of conceptual apprehension of the perceptions, not self-grasping at the level of conceptual designation / imputation.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་བདེན་འཛིན་ [kun brtags kyi bden 'dzin] phrase> «Conceptualized grasping at truth». Grasping at truth in objects due to a conceptual approach. Similar to ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་བདག་འཛིན་ q.v.
This has also been translated as «imputational grasping at truth» because of confusing ཀུན་བཏགས་ and ཀུན་བརྟགས་ q.v. However, the literal meaning is grasping at true existence at the level of conceptual apprehension of the perceptions, not grasping at true existence at the level of conceptual designation / imputation.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་མ་རིག་པ་ [kun brtags kyi ma rig pa] Same as ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་མཚན་ཉིད་ [kun brtags kyi mtshan nyid] Same as ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་བདག་འཛིན་ [kun brtags bdag 'dzin] Abbrev. of ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་བདག་འཛིན་ q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་བདེན་འཛིན་ [kun brtags bden 'dzin] Abbrev. of ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་བདེན་འཛིན་ q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་པ་ [kun brtags pa] I. phrase> v.i. past of ཀུན་རྟོག་པ་ q.v.
II. Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པ་ and usually meaning the ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ «totally conceptualized character» q.v. Freq. abbrev. to ཀུན་བརྟགས་.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་འཁྲུལ་པ་ [kun brtags pa'i 'khrul pa] phrase> «Confusion of totally conceptualizing». Meaning that འཁྲུལ་པ་ confusion which is the confusion of having ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ totally conceptualizing ignorance q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ [kun brtags pa'i ma rig pa] «Totally conceptualizing ignorance». Usual abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་. All schools of Buddhist philosophy describe the root cause of cyclic existence as མ་རིག་པ་ «ignorance that does not see reality». When this is examined more closely, some schools, such as some sūtra schools and the ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāmudrā system, further describe that as being two-fold: ལྷན་ཅིག་སྐྱེས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ «co-emergent ignorance» and ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ «totally conceptualized ignorance». The ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut and ཐོད་རྒལ་ Direct Crossing paths of the Great Completion teachings alone describes it as three-fold; see མ་རིག་པ་རྣམ་གསུམ་ «three types of ignorance».
When fundamental ignorance is described as two-fold or three-fold, what is being described is the steps in the process of becoming deluded. The totally conceptualizing ignorance described here is always the last step, the thickest and coarsest level of ignorance of reality.
In the more common, twofold description, the first step, called co-emergent ignorance, is the ignorance involved in the basic split into self and other. It is the basic mistake of not recognizing one's own nature. This ignorance has no རྟོག་པ་ conceptualizing thought associated with it. Following that, there is a process of བརྟགས་པ་ seeing ཀུན་ everything in experience through concepts. This conceptualization reinforces the basic split and produces a very solidified sense of self. It is an ignorance that only ཀུན་བརྟགས་པ་ deals with concepts and has the effect of sewing everything up into a totally conceptual world. Thus it is called «totally conceptualizing ignorance». Once this final level of ignorance is in place, beings experience a very solid reality. Each of these two levels of ignorance has a བདག་འཛིན་ grasping at self with it; the one for this is ཀུན་བརྟགས་ཀྱི་བདག་འཛིན་ q.v.
Based on other translations of the term ཀུན་བཏགས་པ་ q.v. this has been translated in various ways, often as «all-labelled ignorance», «imputed ignorance», «the ignorance of imputation». However, these translations in which the notion of «labelling / designation / imputation» is used are incorrect translations because they mistake the term ཀུན་བཏགས་པ་ for its literal meaning when in fact it is an alternative way of writing ཀུན་བརྟགས་པ་.
Translations of this term as «conceptual ignorance» and «imaginary ignorance» are loose though not incorrect. The translation «discriminating ignorance» is an attempt to translate ཀུན་བརྟགས་པ་ accurately but the point is not that it is discriminating ignorance per se but ignorance which is the apprehension of perception via the process of conceptual mind only, which includes རྟོག་པ་ thought processes types of both coarse examination and subtle analysis.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་ [kun brtags pa'i mtshan nyid] «The totally conceptualizing character». Usual abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྟགས་པའི་མཚན་ཉིད་. One of མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ «the three characters» q.v. The name means «that which has the characteristic of being nothing but conceptual process». It is often translated as «imaginary nature / imagined nature» though that is not really accurate; see ཀུན་བརྟགས་ and ཀུན་བཏགས་.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་མ་རིག་པ་ [kun brtags ma rig pa] Abbrev. of ཀུན་བརྟགས་པའི་མ་རིག་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་བརྟགས་གཞན་དབང་ཡོངས་གྲུབ་ [kun brtags gzhan dbang yongs grub] «Totally conceptualizing, other-powered, and thoroughly established». An abbrev. meaning ཀུན་བརྟགས་དང་གཞན་དབང་ཡོངས་གྲུབ་སྟེ། མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ the names of the མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ་ three characters which are: 1) ཀུན་བརྟགས་ «the totally conceptualized character»; 2) གཞན་དབང་ «the other-powered character»; and 3) ཡོངས་གྲུབ་ «the thoroughly established character».

ཀུན་ད་ [kun da] «Kunda». [TC] gives that it is a corruption of ཀུ་མུད་ Kumud q.v.

ཀུན་དའི་གཉེན་ [kun da'i gnyen] [Mngon] «Friend of the Kunda». Same as ཀུ་མུད་གཉེན་ q.v.

ཀུན་དུ་ [kun du] Common mis-spelling of ཀུན་ཏུ་ q.v.

ཀུན་དོང་ [kun dong] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, བཙོང་ i.e., པ་ལཱ་ཎུ་. «onion».

ཀུན་བདེན་ [kun bden] «Truth of Origin». Abbrev. of ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འདར་མ་ [kun 'dar ma] «Ever-Pulsing». Translation of the Sanskrit «avadhūti». The technical name for the main རྩ་ channel of the subtle body. Since it is the central one of three main channels, Tibetan lit. freq. calls it རྩ་དབུ་མ་ «the central channel» q.v.

ཀུན་འདུས་ [kun 'dus] phrase> «Summation of», etc. The term is used to refer to one thing which or one person who is the summation of some other things or persons. E.g., སངས་རྒྱས་ཀུན་འདུས་གུ་རུ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ is often seen in Tibetan literature as a description of Padmasaṃbhava and means «The precious guru who is all of the buddhas gathered together in one place». Although «all...gathered together in one place» is long-winded in English, that is what Tibetans understand when they read the term and is actually the best translation.
The term has been translated as «union of all» but that is far from the literal meaning. «Embodiment» or «embodiment of all» has become popular as a translation when talking about a person but it does have connotations that do not fit.
The term is one of several, similar terms, all of which suggest that one thing or person contains and represents a whole class of other things or person. E.g., སྤྱི་འདུས་ which literally means the set of things in general gathered into one place and སྤྱི་དྲིལ་ which literally means «all...wrapped into one».

ཀུན་འདུས་རིག་པ་ [kun 'dus rig pa] «Compendium of Knowledge». 1) Acc. [POD] an abbrev. of ཀུན་འདུས་རིག་པའི་མདོ་ which is one of the root tantras of the ཨ་ནུ་ཡོ་ག་ Anuyoga. 2) Acc. [POD] the name of one of the twenty-one major tantras of the སེམས་སྡེ་ division of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion. This is one of «the thirteen later translated tantras» which were translated by Vairochana, Nyag Jñānakumāra, and Yudra Nyingpo.

ཀུན་འདུས་རིག་པའི་མདོ་ [kun 'dus rig pa'i mdo] «Sūtra of the Compendium of Knowledge». Acc. [POD], the name of a tantra which is one of the four root tantras of ཨ་ནུ་ཡོ་ག་ Anuyoga.

ཀུན་ལྡན་ [kun ldan] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་ལྡན་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ནས་ [kun nas] Generally seen as the translation of a Sanskrit part of speech which is used to emphasize or intensify the idea of «in every way possible». 1) It is often seen in conjunction with verbs to give the sense of «in every which way». E.g., in ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་ it modifies the verb meaning «to be tied up» by indicating «to be thoroughly, in every which way, tied up», with the final meaning «entangled».

ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་ [kun nas dkris pa] I. phrase> v.t. see དཀྲིས་པ་ for tense forms. «To entangle», «to ensnare». Lit. to completely tie up and hold back.
II. «Snare» / «entanglement». Translation of the Sanskrit «paryavasthana». Noun form is usually written as ཀུན་དཀྲིས་ q.v. See ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་བརྒྱད་ «the eight snares» for explanation. The term should not be confused with ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ «enmeshments» which has a similar literal meaning but a different referent in Buddhism.

ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་བརྒྱད་ [kun nas dkris pa brgyad] phrase> «The eight snares». These are eight particular ཉོན་མོངས་ afflictions that are picked out in relation to the practices of ཞི་གནས་ śhamatha and the བཏང་སྙོམས་ equanimity of various kinds of concentrated states. They keep the mind that is trying to remain pacified and even snared in affliction and prevent the practice from being fulfilled. They are: 1) རྨུགས་པ་ dullness; 2) གཉིད་ sleep; 3) རྒོད་པ་ agitation; 4) འགྱོད་པ་ regret; 5) ཕྲག་དོག་ jealousy; 6) སེར་སྣ་ miserliness; 7) ངོ་ཚ་མེད་པ་ lack of embarrassment; 8) ཁྲེལ་མེད་པ་ lack of shame q.v.
The term has also been translated as «the eight fetters» but these are not འཆིང་བ་ fetters q.v.; they are snares, things that trap you and hold you back, in regard to these particular practices.

ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་བཅུ་ [kun nas dkris pa bcu] phrase> «The ten snares». The ཀུན་ནས་དཀྲིས་པ་བརྒྱད་ eight snares / entanglements with 9) ཁྲོ་བ་ and 10) འཆབ་པ་ added.

ཀུན་ནས་དངངས་པ་ [kun nas dngangs pa] phrase> «To be utterly or totally panicked / afraid» but see དངངས་པ་ for the particular connotation of fear.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་ [kun nas nyon mongs] «Total affliction». See ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་ [kun nas nyon mongs kyi chos] phrase> «Totally afflicted dharma» or «totally afflicted phenomenon». This term is used to refer to all phenomena that belong to the ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་ «totally afflicted» side of existence q.v. e.g., all phenomena of འཁོར་བ་ «cyclic existence» are totally afflicted phenomena.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་ཅན་ [kun nas nyon mongs can] See ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ཅན་ q.v.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ [kun nas nyon mongs pa] phrase> «That which is totally afflicted». Translation of the Sanskrit «saṃkleśha». Freq. abbrev. as ཀུན་ཉོན་. The Buddha distinguished two types of dharmas: ones which belong to cyclic existence; and ones which belong to its opposite, enlightenment.
The former are ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ the totally afflicted ones because they are ཀུན་ནས་ «nothing but» or «through-and-through» ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ afflicted ones. Anything having these dharmas is therefore ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ཅན་ «that which has totally afflicted dharmas». Note that this term does not refer to the afflictions (or emotionality or any of several other similar translations—defilement, complete disturbance, deeply ingrained afflictive emotionality, all-encompassing fettering passions—that have appeared) per se but to that side of things which has the afflictions. E.g., the first two of འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་ «the Four Noble Truths» belong to cyclic existence and hence are «totally afflicted».
The latter, and the opp. of «that which is total affliction» is the completely purified aspect of total affliction, which is རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་ «that which is completely purified» q.v.
Note that some authors translate this and related terms as «affliction» only. However, this misses an important point. The term ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ is well translated by «affliction». The addition of ཀུན་ནས་ meaning «totally» is not meaningless. The whole term ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ is given in relation to its opposite just mentioned. The term represents the idea that cyclic existence is totally afflicted where its opp. is complete purity. It is not acceptable to ignore the ཀུན་ནས་ in this term for doing so undermines a stream of thought that runs through the presentation of the dharma as given by the Buddha.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ཅན་ [kun nas nyon mongs pa can] I. «Having (the things belonging to the side of) total affliction» q.v.
II. «That which has (the things belonging to the side of) total affliction». A phrase used to refer to anything that has the ཆོས་ dharmas belonging to the side of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ total affliction q.v.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ཅན་གྱི་ཆོས་དང་འདྲེས་པ་ [kun nas nyon mongs pa can gyi chos dang 'dres pa] phrase> «Mixed with dharmas of that which has total affliction» meaning that some situation or grouping of phenomena དང་འདྲེས་པ་ has within it ཆོས་ dharmas of the type that ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ཅན་ are part of total affliction.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་ [kun nas nyon mongs pa dang rnam par byang ba] «Total affliction and complete purification». An alternative way which the Buddha used to speak of the two sides of existence: འཁོར་འདས་ saṃsāra and nirvāṇa. See ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ and རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་གཉིས་ [kun nas nyon mongs pa dang rnam par byang ba gnyis] «Both total affliction and complete purification», i.e., ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་ཕྱོགས་གཉིས་; the two sides of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བ་ total affliction and complete purification q.v.

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ཕྱོགས་ [kun nas nyon mongs pa'i phyogs] «The side of total affliction» meaning «that side of things which is total affliction, the dharmas of saṃsāra». Opp. of རྣམ་པར་བྱང་བའི་ཕྱོགས་ the side of complete purification q.v. See also ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ «total affliction».

ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་ཕྱོགས་ [kun nas nyon mongs phyogs] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་ཕྱོགས་ q.v.

ཀུན་ནས་ལྟ་ན་སྡུག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [kun nas lta na sdug pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of being entirely lovely to behold». Acc. [TC] one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. [NDS] gives ཀུན་ནས་མཛེས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «entirely beautiful» with the same meaning.

ཀུན་ནས་མཛེས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [kun nas mdzes pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark, entirely beautiful». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «samantaprāsādika anuvyañjani». Acc. [NDS] one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ «eighty excellent marks of a great being» q.v. [TC] gives ཀུན་ནས་ལྟ་ན་སྡུག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «entirely lovely to behold» with the same meaning. It is one of ཀུན་སྤྱོད་སྤྱིའི་ཡོན་ཏན་གསུམ་ «the three general qualities of conduct» q.v.

ཀུན་ནས་བཟང་ [kun nas bzang] «Altogether Excellent». [DMM] gives རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཕོ་བྲང་ i.e., an epithet of a king's palace.

ཀུན་ནས་སློང་བ་ [kun nas slong ba] Similar to སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ་ q.v.
I. phrase> v.t. see སློང་བ་ for tense forms. «To motivate (oneself in a certain way)», i.e., to arouse a certain kind of mind as the basis for doing any activity. In Buddhist texts, at least in ones derived from Sanskrit, the term is used specifically to indicate actions of body and speech that have been motivated by mind; it is not used to indicate mind as a motivating factor.
II. «Motivation». Translation of the Sanskrit «samutthāna». The motivation behind any activity verbal or physical which then ཀུན་ནས་ inevitably becomes the force that སློང་བ་ brings about the result. The noun form is usually written as ཀུན་སློང་. The term is used loosely by native Tibetan authors and speakers to mean the motivation for any act of body, speech, or mind though the original definition specifically defines it as actions of body or speech that have been motivated by mind.

ཀུན་སྣང་དང་བ་ཅན་ [kun snang dang ba can] Mis-spelling for ཀུན་སྣང་དྭང་བ་ཅན་ q.v.

ཀུན་སྣང་དྭང་བ་ཅན་ [kun snang dvang ba can] [Mngon] «Clearly Showing All». The name of a lake in the asura realm that shows what is happening in the deva realms, like the reflections in a mirror. The asuras become very jealous of what they see.

ཀུན་སྤངས་ [kun spangs] I. phrase> with སྤངས་ as the past tense of སྤོང་བ་ meaning either ཀུན་སྤངས་པ་ «abandoned all» or ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤངས་པ་ «totally abandoned».
II. phrase> 1) [Mngon] «Renunciant»; epithet of a person who has abandoned all worldly things and has left the world to do spiritual practice. It could mean a hermit but not necessarily. Some «renunciant» were wanderers. 2) «All-abandoned» a name of the main one the five སྙིང་རྩ་ main veins and arteries of the physical human heart.

ཀུན་སྤངས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ [kun spangs thugs rje brtson 'grus] «The renunciant Thugje Tsondru». [1243-1313]. Founder of a monastery in Jomo which was the first Jonang tradition monastery in Tibet.

ཀུན་སྤྱོད་ [kun spyod] 1) «Conduct / behaviour»; in general, conduct that is taken up as the specific style of conduct needed for a particular purpose. See ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་ for meaning and examples. 2) «Conduct». The name of the third of the ten behaviours that were deemed unacceptable at the second council at Vaiśhālī; see རུང་བ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་གཞི་བཅུ་ «ten unacceptable grounds».

ཀུན་སྤྱོད་སྤྱིའི་ཡོན་ཏན་གསུམ་ [kun spyod spyi'i yon tan gsum] «The three general qualities of conduct». One grouping of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. They are: 1) ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «pure in all manners of conduct»; 2) ཀུན་ནས་མཛེས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «entirely beautiful»; 3) ཕྱག་ཞབས་དཔལ་གྱི་བེའུ་དང་བཀྲ་ཤིས་དང་གཡུང་དྲུང་འཁྱིལ་བས་བརྒྱན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «hands and feet are adorned with swirling knots of eternity, auspicious signs, and svastika».

ཀུན་སྤྱོད་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [kun spyod gtsang ba'i dpe byad] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ q.v.

ཀུན་བྱེད་ [kun byed] «All creator» or «doer of all». 1) [Mngon] meaning i) the god of wind ii) Brahma. The term has the sense of omnipotence or capability to do anything and everything. It often conveys the sense of almighty-god-like being or principle. 2) «All-Creator»; a common abbrev. of ཀུན་བྱེད་རྒྱལ་པོ་ q.v.

ཀུན་བྱེད་རྒྱལ་པོ་ [kun byed rgyal po] Lit. «the king that creates all or does all» but note that it has the sense of omnipotent creator being. 1) «All-Creating King». The name of the root of the twenty-one major tantras of the སེམས་སྡེ་ division of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion. This is one of the three tantras not belonging either to the five «earlier translated» tantras or the thirteen «later translated» tantras. 2) A metaphoric term peculiar to རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion tradition which refers to fact that the isness of mind is what is behind all that comes to pass. Scholars ancient and modern of the Gelugpa tradition have used this term as a point of attack, usually pungent, on the Great Completion tradition, claiming that the presence of such a term in the tradition shows that the tradition accepts the idea of a «God» much as the Hindu traditions accept the notion of an བདག་ཉིད་ ātman which is a universal creator (this can be understood better when it is understood that ཀུན་བྱེད་ is one of the epithets of Brahma in use in the Hindu tradition.) However such assertions show a remarkable lack of understanding of the way that the Great Completion tradition uses its terminology and presents its view.
Other translations have included: «universal creativity», «supreme ordering principle of the universe», «creative energy of the universe».

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ [kun 'byung] «Origin, source». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «samudaya». Meaning «the place from which it all comes» i.e., «origin», «source». 1) «Origin» or «source» in general with the particular sense of the being the one source that everything of a certain type comes from. 2) «Origin» or «source». As an abbrev. of ཀུན་འབྱུང་གི་བདེན་པ་ «truth of the source» q.v. 3) Abbrev. of ཀུན་འབྱུང་བ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་གི་བདེན་པ་ [kun 'byung gi bden pa] See the usual abbrev. ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ཆོས་བཟོད་ [kun 'byung chos bzod] phrase> «The acceptance of the dharma of the origin». Abbrev. of ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་ཆོས་ཤེས་པའི་བཟོད་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ཆོས་ཤེས་ [kun 'byung chos shes] phrase> «The cognition of the dharma of the origin». Abbrev. of ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་ཆོས་ཤེས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་རྗེས་བཟོད་ [kun 'byung rjes bzod] phrase> «The subsequent acceptance of the dharma of the origin». Abbrev. of ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཤེས་པའི་བཟོད་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་རྗེས་ཤེས་ [kun 'byung rjes shes] phrase> «The subsequent acceptance of the dharma of the origin». Abbrev. of ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཤེས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་གཉིས་ [kun 'byung gnyis] «The two sources» or «the two origins». Meaning the two things that are the actual sources of unsatisfactoriness as described by the Buddha when explaining the ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པ་ «truth of the source». They are: 1) ལས་ karma; and 2) ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ affliction.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པ་ [kun 'byung bden pa] «The truth of source». Translation of the Sanskrit «samudayasatya». The second of the འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་ «four Noble Truths», the truth of the source of unsatisfactoriness. The name refers to the explanation given by the buddha of the ཀུན་འབྱུང་ source of all unsatisfactoriness that occurs for beings in cyclic existence. It is བདེན་པ་ the truth because it is true and not merely the buddha's invention or idea about it. Each of the four Noble Truths has four aspects; for this one see ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པའི་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ «the four aspects of the truth of source».

ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པའི་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ [kun 'byung bden pa'i rnam pa bzhi] «The four aspects of the truth of source». Translation of the Sanskrit «samudayasatye catvāra ākārāḥ». These are the four aspects of the second Noble Truth, ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པ་ «the truth of source». Acc. [NDS] they are: 1) རྒྱུ་ «cause»; 2) ཀུན་འབྱུང་བ་ «origination»; 3) རབ་སྐྱེ་ «highest production»; 4) རྐྱེན་ «condition».
These four names came about because the Buddha, when explaining the source of unsatisfactoriness, explained it that it has four hallmarks: 1) ལས་དང་ཉོན་མོངས་པས་འཁོར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་བསྐྱེད་པས་ས་བོན་གྱི་ཚུལ་གྱིས་རྒྱུ་ karma and affliction create the unsatisfactoriness of cyclic existence so, in the manner of a seed, it is cause; 2) ཁམས་གསུམ་རྒྱུད་ལྔ་ཀུན་འབྱུང་བས་ཞིང་པ་ལས་ལོ་ཏོག་འབྱུང་བའི་ཚུལ་གྱིས་ཀུན་འབྱུང་བ་ the three realms and five continua arise in full from it so, in the manner of a harvest arising, it is origination; 3) ལས་ཉོན་དྲག་པོས་སྡུག་བསྔལ་འཕྲལ་ལ་སྐྱེ་བས་འབྲེལ་བའི་ཚུལ་གྱིས་རབ་སྐྱེ་ strong karma and affliction produce immediate unsatisfactoriness so, in the manner of relationship, it is highest production; 4) ལས་ཉོན་ལས་ཁམས་གསུམ་གྱི་གནས་སུ་སྡུག་བསྔལ་གྱི་ཕུང་པོ་མངོན་པར་འགྲུབ་ཕྱིར་ཆུ་ལུད་ལྟར་འབྲས་བུ་སྐྱེ་བའི་གྲོགས་བྱེད་པས་རྐྱེན་ because the unsatisfactory skandhas in the places of the three realms are actually produced from karma and affliction, it assists the production of the outcome like water and fertilizer, so it is condition.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་བ་ [kun 'byung ba] «Origination». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «samudayataḥ». The name of the second of ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པའི་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ «the four aspects of the truth of source» and the sixth of འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་རྣམ་པ་བཅུ་དྲུག་ «the sixteen aspects of the Four Noble Truths».

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་ཆོས་ཤེས་པ་ [kun 'byung la chos shes pa] phrase> «The cognition of the dharma with respect to the origin». The fifth of མཐོང་ལམ་གྱི་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྐད་ཅིག་བཅུ་དྲུག་ «The sixteen moments of wisdom on the path of seeing» q.v. This is the first moment of the realization of the Noble Truth of the origin. It realizes that truth only at the level of the desire realm.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་ཆོས་ཤེས་པའི་བཟོད་པ་ [kun 'byung la chos shes pa'i bzod pa] phrase> «The acceptance of the cognition of the dharma with respect to the origin». The sixth of མཐོང་ལམ་གྱི་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྐད་ཅིག་བཅུ་དྲུག་ «The sixteen moments of wisdom on the path of seeing» q.v. This is the second moment of the realization of the Noble Truth of the origin. It accepts the realization of ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་ཆོས་ཤེས་པ་ the first moment.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་རྟོགས་པའི་ཤེས་པ་ [kun 'byung la rjes su rtogs pa'i shes pa] A longer version of the phrase ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཤེས་པ་. The meaning is that this is a cognition which is subsequent knowledge, compared to the first cognition of the series.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཤེས་པ་ [kun 'byung la rjes su shes pa] phrase> «The subsequent cognition of the dharma with respect to the origin». The seventh of མཐོང་ལམ་གྱི་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྐད་ཅིག་བཅུ་དྲུག་ «The sixteen moments of wisdom on the path of seeing». This is the third moment of the realization of the Noble Truth of the origin. It realizes that truth only at the level of the upper two realms.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཤེས་པའི་བཟོད་པ་ [kun 'byung la rjes su shes pa'i bzod pa] phrase> «The acceptance of the cognition of the dharma with respect to the origin». The eighth of མཐོང་ལམ་གྱི་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྐད་ཅིག་བཅུ་དྲུག་ «The sixteen moments of wisdom on the path of seeing» q.v. This is the fourth moment of the realization of the Noble Truth of the origin. It accepts the realization of ཀུན་འབྱུང་ལ་རྗེས་སུ་ཤེས་པ་ the third moment.

ཀུན་འབྱུང་ཤེས་པ་ [kun 'byung shes pa] «Knowledge / cognition of source». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «samudayajñānaṃ». One of the ཤེས་པ་བཅུ་ «ten cognitions / knowledges».

ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ [kun sbyor] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ q.v.

ཀུན་སྦྱོར་དགུ་ [kun sbyor dgu] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་དགུ་ q.v.

ཀུན་སྦྱོར་ལྔ་ [kun sbyor lnga] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་ལྔ་ q.v.

ཀུན་སྦྱོར་གསུམ་ [kun sbyor gsum] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་སྦྱོར་བ་གསུམ་ q.v.

ཀུན་རྨོང་ [kun rmong] Mis-spelling for ཀུན་རྨོངས་ which is an abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་རྨོངས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་རྨོངས་པ་ [kun rmongs pa] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་རྨོངས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་འཛིན་ [kun 'dzin] 1) Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་འཛིན་པ་. That which holds everything, which contains everything. 2) [Mngon] Translation of the Sanskrit «sarvadharin». An epithet of the 22nd year in a རབ་བྱུང་ 60 year cycle, the ས་ཕོ་བྱི་ལོ་ «Male Earth Mouse Year».

ཀུན་རྫོབ་ [kun rdzob] «Fiction» and ཀུན་རྫོབ་པ་ «the fictional» and so on. Translation of the Sanskrit «saṃvṛiti».
I. This is one of several terms that have been singularly badly translated into English up till now. It has been regularly translated as «the relative» but this is mistaken. The following provides a full description of what the term means with the intention not only of showing why it means «fictional» but to give a solid push to the abandonment of the current translation «relative» and the adoption of «fictional» or thereabouts as the correct equivalent of the original.
There are two terms that are crucial to any discussion of the view in Buddhism. They are the terms used when speaking of the བདེན་པ་གཉིས་ «two truths». The Buddha stated that all realities experienced by beings could be summed up into two: there are the realities created and then experienced by delusion and the realities experienced by non-delusion. These two realities are quite different from each other but each reality is true within its own sphere, that is, is true for the beings knowing that reality, therefore, the Buddha called these two levels of reality, «the two truths». The reality that appears to deluded beings is nothing but a product of their own obscuration. The reality that appears to non-deluded beings is not a mistake that comes because of obscuration but is fact. The latter is a superior version of reality compared to the former, mistaken reality and the beings who experience the latter are more advanced spiritually than these ordinary, obscured beings who create and experience the former. The Buddha gave a name to each type of reality that reflected the meanings just given: he called the first «saṃvṛti» and the second type «paramārtha». An important point is that these were not new words made up by the Buddha but were terms already in use amongst the spiritual traditions of India at the time. In other words, these are words that have a wide usage already within the general spiritual community and are not very specialized words made up for the purpose.
The original Sanskrit for «saṃvṛti» is constructed as follows: the བྱིངས་ root of the word is the verbal root, «vṛi», which becomes a feminine noun «vṛiti», which then has the ཉེ་བསྒྱུར་ modifier «saṃ» added after it. By the rules of grammar, the «saṃ» is moved to the prefixed position. The final result is «saṃvṛiti».
The etymology is as follows. The word «saṃvṛti» is made of two parts: «vṛiti» and «saṃ». Of them, «vṛiti» is prime. It means «veiled» or «obscured», exactly. For example, the same root appears in the much-used Buddhist term «āvaraṇa» meaning «an obscuration» (and translated into Tibetan with སྒྲིབ་པ་). The addition of the «saṃ» adds meaning. There are several ways to look at the meaning added. The first is that it adds «thoroughly, totally, altogether» to give a final meaning of «that which is totally a product of obscuration», «that which is nothing but a product of obscuration». A second is that it is part of saṃyag meaning «really and truly so» to give final meaning of «it really and truly is a product of obscuration». When taken in the context of the two truths taught by the Buddha, it means that the reality which appears to the deluded mind is nothing but a product of the obscuration present in that mind. Note the shade of meaning: Jeffrey Hopkins translated the term with «concealer» but that is not correct; it does not mean something that produces obscurations or concealment which is what a concealer does but is that which is a product of obscuration.
The above etymology is correct from the point of view of Sanskrit. However, and it follows the treatment given in Tibetan works, such as Jamgon Kongtrul's Encyclopaedia of Knowledge, about how the word should be understood. However, there is more. If we were to understand the term through this etymology alone, then the Tibetan translation for the term would have to be ཀུན་ཏུ་སྒྲིབ་པ་ where the ཀུན་ཏུ་ provides the exact translation of the «saṃ» and the སྒྲིབ་པ་ provides the exact translation of the «vṛiti». However, the Tibetans did not translate it that way. Instead, they translated it as ཀུན་ཏུ་རྫོབ་པ་ (which is shortened to ཀུན་རྫོབ་). There is a significant point here. The whole term «saṃvṛiti» was and still is used in India to mean something that is a «falsehood», a «concoction», something which includes concealment and which is not «honest», something that is a fiction. When the great translators of Tibet were working at Samye and settling terms like this one—and remember that they were working in a group with over 160 of the great pandits of India, people who really did know their own language and how it should be interpreted—they decided that this meaning of usage rather than strict etymology was the correct one. Accordingly, they translated it as ཀུན་ཏུ་རྫོབ་པ་ where the ཀུན་ཏུ་ has the same meaning as already given in the etymology and the རྫོབ་པ་ has the meaning of «being dressed up in a way that makes it look other than it is». In short, both the Sanskrit and the Tibetan end up having the meaning of «a fiction», «a total fiction». In spiritual terms, that fiction refers to the fact that the realities experienced by deluded beings are not the fact of reality as it is but are, through and through, false versions of that reality which appear to the deluded beings because of the obscurations in their own mindstreams. In short, they are ཀུན་རྫོབ་ fictions at the level of ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ fictional truth.
To get the full sense of how this term is used, it needs to be seen together with the second term, «paramārtha». The term «paramārtha» is also made of two words: «parama» and «artha». «Artha» has the meaning «meaning». It can be the general sense of «meaning» as in «the meaning of a word» but also can be the particular sense of «that which presents itself to and which is taken as a particular meaning or fact for mind». In this particular usage, it is similar to the English «object» though it has a slightly different sense. It is the object but not from the object's side. It is what the mind perceives for itself as the «fact known by the mind» of the object. Parama modifies «artha» by adding «better, superior in general and also the higher, more superior one of a pair». Thus the word «parāmartha» means «superior fact» where fact is the fact known to mind and also «the superior one of two kinds of fact for the mind». In actual use, the term was widely used amongst spiritual traditions in ancient India to mean «that which is known to the mind of beings with spiritually superior knowledge compared to what would be known by beings who have not advanced spiritually». The Sanskrit parāmartha was translated into Tibetan as དམ་པའི་དོན་ where དམ་པའི་ is the exact equivalent of parama and དོན་ is the exact equivalent of artha.
The two terms «saṃvṛti» and «parāmartha» have usually been translated into English as «relative» and «absolute» respectively. However, relative and absolute simply do not convey the meanings of the Sanskrit or Tibetan and are badly in need of replacement. Because the Sanskrit was translated both literally and perfectly in meaning into Tibetan and even using the same number of word roots, Tibetan texts dealing with the view can and do translate the original Sanskrit exactly. However, the English words «relative» and «absolute» simply do not work for the purpose. For example, the base meaning of «saṃvṛti» is «obscuration»; it is simply not possible to connect that to «relative» either by the meaning of the word or the root. The same is true with the other term. Therefore, any translations into English that contain explanations of the two levels of truth but use the words relative and absolute simply do not convey the intended meaning. On top of that, it is not even possible to translate texts that go through the etymology of the words in Tibetan and Sanskrit if relative and absolute are used.
The English translation for this term up through the 1990's has generally been «relative» which seems to have been put into use in contradistinction to «absolute» as the translation for «paramārtha» and brought into wide usage through the teachings of Lama Yeshe and his disciple Lama Zopa of Kopan Monastery when they were among the first to present Tibetan Buddhist teachings to large number of Westerners. The translation is seriously inadequate as can be seen from the above analysis of the original Sanskrit and the Tibetan, therefore new terms are required. Some translators in recent years have recognized this and have been using alternative, pre-existing English words instead of «relative», e.g., , «superficial». However, superficial does not mean mistaken because of some kind of concealment and moreover, something superficial can be fully factual. As mentioned early, the term has also been translated as «concealer» or «concealed» but that is not quite correct, though closer. Some have translated it as «conventional» but that does not work. It is true that ཐ་སྙད་ «conventional» is sometimes used as an equivalent for ཀུན་རྫོབ་ fictional but it is well understood within all Tibetan Buddhist schools that «conventional» has a complete different usage. Trying to use one for the other brings significant problems. «Mundane» also has been used but that is not the meaning at all.
On the other hand, the English term «fictional» does convey well the meaning of the Sanskrit that the Tibetans settled on. Furthermore, its opposite, «factual», has a very good correspondence with the meaning of the second term, paramārtha. Factual by itself is not sufficient for paramārtha so I have created a new word that matches the parts of the Sanskrit, «superfactual».
Based on the above analysis of the meaning of «saṃvṛiti» and its paired term «paramārtha» —an analysis which is supported by all major Tibetan writers of all schools, I propose the new term «fictional» for this term and «superfactual» for its paired term. These terms convey the Sanskrit and Tibetan meanings literally and fully. I can tell you one thing: if you start substituting fictional for relative and superfactual for absolute, you will notice an immediate change of feeling in mind. The new sense of meaning that you get is much closer to what was intended when the original terms were used. Try it out: «fictional truth» and «superfactual truth».
II. In general, the term is used to describe the kind of realities that appear to deluded minds. The སྣང་བ་ appearances for a འཁྲུལ་ཤེས་ deluded consciousness are always a total fiction because that mind only sees reality through its own སྒྲིབ་པ་ veils of obscuration q.v. This is not the དམ་པའི་དོན་ superior, fully factual world seen by non-delusion. Note that this term is pejorative; it refers to the fictional reality that deluded beings make for themselves and live within and, in nearly every case, really do believe to be true. The full weight of the way the term was used in ancient India within spiritual traditions was «you are living a lie». Its counterpart refers to a reality that is spiritually superior to that and which is wholly factual. These are the meanings that must be understood by the use of these terms. In Tibetan, it is common to hear a teacher say, «It is just kundzob». This comes out in translation as «it is just the relative» but that is not what is being said; the teacher is saying, «It is false, a big lie that you are living!».
A specific point that is covered in the Buddhist teaching when discussing the view is that ཀུན་རྫོབ་ «total fiction» and ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ «totally fictional truth» are two, quite different things. Whereas ཀུན་རྫོབ་ total fiction is thoroughly pejorative and refers to something that is only false, ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ refers to the same fiction but as part of a reality that is agreed on by the beings who live in it and therefore has at least that much truth to it.
It is possible in this kind of situation to have things that are true and not true for beings in their own level of deluded reality. These are then distinguished with the specific terms ཡང་དག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་, «a correct total fiction» and ལོག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་ «a mistaken total fiction». A common example given in Tibetan Buddhist texts is that snow in this human world is white for humans who have properly functioning sense organs. Snow seen as white is true for those beings, therefore it is called ཡང་དག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་, «a correct total fiction». Snow seen as yellow by a human being who has jaundice is not true for the other, deluded beings who are also living in the same totally fictional world, therefore it is called ལོག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་ «a mistaken total fiction».

ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཀྱི་བདེན་པ་ [kun rdzob kyi bden pa] See the common abbrev. ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་གཉིས་ [kun rdzob gnyis] phrase> «The two fictions». The ཀུན་རྫོབ་ fictional q.v., obscured situation of sentient beings is actually of two kinds [DGT]: 1) one which is correct at the level of the obscuration that it is part of called ཡང་དག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་ «correct fiction» and 2) the other and one which is incorrect even at that level called ལོག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་ «wrong fiction».

ཀུན་རྫོབ་རྟོགས་པའི་ཤེས་རབ་ [kun rdzob rtogs pa'i shes rab] phrase> «prajñā which realizes the fictional». One of the ཤེས་རབ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ «three types of prajñā» q.v.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་དང་དོན་དམ་ [kun rdzob dang don dam] phrase> «Fictional and superfactual». See ཀུན་རྫོབ་ fictional and དོན་དམ་ superfactual. The two together sum up all the ways of perceptual reality of all beings, both sentient beings and buddhas.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་དང་དོན་དམ་པའི་བདེན་པ་བསྟན་པ་ [kun rdzob dang don dam pa'i bden pa bstan pa] «The Teaching on the Fictional and Superfactual Truths». Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «paramārtha saṃvṛtisatya nirdeśha». Name of a sūtra. Translated by the Indian Preceptors ཤཱཀྱ་པྲ་བྷ་ Śhākyaprabha and ཛི་ན་མི་ཏྲ་ Jinamitra and the Tibetan Lotsāwa བནྡེ་དྷརྨ་ཏཱ་ཤཱི་ལ་ Bande Dharmatāśhīla and others and then revised and finalized by them.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ [kun rdzob bden pa] phrase> «Fictional truth». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «saṃvṛitisatyaṃ». Usually translated as «relative truth» or «superficial truth» but see ཀུན་རྫོབ་ for discussion.
One of the བདེན་པ་གཉིས་ two levels of truth; the other is དོན་དམ་བདེན་པ་ superfactual truth q.v. This level of truth is the level of truth for dualistic minds which are deluded regarding the ultimate level of truth. This level of truth is a fiction when compared to the superfactual or ultimate truth however, it is true in its own context, so it is called fictional truth.
Note that there can be a difference between ཀུན་རྫོབ་ «fiction» and ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ «fictional truth». The former is sometimes used as an abbrev. of the latter. However, it is freq. also used as a term in its own right where the sense of a level of truth is not being implied, rather, the full weight of «fiction» versus «non-fiction» is being stated. The term ཀུན་རྫོབ་ by itself refers to what beings with confused minds experience in general. See ཀུན་རྫོབ་ for more.
Furthermore, fictional truth contains ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་གཉིས་ two types of fictional truth q.v. for explanation.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་གཉིས་ [kun rdzob bden pa gnyis] «The two types of fictional truth». The two types are [KPC]: 1) ཡང་དག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ «correct fictional truth»; and 2) ཡང་དག་པ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ «incorrect fictional truth». The latter is equally called ལོག་པའི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ «wrong fictional truth».
Correct fictional truth is ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ fictional truth as understood by beings whose དབང་པོ་ sense faculties are operating correctly according to the group concensus of their own level of fictional reality. Incorrect fictional truth is the reality perceived by beings whose sense faculties are not operating correctly within their own level; their reality is an even further distortion of ultimate reality and is not even correct for the others in their own, fictional level of reality.
Put in an easier to understand way: fictional truth is a totally fictional reality that is true for the beings whose minds are making up the fiction. Those beings have a consensus of their reality because their sense organs are all functioning similarly. If anyone within that reality has sense organs that malfunction, they will live in yet another reality, one that is true for them but which is an incorrect version of the reality for the beings with properly functioning sense organs.
The example classically given of the wrong fictional level of truth is a white mountain seen as yellow by someone with the disease jaundice. Due to the jaundice the inner part of the eye becomes yellow and changes the perception of white snow—which all of the other beings without the disease agree on as correct—to the perception of yellow snow. This white and yellow perceptions of the colour of the snow are fictions compared to the superfactual truth but within that the white colour is correct whereas the yellow colour is wrong or incorrect even at that level. A second, classical example of the wrong fictional truth is the perception of སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛག་པ་ falling hairs for people who have རབ་རིབ་ floaters in their eyes; the hairs seem real but in fact they are a wrong perception due to the disease of floaters.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་བརྡ་ཡི་བླ་མ་ [kun rdzob brda yi bla ma] phrase> «Fictional sign guru». One of two types of guru. This refers to what the practitioner sees as the external guru, the one who is actually a sign appearing at the ཀུན་རྫོབ་ fictional level of the ultimate reality present in the practitioner. In dependence on the instruction of the fictional guru who appears as a sign, the practitioner realizes the ultimate guru present as his/her inherent nature. The latter is called the དོན་དམ་གཤིས་ཀྱི་བླ་མ་ «ultimate, innate guru».
These two are sometimes referred to as the ཕྱི་ཀུན་རྫོབ་བརྡ་ཡི་བླ་མ་ «outer, fictional sign guru» and ནང་དོན་དམ་གཤིས་ཀྱི་བླ་མ་ «inner, superfactual character guru» respectively. In abbrev. form, they are referred to as ཕྱིའི་བླ་མ་ «outer guru» and ནང་གི་བླ་མ་ «inner guru», respectively.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་པའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་ [kun rdzob pa'i sems bskyed] phrase> «Fictional arousing of mind»; the ཀུན་རྫོབ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ the generation of fictional bodhicitta as opposed to the དོན་དམ་པའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་ generation of the superfactual bodhicitta q.v.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ [kun rdzob byang chub kyi sems] phrase> «Fictional bodhicitta». One of the བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་གཉིས་ two types of bodhicitta. There are ཀུན་རྫོབ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་གཉིས་ two types of fictional bodhicitta q.v.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་གཉིས་ [kun rdzob byang chub kyi sems gnyis] phrase> «The two types of fictional bodhicitta». The two types referred to are སྨོན་འཇུག་གི་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་ «aspiring and engaging bodhicittas» q.v. Often abbrev. to བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་གཉིས་ «two types of bodhicitta» and in some contexts «two-part bodhicitta», e.g., [BKM] བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་གཉིས་ལྡན་པ་ལ༔ བར་ཆད་ཀུན་གྱིས་ཉེ་མི་ནུས༔ «No obstacle can come near a person with two-part bodhicitta».

ཀུན་རྫོབ་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་ [kun rdzob byang chub sems] phrase> Abbrev. of ཀུན་རྫོབ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ q.v.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཚད་མ་ [kun rdzob tshad ma] phrase> «Fictional pramāṇa»; meaning ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཀྱི་ཚད་མ་. This and ཐ་སྙད་ཚད་མ་ q.v. are synonymous.

ཀུན་རྫོབ་ཤེས་པ་ [kun rdzob shes pa] «Knowledge / cognition of the fictional». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «saṃvṛtijñānaṃ». One of the ཤེས་པ་བཅུ་ «ten cognitions / knowledges».

ཀུན་རྫོབ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་ [kun rdzob sems bskyed] phrase> «Fictional arousing of the mind (of bodhicitta)». One of སེམས་བསྐྱེད་གཉིས་ the two types of arousing the mind of bodhicitta. This is a term from the ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ཐེག་པ་ Pāramitā Vehicle. It refers to the specific arousing of the mind that is focussed on the thought to bring all sentient beings to enlightenment based on great compassion and loving kindness.

ཀུན་གཞི་ [kun gzhi] Translation of the Sanskrit «ālaya». 1) The term in general means that which underlies all. It is often translated as «all-ground» or «all-base» but that is very rough English. The Sanskrit term has the sense of «range» as in the name of the mountain range «Himālaya» which lit. means «the Him Range». It is often used in general contexts to mean «the underpinning» or the «underlying basis» of any given thing. E.g., in grammar texts, ཡི་གེ་ཀུན་གྱི་གཞི་ meaning letters which are the underpinning of all language, the basis underlying all communication. 2) A general name for the mind-stream, which is the basis of being in general. 3) Specifically, an abbrev. of ཀུན་གཞིའི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ «omni-base consciousness» q.v. Note that in this case, although the term has been translated as «ground of all» / «all base» and so on, it is really means «underlying». Note also that this term is being used in reference to dualistic consciousness. 4) The higher tantras, especially the Great Completion tantras, use the term in a way that is similar to meaning 3) but use it in reference to the སེམས་ཀྱི་ངོ་བོ་ essence of mind, which is not a dualistic consciousness.

ཀུན་གཞི་དང་ཡེ་ཤེས་བརྟག་པའི་འགྲེལ་པ་ [kun gzhi dang ye shes brtag pa'i 'grel pa] «Commentary Examining Ālaya and Wisdom» a text by the Indian master Buddhaguhya.

ཀུན་གཞི་བདེན་པར་གྲུབ་པ་ [kun gzhi bden par grub pa] «Ālaya truly existing / established».

ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ [kun gzhi rnam par shes pa] Abbrev. of ཀུན་གཞིའི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་ཤེས་ [kun gzhi rnam shes] Abbrev. of ཀུན་གཞིའི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་གཞིའི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ [kun gzhi'i rnam par shes pa] «Alaya consciousness». Translation of the Sanskrit «ālayavijñāna». In the mind-only system and schools that follow its view of consciousness (including the tantras), there are eight consciousnesses—see རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་བརྒྱད་ «the eight consciousnesses». The consciousness referred to here is the eighth consciousness. It is in itself unobscured and indeterminate. It is the principal consciousness that is ཀུན་གཞི་ an omni-basis that underlies the rest mind and all of experience. It is also the ཀུན་གཞི་ «overall range» upon which all karmic seeds and other things that ripen in a sentient being's experience are planted.
Because of its functions as the place upon which karmic seeds are planted and kept, its name has been translated as the «store-house consciousness» though in fact the name means that «basis that extends under everything» i.e., the basis underlying everything».
[KPC] gives that it is classified as: 1) ས་བོན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་གཞི་ཉིད་ «the basis itself of all (karmic) seeds»; 2) ལུས་ཀྱི་ཀུན་གཞི་ «the underlying basis of body»; 3) རྒྱུ་ཉིད་ «cause»; 4) ལུས་ལ་གནས་པ་ཉིད་ «dwelling within the body»; 5) དམིགས་པ་དང་རྣམ་པ་ཡོངས་སུ་མ་ཆད་པ་ «totally without viewable reference or superfice»; 6) རིས་གཅིག་པ་ «a single stratum»; 7) རྒྱུན་ཆགས་པ་ «being continuous».

ཀུན་གཞིའི་རྣམ་ཤེས་ [kun gzhi'i rnam shes] Abbrev. of ཀུན་གཞིའི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ q.v.

ཀུན་གཟིགས་ [kun gzigs] «All-seeing» a title given to beings who had exceptional insight into reality. The title is similar to the title ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ but is not the same. This title indicates exceptional realization resulting in great insight into the depth of reality and the extent of it whereas «All-knowing» indicates an exceptional level of knowledge; literally someone who knows everything. The two titles are not used interchangeably and do have their own separate meaning and usage; therefore they should not be translated with the same wording and should not be confused with each other. A number of beings in the Tibetan traditions were known as all-seeing and a different group were known as all-knowing.

ཀུན་གཟིགས་ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྣང་བ་ [kun gzigs chos kyi snang ba] See འབྲུག་ཆེན་ཀུན་གཟིགས་ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྣང་བ་.

ཀུན་གཟིགས་མདོ་སྔགས་གླིང་པ་ [kun gzigs mdo sngags gling pa] «All-seeing Dongag Lingpa». Dongag Lingpa was the treasure revealer's name for འཇམ་དབྱངས་མཁྱེན་བརྩེའི་དབང་པོ་. This is the name with the epithet ཀུན་གཟིགས་ «All-seeing» attached as an honorific.

ཀུན་བཟང་ [kun bzang] 1) Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ q.v. 2) Acc. [TC] the name of a mountain in Tibet.

ཀུན་བཟང་ཀློང་དྲུག་པའི་རྒྱུད་ [kun bzang klong drug pa'i rgyud] See ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཀློང་དྲུག་པའི་རྒྱུད་.

ཀུན་བཟང་དགོངས་པ་ཟང་ཐལ་ [kun bzang dgongs pa zang thal] See བྱང་གཏེར་དགོངས་པ་ཟང་ཐལ་.

ཀུན་བཟང་དགོངས་གསལ་ [kun bzang dgongs gsal] The name of a famous text on grammar by Drati Geshe. See བྲ་ཏི་སུམ་རྟགས་ The Thirty and Gender Signs of Drati.

ཀུན་བཟང་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་བསྟན་པ་ [kun bzang thugs kyi bstan pa] «Teaching of the Enlightened Mind of Samantabhadra». The name of a cycle of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion teachings from the གསང་སྔགས་རྙིང་མའི་ལུགས་ old style secret mantra.

ཀུན་བཟང་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་གི་རྒྱུད་ [kun bzang thugs kyi me long gi rgyud] See ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་མེ་ལོང་གི་རྒྱུད་.

ཀུན་བཟང་ཐུགས་ཏིག་ [kun bzang thugs tig] «The Essence of the Enlightened Mind of Samantabhadra». The name of a major ཞི་ཁྲོ་ «peaceful / wrathful» cycle of revealed treasures in the མཆོག་གླིང་གཏེར་གསར་ New Treasures of Chogling.

ཀུན་བཟང་སྨོན་ལམ་ [kun bzang smon lam] «Samantabhadra's Prayer of Aspiration». Common name for འཕགས་པ་བཟང་པོ་སྤྱོད་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ར་ [kun ra] Abbrev. of ཀུན་དགའ་ར་བ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ལ་ཁྱབ་པ་ [kun la khyab pa] I. phrase> v.i. see ཁྱབ་པ་ for tense forms. «To pervade all».
II. phrase> «all-pervasive».
II. phrase> «the all-pervading». The true noun form is written ཀུན་ཁྱབ་.

ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ [kun las btus pa] «Compendium» meaning a text that is a compilation from many different sources. Translation of the Sanskrit «samuccaya». Freq. used in the titles of major texts in the Indian / Tibetan Buddhist tradition. Common texts that use the phrase in their names and which are abbrev. to just that are: 1) ཆོས་མངོན་པ་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ «Abhidharmasamuccaya» q.v.; 2) བསླབ་པ་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ «Śhikṣhā-samuccaya» q.v.; 3) མདོ་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ «Sūtra-samuccaya» q.v.; 4) ཚད་མ་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ «Pramāṇa-sammucaya»; 5) སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་ «Compendium of Sadhanas».

ཀུན་ཤེས་ཀཨུ་དི་ནྱ་ [kun shes kau di n+ya] Mis-spelling of ཀུན་ཤེས་ཀཽཎྜིནྱ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཤེས་ཀཨུནྜིནྱ་ [kun shes kauNDin+ya] «All knowing Kauṇḍinya». Translation of the Sanskrit «ājñātakauṇḍinya». One of the འཁོར་ལྔ་སྡེ་བཟང་པོ་ «retinue of the excellent five» q.v.

ཀུན་ཤེས་ལྡན་པའི་དབང་པོ་ [kun shes ldan pa'i dbang po] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཤེས་པ་དང་ལྡན་པའི་དབང་པོ་ q.v.

ཀུན་ཤེས་པ་དང་ལྡན་པའི་དབང་པོ་ [kun shes pa dang ldan pa'i dbang po] phrase> «The faculty of having understanding of all». One of the ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ་གསུམ་ «three faculties without outflow» q.v.

ཀུན་ཤེས་པའི་དབང་པོ་ [kun shes pa'i dbang po] phrase> «The faculty of understanding all». One of the ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ་གསུམ་ «three faculties without outflow» q.v.

ཀུན་ཤེས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་དབང་པོ་ [kun shes par byed pa'i dbang po] phrase> «The faculty that makes for understanding all». One of the ཟག་མེད་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ་གསུམ་ «three faculties without outflow» q.v.

ཀུན་ཤེས་བྱེད་པའི་དབང་པོ་ [kun shes byed pa'i dbang po] Abbrev. of ཀུན་ཤེས་པར་བྱེད་པའི་དབང་པོ་ q.v.

ཀུན་སློང་ [kun slong] Form of ཀུན་ནས་སློང་བ་ q.v.

ཀུན་སློང་གཉིས་ [kun slong gnyis] «The two types of motivation».
I. [DGT] gives 1) རྒྱུའི་ཀུན་སློང་ motivation at the cause and 2) དུས་ཀྱི་ཀུན་སློང་ motivation at the time. These are the motivations of a Buddhist monk / nun. The first is their motivation at the time of answering questions prior to actual ceremony; the second is their motivation at the time of the ceremony.
II. Another pair is: 1) བསམ་པ་རྒྱ་ཆེ་བ་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་ཀྱི་ཀུན་སློང་ «the vast thought which is the motivation of the bodhisatva»; and 2) ཐབས་རྒྱ་ཆེ་བ་གསང་སྔགས་ཀྱི་ཀུན་སློང་ «the vast method which is the motivation of the secret mantra».

ཀུན་གསལ་ [kun gsal] [Mngon] «Totally illuminating» or «all-illuminating» or (especially in the case of a mirror) «the all-revealing». 1) A metaphoric name for i) the sun; ii) the sky; and iii) a mirror. 2) «All-Illuminating», the name of a text.

ཀུནཌ་ལ་ [kunDa la] [LGK] says that this Sanskrit term has the correct Tibetan equivalent བདུད་རྩི་ཐབ་སྦྱོར་ not the mis-spelling བདུད་རྩི་ཐལ་སྦྱོར་. He also points out that the mis-spelling is incorrectly taken as བརྡ་རྙིང་ old orthography when in fact it is just a mis-spelling.

ཀུནད་ [kunda] See ཀུན་ད་ q.v.

ཀུནད་ཨུཏྤལ་འདྲ་ [kunda autpala 'dra] «Like Datura and Utpala flowers». This phrase is used to show that something does not change from one thing to another. For example, good karma does not change to bad and vice verse. Datura is white and Utpala is dark blue, the former is poisonous, the latter not. E.g., ཨུཏྤལ་དང་ཀུ་མུ་དའི་ཚོགས་དང་འདྲ་སྟེ་གཅིག་ནས་གཅིག་ཏུ་མི་འགྱུར་བ་ «Like a bunch of Utpala and Datura flowers, one does not change to another».

ཀུནདའི་གཉེན་ [kunda'i gnyen] See ཀུན་དའི་གཉེན་ q.v.

ཀུནད་ [kund] [Old] the original way of writing what is now spelled as ཀུན་ q.v. This original spelling is done according to བརྡ་རྙིང་ old orthography.

ཀུམ་ཀུམ་ [kum kum] [Onomat] «Huddled up», «in a huddle»; having the arms and legs drawn in in a huddled position. E.g., འཁྱགས་ནས་ཀུམ་ཀུམ་དུ་བསྡད་འདུག «He stayed huddled up due to the cold». E.g., ལྷགས་པ་དཔེ་མེད་རུས་པ་ལ་ཡང་ཐིང་བ་ཡིས། །ལུས་སྦྲེབས་འདར་ཤིང་བསྐུར་ནས་ཀུམ་ཀུམ་པོར་འདུག་པ། «Winds colder than can be illustrated, a cold that goes even deeper than the bones, have them shivering with cold and staying bent over in a huddle».

ཀུམ་ཀུམ་སྡོད་པ་ [kum kum sdod pa] phrase> v.i. སྡོད་པ་ q.v. «To stay huddled up».

ཀུམ་པ་ [kum pa] To be in a huddled up position or for something to be bent over so that it is not only «bent» but drawn in as well.

ཀུམ་པོ་ [kum po] To be in a huddled up position or for something to be bent over so that it is not only «bent» but drawn in as well.

ཀུར་ཀུམ་ [kur kum] Corrupted form of གུར་གུམ་ q.v.

ཀུལམཱ་ཥཾ་ [kulmA Sha] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kulmāṣha». [LGK] says that this is corrupted to ཀོལ་མ་ q.v.

ཀུསྨ་པུརིའི་གཙུག་ལ་ཁང་ [kusma puri'i gtsug la khang] «Kusmapuri Vihara». The name of the Buddhist monastery in the north Indian town of Pataliputra where the བཀའ་བསྡུ་གཉིས་པ་ Second Council was held.

ཀེ་ཏ་ཀ་ [ke ta ka] Translit. of the Sanskrit «ketaka». A fabled substance / thing of the ancient Indian tradition that has the ability to purify water. (It is exactly like modern-day zeolite or other water-purifying methods / substances). The Sanskrit does not refer to a jewel per se though in some contexts a ནོར་བུ་ཀེ་ཏ་ཀ་ jewel ketaka or stone ketaka is mentioned; in other contexts the fruit of a tree with this ability is mentioned.

ཀེ་ཏུ་ [ke tu] « Ketu». Translit. of the Sanskrit «ketu». Ancient Indian legend held that there were two beings, one called Rāhu and one called Ketu who were connected with disturbing the planets and stars. Ketu was the personification of what modern science calls «a comet». The roles of Rāhu and Ketu in astrology are very complex and not easy to explain. 1) «Ketu» as the personification of planetary principles who, as the counterpart of Rāhu, has a particular effect on the planets and, because of that, a particular role in astrology. 2) Ketu as the heavenly body called «a comet». The name Ketu as a particular heavenly body is translated into Tibetan with དུ་བ་མཇུག་རིང་ «Long Tail of Smoke» and is counted as the ninth of གཟའ་དགུ་ the nine planets. (Comets in general are called མཇུག་རིང་ «long tail» in Tibetan). 3) In astrology and the Indian astronomy derived from it, «Ketu» is the counterpart of Rāhu; each has a specific function in cosmic events.

ཀེ་ཚེ་ [ke tshe] [Chinese] The name of a plant seed used to make oil. [NTC] gives «poisonous seed pods».

ཀེ་ལ་ཤ་ [ke la sha] Corrupted form of ཀཻ་ལཤ྄་ q.v.

ཀེ་ཤ་ཅན་ [ke sha can] See ཡི་གེ་ཀེ་ཤ་ཅན་.

ཀེ་ས་ར་ [ke sa ra] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kesara». [LGK] says that this, which translates into Tibetan with རལ་པ་ཡིན་པ་ «hairy, having long hair or hairs», by corruption becomes གེ་སར་ which is then sometimes mistaken as an བརྡ་རྙིང་ old sign of the Tibetan language. The term has two meanings of either 1) «the pollen bed» or «anthers» of a flower or 2) «hair(s)» or «filaments» or «fine threads (not of cloth)».

ཀེང་རུས་ཀྱི་འདུ་ཤེས་ [keng rus kyi 'du shes] «Perception of a skeleton». The perception of a corpse which has been reduced to a skeleton. One of twelve མི་སྡུག་པ་སྒོམ་པ་ «meditations on ugliness» q.v.

ཀེང་རུས་ཅན་ [keng rus can] «Skeleton Filled». Translation of the Sanskrit «karaṅkin». The name of one of དུར་ཁྲོད་བརྒྱད་ the eight charnel grounds q.v. This is the charnel ground of the south.

ཀེམ་ཀེམ་ [kem kem] [Onomat] a particular style of back and forth movement. 1) A jerking or flicking or fluttering movement. E.g., [TC] བྱིའུ་འཆི་ལ་ཁད་པའི་བྲང་ཁོག་ཀེམ་ཀེམ་དུ་འགུལ། «on the verge of death, the small bird's chest fluttered up and down»; བུང་བ་མེ་ཏོག་གི་སྟེང་དུ་ཀེམ་ཀེམ་གཡོ། «the bee, moving back and forth, hovered over the flower.

ཀེམས་སེ་ཀེམ་ [kems se kem] [Exp] A phrase that gives a particular, repetitive and rhythmic sense of the basic word ཀེམ་ཀེམ་. སྟོང་གསུམ་གློག་དམར་ཀེམས་སེ་ཀེམ༔ «Red lightning flicked back and forth throughout the threefold worlds. See also སེ་ meaning II for more information and comparison terms.

ཀེའུ་ [ke'u] 1) The name of an ancient family line (clan) of Tibet. 2) [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, རི་སྒོག་ «hill garlic».

ཀེའུ་རི་མ་ [ke'u ri ma] Corrupted form of གཽརཱི་མ་ q.v.

ཀེར་ [ker] Part of ཀེར་བ་ q.v.

ཀེར་བ་ [ker ba] I. v.i. ཀེར་བ་/ ཀེར་བ་/ ཀེར་བ་//. «To raise» in the sense of something being moved into the raised / upright / erect position. Note that in Tibetan the intransitive is used to refer to oneself doing something to oneself, thus this is the same as the English transitive «to lift up / raise up» when talking about something that one did with their own body e.g., «to raise a hand or finger». E.g., [TC] གཟུགས་པོ་གྱེན་དུ་ཀེར་བ། «lit. raised the body upright» but meaning «moved oneself into an erect position / stood upright / lifted himself up»; མཛུབ་མོ་གྱེན་དུ་ཀེར་བ། «to raise / lift / put / stick up a finger».
II. ཀེར་ meaning «uprights», the name given to humans in a type of tax. See ཀེར་ལེབ་སྒུར་ «uprights, flats, bent-overs».

ཀེར་ལེབ་སྒུར་ [ker leb sgur] «Uprights, flats, and bent-overs». The names given to the three items taxed in a particular tax that was levied on areas of དབུས་ Central Tibet by the Central Tibetan government in earlier times. The three are called the རྐྱེན་ circumstances of the tax. They are named for their appearance to a human observer looking out across the vast plains of Tibet. Acc. [TC] the humans appear as ཀེར་ «uprights»; the land appears as ལེབ་ «flats» ; and the yaks appear as སྒུར་ bent overs. According to other sources, [CHM] the ལེབ་ «flats» refers not to the land but to the heads of sheep which appear as flat sheets when looked at out across the plains.

ཀཻ་ལཤ།་ [kai lash/] Name of the great mountain, «Mount Kailash». An extremely sacred mountain in the Himalayan range which is said to be a central place of spiritual power. Other names for it are: རི་བོ་གངས་ཅན་, གངས་ཅན་, གངས་ཏི་སེ་, and ཏི་སེ་. There are many other poetic names for Mt. Kailash as well; see [TC] and [SCD].

ཀོ་ [ko] I. [Old] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> which was used for the same two purposes as the phrase connector ནི་ q.v. which is used instead of it now. Thus it is a དགར་དང་བརྣན་པའི་སྒྲ་ «term of segregation and stress» q.v. Mostly seen in constructions like འདི་ཀོ་ meaning འདི་ནི་, etc.
II. Abbrev. of ཀོ་བ་ «leather».

ཀོ་གྲུ་ [ko gru] 1) Abbrev. of ཀོ་བ་ and གྲུ་ q.v. 2) A «hide boat». Usually a coracle with wooden ribs and a hide-skin covering. Often used in Tibet as a ferry across large rivers.

ཀོ་སྒ་ [ko sga] «Leather saddle». A saddle made out of leather; saddles in Tibet were usually made of wood.

ཀོ་ཅི་ [ko ci] [Old] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> which was used for the same purpose as the modern form སྟེ་ and its related forms དེ་ and ཏེ་ which have now replace it. Thus it is a ལྷག་བཅས་ཀྱི་སྒྲ་ «term of continuation» q.v.

ཀོ་པགས་མཁན་ [ko pags mkhan] Altern. spelling of ཀོ་ལྤགས་མཁན་ q.v.

ཀོ་ལྤགས་ཀྱི་གཞི་ [ko lpags kyi gzhi] Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «carma vastu». One of the གཞི་བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen fundaments q.v. This fundament concerns leather items included the fourteen materials prescribed for clothing to be used by Buddhist monks.

ཀོ་ལྤགས་མཁན་ [ko lpags mkhan] Abbrev. of ཀོ་བ་དང་ལྤགས་པ་བཟོ་མཁན་ «leather and hide worker».

ཀོ་ཕུབ་ [ko phub] A «leather shield» or «hide shield». A round shield for warfare that consists primarily of a thick hide covering, strong enough to prevent shape weapons like arrows from piercing it.

ཀོ་བ་ [ko ba] 1) «Hide», «leather», «skin», etc. The general name for the skin of an animal both མཉེས་པ་ treated to make it into smooth «leather» and untreated i.e., left as a «skin» or «rawhide». 2) «Hide coracle». Used in certain districts as the name for a hide-covered boat used for crossing rivers.

ཀོ་མོག་ [ko mog] 1) [VCT] gives «ripple» on water. 2) [TC] «Well»; the hole dug into the ground for obtaining water.

ཀོ་ལོང་ [ko long] «Bother and upset». Annoyance all the way up to anger that comes because of being disturbed even by the smallest of things. The term does not mean «jealousy» per se. It primarily means a state of mind in which someone is easily disturbed and will not put up with the disturbance. It is often used to indicate gods and spirits who have been, usually un-necessarily, disturbed by something that is impinging on their territory. E.g., གྱ་ཚོམ་གྱི་སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་ཀོ་ལོང་མི་བྱེད་པར་ཕྲིན་ལས་གསོལ། «(after which) they (the local spirits) are requested to allow one's activities without becoming bothered and upset by the uncensored behaviour.»

ཀོ་ཤ་ལ་ [ko sha la] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kośhala». Translated into Tibetan with དགེ་བ་ཅན་ q.v.

ཀོ་ཥཾ་ [ko Sha] Translit. of the Sanskrit «koṣha». Translated into Tibetan with མཛོད་ q.v.

ཀཨུ་ཌི་ནྱ་ [kau Di n+ya] «Kaudinya» seen as a mis-spelling of ཀཽཎྜིནྱ་, the transliteration of the Skt. «kauṇḍinya». The name of one of the group of five of Śhākyamuni Buddha's first disciples; see ཀུན་ཤེས་ཀཽཎྜིནྱ་ q.v.

ཀཨུ་ཤམབྷི་ [kau shambhi] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kauśhambhi». Translated into Tibetan with མཛོད་ལྡན་ q.v. The name of a kingdom in central ancient India.

ཀཨུ་ཤི་ཀ་ [kau shi ka] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kauśhika». Translated into Tibetan with བརྒྱ་བྱིན་ q.v.

ཀོག་ [kog] A hard, outer «rind» or «peel». General name for any hard outer covering that has developed on something (as opposed to a ལྤགས་པ་ soft, outer covering). E.g., the rind of a cheese or the hard outer surface of butter prepared in Tibet. Note that some dictionaries mistake this for the related term སྐོགས་པ་ which is used to mean an outer casing like an envelope or pillow-case e.g., ཡིག་སྐོགས་ «envelope for a letter».

ཀོག་གིས་ [kog gis] [Old] Given in texts on old terminology as meaning མྱུར་དུ་ quickly or གློ་བུར་དུ་ suddenly, all of a sudden.

ཀོག་མན་ [kog man] [Chinese] meaning Chinese-style dried noodles. Tibetans distinguish several kinds of dried noodle. For them in earlier times, Chinese style meant noodles from China which were thin compared to Tibetan noodles and were usually made of wheat flour.

ཀོག་ཙེ་ [kog tse] Altern. spelling of ཀོག་རྩེ་ q.v.

ཀོག་རྩེ་ [kog rtse] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, རྒྱ་ or རྙི་རྙོང་. It is a general name for a trap or snare set to catch animals.

ཀོག་ཚེ་ [kog tshe] Altern. spelling of ཀོག་རྩེ་ q.v.

ཀོང་ཇོ་ [kong jo] [Chinese] «Kongjo» meaning either daughter of a nobleman or of a king. It was used as the name of one of the two main wives of སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ King Songtsen Gampo because she was the daughter of the emperor of China.

ཀོང་ནི་རུ་བ་ [kong ni ru ba] «Kongniruwa». Translit. of an Indian name. One of the lineage holders of the sub-tradition of the two lesser red ladies of the textual tradition of the Seven Devis system of the Vajravarahi. One of his disciples brought the system to Tibet. His guru was Trisaraha.

ཀོང་བུ་ [kong bu] A general name for anything with a small depression / cavity in it. 1) Commonly used to mean a མཆོད་ཀོང་ q.v. 2) The shallow container used for an oil lamp in ancient India, especially for making offerings. It is a piece of metal with a shallow depression which is filled with oil then has a wick dropped into the oil and draped over the edge of the container, then lit. 3) A cavity or depression in the ground or other place.

ཀོང་བཙུན་དེ་མོ་རྡོ་རྗེ་བོད་ཁམས་སྐྱོང་ [kong btsun de mo rdo rje bod khams skyong] «Kong tzun demo doje bod khams chong». One of བརྟན་མ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ the twelve Tenmas q.v.

ཀོལ་མ་ [kol ma] [LGK] says that this is a Tibetan word which is sometimes mistaken as an བརྡ་རྙིང་ old sign of Tibetan language and says, «The term ཀོལ་མ་ which exists in Tibetan as the name of a གཟན་དྲོན་ kneaded tsampa dough / food is also a corruption of ཀུལྨཱ་ཥཾ་ «kulmāṣha» and is the name given in texts on medical cures to a thick soup made by cooking the beans called མོན་སྲན་སྡེའུ་, སྲན་ཆུང་, and so on then adding the medicinal Asafoetida to bring out the flavour».

ཀོས་ཀོ་ [kos ko] Term found in Buddhist tantras. Same as ཨོལ་སྐོ་ q.v.

ཀོས་ཐག་ [kos thag] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཉམ་ཐག་ q.v.

ཀོས་སྨྱུང་ [kos smyung] A chin which comes down to a point, a chin which is not bulbous, etc., but finely drawn.

ཀྭ་ [kva] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> [Old] Acc. [LGK] and [ULS] this term was used in the བརྡ་རྙིང་ old signs prior to the first language revision; after the revision it was standardized to ཀྱེ་ during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions.

ཀྭ་ཡེ་ [kva ye] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> One of a group of several grammatical connectors used to show the eighth case, «term of calling» འབོད་པའི་སྒྲ་ q.v. for more.
This connector is used in cases where the party being called out to (or hailed, saluted, or addressed) is equal to or lower than the caller. It is like the English «Hi!», «Hey!», «Oy», Hoy», «Ho!», «Hello!» when addressing someone but not always needing to be translated. For example, in the case of calling out to someone on the street: ཀྭ་ཡེ། ག་པར་ཕེབས་ག། «Ho! Where are you going?» or in modern coll. «Say, where are you going?».
Note that terms of calling are meant to be a single written term standing in for all possible terms of the language used when actually hailing / calling / addressing someone. Thus this term here represents all of the many possibilities of language when addressing an equal or lower person. As such, it must be translated on context. See འབོད་པའི་སྒྲ་ for a full explanation.

ཀྱང་ [kyang] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> Defined in Tibetan grammar as one of three རྐྱེན་ circumstances of the functions called རྒྱན་སྡུད་ «ornament-inclusion». The three circumstances are ཀྱང་, འང་, and ཡང་. When these circumstances are put into actual use, they cease to be circumstances and are called རྒྱན་སྡུད་ཀྱི་སྒྲ་ «terms of ornament-inclusion». Note that a circumstance has no meaning until it is actually in use, then it becomes a phrase connector with meaning appropriate to the context.
Placement: The group are ཕྲད་གཞན་དབང་ཅན་ dependent connectors. When one of these connectors is required, the appropriate one must be chosen from the group. The appropriate one depends on the མིང་མཐའ་ ending letter of the preceding word. The rule of their affixation is given in [SGC]:
«After ག་ད་བ་ས་ themselves and
Forceful ད་ have been obtained, ཀྱང་;
At ང་ན་མ་ར་ལ་ endings, ཡང་;
At no ending and འ་ ending, འང་,
And when verse filler, ཡང་ is connected.»
Thus, if the preceding word ends in letter ག་, ད་, བ་, ས་ or ད་དྲག་ «forceful da» letters, this connector must be used. E.g., ལས་ཀྱང་.

Meaning: These connectors are all used for the two related functions རྒྱན་སྡུད་ «ornamentation-inclusion» q.v. for explanation.

ཀྱལ་ག་ [kyal ga] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཀུ་རེའི་ཚིག་ a word that indicates a mood of joking or jesting.

ཀྱི་ [kyi] I. <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> One of the group of five connectors ཀྱི་, གི་, གྱི་, འི་, and ཡི་ that have case function. These connectors are used to indicate the sixth Tibetan case called འབྲེལ་བ་ «connection». When any of them are in actual use as a connector that shows this case function, they are called འབྲེལ་བའི་སྒྲ་ «connective terms» q.v.
Placement: The connectors in this group are གཞན་དབང་ཅན་ dependent connectors and this particular one is placed following word endings of ད་ da, བ་ ba, ས་ sa, and ད་དྲག་ forceful da.
Meaning: The connective terms indicate both i) the general sense of one thing belonging to or being related with another and ii) the apposite sense. See under ཀྱིས་ for a quote from a Tibetan grammar text concerning this.
Note: When these connectors have the letter ས་ sa attached to them, they become phrase connectors with another meaning: e.g., see ཀྱིས་.
II. <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> One of the group of five connectors ཀྱི་, གི་, གྱི་, འི་, and ཡི་ that have non-case function. It is important to note that these connectors also have this non-case function. When this non-case usage is mistaken for a connective case usage, the meaning of the Tibetan can be seriously distorted.
Placement: The connectors in this group are གཞན་དབང་ཅན་ dependent connectors and this particular one is placed in the same way as described for the case function of the connector (above).
Meaning: In the non-case use, the connectors are placed after a verb at the end of a clause and prior to a statement whose meaning is contrary in some way to the meaning of the preceding clause. The connector indicate this contrariness between what was just said and what is about to be said. The contrariness can be: 1) outright disagreement—the preceding statement is «in fact not so» and that the succeeding statement «is in fact the case»; or 2) disagreement in the sense of «there is this, it is true, but despite that, there is this, which is the truth of the matter». A variety of English expressions serve to translate the various nuances of meaning that are expressed by this connector and it must be translated on context.
The first meaning is shown (using the equivalent གྱི་) in [ZGT] ཕྱོགས་མཚོན་པར་བྱེད་པ་ཡིན་གྱི། ཇི་ལྟ་བཞིན་མངོན་དུ་མི་བྱེད་ «(scripture and reasoning) demonstrate sides of that meaning; they do not manifest it as it is».
The second meaning is commonly show with the construction «phrase or clause ended by verb མོད་ཀྱི། །remaining text» where it means «despite the fact that the meaning of the phrase or clause first mentioned is true, this (mentioned in the remaining text) is actually the case». E.g., སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཁམས་ནི་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ཡོད་མོད་ཀྱི། དེ་ཡང་ཉོན་མོངས་པའི་རྣམ་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་སྒྲིབ་ཀྱི་འདག། «the buddha element does exist in all sentient beings nonetheless/ nevertheless / despite that it is, at the same time, being obscured by the superficies of the afflictions.» This is an excellent example because it contains the connector ཀྱི་ in all three of its possible meanings and also in its variant form ཀྱིས་ where it is the agentive case connector. In the first instance སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཁམས་ it is a case connector of apposite meaning: «which element? the buddha element». In the second instance ཡོད་མོད་ཀྱི། it is a non-case connector added to a clause with the meaning «does indeed exist, but despite that...». In the third instance སྒྲིབ་ཀྱི་འདུག། it has become the connector that joins two simple verbs into a compound and shows the present or future tense of the compound. Finally, the ཀྱིས་ shows the agent of a transitive action to its left (the superficies of the afflictions) which perform the verbal action shown to the right (the act of obscuring).
One way to differentiate this non-case usage from the case usage is that, in this non-case usage, the connector is only ever placed at the end of a ཚིག་དོན་ tshig don i.e., at the end of what would be a phrase or clause in English. As such, it always appears before a shad. Compare this with the connective case connectors which can be and are placed anywhere within a group of words and can also be placed before a shad, e.g., in verse).
Note: When these connectors with a non-case meaning have the letter ས་ sa attached to them, they become phrase connectors with the same non-case meaning: e.g., see ཀྱིས་.
III. <ཚིག་གྲོགས་ phrase assistive> One of a group of three assistives ཀྱི་གི་གྱི་ that are used to join the verbs in compound verb structures. This group of three shows present and future tenses of a compound verb e.g., བཤད་ཀྱི་ཡིན་ «I / we will tell / are telling about». (Past tense is shown by the use of the connector པ་ or བ་ e.g., བཤད་པ་ཡིན་ «I / we told / did tell about».)

ཀྱི་འུད་ [kyi 'ud] Another way of writing ཀྱི་ཧུད་ q.v.

ཀྱི་ལི་ལི་ [kyi li li] «Spinning», «whirling», «swirling (around and around)». An onomatopoeic word for a style of something being spun / whirled something around and around without stop.

ཀྱི་ཧུད་ [kyi hud] An exclamatory term which is produced because of suffering or unsatisfactoriness. The term is similar to ཀྱེ་མ་ but stronger and usually about oneself; it is an exclamation of sorrow personally being experienced.
The one term covers many different expressions, e.g., in English it could be «Oh no!» or «Oh my!» or «Arrrgggh», etc., or in literary English, «alas» or «woe is me» or «what misery!» In Yiddish it is «Oy veh!»

ཀྱི་ཧུད་འདོན་པ་ [kyi hud 'don pa] «Wailing Oh!» Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «apapaḥ». The name of the fourth of the གྲང་བའི་དམྱལ་བ་བརྒྱད་ eight cold hells. The name is literally «(The hell where beings) wail Oh! Oh!». The beings in this hell wail out loud in continual lamentation at the sheer cold of this hell, crying out «Oh! Oh no!» hence the name. Note that, as with the name of the fourth cold hell, ཨ་ཆུ་ཟེར་བ་ this is an onomatopoeic name and should be translated as such.

ཀྱི་ཧུད་ཟེར་བ་ [kyi hud zer ba] 1) Sometimes given as altern. spelling of ཀྱི་ཧུད་འདོན་པ་ q.v. 2) Otherwise with the meaning of exclaiming or crying out ཀྱི་ཧུད་ «Oh no», etc. q.v.

ཀྱིན་ [kyin] <ཚིག་གྲོགས་ phrase assistive> One of a group of three ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connectors; the other two connectors are གིན་ and གྱིན་.
Placement: all three are གཞན་དབང་ཅན་ dependent connectors which are placed according to the rules of the ཨི་ལྡན་མཐུན་པའི་སྒྲ་ «terms having the vowel i which are in harmony» i.e., the connectors ཀྱི་, གི་, and གྱི་. This connector is placed following the rules for placement of ཀྱི་ q.v.
Meaning: all three have the same meaning as བཞིན་ i.e., are used to show the present, continuous tense of a verb. They are placed immediately after the verb whose tense is being shown and immediately before a secondary verb which, in conjunction with the connector, shows the actual tense. E.g., བྱེད་ཀྱིན་འདུག། «is doing». Where བྱེད་ is the verb being given the present, continuous tense; ཀྱིན་ is functioning as a connector; and འདུག་ is a secondary verb which, together with the connector, shows the tense and possibly gives further information as well.

ཀྱིས་ [kyis] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> One of the group of five connectors ཀྱིས་, གིས་, གྱིས་, འིས་, and ཡིས་ used to indicate the བྱེད་པའི་སྒྲ་ agentive case of Tibetan grammar q.v.
Placement: This group of connectors is created from the group of connectors ཀྱི་, གི་, གྱི་, འི་, and ཡི་ (the group used to show the འབྲེལ་བའི་སྒྲ་ connective case of Tibetan grammar) by the addition of a ས་ letter. The placement of this group of connectors is the same as for that group so the placement of ཀྱིས་ is done according to the rules for the placement of ཀྱི་ q.v.
Meaning: The connector shows the agent of a transitive verb. The connector is always placed to the immediate right of the word signifying the agent. The verb for the action is always to the right of the connector. It can be immediately to the right of the connector or far removed from it.

ཀྱུ་རུ་རུ་ [kyu ru ru] An onomatopoeic word for the sound made by birds, insects, etc., as they go move about or as they make their own particular cries. There are many words «the buzzing» of bees, «twittering» of birds, «buzz» of the flies / mosquitoes / insects etc. It can be applied to many situations and must be translated on context

ཀྱེ་ [kye] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> One of a group of several grammatical connectors used to show the eighth case, «term of calling» འབོད་པའི་སྒྲ་ q.v. for more.
Note that term is a contraction of ཀྭ་ཡེ་ with exactly the same meaning. See also the [Old] form of the term ཀྭ་ q.v.
This connector is used in cases where the party being called out to (or hailed, saluted, or addressed) is higher than caller. It is like the English «Oh» when addressing a higher person, but not always needing to be translated. E.g., ཀྱེ་རྒྱལ་པོ། «Oh, King!» which is equivalent to «Your Majesty!» or «Pray thee, sire»; ཀྱེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆེན་པོ་ «Oh great King!», «Oh Majesty!»; ཀྱེ་རྒྱལ་བའི་སྲས་དག་ «Oh princes!». In this particular case (and not in the others following) the term is often repeated as a matter of respect e.g., ཀྱེ་ཀྱེ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ is often seen. In that case, the extra usage simply implies more respect and does not translate directly into English. It is equivalent to a more long-winded salutation, e.g., «Oh my lord...».
Note that terms of calling are meant to be a single written term standing in for all possible terms of the language used when actually hailing / calling / addressing someone. Thus this term here represents all of the many possibilities of language when addressing a higher person. As such, it must be translated on context. See འབོད་པའི་སྒྲ་ for a full explanation.

ཀྱེ་ཀྱེ་ [kye kye] <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> The term ཀྱེ་ repeated twice, usually as a sign of increased respect when hailing or saluting someone higher than oneself.

ཀྱེ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [kye rdo rje] Abbrev. of the name of the tantric deity Hevajra, དགྱེས་པ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ q.v.

ཀྱཻ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [kyai rdo rje] Altern. spelling of ཀྱེ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ q.v.

ཀྱེ་རྡོར་ [kye rdor] Abbrev. of ཀྱེ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ q.v.

ཀྱཻ་རྡོར་ [kyai rdor] Altern. spelling of ཀྱེ་རྡོར་ q.v.

ཀྱེ་མ་ [kye ma] An exclamatory term that can have slightly different meanings depending on the situation. It can be an exclamation of surprise and sadness such as in «Oh dear!» or «Oh my!» It can also be an exclamation of distressed compassion as in «Oh my! The dharmas of saṃsāra are deep» which was said once upon a great yogi's seeing the actual state of sentient beings and the world that they have created for themselves. The term does not have the sense of «Oh vey» that some translators have given it! It carries the sense of urgency and clear-seeing of a situation that is not desirable. It can also have the sense, on top of that, in the context of a song being sung to others of «Oh my! Listen to this». The term ཀྱེ་ཧུད་ is cognate but is more of a cry of distress as in «Alas!»

ཀྱེ་མ་ཀྱེ་ཧུད་ [kye ma kye hud] «Oh my! This is terrible» or «Oh my, how horrible!» An exclamation of sadness or deep distress at seeing something very bad using the two connectors ཀྱེ་མ་ and ཀྱེ་ཧུད་ back to back.

ཀྱེ་མ་མ་ལ་ [kye ma ma la] «O how incredible!»

ཀྱེ་ཧུད་ [kye hud] Mis-spelling of ཀྱི་ཧུད་ q.v.

ཀྱེ་ཧུད་ཟེར་བ་ [kye hud zer ba] Mis-spelling of ཀྱི་ཧུད་ཟེར་བ་ q.v.

ཀྱེ་ཧོ་ [kye ho] An exclamation used at the beginning of an address. It builds energy and sets the stage for what comes. It doesn't have a particular equivalent in modern English. It has the sense of «Well, now, look at this!!» and is like the now out of date English used at the beginning of an address given to someone else «Behold!»
In Tibetan Buddhism it is often found at the beginning of an oral teaching, whether given to others or whether just stated to the winds, for example when a yogi would spontaneously compose a song of teaching. It is also commonly seen in translations of Indian texts of teachings by Indian siddhas. E.g., [GMM] །ཀྱེ་ཧོ་འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་ལ་ལེགས་ལྟོས་དང་། །རྟག་མི་ཐུབ་སྟེ་རྨི་ལམ་སྒྱུ་མ་འདྲ།

«Kye Ho! Look well at the dharmas of the world
Which cannot last, like dreams and illusions...»

ཀྱེད་ [kyed] 1) «Bends». A grammatical term. Used to refer specifically to the third and fourth vowel signs of the Tibetan language, the འགྲེང་བུ་ drengbu and ན་རོ་ naro which have a bent and curved appearance. See also གུག་ «hooks» and གུག་ཀྱེད་ «hooks and bends». 2) «Swash» a curving stroke of a line.

ཀྱེན་རྒྱུ་ [kyen rgyu] Mis-spelling of གྱེན་རྒྱུ་ q.v.

ཀྱེའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [kye'i rdo rje] Same as ཀྱེ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ q.v.

ཀྱེའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ལྷ་དགུ་ [kye'i rdo rje lha dgu] phrase> «The nine emanation devīs of Hevajra». The nine devīs in the retinue of ཀྱེ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ Hevajra q.v.

ཀྱཻ་ [kyai] 1) Abbrev. of ཀྱེ་ཀྱེ་ q.v. 2) Used in ཀྱཻ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ q.v.

ཀྱོག་ཀྱོག་ [kyog kyog] «Crooked / bent». Like ཀྱོག་པོ་ q.v. The term can mean something that is crooked because it is bent in one place but conveys more the sense that it is crooked because it twists around, bends back and forth. E.g., ལམ་ཀྱོག་ཀྱོག། «a crooked road / a winding road / a road that twists and turns». E.g., སྐད་ཆ་ཀྱོག་ཀྱོག་ «crooked talk» talk that is not straightforward but is distorting the truth for whatever reason.

ཀྱོག་པ་ [kyog pa] Like ཀྱོག་པོ་ q.v.

ཀྱོག་པོ་ [kyog po] «Crooked», «bent». Same as འཁྱོག་པོ་ q.v.

ཀྱོག་བཤད་ [kyog bshad] «Crooked talk», «dishonest talk».

ཀྲི་ཀྲི་ [kri kri] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kri kri». The name of the father of འོད་སྲུང་ Buddha Kāśhyapa, the Buddha prior to Śhākyamuni Buddha q.v.

ཀྲི་ཏ་མུ་ཁ་ [kri ta mu kha] Mis-translation of གྲྀདྷྲ་མུ་ཁ་ q.v.

ཀྲི་སྣ་སཱ་རི་ [kri sna sA ri] Mis-spelling of ཀྲིཥཾྞ་སཱ་ར་ q.v.

ཀྲི་ཡ་ [kri ya] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kriya». Translated into Tibetan with བྱ་བ་ q.v. 1) Often used in Tibetan Buddhist texts as an abbrev. of བྱ་བའི་རྒྱུད་ «kriyatantra» q.v.

ཀྲི་ཡ་ཏནཏྲ་ [kri ya tantra] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kriyatantra». Translated into Tibetan with བྱ་བའི་རྒྱུད་ q.v.

ཀྲི་ཡོག་ [kri yog] 1) Abbrev. of ཀྲི་ཡ་ཏནྟྲ་ and ཡོ་ག་ཏནྟྲ་ meaning Kriyatantra and Yogatantra, the first and third sections of tantra in both the old and new tantras. 2) Abbrev. meaning «Kriya to Yoga» meaning the three tantras that constitute the lower section of tantra in both old and new tantras, e.g. in ཀྲི་ཡོག་སྡེ་གསུམ་ q.v.

ཀྲི་ཡོག་སྡེ་གསུམ་ [kri yog sde gsum] Lit. «the three sections, Kriya-Yoga» but meaning «the three sections from Kriya to Yoga» i.e., the three tantra sections that comprise the lower section of tantra in both old and new schools. The three tantra sections are Kriya, Carya, and Yoga tantras in the new tantras and Kriya, Upa, and Yoga tantras in the old tantras.

ཀྲིཥྞ་ [kriSh+Na] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kriṣhṇa». Translated into Tibetan with ནག་པོ་ q.v.

ཀྲིཥྞའི་པགས་གདན་ [kriSh+Na'i pags gdan] phrase> «A seat of a Kriṣhṇasāra skin». The skin of the ཀྲིཥཾྞ་སཱ་ར་ Kriṣhṇasāra deer is sometimes used as a seat for a practitioner as a representation of the fundamentally gentle and kind quality that a practitioner of Buddhadharma will embody.

ཀྲིཥྞ་སཱ་ར་ [kriSh+Na sA ra] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kriṣhṇasāra». The name of an antelope, «the Kriṣhṇasāra antelope» which, due to its extremely gentle manner, became the emblem denoting the Buddha's teaching. It is often seen as a logo on monasteries, etc., where there will be a male and female, one on either side of an 8-spoked Dharmachakra. Commonly corrupted to ཁྲི་གཉན་, ཁྲི་སྙན་, and རི་དྭགས་གཉན་ and རི་དྭགས་སྙན་.

ཀྲུ་ཀྲུ་ཏྲེས་ [kru kru tres] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཙི་ཏྲ་ཀ་, which is the Sanskrit name of a medicinal wood.

ཀྲུམ་ [krum] [Hon] for ཤ་ meaning «meat» for food q.v.

ཀྲུཾ་ཀྲུཾ་ [kruM kruM] Onomatopoetic term used to convey the sense of crunching on meat and bones. E.g., [KCD] དགྲ་བགེགས་ཤ་ཁྲག་རུས་པ་ཀྲུཾ་ཀྲུཾ་རོལ༔ «(an very wrathful deity) crunching enemies and obstructors flesh blood and bones».

ཀྲོག་ཀྲོག་ [krog krog] 1) «Knock, knock», «dink, dink», and other related onomatopœtic sounds. Used for any regular «knocking» sound. E.g., the sound of a ḍamaru beating rhythmically, the sound of someone knocking on a door, etc. 2) «Flashy, gaudy» onomatopœtic for something that pings on your attention. 3) «Show off» the style of a person who is showing off. Glossed in some dictionaries as «arrogant demeanour» etc., but the meaning is as given.

ཀླ་ཀློ་ [kla klo] «Barbarian». The term is used in two, specific ways. 1) It is used in the Buddhist sense of someone who is not born in the central land where the buddha's teaching exists but is ཡུལ་མཐའ་འཁོབ་ཏུ་སྐྱེས་པ་ born in a fringe area. The implication is that the fringe area does not have the buddha's teachings and hence a person from there has no real knowledge of how to conduct themselves. 2) It is used in the sense of someone who is not from a central area of civilization but from a fringe region which has none of the ethics of a civilized country. People from such countries do not know how to conduct themselves in a proper manner.
The term comes from ancient India where there were border areas containing people with truly barbaric ways. Even till the late twentieth century there were tribes in the far parts of Assam (north-west India) where people practised cannibalism.
The original Indian term [MVP] «mleccha» was used as a term for anyone from a far off or neighbouring land who was not civilized according to Indian thought. For the Indians, this included the barbaric tribes / savages / primitives mentioned above. It also was used as a term for «foreigners» in the pejorative sense. It was also used as a term specifically for Muslims who were seen as a barbaric culture by Hindus and Buddhists alike.

ཀླག་ཅོར་ [klag cor] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཅ་ཅོ་ q.v. Note that [TC] gives as སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་ or ཀུ་ཅོ་ q.v.

ཀླད་ [klad] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, གོང་ or སྟེང་ q.v. I.e., that which is «above», «on top of», «overhead». Also «previously», «earlier», «before», «overhead», «up above», «beginning». [TC] gives the example ཀླད་དུ་གསལ་པོ་བཤད་ཟིན། «... was clearly explained previously».
The word is combined with many other words to give various meanings that include those connotations, e.g., ཀླད་ཀྱི་དོན་ is the introduction or prefatory material in a book or talk, etc., and in medicine ཀླད་ is used in various ways to indicate the brain and associated parts of the body—ཀླད་པ་ «brain».

ཀླད་ཀོར་ [klad kor] I. «Nought», «zero». The numeral «nought» called «zero» in American English.
II. «Anusvāra». The correct Tibetan name for the device used when writing Sanskrit called «anusvāra». The anusvāra in Devanāgari is a small dot placed above letters to indicate the vowel «ṃ». The dot is reproduced in Tibetan with a small circle placed above letters e.g., བཾ་ is the consonant «ba» with the vowel «ṃ» added to give the sound «bam».
The anusvāra is also used when conjunction of words according to the rules of samdhi gives rise to an «am» sound. However, in these cases the «am» changes sound in accordance with the syllable to which it is applied as follows: when the five Sanskrit syllables from ཀ་ through ང་ receive it, the sound is ང་ «nga»; when the five from ཙ་ through ཉ་ receive it, the sound is ཉ་ «nya»; when the five from ཊ་ through ཎ་ receive it, the sound is ཎ་ «ṇ»; when the five from ཏ་ through ན་ receive it, the sound is ན་ «na»; when the five from པ་ through མ་ receive it, the sound is མ་ «ma», and when the nine from ཡ་ through ཀྵ་ receive it, the sound is ང་ «nga»; when ཧཱུ་ receives it, the sound is ང་ «nga»; when ཨ་ receives it, the sound is ང་ «nga»; when ཨོ་ receives it, the sound is མ་; and the various other combinations receive a sound in accordance with the rules of Sanskrit grammar.
This for example, explains why Sanskrit words containing these constructions can be written several ways in English. E.g., saṃgha can also be written as saṅgha because the «ma» sound in that cases sounds like a «nga», etc.
Correctly used, the sign represents the second final Sanskrit vowel «m» as just shown. However, Tibetan scribes have developed a habit of using it as a convenient shorthand to represent their standard consonant མ་ when in the suffix position e.g., the word བམ་ might be condensed to བཾ་. In these cases it does not represent the Sanskrit vowel ṃ but represents the Tibetan consonant མ་; which it is can only be known from context.
The circle whether used for the true anusvāra or for the Tibetan shorthand for letter མ་ is also called ཏིག་ཀོར་ and ང་རོ་ and ང་རོ་དཀྱུས་མ་ and ཐིག་ལེ་ q.v. The name ཐིག་ལེ་ is commonly used because it translates the Sanskrit «bindu», which is a looser way of referring to this written mark in Sanskrit.

ཀླད་ཀྱི་དོན་ [klad kyi don] phrase> 1) According to the classic rules of writing in Sanskrit, the initial part of a śhāstra (treatise) which is the prefatory material and not the གཞུང་དོན་, the actual body of the text. The term this distinguishes this prefatory section and its associated divisions. This system was freq. faithfully emulated in Tibetan classical writings and the name retained. 2) In general «introduction», «forward», «prefatory material».

ཀླད་སྐོར་ [klad skor] Probable mis-spelling of ཀླད་ཀོར་ q.v.

ཀླད་རྒྱ་ [klad rgya] «The meninges», i.e., the cerebral / cranial membrane which is the membrane covering the brain.

ཀླད་དོན་ [klad don] Abbrev. of ཀླད་ཀྱི་དོན་ q.v.

ཀླད་ནད་ [klad nad] «Headache». In the [BCA] སེམས་ཅན་རྣམས་ཀྱི་ཀླད་ནད་ཙམ། བསལ་ལོ་སྙམ་དུ་བསམས་ན་ཡང་། «thinking, «I shall merely relieve the headaches of a few beings». Note that this term does not mean «brain disease» or the like.

ཀླད་ནས་ [klad nas] The translation will depend on context but will have the general sense of «from the first, from the beginning, from the earlier ...»

ཀླད་པ་ [klad pa] 1) «The brain» organ of a body. 2) «the consciousness» or «thought process».

ཀླད་པ་ཡེ་མི་འདུག་ [klad pa ye mi 'dug] [NTC] «No brains at all» in the sense of being very gullible.

ཀླད་གཟེར་ [klad gzer] A particular and fatal disease of the brain which is one of the གཉན་རིགས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ eighteen classes of Nyen disease q.v.

ཀླན་ཀ་ [klan ka] «Grounds for dispute» or a specific argument that has been presented. This is a term shows that some argument has been presented or that something is wrong with an something that has been presented with the result that there is no grounds for dispute or argument. The term is usually joined with any of several verbs to show what is done because of the grounds of dispute; whether it is blame, censure, criticism, argument, fight, controversy, etc. In debate, it indicates that there is a point for dispute. The translation has to be made in context. E.g., from [ZGT] གཏམ་དེ་ཐ་དད་པའི་ཕྱོགས་ནས་ཀླན་ཀ་ཇི་ཙམ་བརྗོད་ཀྱང་བརྗོད་པ་པོ་རང་ཉིད་དལ་བ་ཙམ་མ་གཏོགས། «through taking the position that the items are different per that statement, no matter how much this point of dispute is expressed, such talk can only tires out the talker himself...».

ཀླན་ཀ་འཚོལ་བ་ [klan ka 'tshol ba] phrase> v.t. see འཚོལ་བ་ for tense forms. «To seek to argue the point because something is not right». To seek to re-dress something which has become the basis for dispute. Hence, «to go to argue», «to go to dispute the matter». E.g., རང་ཁག་གཞན་ལ་གཡོགས་ནས་ཀླན་ཀ་འཚོལ་བ། «to go to argue for my own goods which had fallen into another's hands».

ཀླབ་པ་ [klab pa] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ལ་བ་ q.v. [TC] gives as ལྭ་བ་ wool or སྣམ་བུ་མཐུག་པོ་ thick, woven cloth q.v.

ཀླས་ [klas] 1) [Old] the place where the various wives, consorts, and so on of a king live. E.g., [TC] ཕོ་བྲང་ཀླས། «the palace harem». 2) Abbrev. of ཀླས་པ་ q.v.

ཀླས་པ་ [klas pa] Like ཡས་པ་; a term that is attached to the end of other words to add the meaning either «without limit» or «extremely vast». E.g., མཐའ་ཡས་པ་ and མཐའ་ཀླས་པ་ have the same meaning exactly of «infinite». It is often seen in the term འབྱམས་ཀླས་པ་ which has the sense of utterly vast, boundless; e.g., ཡོན་ཏན་འབྱམས་ཀླས་པ་ «boundless good qualities».

ཀླུ་ [klu] «Nāga». Translation of the Sanskrit «nāga».
I. Nāgas are a particular type of animal who live in the human realm but are usually not visible to humans. They live in close association with bodies of water such as streams, lakes, and oceans; living in, around, and under the water. They look like snakes, usually with a large hood and are fond of wealth / jewels which they hoard if they can.
Generally they are not harmful to humans, however if their habitat is disturbed they can cause harm. The harm usually comes in the form of groups of large, blistery sores or rashes on the body that cannot be cured by conventional medicine; the cure usually can only be effected by petitioning the offended nāgas with liturgies of which there are many in the Buddhist system. In Tibetan, this kind of attack is called ཀླུས་སོ་རྒྱབ་པ་ «being bitten by a nāga». Because they can be troublesome to humans, nāgas as a whole are taken as one of the སྡེ་བརྒྱད་ eight classes.
Many nāgas are mentioned by name in the Buddha's teachings and several had dialogues with the Buddha which were recorded as sūtras.
There are rulers amongst the nāgas, like there are rulers amongst humans. They are called nāgarāja in Sanskrit and this is translated into Tibetan with ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་, meaning nāga king. However, the original term rāja in Sanskrit has more the meaning of a local ruler and lesser king and the term nāgaraja and its translation ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་ should be understood in the same way.
Among the various nāga kings of the Buddha's time, there were eight particularly great ones who were called ཀླུ་ཆེན་ great nāgas or ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་ཆེན་ great nāga kings. They and their nāga servants were / are generally protectors of the Buddha's teaching. For example, one nāga king protected the Buddha during the māra attacks prior to his final attainment of buddhahood. Also, the nāga kings took the prajñāpāramitā sūtras of the Buddha's time and hid them under the ocean for safety. It was not until later, when ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ Nāgārjuna went there and removed them, that they were brought back to the human realm.
II. 1) «Nāga». One of བྱེད་པ་བཅུ་གཅིག་ eleven calculators of astrology. 2) [Mngon] «Eight-fold». Because there are eight great nāgas, the term indicates the count of eight.

ཀླུ་སྐད་ [klu skad] Abbrev. of ཀླུའི་སྐད་ q.v.

ཀླུ་ཁང་ [klu khang] «Naga temple». 1) A general name for small temples built to appease local nāgas. These are usually like a miniature house, a few feet high, on a pedestal. 2) Specifically, the name of the nāga temple built behind the Potala in Lhasa. It was built by the 6th Dalai Lama.

ཀླུ་གྲུབ་ [klu grub] Mis-spelling of ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ q.v.

ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་ [klu rgyal] Abbrev. of ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ q.v.

ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་དགའ་བོ་ [klu rgyal dga' bo] phrase> «King of the Nāgas, Nanda». Translation of the Sanskrit «nando nāgarāja». (Some dictionaries such as [RYD] have copied a spelling error in from their source, an Indian printing of the Mahāvyutpatti; they give the headword as ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་དགའ་བ་ and give the Sanskrit as «nāgarājananda». However that is mistaken; the correct Sanskrit and Tibetan are shown here». 1) In general, Nanda is one of the many Nāga Kings mentioned in Buddhist scripture. 2) In particular, see under ཀླུ་ཡི་དབང་པོ་དགའ་བོ་ q.v.

ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་རྒྱ་མཚོས་ཞུས་པ་ [klu rgyal rgya mtshos zhus pa] See ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྒྱ་མཚོས་ཞུས་པའི་མདོ་.

ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་བརྒྱད་ [klu rgyal brgyad] «The Eight Nāga Kings». Same meaning as ཀླུ་ཆེན་བརྒྱད་ «the eight great nāgas». See ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱད་.

ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་མ་དྲོས་པས་ཞུས་པ་ [klu rgyal ma dros pas zhus pa] See ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མ་དྲོས་པས་ཞུས་པའི་མདོ་.

ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ [klu sgrub] «Nāgārjuna». A great master of the Buddhist tradition regarded as one of the འཛམ་གླིང་མཛེས་པའི་རྒྱན་དྲུག་ «Six Ornaments Beautifying Jambuling». He was born of a Brahmin family in the region called Vedarva in South India approximately 400 years after the Buddha's parinirvāṇa. He studied all of the sūtras and tantras from an early age, becoming very expert in them. He took ordination from ས་ར་ཧ་ Saraha at Nālandā Monastic University. He published many treatises on the intent of the Buddha both sūtra and tantra as well as many, many books on subjects of medicine and alchemy.
Nāgārjuna's dharma works are usually put into groups called «collections». They are commonly listed as three but there is also a listing as four. The three collections are: གཏམ་ཚོགས་ «collected stories»; རིགས་ཚོགས་ «collected reasonings»; བསྟོད་ཚོགས་ «collected praises». And the fourth collection is the དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་ཚོགས་ «suchness» collection. It is an important point that first three collections correspond to the first three turnings of the wheel of Dharma in sequence and the fourth corresponds to the fourth turning of the wheel of dharma, known as the tantras.
Although Nāgārjuna was a great tantric master, he is particularly famous as one of the two greatest codifiers of the Buddha's Mahāyāna teaching, the other being ཐོགས་མེད་ Asaṅga. Accordingly, he is called one of the ཤིང་རྟའི་སྲོལ་འབྱེད་གཉིས་ «the two who set great traditions in motion». He is also called མགོན་པོ་ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ «Guardian Nāgārjuna» for the same reason. Of the two, he is the one who set in place the system of the ཟབ་མོ་ལྟ་བའི་སྲོལ་ profound view of Mahāyāna, the understanding of emptiness through reasoning and who set in motion the tradition of the Buddha's understanding according to the Mañjuśhrī (intellect) style of the teaching. In doing so, he became the founder of the Madhyamaka philosophy system of Buddhism.
He and his work were prophesied by the Buddha in one of the Agamas:
In the south, in the country of Veta
A bhikṣhu renowned as very glorious,
Called by the name «Nāga»
Destroyer of the sides of existence and non-existence...
He was regarded as having attained the first bodhisatva bhūmi.

ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ཀྱི་ཐུགས་སྲས་བདུན་ [klu sgrub kyi thugs sras bdun] «The seven heart-sons of Nāgārjuna». They are: 1) ཤཱཀྱ་མི་ཏྲ་ Śhākyamitra; 2) ནཱ་ག་བོ་དྷི་ Nāgabodhi; 3) འཕགས་པ་ལྷ་ Āryadeva; 4) མ་ཏང་ག་ Matanga; 5) སངས་རྒྱས་བསྐྱངས་ Buddhapalita; 6) ལེགས་ལྡན་འབྱེད་ Bhāvaviveka; and 7) སློབ་དཔོན་དཔའ་བོ་ Aśhvagoṣha.

ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ཡབ་སྲས་ [klu sgrub yab sras] Lit. «Nāgārjuna, fathers and sons» but meaning «Nāgārjuna and the successive holders of his lineage and their students».

ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ཡབ་སྲས་ཀྱི་གཞུང་ [klu sgrub yab sras kyi gzhung] Lit. «the textual tradition of Nāgārjuna, fathers and sons» but meaning the texts and the way that the texts present the particular system belonging to Nāgārjuna and the successive holders of his lineage and their students.

ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ལུགས་ [klu sgrub lugs] «The system of Nāgārjuna» i.e., the teachings of the Buddha according to the way that Nāgārjuna systemized and presented them.

ཀླུ་ཆེན་ [klu chen] «Great nāga». Same meaning as ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་ q.v.

ཀླུ་ཆེན་བརྒྱད་ [klu chen brgyad] «The Eight Great Nāgas». Equivalent to ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱད་ q.v.

ཀླུ་གཉན་ [klu gnyan] 1) Meaning a nāga who is either powerful or harmful. 2) «Nagas and spirits». A term used to mean ཀླུ་ and གཉན་ as the two types of ས་བདག་ local lords.

ཀླུ་གཏོར་ [klu gtor] «Nāga torma». The general name for a torma that will be offered to a nāga or the nāgas in general for appeasement purposes.

ཀླུ་ཐོགས་སྒྲུབ་ [klu thogs sgrub] Abbrev. of ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ and ཐོགས་མེད་ «Nāgārjuna and Asaṅga».

ཀླུ་དུག་ [klu dug] «Nāga poisoning». The general name given to the human disease that occurs when nāgas inflict themselves on humans.

ཀླུ་བདུད་ [klu bdud] Translation of the Sanskrit «nāgamāra». 1) A term indicating particularly malicious ཀླུ་ nāgas who causes a class of serious diseases called མཛེ་ནད་. 2) The name of a medicinal plant which is considered to be useful in treating the kinds of diseases caused by nāgas, planetary influences. These diseases are always typified by blistering and / or swelling on the skin.

ཀླུ་ནད་ [klu nad] «Nāga disease». The name given in general to diseases believed to be caused by ཀླུ་ nāgas. It includes leprosy. It also includes other kinds of illness appearing on humans as skin diseases like rashes, boils, and other sores which are said to be caused by «being bitten by a nāga» and which do not respond to Western medical treatments.

ཀླུ་བདུད་ནཱ་ག་རཱ་ཛ་ [klu bdud nA ga rA dza] «Nāgamāra Nāgarāja». The name of the leader of one of the གསང་བའི་སྡེ་བརྒྱད་ secret eight classes q.v.

ཀླུ་དཔལ་ [klu dpal] «Nāgaśhrī». Translation of the Sanskrit «nāgaśhrī». The name of an important householder bodhisatva follower of the Buddha.

ཀླུ་ཕལ་པ་ [klu phal pa] «Common nāga»; not a ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ nāga king but an ordinary ཀླུ་ nāga.

ཀླུ་དབང་ [klu dbang] Abbrev. of ཀླུའི་དབང་པོ་ q.v.

ཀླུ་མོ་ [klu mo] Female form of ཀླུ་ nāga q.v. Transl. of the Sanskrit «nāginī».

ཀླུ་སྨན་ [klu sman] 1) «Nāga medicine» meaning medicine effect against disease caused by nāgas. 2) «Nāga substances» meaning the medicinal herbs to be mixed in a nāga torma; see ཀླུ་གཏོར་ «nāga torma».

ཀླུ་ཡི་དབང་པོ་དགའ་བོ་ [klu yi dbang po dga' bo] phrase> «Chief of the Nāgas, Nanda». An epithet of the nāga called དགའ་བོ་ Nanda q.v. This phrase is used in Nyingma literature when he is being regarded as the leader of the Nāgas and as such has been included in the ཕྱི་ཡི་སྡེ་བརྒྱད་ eight outer classes q.v.

ཀླུ་རིགས་བཞི་ [klu rigs bzhi] «The four castes of nāgas». [DGT] gives as: 1) རྒྱལ་རིགས་ «Warrior caste»; 2) རྗེ་རིགས་ «Lordly caste»; 3) བྲམ་ཟེའི་རིགས་ «Brahmin caste»; 4) གདོལ་པའི་རིགས་ «Menial caste». The last given is actually a sub-set of the general fourth caste, the དམངས་རིགས་ «common caste». See also མི་རིགས་བཞི་ four castes of men.

ཀླུང་ [klung] Meaning a tract of land of some kind. By putting it together with other words, various kinds of tract are indicated, e.g., རི་ཀླུང་ meaning mountains and basins; ནགས་ཀླུང་ forest tracts; ཆུ་ཀླུང་ either a river or a river basin.
Sometimes it is short for ཆུ་ཀླུང་ meaning «river». Sometimes it just refers to a cultivated area of land. In relation to mountains, it often meant a large basin in Tibet. In other cases it can have the sense of «on the plains» as opposed to being in the mountains.

ཀླུང་བཞི་ [klung bzhi] «The four rivers» a metaphor in the Buddha's teachings for the four great sufferings of humans: 1) སྐྱེ་ birth; 2) རྒ་ old age; 3) ན་ sickness; 4) འཆི་ death. These are also called the ཆུ་བོ་བཞི་ «four rivers» q.v.

ཀླུང་ཤོད་ [klung shod] «Lung shod». The name given to the lower areas of the ཁ་ལུང་ Khalung plains.

ཀླུངས་ [klungs] 1) Meaning ཡར་མོ་ཀླུངས་ Yarmo Lung, the name of a place in central Tibet where lands were cultivated. 2) Sometimes meaning རི་ཀླུང་ and sometimes just meaning ཀླུང་

ཀླུབ་པ་ [klub pa] v.t. བཀླུབས་པ་/ ཀླུབ་པ་/ བཀླུབ་པ་/ ཀླུབས་/. Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and means ཕུབ་པ་ or གྱོན་པ་ q.v. with meanings given as follows. 1) Meaning roughly «to wear clothing» it is similar to གྱོན་པ་. In some cases, ཀླུབ་པ་ is simply the old version of གྱོན་པ་ and means the same. However, there can be a difference in meaning; in that case གྱོན་པ་ is the most generic way of saying «to wear clothes» —it has the sense of putting something on something and hence wearing it—whereas ཀླུབ་པ་ has the meaning that one is covering oneself / draping oneself with something and hence wearing it. Thus ཀླུབ་པ་ is used less commonly and usually in the sense either of «covering oneself with something» or «dressing up in something»; hence «to cover up with» or «to dress», «to don», «to garb», «to put on (fine clothes)». E.g., [LOM] སྟག་ཤམ་བཀླུབས། «(the deity) was garbed in tiger skirt». E.g., [TC] གྱོན་ཆས་ཀླུབ་པ། «to dress / put on clothes»; ལུས་ལ་གོས་ཀླུབས་ཤིག «dress yourself!» or «put some clothes on!»; སྐུ་ལ་ན་བཟའ་བཀླུབས། «[Hon] dressed his body». 2) «To cover or drape something over something else in order to dress it up, ornament it, or decorate it». Hence «to cover with», «to drape with», «to dress up with», etc. E.g., ནོར་བུའི་ཁྲི་འཕང་དར་ཟབ་རྒྱན་གྱིས་ཀླུབས་ «the high, jewelled throne was adorned with the finest brocade and ornaments». E.g., [TC] གཟབ་མཆོར་གྱིས་བཀླུབས་པ། «to drape / cover with fine cloth».

ཀླུབས་ [klubs] Imp. of v.t. ཀླུབ་པ་ q.v.

ཀླུབས་པ་ [klubs pa] Acc. [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཕུབ་པ་ q.v. Note that he is giving this as the past tense of ཀླུབ་པ་ though that would generally be regarded as mistaken.

ཀླུའི་སྐད་ [klu'i skad] «Language of the Nāgas». Translation of the Sanskrit «nāgari». The name of an ancient Indian language which is regarded as the «language of the Nāgas».

ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ [klu'i rgyal po] «Nāga King(s)». Translation of the Sanskrit «nāgarājā». Freq. abbrev. to ཀླུ་རྒྱལ་ and synonymous with ཀླུ་ཆེན་. There are eight Nāga Kings / Great Nāgas—see ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱད་. The Buddhist sūtras mention a variety of nāga rulers, greater and lesser. The [MVP] gives a list of seventy-one of them, as follows:
1. Saṅkhapālo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་དུང་སྐྱོང་ the conch-shell keeper, a nāgarājā
2. Karkoṭako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྟོབས་ཀྱི་རྒྱུ་ the cause of strength or power, a nāgarājā
3. Kuliko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རིགས་ལྡན་ that of noble existence, a nāgarājā
4. Padmo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་པདྨ་ the Padma nāgarājā
5. Mahāpadmo ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་པདྨ་ཆེན་པོ་ the great Padma nāgarājā
6. Vāsukir nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ནོར་རྒྱས་ the wealthy nāgarājā
7. Ananto nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མཐའ་ཡས་ the boundless nāgarājā
8. Takṣhako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་འཇོག་པོ་ the carpenter nāgarājā
9. Varuṇo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆུ་ལྷ་ Varuṇa nāgarājā
10. Makaro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆུ་སྲིན་ Makara, a marine monster
11. Sāgaro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ (དུག་ཅན་ poisonous) Sāgara, a nāgarājā
12. Lambuko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་འཕྱང་བ་ Lambuka, depending or handing down
13. Anavatapto nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མ་དྲོས་པ་ (the not grown warm) name of the Manasarowara lake in Tibet
14. Piṇgalo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སེར་སྐྱ་ Piṅgala [sic.], the yellowish white
15. Nando nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་དགའ་བ་ Nanda, joy or delight
16. Subāhu nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལག་བཟང་ Subāhu, the good or handsome-armed
17. Nardano nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྒྲ་འབྱིན་ Nardana, (the noisy or sound utterer)
18. Citrākṣho nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མིག་བཀྲ་ Citrākṣha (with eyes of variegated colour)
19. Rāvaṇo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྒྲ་སྒྲོགས་ Rāvaṇa (the sounding of making a noise)
20. Pāṇḍuro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྐྱ་བསེང་ Pāṇḍura (the yellowish-white)
21. Kṛmi nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྲིན་བུ་ Kṛmi (the worm)
22. Śaṅkho nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་དུང་ Śaṅkha (the conch-shell—a trumpet)
23. Pāṇdarako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་དཀར་གསལ་ Pāṇdaraka (the clear white)
24. Kālo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ནག་པོ་ Kāla, nāgarājā (the black one)
25. Upakālo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཉེ་ནག་ Upakāla nāgarājā (the somewhat black)
26. Giriko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རི་བོ་ Girika nāgarājā (the mountaineer)
27. Abalo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྟོབས་མེད་ Abala nāgarājā (without strength, weak)
28. Śaṃkaro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་བདེ་བྱེད་ Śaṃkara nāgarājā (that which makes happy)
29. Bhāṇḍo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྤྱད་སྲེལ་ Bhāṇḍa nāgarājā (a professional jester)
30. Pañcālo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལྔ་ལེན་ Pañcāla nāgarājā (the taker or receiver of five)
31. Kāliko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་དུས་ཅན་ Kālika nāgarājā (the temporal)
32. Kiñcanako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆུང་ཟག་ Kiñcaka nāgarājā (the little)
33. Baliko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྟོབས་ཅན་ Balika nāgarājā (the strong or powerful)
34. Uttaro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལྷག་མ་ Uttara nāgarājā (the residue or last)
35. Mātaṅgo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་གླང་པོ་ཆེ་ Mātaṅga nāgarājā (the elephant bodied, or elephant)
36. Eḍo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལུག་ Eḍa nāgarājā (a sheep or ewe)
37. Upendro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཉེ་དབང་ Upendra nāgarājā (the somewhat powerful)
38. Upanaro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མི་དང་ཉེ་ Upanara nāgarājā (the approaching a man, or nearly a man)
39. Eḍavareṇā [eḍavarṇo ?] nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལུག་མདོག་ Eḍavarṇa nāgarājā (of the colour of a sheep or ewe)
40. Vicitro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རི་བཀྲ་ Vicitra nāgarājā (the handsomely variegated)
41. Rāghavo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྟོག་པ་ Rāghava nāgarājā (judging, reflecting)
42. Hastikaccho nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་གླང་པོ་ཆེའི་མཚན་ Hastikaccha nāgarājā
43. Elapatro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཨེ་ལེ་འདབ་ Elapatra nāgarājā
44. Amratīrtho nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཨམྲའི་བུ་ Amratīrtha nāgarājā (the son of Amra)
45. Apalalo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སོག་མ་མེད་པ་ Apalala nāgarājā (the strawless)
46. Cāmpeyo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཙམ་པ་སྐྱེས་ Campeya nāgarājā (born in Campa)
47. Aliko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཁྲ Alika nāgarājā (a hawk, a falcon)
48. Amokṣhako [Pramokṣhako M.] nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཤིན་ཏུ་མཐར་བྱེད་ Amokṣha nāgarājā (the deliverer or destroyer)
49. Sphoṭano nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྒྱས་བྱེད་ Sphoṭana nāgarājā
50. Nandopanando nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་དགའ་བོ་དང་ཉེ་དགའ་གཉིས་ Nandopanando nāgarājā (the two delights)
51. Huluḍo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཧུ་ལུ་ཏུ་ Huluḍa nāgarājā
52. Uluko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་གསལ་མཐོང་Uluka nāgarājā (the clear-seeing or sighted)
53. Paṇḍaro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྐྱའི་ Paṇḍara nāgarājā (the pale or yellowish white)
54. Cicchako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་བསགས་རྒྱས་ Cicchaka nāgarājā (abundant collection)
55. Aravāḍo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྩིབས་ Aravāḍa (the spoke of a wheel)
56. Paravāḍo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རབ་བཟང་ Paravāḍa (the best)
57. Manasvī nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་གཟི་ཅན་ Manasvī (the bright)
58. Śaivalo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཉ་ལྕིབས་ Śaivala (a fish gill)
59. Utpalako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཨུཏྤལ་ Utpala (a water-lily or the lotus)
60. Vardhamānako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་འཕེལ་བ་པོ་ the increased or augmented
61. Buddhiko nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་བློ་ཅན་ (the intelligent or ingenious)
62. Nakhako nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སེན་མོ་ཅན་ he that has long nails (on his hands)
63. Eḍameḍo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལུག་དང་འདུ་བ་གཉིས་ [?] (a ewe and coition)
64. Acyuto nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མ་ཉམས་པ་ (the undefiled, the pure)
65. Kambalāśhvatarau nāgarājau ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཀམ་བ་ལ་དང་ཨ་ཤྭ་ཏ་ར་གཉིས་ the two serpents Kambala and Āśhvatara
66. Sudarśhano nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཤིན་ཏུ་མཐོང་ (the well-seeing or looking well out)
67. Parikūṭo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཡོངས་སུ་བརྩེགས་པ་ (the storied, or heaped up)
68. Sumukho nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་བཞིན་ལེགས་ (the handsome-faced)
69. Adarśhamukho nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མེ་ལོང་གདོང་ (the mirror-faced)
70. Gāndhāro nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྤོས་འཛིན་ (the receiver of perfume or incense)
71. Dramiḍo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་འགྲོ་ལྡིང་ (going and soaring)
72. Baladevo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྟོབས་ཅན་ (the strong)
73. Śailabāhu nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་བྲག་ལག་ (the rock-handed or armed)
74. Vibhīṣhaṇo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྣམ་པར་འཇིག་བྱེད་ (the destroyer)
75. Gaṅgā nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་གངྒའི་ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ the nāgarājā of the Ganges
76. Sindhur nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ Wanting the nāgarājā of Sindhur
77. Sītā nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ Wanting the nāgarājā of Sitā
78. Pakṣhur nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ Wanting the nāgarājā of Pakṣhur
79. Maṅgalo nāgarājā ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་བཀྲ་ཤིས་ (the prosperous or glorious)

ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྒྱ་མཚོས་ཞུས་པའི་མདོ་ [klu'i rgyal po rgya mtshos zhus pa'i mdo] «The Sūtra Petitioned by Naga King Ocean». Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «sāgara nāgarāja paripṛcchā». An extensive Mahāyāna sūtra with the full name in Tibetan འཕགས་པ་ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྒྱ་མཚོས་ཞུས་པའི་མདོ་རྒྱས་པ་. Translated by the Indian Preceptor ཛི་ན་མི་ཏྲ་ Jinamitra and Paṇḍit པྲཛྙཱ་ཝརྨ་ prajñāvarma, and the Tibetan translator ཞང་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ་ Zhang Yeshe De and others.

ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱད་ [klu'i rgyal po chen po brgyad] «The Eight Great Nāga Kings». The ཀླུ་ nāgas q.v. are a type of animal who are live in the human realm but who are not always visible to humans. There are many powerful nāgas who can be considered as nāga kings but there are ཀླུ་ཆེན་བརྒྱད་ eight particularly great ones mentioned in the sūtras who are great nāga kings. Their names are: 1) མཐའ་ཡས་ «Ananta»; 2) འཇོག་པོ་ «Takṣhaka»; 3) སྟོབས་རྒྱུ་ «Karkoṭaka»; 4) རིགས་ལྡན་ «Kulika»; 5) ནོར་རྒྱས་བུ་ «Vāsuki»; 6) དུང་སྐྱོང་ «Saṅkhapāla»; 7) པདྨ་ «Padma»; and 8) ཝ་རུ་ཎ་ «Varuṇa».
This is the most common enumeration of their names but other enumerations exist; e.g., the eighth often has པདྨ་ཆེན་པོ་, Mahāpadma substituted.

ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མ་དྲོས་པས་ཞུས་པའི་མདོ་ [klu'i rgyal po ma dros pas zhus pa'i mdo] The Sūtra Petitioned by Nāga King Anavatapta». Translation of the Sanskrit «anavataptanāgarāja paripṛcchā sūtra». Abbrev. of the title of a Mahāyāna sūtra called in Tibetan འཕགས་པ་ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་མ་དྲོས་པས་ཞུས་པའི་མདོ་. Translated by the Indian Preceptors ཛི་ན་མི་ཏྲ་ Jinamitra and དཱ་ན་ཤཱི་ལ་ Dānaśhīla and the Tibetan Lotsāwa ཞང་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ་ Zhang Yeshe De.

ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ [klu'i rgyal mtshan] See ཅོག་རོ་ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ q.v.

ཀླུའི་སྡེ་ [klu'i sde] Translation of the Sanskrit «nāgasena». 1) «Nāga place». A general name for a place where a group of nāgas dwell. It does not mean «nāga city» as one translator gives but «nāga place». 2) «Nāgasena». One of the འཕགས་པའི་གནས་བརྟན་བཅུ་དྲུག་ Sixteen Ārya Sthaviras q.v. His abode was རི་རྒྱལ་གྱི་ངོས་ཡངས་ in an open place on the sides of Mt. Meru.

ཀླུའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ [klu'i byang chub] Translation of the Sanskrit «nāgabodhi». Name of an Indian siddha of great attainment in the ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāmudrā tradition. He was a disciple of Nāgārjuna and holder of his tantric lineage. sm. He is also known as ཀླུའི་བློ་ Nāgamati.

ཀླུའི་བློ་ [klu'i blo] Translation of the Sanskrit «nāgamati». Another name of the person ཀླུའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ Nāgabodhi q.v.

ཀླུའི་དབང་པོ་ [klu'i dbang po] 1) Title for any being, including a nāga, who is a ruler of nāgas. Similar to but not the same as ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ Nāga king. 2) See འཁོན་ཀླུའི་དབང་པོ་.

ཀླུའི་ཡི་གེ་ [klu'i yi ge] phrase> «Nāgari script». The name of one of the common scripts of ancient India. This is an Indian script, not a Chinese one.

ཀླུའི་རླུང་ [klu'i rlung] «The nāga wind». Translation of the Sanskrit «nāga vāyu». One of the ཡན་ལག་གི་རླུང་ལྔ་ five subsidiary winds that run in the channels of the subtle body according to Buddhist and Tibetan medical tantras q.v. This wind connects with the eyes.

ཀླུ་ཤིང་ [klu shing] «Nāga Tree». The name of a shrub also known as «Drama Tree» ཤིང་གྲ་མ་ in Tibetan. Acc. [TC] «the trunk is thin and has leaves and thorns on it. The wood is pale and soft. It is used as a medicine. It is used as one of the woods that is fed to a Sang བསང་ done for Nāgas.»
The wood is the sceptre held by one of བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་བརྒྱད་ the eight bodhisatvas.

ཀློ་ཁ་ཁྲ་ [klo kha khra] General name in earlier times for the areas to the south of Tibet, such as Mon, that were seen as the lands of the ཀླ་ཀློ་ barbarians. E.g., [KZZ] ཀླ་ཀློ་ཞེས་པ་ནི་ཀློ་ཁ་ཁྲ་ཞེས་པ་ལ་སོགས་མཐའ་འཁོབ་སུམ་ཅུ་རྩ་གཉིས་ཡོད་པར་བཤད་པ་རྣམས། Patrul Rinpoche says that 32 such lands were known in his time. This included the areas around what are now northern Burma and far Eastern India, where cannibalism was still a feature of life in the 20th century.

ཀློ་པ་ [klo pa] 1) Acc. [TC] people from the ཀློ་ region of Tibet. This is in the south of Tibet. 2) A name like ཀླ་ཀློ་ meaning a barbarian, an uncivilized person, in general. 3) Someone from the ཀློ་ཁ་ཁྲ་ barbarian countries below the southern and south-eastern border of Tibet.

ཀློག་པ་ [klog pa] I. v.t. བཀླགས་པ་/ ཀློག་པ་/ བཀླག་པ་/ ཀློགས་/. Note that this verb has the general sense of being involved with books and letters and does not only mean «to read». 1) «To read». This verb means «to read» in the sense of looking at and understanding letters; however it does not mean silent reading only, it can equally mean reading out loud. Tibetan culture has a habit of reading out loud (often very loudly) as part of the learning process and this often carries over into the normal reading process. The process of reading out loud, which is usually done by Tibetans in the style of reciting or chanting, is correctly rendered with the verb འདོན་པ་ «to recite / read out loud» or the noun phrase འདོན་ཀློག་ «reading aloud» where the ཀློག་ indicates that the letters are read and the འདོན་ that they are being sounded out loud. The way to say explicitly «reading silently» is ཡིད་ཀྱིས་ཀློག་པ། lit. «read with the mind (not the mouth)». 2) «To study» by reading books. E.g., ཆོས་ཀློག་པ། «reading /studying dharma». In a monastic environment in Tibet, the distinction between those who were studying / learning and those who were practising / achieving was often made by using the verbs ཀློག་པ་ when discussing the former and སྒྲུབ་པ་ q.v. when discussing the latter.
II. 1) «Reader», someone who is reading, generally speaking. 2) «Scholar», «Lecturer». Someone who is involved with letters and learning as a way of life. E.g., like «a reader» at university is someone who is involved with and passes on the knowledge of book learning. 3) «Reading» the dharma teachings, the name of one of the ཆོས་སྤྱོད་པ་བཅུ་ ten dharmic activities.

ཀློགས་ [klogs] Imp. of v.t. ཀློག་པ་ q.v.

ཀློང་ [klong] Translation of the Sanskrit «abhyantara». A very old term that is used heavily in Buddhist texts, especially in the tantras. Note that the main meaning in Sanskrit is «the interior» space of something. [TC] glosses it as having two separate meanings: 1) «centre / middle» and 2) «a contained space», like «a sphere». However, the meanings are not really separate, as can be seen by the following and in fact reflect exactly the meaning of the original Sanskrit term.
The term means the space of any given situation but often, though not necessarily, also has the sense of being in the midst of that space. Thus, for example, you can have the interior of a room in general and you can have the space of the room as experienced by you when you are in the room. Both of these connotations are seen in Tibetan Buddhist texts where the term is mostly used to describe either the space of something like wisdom or mind, etc., or the experience of that space by a person meditating on it.
Accordingly, it was described by [VCT] as: «Like དབྱིངས་, this word means dhātu, in the sense of «space»; but whereas དབྱིངས་ has direction (like looking out over the ocean, a horizon), ཀློང་ is like parachuting or like being in the midst of a long tunnel. It has the sense of being in the midst rather than watching from a perspective.»
The term, with its connotations is particular important in the tantras. Unfortunately, there is no particular word in English that matches its connotations. Worse, the only words available in English are used heavily for other, related but distinctly different Tibetan terms. This means that the particular importance of this term tends to be lost in explanations of these special dharma topics.
The two other words most-used in Buddhist texts for the idea of space are ནམ་མཁའ་ and དབྱིངས་. Each of these is regularly translated by the word «space» even though they have substantially different meanings. The first refers either to the sky above the planet Earth or to the abstract «space» defined as that which allows things to move. The second refers to an «expanse» or «a range» (though the original Sanskrit dhātu has many, many connotations and usages). It seems to this translator that «space» fits well for the former and «expanse / range / etc.» fits well for the latter. However, that leaves us without a word for this term ཀློང་. Since it HAS to be differentiated from the two terms mentioned, it is not sufficient just to pass over the issue. Perhaps the Tibetan should be brought into the English language.
In the meantime, the following are possibilities: «sphere», «immense sphere», «arena», «immensity», «expanse», «space», «realm».

ཀློང་དཀར་ནག་ཁྲ་གསུམ་ [klong dkar nag khra gsum] «The threefold white, black, and multi-coloured spaces». The three types of space described in the ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ Space Section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion. See also ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་དཀར་ནག་ཁྲ་གསུམ་.

ཀློང་དཀར་པོ་ [klong dkar po] «The White Space». The ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ Space Section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion is described as having three (sometimes four) divisions. «White Space» is the first division. The classic short description of this sub-division is ཀློང་དཀར་པོ་སེམས་སུ་སྨྲ་བ་ «The White Space that exposits mind».

ཀློང་ཁྲ་བོ་ [klong khra bo] «The Multi-coloured Space». The ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ Space Section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion is described as having three (sometimes four) divisions. «Multi-coloured Space» is the third division. The classic short description of this sub-division is ཀློང་ཁྲ་བོ་སྣ་ཚོགས་སུ་སྨྲ་བ་ «the variegated Space Section which propounds diversity».

ཀློང་འཁོར་ [klong 'khor] «Whirlpool».

ཀློང་འཁྱིལ་ [klong 'khyil] 1) A halo of light. 2) «Roiling waves». Similar to མཚོ་འཁོར་ q.v. Being on a large body of water whose area is awash with high waves. For example «high seas» on an ocean.

ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ [klong gi sde] phrase> «Space Section». Translation of the Sanskrit «dhātuvarga». A རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion term. The Great Completion tantras are categorized into three major sections, see རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་སྡེ་གསུམ་. The second section is the «Space Section» which is usually described as having three sub-divisions ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་དཀར་ནག་ཁྲ་གསུམ་ q.v. and sometimes four.

ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་དཀར་ནག་ཁྲ་གསུམ་ [klong gi sde dkar nag khra gsum] «The Space Section's threefold white, black, and multi-coloured (spaces)». A རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion term. The Great Completion tantras are categorized into three major sections, see རྫོགས་ཆེན་སྡེ་གསུམ་. This is the second section, the «Space Section» which is usually described as having three sub-divisions and sometimes four. Here it is described as having three sub-divisions which are named white, black, and multi-coloured.

ཀློང་གྱུར་ [klong gyur] Abbrev. of ཀློང་དུ་གྱུར་པ་ q.v.

ཀློང་ཆེན་སྙིང་ཐིག་ [klong chen snying thig] «Longchen Nyingthig». The name given to a specific transmission of the very innermost teaching of Great Completion. The transmission appears primarily because of ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་ Longchenpa, hence the first part of the name. It is the very innermost teaching, hence the second part of the name, སྙིང་གི་ཐིག་ལེ་, meaning quintessence. The entire transmission was received by འཇིགས་མེད་གླིང་པ་ Jigmey Lingpa in a series of visions in which the entire transmission was received directly from Longchenpa. The entire transmission was written down in three volumes which were included in Jigmey Lingpa's Collected Works and are called the སྙིང་ཐིག་རྩ་པོད་ «Root volumes of Nyingthig». Jigmey Lingpa in [TYL] which is part of that set of texts, says the name means སྙིང་ཞུས་ཀྱི་ཐིག་ལེ་, «the condensed (into a single drop), most refined essence».

ཀློང་ཆེན་པ་ [klong chen pa] 1) Generally, an epithet given to someone who has a profound and vast intellect, i.e., prajñā. 2) Specifically, an abbrev. of ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v.

ཀློང་ཆེན་པ་དྲི་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་ [klong chen pa dri med 'od zer] See ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་.

ཀློང་ཆེན་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་རང་བྱུང་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [klong chen sprul sku rang byung rdo rje] «The Emanation of Longchen, Rangjung Dorje»; used to refer to འཇིགས་མེད་གླིང་པ་ Jigmey Lingpa q.v.

ཀློང་ཆེན་མཛོད་བདུན་ [klong chen mdzod bdun] «The Seven Treasuries of Longchenpa». The great master Longchenpa (see ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་) was a prolific writer. His works contain several collections. One is called «The Seven Treasuries of Longchenpa». It consists of seven root texts and auto-commentaries to most of them. The abbrev. names of the root texts are: 1) གྲུབ་མཐའ་མཛོད་ «The Treasury of Tenets»; 2) ཐེག་མཆོག་མཛོད་ «The Treasury of the Supreme Vehicle»; 3) ཡིད་བཞིན་མཛོད་ «The Wish-Fulfilling Treasury»; 4) མན་ངག་མཛོད་ «The Treasury of Upadeśha»; 5) ཆོས་དབྱིངས་མཛོད་ «The Treasury of Dharmadhātu»; 6) གནས་ལུགས་མཛོད་ «The Treasury of Actuality»; 7) ཚིག་དོན་མཛོད་ «The Treasury of Words and Meaning».
A progression can be distinguished in the texts. Khenpo Jigmey Phuntsog has said that the natural teaching order of the Seven Treasuries is to begin with the Wish-fulfilling Treasury which extensively teaches the lower Buddhist and non-Buddhist tenet systems of ancient India, then to move to the Treasury of Tenets which deals with a similar range of teaching and includes a brief treatment of Great Completion. Next is the Treasury of Upadesha which teaches the mind training of the Paramita Great Vehicle together with some aspects of the Great Completion. Next is the Treasury of Dharmadhatu and Treasury of Actuality which focus on the practice of Thorough Cut, the former on its view and the latter on its four, special samayas. Next is the Treasury of Word Meanings which teaches Great Completion's own innermost, unsurpassed system by explaining the meaning of the words of the Seventeen Root Tantras of innermost, unsurpassed Great Completion. Last is the Treasury of the Supreme Vehicle which extends the treatment found in the Treasury of Word Meanings by adding an analysis of topics peripheral to those found in the Treasury of Word Meanings.
The contents of the last paragraph might be surprising to some because there is a popular teaching these days that the Treasury of Dharmadhatu is the most profound of the set of texts. Some Tibetan teachers say that this is true but there are other ways to look at it.

ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་ [klong chen rab 'byams] «Longchen Rabjam». An epithet of someone who has attained to vast realization. Usually applied to one great Nyingma guru who was then known as ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v.

ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་རྒྱལ་པོ་ [klong chen rab 'byams rgyal po] «The King Universal Great Expanse». Acc. [POD], the name of one of the major tantras of the ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ Space Section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion. These tantras were brought to Tibet by Vimalamitra and Vairochana.

ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ [klong chen rab 'byams pa] «Longchen Rabjampa» [1308-1363]. The standard epithet for the great Nyingma master who was also known as ཀློང་ཆེན་པ་དྲི་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་ «Longchenpa Drimey Ozer». He was given the name དྲི་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་ «Drimey Ozer» by Padmasaṃbhava in a vision. Because of his extraordinary level of knowledge he gave himself the title ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ «All-knowing» e.g. ཀུན་མཁྱེན་ཀློང་ཆེན་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ «All-knowing Longchen Rabjam».

ཀློང་དུ་གྱུར་པ་ [klong du gyur pa] I. phrase> Acc. [ULS] and [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, དབང་དུ་གྱུར་པ་ «to gain mastery over». [TC] add: དོན་ཡོངས་སུ་རྟོགས་པ་ «to realize the whole meaning». I.e., to master something in the sense of understanding it in all of its depth. This could be full realization of a practice or complete understanding of a subject that has been studied.
II. phrase> Cognate to verb, «someone who has mastered in depth».

ཀློང་དྲུག་པ་ [klong drug pa] «The Six Expanses»; abbreviated name of the tantra ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་ཀློང་དྲུག་པའི་རྒྱུད་ q.v.

ཀློང་རྡོལ་བ་ [klong rdol ba] I. phrase> v.i. see རྡོལ་བ་ for tense forms. Lit. «to pour from the depths of a great expanse». [TSR] gives, «having obtained great mastery of realization or understanding, qualities and activities or knowledge རྡོལ་བ་ gush forth from the ཀློང་ immense sphere of that realization or understanding as a matter of course». Hence «to spring from the expanse (of realization)», «(knowledge) gushing from the depths», etc.
II. phrase> «Realization gushing forth», «outpouring of (his) vast understanding», etc.

ཀློང་སྡེ་ [klong sde] Common abbrev. of ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ q.v.

ཀློང་སྡེའི་བཞི་ [klong sde'i bzhi] «The four (parts) of Space Section» meaning the four sub-sections of the Space Section ཀློང་སྡེ་ q.v. They are: 1) ཀློང་དཀར་པོ་, 2) ཀློང་ནག་པོ་, 3) ཀློང་ཁྲ་བོ་, and 4) ཀློང་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ q.v.

ཀློང་བརྡོལ་བ་ [klong brdol ba] Older spelling of ཀློང་རྡོལ་བ་ with same meaning.

ཀློང་ན་ [klong na] «Amidst», «in the midst of»; meaning in the centre of a situation or within a situation and participating in it. See ཀློང་ q.v.

ཀློང་ནག་པོ་ [klong nag po] «The Black Space». The ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ Space Section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion is described as having three (sometimes four) divisions. «Black Space» is the second division. The classic short description of this sub-division is ཀློང་ནག་པོ་རྒྱུ་མེད་དུ་སྨྲ་བ་ «The Black Space་that exposits absence of causes».

ཀློང་ནས་ [klong nas] From within the centre of a situation, hence «from amidst», «from the midst of».

ཀློང་འབྱམས་ [klong 'byams] «Expanse field». See also འབྱམས་. A specific, technical term of the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut teachings of the Great Completion. It is the path term for the experience of ཡེ་འབྱམས་ the primordial field (of emptiness) q.v. for more. See also ཀློང་ཡངས་འབྱམས་.

ཀློང་ཡང་འབྱམས་ [klong yang 'byams] Same as ཀློང་ཡངས་འབྱམས་ q.v.

ཀློང་ཡངས་ [klong yangs] «Spacious expanse», etc.—see below. A standard term of the language for «vast area of space(orsky)», e.g., often used in conjunction with sky/space in ནམ་མཁའ་ཀློང་ཡངས་ q.v. It is also used a technical term of Great Completion literature that refers to the ཡངས་ vast, wide-open ཀློང་ expanse experienced by the practitioner.
Note that this is a path term. In discussions of Great Completion practice, it refers to a personal experience of the ཡེ་འབྱམས་ primordial field of emptiness, which is the corresponding ground term for reality. The ཀློང་ provides the sense that the practitioner is in the midst of the expanse; it gives the experiential / on the spot sense to the term.
Note also that the term is sometimes modified into ཀློང་ཡང་འབྱམས་ to give the sense of an even vaster experience of the primordial field.
The term could be translated in any of several ways, for instance «great vastness», «vast expanse», etc. Therefore, some dictionaries give multiple possibilities for the term. However, this can be misleading; this is a specific term with one, specific referent not a vague term that could be translated in various ways at whim. It is a technical term of importance and needs to be understood by the reader for exactly what it is, with all of its connotations. Therefore, it is one of many terms that badly need a specific translation equivalent to be settled on by translators.

ཀློང་ཡངས་འབྱམས་ [klong yangs 'byams] «Vast expanse field». The same as meaning as ཀློང་འབྱམས་ q.v. but using ཀློང་ཡངས་ instead of just ཀློང་ to give an sense of the vastness of the expanse.

ཀློང་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་ [klong rab 'byams pa] «The All-encompassing Space». The ཀློང་གི་སྡེ་ Space Section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion is described as having three (sometimes four) divisions. «The All-encompassing Space» is fourth division. The classic short description of this sub-division is ཀློང་རབ་འབྱམས་པ་རྒྱུ་འབྲས་ལ་བཟླ་བ་ «The All-encompassing Space that transcends cause and effect».

ཀློང་བཤགས་ [klong bshags] «Laying aside in space». See ལྟ་བ་ཀློང་བཤགས་.

ཀློང་གསལ་ [klong gsal] «Clear Space»; usually an abbrev. of ཀློང་གསལ་འབར་མའི་རྒྱུད་ q.v.

ཀློང་གསལ་གྱི་རྒྱུད་ [klong gsal gyi rgyud] «Clear Space Tantra», an abbrev. of ཀློང་གསལ་འབར་མའི་རྒྱུད་ q.v.

ཀློང་གསལ་འབར་མ་ [klong gsal 'bar ma] «Blazing Clear Space». Name of a tantra; see ཀློང་གསལ་འབར་མའི་རྒྱུད་.

ཀློང་གསལ་འབར་མའི་རྒྱུད་ [klong gsal 'bar ma'i rgyud] «Tantra of the Blazing Clear Space»; name of a major tantra cycle of the མན་ངག་གི་སྡེ་ Upadeśha section of the རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion but not included in its རྒྱུད་བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen tantras. See མན་ངག་སྡེའི་རྒྱུད་ for more information.

ཀློང་གསལ་ཆོས་སྐོར་ [klong gsal chos skor] «The cycle of dharma teachings of Clear Space», i.e., the major tantra cycle called ཀློང་གསལ་འབར་མའི་རྒྱུད་ q.v.

ཀློང་གསལ་སྙིང་པོ་ [klong gsal snying po] «Longsal Nyingpo». [1625-1692]. One of the early masters of the Khatok Nyingma tradition.

ཀློད་ [klod] Common mis-spelling of གློད་ q.v.

ཀྵེཏྲ་པཱ་ལ་ [k+Shetra pA la] Translit. of the Sanskrit «kṣhetrapāla». Translated into Tibetan with ཞིང་སྐྱོང་ q.v. 1) A class of worldly protectors. 2) Acc. [TC] a yakṣha in the east direction of the retinue of Six-armed Mahākāla.

དཀན་ [dkan] 1) Altern. spelling of རྐན་ q.v. 2) A steeply inclined surface. E.g., a road that is very steep, the steep face of a mountain, etc. E.g., [TC] e.g., བྲག་དཀན་གཟར་པོ། « a very steep rocky face (of a rocky mountain).

དཀའ་ [dka'] I. A basic intertsheg of the Tibetan language with the meaning «difficult», «hard». It is combined with various other མིང་ grammatical names or ཚིག་ཕྲད་ connectors to give words that contain its meaning e.g., དཀའ་བ་, དཀའ་ངལ་ and དཀའ་སྤྱད་ q.v.
II. Part of དཀའ་བ་ q.v.

དཀའ་འགྲེལ་ [dka' 'grel] «Commentary on difficult points». Translation of the Sanskrit «pañjikā». The name for a commentary that specifically addresses the difficult points of any subject. Freq. seen as part of the title of texts in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy.

དཀའ་ངལ་ [dka' ngal] «Tiredness», «difficulty», «fatigue, «weariness»; meaning not just fatigue but suffering with it. E.g., དཀའ་ངལ་ཁྱད་བསད་ཀྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས། «to downplay tiredness and make someone do more work».

དཀའ་བཅུ་ [dka' bcu] «Kachu». The name of one of the levels of དགེ་བཤེས་ geshe degree at བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ Tashi Lhunpo monastery. The highest level is called དཀའ་ཆེན་ Kachen. This is a lesser level. Its name is given for the fact that one has done a coarser level of study of the བཀའ་པོད་ལྔ་ «five groupings of the buddha-word» and the commentaries to them (making ten, hence the name).

དཀའ་ཆེན་ [dka' chen] 1) «Kachen». The name of one of the levels of དགེ་བཤེས་ geshe degree at བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ Tashi Lhunpo monastery. This is the highest level of degree and refers to someone with the highest level of study of the བཀའ་པོད་ལྔ་ «five groupings of the buddha-word» and the commentaries to them. See དཀའ་བཅུ་ «Kachu» for a lesser level. 2) See under དཀའ་ཆེན་བཅུ་གཉིས་.

དཀའ་ཆེན་བཅུ་གཉིས་ [dka' chen bcu gnyis] «Twelve major trials». The great siddha ནཱ་རོ་པ་ Nāropa underwent twelve major and དཀའ་ཕྲན་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve minor trials / ordeals at the hands of his guru, ཏཻལོཔ་ Tailopa.

དཀའ་ཐུབ་ [dka' thub] Translation of the Sanskrit «tapas». The original Sanskrit is a name for «actions which require withstanding difficulty» or people who undertake such actions. It is often used to refer to the ascetic or austere practices that yogins undertake. The Tibetans translated it as དཀའ་བ་ཐུབ་པ་ «withstanding difficulty / ordeal / trial / austerity». 1) «Asceticism / austerity» meaning undergoing hardship for the sake of the spiritual path or other reason. 2) «An ascetic» one who undergoes / withstands / tolerates hardships for the sake of the spiritual path. 3) «Fortitude» when undertaking some venture. In this case the word has the sense of effort put out for overcoming the difficulties. 4) «The ascetic». i) An epithet in the Hindu tradition for their great god Śhiva; and ii) an epithet in the Buddhist tradition for the Buddha. The former is the ascetic of ascetics meaning he is the grandest of those who undertake the Vedic rituals of purity and so on. The latter is the ascetic of ascetics because he has the patience to traverse the whole journey to buddhahood for the sake of others.

དཀའ་ཐུབ་པ་ [dka' thub pa] «Ascetic», etc. Someone who 1) exerts themselves to accomplish something worldly or mundane, while 2) withstanding whatever difficulties arise in doing so. See also དཀའ་ཐུབ་.
This term is commonly applied to religious figures who go into isolation and practice austerities in order to attain their goal. It has commonly been translated as «ascetic» in that context though the term loses the main sense of «enduring hardships; accepting and withstanding all trials and difficulties». In this sense, it is a common epithet in the Brahmin Hindu tradition both for the sadhus who undergo difficulties for their practice e.g., it is the name given to one of མི་བཅུ་བཞི་ the fourteen types of humans, the type of Brahman who practices his spirituality by withstanding the difficulties of austere practice. In that tradition it is also given as an epithet of the main god Śhiva who is regarded as «the great ascetic» who has withstood all trials and attained godhead. In the Buddha's time, the term དཀའ་ཐུབ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ was coined as an epithet of the Buddha to distinguish the Buddha from Śhiva. Shiva was the ascetic par excellence for the Hindus but the Buddha was the true «great ascetic» for the Buddhists [ZGT].

དཀའ་སྤྱད་ [dka' spyad] form of དཀའ་བ་སྤྱོད་པ་ q.v. Translation of the Sanskrit «tapasyā». 1) «Trial», « hardship», «austerity». 2) «Asceticism».

དཀའ་ཕྲན་བཅུ་གཉིས་ [dka' phran bcu gnyis] «Twelve minor trials». The great siddha ནཱ་རོ་པ་ Nāropa underwent དཀའ་ཆེན་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve major and twelve minor trials / ordeals at the hands of his guru, ཏཻལོཔ་ Tailopa.

དཀའ་བ་ [dka' ba] I. v.i. དཀའ་བ་/ དཀའ་བ་/ དཀའ་བ་//. 1) «To be trying», «to try» in the sense of «ordeals bringing exhaustion, fatigue». E.g., [TC] ལུས་སེམས་གཉིས་ཀ་དཀའ་བ། «trying for both body and mind / it was an ordeal for body and mind / body and mind exhausted by the ordeal». 2) «To go through the difficulty / hardship / ordeal of». E.g., [TC] སྐད་ཅིག་མང་པོར་དཀའ་བས་སྙོམས་པར་འཇུག་པར་འགྱུར། «entered equilibrium through many moments of hardship».
II. 1) «An ordeal / trial / hardship / austerity». Anything which is difficult to go through and which is painful and / or exhausting. E.g., དཀའ་བ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ «twelve trials (of Nāropa) q.v. E.g., in དཀའ་ཐུབ་ «undergoing austerities». 2) Easy-to-occur, mistaken spelling of དགའ་བ་.

དཀའ་བ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ [dka' ba bcu gnyis] «Twelve trials». See དཀའ་ཆེན་བཅུ་གཉིས་ «twelve major trials» and དཀའ་ཕྲན་བཅུ་གཉིས་ «twelve minor trials».

དཀའ་བ་སྤྱད་པ་ [dka' ba spyad pa] I. phrase> v.i. past of དཀའ་བ་སྤྱོད་པ་ q.v.
II. phrase> see དཀའ་སྤྱད་ q.v.

དཀའ་བ་སྤྱོད་པ་ [dka' ba spyod pa] I. phrase> v.t. see སྤྱོད་པ་ for tense forms. «To undergo trials / hardships» or «to practice asceticism». Often used in relation to the austerities practiced by yogins or the difficulties undergone by spiritual seekers on their paths. E.g., used in reference to Naropa who underwent twelve major and twelve minor trials at the hands of his guru ཏཻལོཔ་ Tailopa.
II. phrase> per the verb. The true noun form is དཀའ་སྤྱད་ q.v.

དཀའ་ཚེགས་ [dka' tshegs] 1) «Hardship» in the general sense; that which is wears you out because of the difficulty involved. 2) «Difficulty», a specific difficulty that has come in the way.

དཀའ་ལས་ཁག་པོ་ [dka' las khag po] I. 1) «Difficult» meaning that something being done is both difficult and demanding, taxing e.g., ལས་ཀ་དཀའ་ལས་ཁག་པོ་འདུག། «this work is difficult!» meaning the work is not easy and is taxing on the body and mind. This kind of activity is «wearisome», «arduous», «taxing», «fatiguing», «wearing». 2) The term is also used to indicate the state of being drained / worn out / worn down by something that was difficult and is sometimes used to indicate that one has had enough of it e.g., ང་དཀའ་ལས་ཁག་པོ་འདུག། lit. «I'm really having a hard time with this! (and possibly with the implication, I'm fed up, I don't want any more of it)».
II. «Difficulty» e.g., དཀའ་ལས་ཁག་པོ་གཅིག་འདུག། «There is a difficulty» (I've run into a difficulty).

དཀའ་ས་ [dka' sa] phrase> «(A) difficult point» when discussing some subject, e.g., in philosophy.

དཀར་ [dkar] A basic intertsheg of the Tibetan language that provides several meanings related to the idea of white, bright, and so on. It is the opposite of ནག་ which contains the opposite range of meanings such as black, dark, and so on. It is combined with various other མིང་ grammatical names or ཚིག་ཕྲད་ connectors to give words that contain its meaning e.g., the most common one, དཀར་པོ་ with its various meanings q.v. It has these meanings: 1) «White» or «whiteness» as opposed to black or blackness. 2) «Bright» in colour meaning a colour that has whiteness in it as opposed to darkness e.g., དམར་དཀར་ is bright red where དམར་ནག་ is dark red or deep red. 3) Bright with white light. 4) White in the sense of positive as opposed to negative. E.g., ལས་དཀར་པོ་ is white or positive karma meaning ལས་དགེ་བ་ virtuous karma as opposed to ལས་ནག་པོ་ black or negative karma. 5) Transparent e.g., ཤེལ་དཀར་ is either a mineral crystal such as quartz or is glass which is transparent. 6) The Buddha mentioned white foods as opposed to black foods; the white foods in ancient India were all or mostly (depending on the particular enumeration) dairy products. This connects with ancient Indian ideas that the cow is a holy manifestation of a particular goddess and as such all of its products are pure. E.g., in དཀར་སྐྱེམས་ «white drink» it refers to a drink made either of milk or milk curd.

དཀར་སྐྱ་ [dkar skya] The colour either «grey» that comes from mixing the colour white with black. It can be any level of grey from dark to light, i.e., the སྐྱ་ in this case does not mean pale, it simply means the grey form of the colour white; for comparison see also དམར་སྐྱ་ pink.

དཀར་སྐྱེམས་ [dkar skyems] [Hon] «White drink». A drink made either of milk or milk curd (Lassi). It also conveys the sense of a «pure drink» because of the understanding that cow products are pure. See under དཀར་ for explanation. See also གསེར་སྐྱེམས་ «golden drink» for comparison.

དཀར་ཁུང་ [dkar khung] 1) «Window»; same meaning as སྒེའུ་ཁུང་ for explanation q.v. 2) A general name for any hole in the ceiling or high on a wall used for any of several purposes: to allow smoke out of a room, as a skylight, to allow fresh air in, etc. Various names will suit on context. E.g., «hole in the ceiling», «smoke hole», etc.

དཀར་ཁྲི་ནག་སྟོང་ [dkar khri nag stong] Lit. «ten thousand whites and one thousand blacks». The whites refers to goats and sheep, the blacks to གཡག་ yak and འབྲི་ dri. The phrase was used, prior to the Communist invasion, to describe nomad herders who have more than ten thousand head of goats and sheep. In Tibet, once the head count exceeded that number, the rest of the herd was not counted. Anyone with that many goats and sheep was regarded as very wealthy hence the term which effectively means «a herder with so many head of animals that they are beyond count, a very wealthy herder».

དཀར་རྒྱུད་ [dkar rgyud] «White Mindstream». 1) In general meaning a virtuous mindstream. 2) One of two names for the འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drukpa Kagyu lineage which are a play on the more general name for བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་པ་ «the Kagyu Lineage» and which are used by Drukpa Kagyu authors to refer to their specific sub-sect of the Kagyu lineage. The other one is དཀར་བརྒྱུད་ q.v. This name means «the ones of white mind» which in this case means «of good mind, pure mind». E.g., [MMZ] དཀར་རྒྱུད་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ལ་ཕྱག་འཚལ་ལོ། «I prostrate to the precious ones of White Mind».

དཀར་བརྒྱུད་ [dkar brgyud] «The White Lineage». One of two names for the འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drukpa Kagyu lineage which are a play on the more general name for བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་པ་ «the Kagyu Lineage» and which are used by Drukpa Kagyu authors to refer to their specific sub-sect of the Kagyu lineage. The other one is དཀར་རྒྱུད་ q.v. The Kagyu Lineage had many great yogins who wore nothing but a white cloth—the རས་པ་ repas such as Milarepa, Lingrepa and so on—so the changed spelling indicates «The Lineage of those who wear White». In spite of that, the term དཀར་བརྒྱུད་པ་ was mainly written by scribes who were referring to the འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drukpa Kagyu lineage because of their particularly high number of repas, and is often regarded as an alternative name for that lineage.

དཀར་བརྒྱུད་པ་ [dkar brgyud pa] I. A follower of the བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Kargyu lineage q.v.
II. Pertaining to the དཀར་བརྒྱུད་ Kargyu lineage q.v.

དཀར་ཆག་ [dkar chag] The general sense is «an itemized list of the things belonging to a particular group». The term has a variety of usages. 1) The «table of contents» of a book which in Tibetan is a list of the main subject headings or chapter headings. A དཀར་ཆག་ in this sense is sometimes similar to but is not the same as a ས་བཅད་ «outline» q.v. 2) A «register» of items or persons. 3) A «catalogue» in the sense of a listing of items in a larger collection e.g., བསྟན་འགྱུར་དཀར་ཆག་ «a catalogue of the Translations of Treatises» such as དཀར་ཆག་འཕང་ཐང་མ་ «The Phangtang Catalogue» q.v. 4) An «index» to something.

དཀར་ཆག་མཆིམས་ཕུ་མ་ [dkar chag mchims phu ma] «The Chimpu Catalogue». See དཀར་ཆག་འཕང་ཐང་མ་ for explanation.

དཀར་ཆག་ལྡན་དཀར་མ་ [dkar chag ldan dkar ma] «The Dankar Catalogue». See དཀར་ཆག་འཕང་ཐང་མ་ for explanation.

དཀར་ཆག་འཕང་ཐང་མ་ [dkar chag 'phang thang ma] «The Phangthang Catalogue». The Tibetan King ཁྲི་ལྡེ་སྲོང་བཙན་ Tride Srongtsen q.v. ordered a cataloguing of the texts contained in the translations of and commentaries to the Buddha word that had been put together by his father, ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན་ Trisong Deutsen q.v. Several great translators of the time, including སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས་ Kawa Paltseg and Namkha'i Nyingpo went to and stayed at three separate places in order to compile the catalogue. The places were all main places of translation activity in the time of Trisong Deutsen. First, they stayed at འཕང་ཐང་ཀ་མེད་ཀྱི་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ Phangthang Kamey Vihāra and put together an initial catalogue there. The catalogue was called དཀར་ཆག་འཕང་ཐང་མ་ «The Phangthang Catalogue». Next, they went to སྟོང་ཐང་ལྡན་དཀར་གྱི་ཕོ་བྲང་ Tongthang Dankar Palace and put together a second catalogue there; that catalogue is called དཀར་ཆག་ལྡན་དཀར་མ་ «The Dankarma Catalogue». Finally they went to བསམ་ཡས་མཆིམས་ཕུ་ Samye Chimpu and put together a third catalogue there; that catalogue is called དཀར་ཆག་མཆིམས་ཕུ་མ་ «The Chimpu Catalogue».

དཀར་ཆག་རིན་ཆེན་དོ་ཤལ་ [dkar chag rin chen do shal] «The Jewelled Long Necklace Catalogue». The name of a catalogue of the ཨ་ཏི་ཡོ་ག་ Atiyoga texts contained at the monastery བསམ་གཏན་གླིང་ Samten Ling put together at the order of the Fifth Dalai Lama.

དཀར་ཆག་ཤེལ་དཀར་མེ་ལོང་ [dkar chag shel dkar me long] «The Crystal Mirror Catalogue». The name of a catalogue of the texts contained in ལྷ་ལྡན་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ Lhadan vihāra q.v. at the order of the Fifth Dalai Lama.

དཀར་འཇམ་རྩའི་སྒྲོན་མ་ [dkar 'jam rtsa'i sgron ma] «Lamp of the smooth, transparent channel» or «lamp of the smooth, transparent nāḍī». The name of one of the སྒྲོན་མ་དྲུག་ six lamps q.v. «Smooth, transparent channel» refers to the ཀ་ཏི་ཤེལ་གྱི་རྩ་ q.v.

དཀར་མདོག་ཅན་ [dkar mdog can] «Whitish». An epithet of the metal «silver». (So-called because the two main precious metals in earlier times were silver and gold, and gold is called གསེར་ «yellow» in Tibetan, so silver gets the name «white» in comparison with it.)

དཀར་སྡེར་ [dkar sder] Like སྡེར་མ་ but meaning «plate / saucer» etc., made out of porcelain; chinaware plates and saucers.

དཀར་ནག་ [dkar nag] Abbrev. of དཀར་པོ་ and ནག་པོ་. 1) «Black and white» in colour; having the colours black and white. 2) «Positive and negative» / «good and bad» meaning དགེ་བ་ «virtue» and མི་དགེ་བ་ «non-virtue». 3) «True and false», «right and wrong», or «correct / incorrect». 4) In the Great Completion tantras, the lungs are described as an enclosure filled with white and black channels. Hence the term can also be a reference to the lungs. E.g., རླུང་གི་ཆ་མ་ལུས་པ་མི་པ་དཀར་ནག་ལམ་གི་ལམ་ནས་ཁ་སྣར་འཐོན་ཏེ། «all of the winds without exception having been swallowed (by) the white and black path (during the death process), they are expelled from the mouth and nostrils...».

དཀར་ནག་གི་ལམ་ [dkar nag gi lam] phrase> «The black and white path» which is an old term seen in various tantras mainly concerning the death process that means the lungs. See under དཀར་ནག་ for explanation and example.

དཀར་པོ་ [dkar po] I. The colour «white».
A. In general. 1) This can either mean the colour white itself or can refer to tints of other colours. (Tints of colours are colours which are lightened by the addition of white compared with shades which are darkened by the addition of black see ནག་པོ་). E.g., ལྗང་གུ་ is the colour green and ལྗང་དཀར་ is the «pale green» or «light green» tint or colour produced by mixing white with it. 2) In some contexts དཀར་པོ་ does not mean the solid colour «white» but has the meaning of something which is «transparent» to light and hence which is «translucent»; the meaning has to be known from context. 3) In some contexts དཀར་པོ་ does not mean the solid colour «white» but has the meaning of something which is «reflective» to light. E.g., དངུལ་དཀར་ q.v. «reflective silver» of a mirror.
B. «White» as one of the ཡུལ་གཟུགས་ཀྱི་རང་བཞིན་ «components of visual form» q.v. Translation of the Sanskrit «avadātam».
II. Meaning something which is «positive» or «good» and which is the opp. of ནག་པོ་ «negative, «bad». In this usage དཀར་པོ་ and ནག་པོ་ are effectively synonyms for དགེ་བ་ and མི་དགེ་བ་ «virtue» and «non-virtue; e.g., ལས་དཀར་ནག་ is a commonly used phrase which lit. means «black and white karmas» but effectively refers to «virtuous and non-virtuous karmas». Since in English we have similar, alternative ways of saying «virtue» and «non-virtue», it seems that such alternatives should be used to translate these terms rather than using «virtue» and «non-virtue». E.g., in English we speak of «positive» and «negative», «wholesome» and «unwholesome», «pure» and «impure», «good» and «bad». Therefore སེམས་པ་དཀར་པོ་ «a positive mind», «a good mind», «a mind directed to virtue». Note that དཀར་པོ་ and its opposite ནག་པོ་ in this usage do not refer to any particular virtuous / non-virtuous mind but just to overall goodness and badness, therefore it would be a mistake to translate them with particular words for particular minds as some have done.
III. In medicine used to mean «mild» kind of disease, a disease which is not life-threatening as opposed to ནག་པོ་ «severe» i.e., life-threatening forms of the disease. E.g., see འབྲུམ་ནད་ «pox diseases».
IV. 1) The name of a medicine used to overcome a disease of domestic animals. 2) One of the སྦྱོར་བ་ཉེར་བདུན་ twenty-seven co-incidences of Tibetan astrology q.v. 3) [Mngon] An epithet of གཟའ་པ་སངས་ the planet «Venus», which is also the name of the day of the week, «Thursday». 4) [Mngon] An epithet of the 3rd year in a རབ་བྱུང་ 60 year cycle, the ས་མོ་སྦྲུལ་ལོ་ «Female Earth Snake Year». 5) See དཀར་མདོག་ཅན་.

དཀར་པོ་དཀར་རྐྱང་ [dkar po dkar rkyang] This is the construction used in Tibetan to indicate that a colour is just that colour with no other colour mixed in. In this case, it refers to the colour white. It has either of the two senses of i) «pure white» i.e., not a shade or tint of white but pure white or ii) «only white» i.e., white and white alone, no other colour being present. Constructions for other colours are done using a similar formula e.g., ནག་པོ་ནག་རྐྱང་ is the equivalent formulation for the colour black.

དཀར་པོ་གཅིག་ཐུབ་ [dkar po gcig thub] Alt. spelling of དཀར་པོ་ཆིག་ཐུབ་ q.v.

དཀར་པོ་ཆིག་ཐུབ་ [dkar po chig thub] Lit. «The one thing good for all» but meaning «universal panacea» or «the one good thing that is effective against / will cure / all», «the universal cure». 1) The name of an སྔོ་སྨན་ annual green used as a medicinal herb. 2) Another name for another annual green used as a medicinal herb: the white form of ཐང་ཕྲོམ་. 3) Sometimes used as to describe other things that are on the positive side and are one thing that can cure all, e.g., the ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāmudrā teaching. E.g., [GSB] བསྒོམ་ནུས་ན་དེས་ཆོག་གམ་ཞུས་པས། རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་ཞལ་ནས་དཀར་པོ་གཅིག་ཐུབ་དེ་ལ་བྱེད་པ་ཡིན། ང་ལ་ཡང་དེ་ལས་མེད་གསུང་། «If I could meditate further, would that suffice?», Dusum Khyenpa asked. Rinpoche (Gampopa) replied, «That would be applying the universal panacea to it. Even for myself, there is nothing other than that. (here the term refers to Mahāmudrā meditation)».
Note that it is also seen spelled as དཀར་པོ་གཅིག་ཐུབ་.

དཀར་པོ་རྣམ་པར་མཐོང་བའི་ས་ [dkar po rnam par mthong ba'i sa] «The level of seeing the wholesome». The third of the དམན་པ་ས་བརྒྱད་ eight Lesser Vehicle grounds q.v.

དཀར་པོ་རྣམ་གསུམ་ [dkar po rnam gsum] «The Three White Ones»; same as ས་སྐྱ་པ་དཀར་པོ་རྣམ་གསུམ་ q.v.

དཀར་པོའི་ཆ་ [dkar po'i cha] phrase> Opp. of ནག་པོའི་ཆ་. 1) «The lightening phase» meaning the waxing phase of the moon. 2) «Positivity» meaning the དགེ་བ་ virtuous side of action as opposed to the non-virtuous one.

དཀར་པོའི་ཆོས་ [dkar po'i chos] «Positive qualities / dharmas». The opp. of ནག་པོའི་ཆོས་ q.v. Here the word ཆོས་ dharma has the specific meaning of 1) «quality / qualities» of mind or 2) spiritual approaches / practices. E.g., see དཀར་པོའི་ཆོས་བཞི་ the four positive dharmas. E.g., [KBC] འགྲོ་བ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་དཀར་པོའི་ཆོས་རྣམས་འཕེལ་བར་བྱེད་པས་ཞིང་ལྟ་བུའོ། «(bodhicitta) is like a field because it increases good qualities in all sentient beings».

དཀར་པོའི་ཆོས་བཞི་ [dkar po'i chos bzhi] «The four white (/ positive) dharmas». In the ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Vehicle these are explained as the four things that prevent the degeneration of བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ bodhicitta. 1) སྲོག་གམ་ཐ་ན་བཞད་གད་ཀྱི་ཕྱིར་ཡང་ཤེས་བཞིན་གྱི་རྫུན་མི་སྨྲ་བ་ «abandoning consciously telling lies at the cost of one's life or even for a joke»; 2) སེམས་ཅན་ལ་གཡོ་སྒྱུ་མེད་པར་བསམ་པ་དྲང་པོར་གནས་པ་ «helping sentient beings straightforwardly without ulterior motives»; 3) སེམས་ཅན་ཀུན་ལ་སྟོན་པའི་འདུ་ཤེས་སྐྱེད་ཅིང་དོན་གནས་ཀྱི་བསྔགས་པ་བརྗོད་པ «developing the recognition of all sentient beings as teachers and expressing their praises accordingly»; 4) གདུལ་བྱ་རྣམས་ཉི་ཚེ་བའི་ཐེག་པར་མི་འདོར་བར་རྫོགས་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་འཛིན་དུ་འཇུག་པ་ «getting trainees to take up perfect enlightenment without abandoning the temporary vehicles».

དཀར་པོའི་ལས་ [dkar po'i las] 1) «White karma» or «positive karma» as opposed to ནག་པོའི་ལས་ black karma. Same meaning as ལས་དགེ་བ་ i.e., virtuous karma. 2) «White actions / activities», «positive actions», «wholesome activity» in general opposed to ནག་པོའི་ལས་ black actions, etc.

དཀར་ཕྱོགས་ [dkar phyogs] 1) «The light / white side» meaning the positive side, or the side of goodness /virtue, or the side of good forces. 2) «The light phase» meaning the period of the ཡར་ངོ་ waxing moon in which the moon becomes lighter q.v. The dark phase is ནག་ཕྱོགས་ q.v.

དཀར་བ་ [dkar ba] I. Sometimes seen as a past of v.t. དགའ་བ་ q.v.
II. Form of དཀར་པོ་ the colour white, meaning i) either pure white or whitish and hence with the additional meanings of ii) pure, good, virtuous, positive, morally pure, wholesome and iii) anything whitish such as white rice, pure food, porcelain/china-ware.

དཀར་མེ་ [dkar me] «Offering lamps». The name is derived from the fact that the lamps are offered as part of དཀར་པོ་ virtuous activity in general.

དཀར་མོ་ཉི་ཟླའི་ཐོད་འཕྲེང་ [dkar mo nyi zla'i thod 'phreng] «Karmo Nyiday Thothreng». The name of the leader of one of the ནང་གི་སྡེ་བརྒྱད་ inner eight classes q.v.

དཀར་རྩི་ [dkar rtsi] 1) «White paint / varnish / lacquer»; the general name for any kind of white paint. 2) «Whitewash», the white mineral and water paint used to cover walls, fences, and so on. 3) «White coating». A name for melted butter, without colour added, which is used as the general paint for painted tormas. 4) «White dip» a kind of medicinal dip for domestic animals that prevents certain kinds of diseases.

དཀར་རྩིས་ [dkar rtsis] Same meaning as སྐར་རྩིས་ q.v.

དཀར་ཟླ་ [dkar zla] 1) Meaning ཟླ་དཀར་པོ་ «white moon». 2) «White month» the name of the fifth ཧོར་ཟླ་ Tibetan lunar month.

དཀར་ཡོལ་ [dkar yol] «Porcelain», «porcelain-ware», «chinaware». It is used to refer to any kind of porcelain crockery, including plates, cups, bowls, etc., however it is often used to mean «(porcelain) cup».

དཀར་གྱའ་ [dkar g-ya'] 1) «Tin», «tinning», «tin coating». The original meaning was གཤའ་ཚེ་དཀར་པོ་ tin metal melted and used to coat other metals. E.g., on tinned copper. 2) «Solder» in recent times it is sometimes used to mean the solder used to join metals. Solder is variously compounded of tin, lead, and / or zinc metals.

དཀར་ལ་དྭངས་པ་སྔོ་ལ་འཕྱུར་པ་ [dkar la dvangs pa sngo la 'phyur pa] «Bluish white» or «pure white with blue coming through».

དཀར་ལ་དམར་བའི་མདངས་ཆགས་པ་ [dkar la dmar ba'i mdangs chags pa] «White with a reddish hue» or «white with a reddish lustre».

དཀར་ལམ་ [dkar lam] phrase> «Whiteness». Used to mean something which is just experienced as whiteness and nothing else. 1) In general, something which just appears as whiteness. 2) «The whiteness» or «the white path». The name given to the period of the death process when a person is experiencing the སྣང་བ་ «appearance» phase of the སྣང་མཆེད་ཐོབ་པའི་སྣང་བ་གསུམ་ «the three appearances of appearance, flaring, and penultimate» q.v. During this stage of the death process, the mind experiences only space filled with white light. See also དམར་ལམ་ the redness and ནག་ལམ་ the blackness.

དཀར་ལམ་པ་ [dkar lam pa] phrase> «Whiteness». E.g., the experience of the person who has entered the དཀར་ལམ་ whiteness phase of the death process q.v.

དཀར་གསལ་ [dkar gsal] 1) «Brilliant white». 2) «Clear and white».

དཀར་གསུམ་ [dkar gsum] «The three white (substances)». The three white substances prescribed by the Buddha are: 1) ཞོ་ «curd / yoghurt»; 2) མར་ «butter»; and 3) འོ་མ་ «milk».

དཀར་གསུམ་མངར་གསུམ་ [dkar gsum mngar gsum] «The three white and three sweet (substances)». See དཀར་གསུམ་ for the three whites and མངར་གསུམ་ for the three sweets.

དཀར་གསུར་ [dkar gsur] «White Sur»; a གསུར་ Sur offering done with white foods, i.e., foods not including with meat and blood.

དཀུ་ [dku] I. Part of དཀུ་བ་ q.v.
II. 1) «The hip» of the body, i.e., the area over the hip bones on each side. 2) The lower abdomen in general, i.e., the area between the hip-bones and the navel. Hence as follows. i) The «belly» of a woman where a child is carried; or «stomach» as children might say. ii) «Abdomen» or more coll. «stomach» as in དཀུ་ཕྱང་ངེ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «the minor mark of flat abdomen» q.v. iii) The «waist», «waistline» e.g., in དཀུ་སྐབས་ཕྱིན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «the minor mark of good waistline».

དཀུ་སྐབས་ཕྱིན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [dku skabs phyin pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of good waistline». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «mṛṣhṭakukṣhi anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. Of them, it is one of སྐུ་སྨད་ཀྱི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of the lower body» q.v. It specifically means that a buddha is not too fat or too thin, that the waistline is not too large or small. This means that the overall waistline measurement is not too large or too small whereas དཀུ་ཕྱང་ངེ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «the minor mark of a flat stomach» means that the abdomen does not bulge out but is flat.

དཀུ་ཕྱང་ངེ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [dku phyang nge ba'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of flat abdomen». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «kṣhāmakukṣhi anuvyañjani». Acc. [NDS] one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. Of them, it is one of སྐུ་སྨད་ཀྱི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of the lower body» q.v. Note that དཀུ་ here refers to the section of the body from the hips up to the stomach. This this term does not mean «slender hips» as some have given but having a flat abdomen i.e., that a buddha does not have a pudgy stomach; that he has the stomach of someone in good condition, without a bulge to it. This understanding fits with the altern. version of this which is seen as ཕྱལ་ཕྱང་ངེ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «the minor mark of flatness» q.v.

དཀུ་བ་ [dku ba] I. v.i. དཀུ་བ་/ དཀུ་བ་/ དཀུ་བ་//. The basic meaning is for some kind of filth or unpleasantness to come out into the environment. 1) For bad or very strong smells to come up / be given off / be released / be noticed / appear. E.g., [TC] དྲི་ངན་དཀུ་བ། «a stench appeared». 2) For spit and the like «to come out» or «to drop down». Hence also, «to dribble». E.g., [TC] མཆི་མ་ལྷུག་ལྷུག་ཏུ་དཀུ་བ། «spit dribbled down». 3) [Old] Acc. [LGK] ལྷག་པ་ q.v. and acc. [TC] ལྷག་པ་ and ལུས་པ་ q.v.
II. «Bad smell» or «very strong odour». There are several words for «bad smell» or «strong odour» in English, all of which are appropriate in context. E.g., «stench», «stink», «(bad or strong) odour». The term does not only mean a bad odour per se but can also refer to very strong odours that are not pleasant because of their overpowering quality, e.g., of garlic and so forth, e.g., in དཀུ་བ་རྣམ་པ་ལྔ་ «the five kinds of odours» q.v.

དཀུ་བ་རྣམ་པ་ལྔ་ [dku ba rnam pa lnga] «The five strongly-smelling substances». These are mentioned in the Vinaya as «five substances of very pungent odour» that are forbidden for use of fully ordained monks. The five things are: 1) སྒོག་པ་ «garlic»; 2) བཙོང་ «onion»; 3) རྒྱ་སྒོག་ Chinese garlic; 4) རི་སྒོག་ «mountain garlic»; and 5) ཤིང་ཀུན་ «asafoetida».

དཀུ་མ་རྙོངས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [dku ma rnyongs pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of waist not elongated». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «abhugnakukṣhi anuvyañjani». Acc. [NDS] one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. Of them, it is one of སྐུ་སྨད་ཀྱི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of the lower body» q.v. This means that the waist portion of a buddha's body is not disproportionately long.

དཀུ་ཟླུམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [dku zlum pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of rounded hips». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «vṛttakukṣhi anuvyañjani». Acc. [NDS] one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. Of them, it is one of སྐུ་སྨད་ཀྱི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of the lower body» q.v. This is the sign that his hip bones do not jut out as they do on many humans, giving a jagged appearance to the hips, but that the bone and flesh covering it present a rounded, smooth, and pleasant to look at appearance.

དཀོན་ཅོག་ [dkon cog] Following the rules of old orthography this is the correct spelling for the term which translates the Sanskrit «ratna». This correct spelling is derived from rules of letter gender. In modern orthography it becomes དཀོན་མཆོག་ which is the form mostly seen now.

དཀོན་ཅོག་བརྩེགས་པ་ [dkon cog brtsegs pa] Following the rules of old orthography this is the correct spelling for the name དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པ་ q.v.

དཀོན་མཆོག་ [dkon mchog] «Jewel». 1) Translation of the Sanskrit «ratna» used when referring to the places of Buddhist refuge: the Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha.
The Sanskrit term «ratna» has many usages within its general meaning of «rich, precious, valuable», one of them is «jewel» or other «precious stone / substance». The Buddha himself used it to refer to the three places of Buddhist refuge with the simple and basic sense of «jewel». This simple, spoken sense then became highly commented on by later learned ones of the tradition and ten shades of meaning are traditionally described for its use when naming the Buddhist places of refuge. For example, a jewel is precious, rare, valuable, has many excellences, and so on. These meanings and how they relate to the places of Buddhist refuge are clearly laid out in the great Indian texts of the Buddhist tradition e.g., in the མངོན་རྟོགས་རྒྱན་ Abhisamayālaṅkāra, and in Tibetan texts following them.
Because the term ratna has a specific meaning in this context, the original Tibetan translators working in conjunction with the Indian `s chose not to translate this usage of «ratna» with the usual «རིན་ཆེན་». Instead they used དཀོན་ཅོག་ which was later changed to དཀོན་མཆོག་ at the time of the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ first language revision. Both forms are correct; one conforms to the old orthography and one to the new.
The Tibetan lit. means something which is a དཀོན་པ་ «rarity» and which is མཆོག་ «excellent». Because of this the Tibetan has been translated into English completely literally with the «rare supreme ones», «the precious supremes», «the precious jewels»; «the rare and sublime ones», and other similar phrases. However, this is a case where translating a translation without looking at the original leads to a significant error. When the Buddha used the term «ratna» he used it in the specific sense of a «jewel». Jewels have many qualities such as being rare, excellent, and so on, and those were the meanings intended by the Buddha. However, he specifically used the word in the exact English sense «Jewel», not in the sense «rare and precious ones» or any of the other, un-informed and highly overdone translation that have appeared in recent years.
There is another translation in use, «gem». It is harder to make a distinction between «jewel» and «gem» as right or wrong or even more suitable. However, as a matter of sheer experience with the languages concerned and with the intent of the Buddhist tradition, it seems to me that «Jewel» is a better translation.
The term is used both to refer to the three places of refuge as a whole. In Sanskrit, this is དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ «triratna» or «The Three Jewels». It is also used to refer to each of them singly, e.g., «buddharatna», «dharmaratna», and «saṅgharatna» and these are correctly translated into English with «buddha jewel», «dharma jewel», and «sangha jewel». Trying to call these the «buddha rare and precious one» or the like is not only wrong but excessive; it is just slavish translation of the Tibetan without considering the original.
2) དཀོན་མཆོག་ is usually used in coll. language as a way of swearing to the truth of something using the Buddhist (three) Jewels as witness. It is similar to a Christian saying, «By Jesus...» etc.

དཀོན་མཆོག་ཀུན་འདུས་ [dkon mchog kun 'dus] «Embodiment of the Jewels». Meaning «completely containing or subsuming the Jewels», where Jewels refers to the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha, the Buddhist places of refuge. In English, «subsummation or subsuming the Jewels» is correct but may be clumsy particularly in poetry where it is freq. used. Usually used in Vajrayāna literature to describe the special quality of the guru, e.g., དཀོན་མཆོག་ཀུན་འདུས་བླ་མ་ the guru who embodies the (Three) Jewels.

དཀོན་མཆོག་གི་མཆོད་པ་ [dkon mchog gi mchod pa] «(Making) offerings to the (three) Jewels». The standard Buddhist practice of making མཆོད་པ་ pūja to the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha.

དཀོན་མཆོག་གི་ཟ་མ་ཏོག་གི་མདོ་ [dkon mchog gi za ma tog gi mdo] «The Container of the Jewels Sūtra». Translation of the Sanskrit «ratnakarandakasūtra». The name of a Mahāyāna sūtra in the fourth volume of the བཀའ་འགྱུར་ Tibetan Translation of the Buddha Word.

དཀོན་མཆོག་མཆོད་པ་ [dkon mchog mchod pa] Abbrev. of དཀོན་མཆོག་གི་མཆོད་པ་ q.v.

དཀོན་མཆོག་ཏ་ལ་ལ་ [dkon mchog ta la la] Abbrev. of དཀོན་མཆོག་ཏ་ལ་ལའི་གཟུངས་ q.v.

དཀོན་མཆོག་ཏ་ལ་ལའི་གཟུངས་ [dkon mchog ta la la'i gzungs] «Jewel Lamp Dhāraṇi». Translation+translit. of the Sanskrit «ratna talala dhāraṇi». Abbrev. of འཕགས་པ་དཀོན་མཆོག་ཏ་ལ་ལའི་གཟུངས་ «ārya ratna talala dhāraṇi». The name of a dhāraṇi belonging to the Mahāyāna sūtras and found in the བཀའ་འགྱུར་ Tibetan Translation of the Buddha Word. Translated into Tibetan from Sanskrit by པཎྜི་ཏ་སུ་རེནྡྲ་བོདྷི་ Paṇḍita Surendrabodhi and ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་བནྡེ་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ་ Translator Bende Yeshe De.

དཀོན་མཆོག་དྲུག་ [dkon mchog drug] «The Six Jewels». A formulation of the place of refuge according to the Nyingma secret mantra system. In it, the three roots of secret mantra are conjoined with the three general places of refuge of the outer, sūtra tradition. They are: 1) བླ་མ་ «guru»; 2) ཡི་དམ་ «iṣhṭadevatā»; 3) མཁའ་འགྲོ་ «ḍākiṇī»; 4) སངས་རྒྱས་ «buddha»; 5) ཆོས་ «dharma»; 6) དགེ་འདུན་ «saṅgha».

དཀོན་མཆོག་སྤྱི་འདུས་ [dkon mchog spyi 'dus] «Summation of the Jewels». In Sanskrit, «ratnasamanyasaṅgha». Tibetan phonetics «Konchog Chindu». The name of a complete cycle of treasure that were revealed by འཇའ་ཚོན་སྙིང་པོ་ Jatson Nyingpo. The main deity in the practice is a form of Padmasaṃbhava called པདྨ་འོད་འབར་ Padma Blazing Light. Note that the cycle is often called «Embodiment of the Jewels» but the meaning is that, overall, he is the equivalent of the jewels, containing all of them, in essence.

དཀོན་མཆོག་སྤྲིན་གྱི་མདོ་ [dkon mchog sprin gyi mdo] «The Ratnamegha Sūtra», «The Cloud of Jewels Sūtra». Translation of the Sanskrit «ratnameghasūtra». A principal sūtra of the Mahāyāna sūtra section. It was among the group of Buddhist texts first translated in Tibet because of the Dharma King Songtsen Gampo. It was translated by ཐུ་མི་སཾབྷོཊ་ Thumi Saṃbhoṭa.

དཀོན་མཆོག་དབུ་འཕང་བསྟོད་ [dkon mchog dbu 'phang bstod] «Glorification of the Jewels»

དཀོན་མཆོག་འབངས་ [dkon mchog 'bangs] I. «Subject of the Three Jewels». An alias of དཀོན་མཆོག་ཡན་ལག་ Konchog Yanlag.
II. «Subject(s) of the Jewels» a phrase used to mean all those who take refuge in དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ the Three Jewels and are subject to them. Just as མི་འབངས་ are the commoners of a nation or kingdom beneath the ruling principles, so the དཀོན་མཆོག་འབངས་ are the subjects of the Three Jewels.

དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པ་ [dkon mchog brtsegs pa] «Stack of Jewels» abbrev. of དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པའི་མདོ་ q.v.

དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ [dkon mchog brtsegs pa chen po] «the great Stack of Jewels» in reference to དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པའི་མདོ་ q.v., a very large collection of third turning sutras.

དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པའི་མདོ་ [dkon mchog brtsegs pa'i mdo] «The Stack of Jewels Sūtra». Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «ratnakūṭa sūtra». It is a very large Mahāyāna sūtra that consists of a number of smaller sūtras collected into a whole. It contains forty-nine major chapters. Note that the name refers to a big pile of the Three Jewels, not to a pile of any kind of jewels. The reason for that is that the sutra consists of many explanations that show the meaning of one or more of the Three Jewels. This fact is then reflected in the Tibetan translation of the name; because the word ratna in the Sanskrit name actually refers to the Three Jewels, the Tibetan translation consists of དཀོན་མཆོག་ rather than རིན་ཆེན་ which it otherwise would be.

དཀོན་མཆོག་བཞི་ [dkon mchog bzhi] «The Four Jewels» i.e., the དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ Three Jewels plus the དཀོན་མཆོག་བཞི་པ་ fourth jewel which is the guru q.v.

དཀོན་མཆོག་བཞི་པ་ [dkon mchog bzhi pa] «The fourth jewel» meaning the རྩ་བའི་བླ་མ་ root guru. See དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ for the first three jewels and reason for translation as «jewel».

དཀོན་མཆོག་ཟ་མ་ཏོག་ [dkon mchog za ma tog] Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «ratnakaraṇḍakaṃ». Abbrev. of དཀོན་མཆོག་གི་ཟ་མ་ཏོག་གི་མདོ་ q.v.

དཀོན་མཆོག་ཡན་ལག་ [dkon mchog yan lag] 1) «Konchog Yanlag». [1525-1583] The name of ཞྭ་དམར་པ་ Zhamarpa V. 2) [OEE] «Some Great Vehicle followers assert that Śhākyamuṇi Buddha aroused his enlightenment mind three incalculable kalpas ago in front of the buddhas Mahāśhākyamuṇi, དཀོན་མཆོག་ཡན་ལག་ Ratnāṅga, and དཀོན་མཆོག་ཡན་ལག་ Ratnakūṭa who came in succession.»

དཀོན་མཆོག་རིན་ཆེན་གསུམ་ [dkon mchog rin chen gsum] Same as དཀོན་མཆོག་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ q.v.

དཀོན་མཆོག་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ [dkon mchog rin po che rnam pa gsum] «The three (types of) precious jewel(s)». See under དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་. Here, the word རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ precious thing / jewel is defined in the མངོན་རྟོགས་རྒྱན་ Abhisamayālaṅkāra as a jewel having eight qualities of preciousness, rarity, and so forth.

དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ [dkon mchog gsum] phrase> «The Three Jewels». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «trīṇi ratna» or «triratna». See དཀོན་མཆོག་ for complete discussion of the term «Jewels». The Three Jewels is the name given to the three places which Buddhists go to for refuge.
The three places are in full [KPC]: 1) སངས་རྒྱས་དཀོན་མཆོག་ «the Buddha Jewel»; 2) ཆོས་དཀོན་མཆོག་ «the Dharma Jewel»; and 3) དགེ་འདུན་དཀོན་མཆོག་ «the Saṅgha Jewel». Or in abbrev. form [DGT] [NDS] : 1) སངས་རྒྱས་ the Buddha; 2) ཆོས་ the (Buddha's) dharma; and 3) དགེ་འདུན་ the (Buddha's) Saṅgha.

དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པའི་མདོ་ [dkon mchog gsum rjes su dran pa'i mdo] Abbrev. of འཕགས་པ་དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པའི་མདོ་ q.v.

དཀོན་གཉེར་ [dkon gnyer] «Shrinekeeper». The general name for the person who takes care of a temple. It India and Nepal, the Hindi term for this person the «pujari» meaning the person who oversees the temple and does whatever puja are requested. The Tibetan term just means the caretaker of the temple. It can also refer more specifically to someone who དཀོན་མཆོག་གི་རྟེན་གཉེར་ takes care of the shrine objects. Same meaning as སྐུ་གཉེར་ q.v.

དཀོན་པ་ [dkon pa] «A rarity», «scarcity». See also དཀོན་པོ་ «rare / scarce». E.g., [KBC] ལན་མང་པོ་དང་ཡུན་རིང་པར་མི་འབྱུང་བས་ཤིན་ཏུ་དཀོན་པས་ན་ «since (such a thought of bodhicitta) neither arises often nor for a long time, it is an extreme rarity».

དཀོན་པོ་ [dkon po] «Rare», «scarce». Defined as རྙེད་དཀའ་ «not easily obtained».

དཀོན་བརྩེགས་ [dkon brtsegs] Abbrev. of དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པའི་མདོ་ q.v.

དཀོར་ [dkor] I. Acc. [LGK] this and ཀ་ཅ་ q.v. were revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, general names for ནོར་ wealth, goods, property altogether; see below.
II. The term includes all of the following «property», «wealth», «material things of value», «riches», «funds», «finances», and the like. The term has two main usages. 1) In general, it is the same as ཀ་ཅ་ or ནོར་; a general name for the things that constitute ones possessions, wealth, means altogether. 2) Specifically, it is used to refer to things that have been offered to the Buddhist monastic community out of faith and which are the property of the monastic saṅgha. In this case the term can mean just «the property / material things / funds / wealth of the saṅgha» but since all of that comes from donors there is the added and strong connotation of something that has been offered by the faithful and hence which has strong karmic effects attached to its theft or misuse.

དཀོར་གྲིབ་ [dkor grib] The name of a particular kind of གྲིབ་ negative influence that can result in sickness or mental disturbance for the person affected by it. This particular form comes from mishandling དཀོར་ the property / funds of the ordained Buddhist saṅgha. E.g., mis-using funds, gifts, donations given for religious purposes would result in this kind of contamination.

དཀོར་གཉེར་ [dkor gnyer] Name of an official position within monasteries. According to the Buddha's rules for monastics laid down in the Vinaya, anything which has been offered to the monastic community must be treated as property of the community and not used for personal gain, purposes, etc. Therefore, a caretaker of monastic property is appointed who maintains a register and so on of donated items and ensures that they are used properly, within the laws of the Vinaya.

དཀོས་ཐག་ [dkos thag] Acc. [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཉམས་ཐག་ q.v.

དཀྱིལ་ [dkyil] A term having the basic meaning «the central part, the part at the middle of some larger thing». It is used alone or in combination with other མིང་ names to provide this meaning.
I. «Centre», «middle», «midst», «inside of (but not meaning the interior per se)». In some grammatical constructions this comes to be «in the midst of», «at the centre of».
II. 1) Abbrev. of དཀྱིལ་མ་ q.v. «the central one». 3) Abbrev. of དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་ q.v. where it can mean either maṇḍala in the sense of a stylized maṇḍala or simply «disk», «circle».

དཀྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ [dkyil krung] Mis-spelling of སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ q.v.

དཀྱིལ་དཀྲུང་ [dkyil dkrung] Mis-spelling of སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ q.v.

དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་ [dkyil 'khor] «maṇḍala». Translation of the Sanskrit «maṇḍala». The etymology of maṇḍala is described in Tibetan Buddhist teachings as that it has དཀྱིལ་ and འཁོར་ «centre and surroundings» meaning that there is a centre and there are the surroundings that relate to that centre and which are bounded by a circumference. 1) Thus, the word «maṇḍala» denotes a situation which is some the complete world of a some leading principle. This is the word of choice when describing the «worlds» of Buddhist meditational deities either in fact or as their representation. Similarly it is used to describe the traditional Buddhist physical representation of the universe. 2) Something of circular shape which contains some principle. E.g., the ཉི་ཟླ་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་ sun and moon «disks» which Buddhist meditational deities have as a seat are circular disks and are the complete representations of wisdom and compassion respectively. E.g., the སའི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་ etc., which are the earth (and water, wind, fire, etc.,) maṇḍalas mentioned in the deity visualizations of the tantras. 3) «Sphere» in the sense of a complete situation that contains everything in regard to something e.g., སྐུ་གསུང་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་དཀྱིལ་འཁོར། «the spheres of enlightened body, speech, and mind».

དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་གྱི་ཆོ་ག་ [dkyil 'khor gyi cho ga] «maṇḍala liturgy / ritual». That portion of a larger ritual or liturgy that deals with the offering of the maṇḍala.

དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་བརྒྱད་ཅེས་བྱ་བའི་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་གྲངས་ [dkyil 'khor brgyad ces bya ba'i chos kyi rnam grangs] «Enumeration of dharmas called «The Eight maṇḍalas». The name of a text translated by the Indian Preceptors ཛི་ན་མི་ཏྲ་ Jinamitra and དཱ་ན་ཤཱི་ལ་ Dānaśhīla and the Tibetan Lotsāwa ཞང་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ་ Zhang Yeshe De and then revised and finalized by them.

དཀྱིལ་ཆོག་ [dkyil chog] Abbrev. of དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་ཆོ་ག་ «maṇḍala ritual / rite / liturgy». 1) That portion of a larger ritual that performs the maṇḍala portion of the ritual in particular. E.g., found in tantric texts where a maṇḍala is established. 2) General name for a text that contains a maṇḍala ritual.

དཀྱིལ་དུ་ [dkyil du] 1) «In the middle of / at the centre of». 2) «Amidst», «around», «within the precincts», «within the area of». E.g., [KBC] ལོང་བ་ཐང་དཀྱིལ་དུ་ལུས་པ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་ཅན་འདི་རྣམས་སྙིང་རེ་རྗེ་ «How pitiful these sentient beings, like blind people lost in a desert!».

དཀྱིལ་མ་ [dkyil ma] Derived from དཀྱིལ་. «The central one», «the middle one». E.g., དཀྱིལ་མའི་ལྷ་ «the central deity (of a deity maṇḍala)».

དཀྱིལ་མོ་དཀྲུང་ [dkyil mo dkrung] Mis-spelling of སྐྱིལ་མོ་ཀྲུང་ q.v.

དཀྱིལ་སྨད་ [dkyil smad] «The lower half». Used in reference to the lower portion of the ས་ levels of a bodhisatva.

དཀྱུ་ [dkyu] Part of དཀྱུ་བ་ q.v.

དཀྱུ་རྟ་ [dkyu rta] A «race-horse», any horse used for racing.

དཀྱུ་པོ་ [dkyu po] 1) A horse «jockey» or 2) anyone who rides a horse in race.

དཀྱུ་བ་ [dkyu ba] v.t. དཀྱུས་པ་/ དཀྱུ་བ་/ དཀྱུ་བ་/ དཀྱུས་/. «To run a race», «to out-run». E.g., [TC] རྟ་དཀྱུ་མཁན་མཁས་པས་དཀྱུས་པ་འདྲ། «ran the race like a professional jockey»; རྟ་མཆོག་དཀྱུས་སུ་འགྲན་པ། «the fine steed was a match for (came out ahead of) the others in the race».
Note that some dictionaries give this as «to run fast», «to gallop». However, that is mistaken. Firstly, the term is used in regard to horses. Secondly, it means not only to run a horse fast, but to run a horse faster than any other horse. This is mostly used in the sense of «running a race» but occasionally is used (e.g., in the sūtras) in the sense of one rider having his steed out-run / surge ahead of several others as a show of the fineness of the mount.

དཀྱུ་ས་ [dkyu sa] «Race course», «race track» specifically meaning for horses. E.g., [TC] མི་འགྲོ་སར་མི་འགྲོ། རྟ་དཀྱུ་སར་རྟ་དཀྱུ། «men go on their paths; horses race on horse race courses».

དཀྱུས་ [dkyus] I. 1) Imp. of དཀྱུ་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྱུ་བ་ q.v.
II. The term has the sense of the length of something in the sense of «running through the full course of something, lengthwise, from one end to the other». 1) «Length», the length of something. 2) «Warp», the threads placed lengthwise in any woven item; same meaning as the སྲིད་ warp. 3) The subject matter of a text, what a book is about, derived from the sense «the main thread of meaning of a book».
III. «Lengthwise».
IV. Used in combination with other terms to give a term of new meaning. In those terms it mostly supplies the following meanings. 1) དཀྱུས་མ་ lit. «run of the mill» i.e., just the «common» thing with nothing special about it. or 2) «Length» དཀྱུས་ཚད་ as opposed to breadth.

དཀྱུས་ཐག་ [dkyus thag] The «length», as opposed to ཞེང་ breadth, meaning «the length from one end to the other». Some lexicons claim that this is the «warp fibre» of a weaving but that is incorrect assumption about the meaning of ཐག་; here it means «the ... distance» as in བར་ཐག་ or ཐག་རིང་ q.v.

དཀྱུས་པ་ [dkyus pa] Past of དཀྱུ་བ་ q.v.

དཀྱུས་མ་ [dkyus ma] Lit. «run of the mill» meaning ordinary, nothing special. Hence «generic», «mundane», «the ordinary / garden variety». 1) Used to mean that the object being referred is of the ordinary-old / everyday / garden variety / mundane type and hence is lesser than some superior version that it is being compared with. E.g., ཀུན་རྫོབ་དཀྱུས་མ་ in relation to ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་ means «the mundane kundzob» which is not as good as the superior type of kundzob, «kundzob truth». 2) Used to mean someone who is not ordained, who is an «ordinary-old» layperson.

དཀྱུས་མོ་ [dkyus mo] Acc. [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, མགྱོགས་པ་. [LGK] gives more information: it means མགྱོགས་པ་ or རྒྱུག་པ་ «speed / haste» q.v.

དཀྱུས་མོར་ [dkyus mor] Form of དཀྱུས་མོ་ q.v. «quickly», «speedily», «swiftly».

དཀྱུས་ཚད་ [dkyus tshad] The measured «length» of anything, i.e., its «lengthwise dimension» as opposed to its ཞེང་ག་ breadth.

དཀྱེལ་ཆེ་བ་ [dkyel che ba] phrase> [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཁོང་ཡངས་པ་ i.e., «broad, vast, and of large capacity» and also «broad and capable-minded».

དཀྱེ་རྡོར་ [dkye rdor] Mis-spelling of དགྱེས་རྡོར་ q.v.

དཀྱོར་འབྱིན་ [dkyor 'byin] [Old] The term has the same meaning in revised language as གཡོ་སྒྱུ་ q.v.

དཀྲི་ [dkri] Part of དཀྲི་བ་ q.v.

དཀྲི་བ་ [dkri ba] I. v.t. དཀྲིས་པ་/ དཀྲི་བ་/ དཀྲི་བ་/ དཀྲིས་/. Intransitive form is འཁྲི་བ་ q.v. 1) Having general meaning of «binding by wrapping around». Hence «to bind», «to tie», «to fasten», «to wrap with». Note that there are several other terms for tying / binding e.g., འཆིང་བ་; this has the particular sense of wrapping something around something. E.g., [BCA] མི་ན་བཞིན་དུ་མགོ་དཀྲིས་ «(those who) like the sick, bandage their heads». E.g., [TC] རས་ཀྱིས་མགོ་དཀྲིས་པ། «wrapped / bandaged his head with cloth». E.g., [KBC] རང་སྣ་མི་ལག་ཏུ་མི་གཏོད་པར་སྣ་ཐག་རང་མགོར་དཀྲིས་ནས་ lit. «not handing my nose-rope over (to others) but fastening it to my own head» meaning «not allowing oneself to be led by others but following one's own path». In some cases, it could be translated with «to wind around» e.g., [TYL] ཧཱུཾ་གི་ཕྲེང་བ་ལུ་གུ་རྒྱུད་དུ་འབྲེལ་བ་དམིགས་རྟེན་གྱི་རྩ་བ་ནས་རིམ་པར་དཀྲིས་ཤིང་རྩེ་མོར་སླེབ་པ་་་ «(causes) a string of HŪṂs in a continuous chain to wind around the visualization support gradually from base to top...». 2) Used in the sense of imposing something on someone else whether they like it or not. E.g., [TC] ཁག་དཀྲི་བ། «to blame (minor things) on someone else / to pass the blame off onto someone else» with the particular sense of saying «Oh, this is not my problem, this was done by somebody else». E.g., [TC] ཁག་ཕར་དཀྲི་ཚུར་དཀྲི། «to pass off the blame here and there» e.g., saying «this is his mistake, that there is her mistake» etc. E.g., [TC] ནག་དཀྲི་བ། «to pass off blame for bad actions onto someone else». E.g., [TC] འགན་དཀྲི་བ། «to impose responsibility» on someone else, to tell someone that it is their responsibility to do something and not giving them the option of not taking it up; this is the opp. of འགན་འཁུར་བ་ in which someone (willingly) takes up a responsibility because they wish to do so. 3) Note that [SCD] confuses this verb with བཀྲི་བ་ which it is not.
II. The noun form is usually written as the past form དཀྲིས་ to indicate some kind of binding or wrapping, e.g. ལྕགས་དཀྲིས་ «a steel binding / band».

དཀྲིག་ [dkrig] Part of དཀྲིག་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲིག་པ་ [dkrig pa] v.t. དཀྲིགས་པ་/ དཀྲིག་པ་/ དཀྲིག་པ་/ དཀྲིགས་/. Intransitive form is འཁྲིགས་པ་ q.v. This has the primary meaning of things being made «to come together and pile up». It has the sense of things being joined together and interpenetrating to form a mass. It has a secondary connotation of that mass «covering and causing some darkness or obscuration» e.g., like clouds massing in the sky also makes the weather overcast and the land darker and less clear. It can be translated with «to gather» or as long as the context makes it clear where necessary that there is a dimming quality occurring at the same time. E.g., ནམ་མཁའ་ལ་སྤྲིན་དཀྲིགས་པ་ «the sky darkened with massing clouds / the sky became overcast with clouds», «clouds built and covered the sky / the sky dimmed with the gathering clouds». E.g., [TC] དུད་སྤྲིན་དཀྲིགས་པ། «clouds of smoke built up»; ན་བུན་དཀྲིགས་པ། «the mist rolled in / thickened / gathered»; ཁ་ཆར་དཀྲིགས་པ། «rain and snow built up».

དཀྲིགས་ [dkrigs] I. 1) Imp. of དཀྲིག་པ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྲིག་པ་ q.v.
II. Translation of the Sanskrit «bimbaraḥ». The number 10 to the 17th power, it is the eighteenth of the གྲངས་གནས་དྲུག་ཅུ་ sixty numeric places of the Indian counting system according to the system of counting in the Abhidharma q.v.

དཀྲིགས་ཆེན་པོ་ [dkrigs chen po] Translation of the Sanskrit «mahā bimbaraḥ». The number 10 to the 18th power, it is the nineteenth of the གྲངས་གནས་དྲུག་ཅུ་ sixty numeric places of the Indian counting system according to the system of counting in the Abhidharma q.v.

དཀྲིགས་པ་ [dkrigs pa] Past of དཀྲིག་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲིས་ [dkris] I. 1) Imp. of དཀྲི་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྲི་བ་ q.v.
II. Usually used in conjunction with other words to indicate the band / cord / sash etc., that has been bound around something to hold it together or to wrap it securely. E.g., the bands around a tea churn or any other item made from bamboo which hold the bamboo tightly and prevent it from splitting. E.g., wrappings of cloth used to protect the legs (see below). 1) The type of band meaning what the band is made of e.g., ལྕགས་དཀྲིས་ «steel band»; སྨྱུག་དཀྲིས་ «bamboo band». 2) The type of band meaning what it is used to bind e.g., ཉྭ་དཀྲིས་ «leggings (done as cloth bindings around the lower legs, including the calves)»; སྐེ་དཀྲིས་ waist band; ཁ་དཀྲིས་ «muffle» q.v.

དཀྲིས་པ་ [dkris pa] Past of དཀྲི་བ་ q.v.

དཀྲུག་ [dkrug] Part of དཀྲུག་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲུག་དཀྲུག་གཏོང་བ་ [dkrug dkrug gtong ba] phrase> v.i. see གཏོང་བ་ for tense forms. 1) To make something move back and forth in the sense of «shaking» or «stirring» or «wagging» or «wiggling». Hence «to shake (e.g., a stick)», «(for an animal) to wag (its tail)», «to rattle», «to play (as in a ཌ་མ་རུ་ ḍamaru)», «to stir (e.g., food in a pot)». 2) To cause a mix up of things physically, e.g., to put things out of order. 3) To cause confusion (not agitation per se but a state of being mixed up) in the mind.

དཀྲུག་དཀྲུག་བྱེད་པ་ [dkrug dkrug byed pa] phrase> v.t. same as དཀྲུག་དཀྲུག་གཏོང་བ་ q.v.

དཀྲུག་པ་ [dkrug pa] I. v.t. དཀྲུགས་པ་/ དཀྲུག་པ་/ དཀྲུག་པ་/ དཀྲུགས་/. 1) Intransitive form is འཁྲུག་པ་ q.v. Basic meaning is འཁྲུག་པར་བྱེད་པ་ «to cause something to be shaken up». i) «To stir», «to mix». E.g., «to stir food» while cooking or «to mix» ingredients while preparing food. ii) «To churn». Used to mean སྲུབ་པ་ in the specific sense of churning e.g., when making tea ཇ་དཀྲུག་པ་ «to churn tea (Tibetan tea is made in a churn)» or when making butter འོ་མ་དཀྲུག་པ་ «to churn milk (for butter)». iii) «To shake», «to wag», «to toggle». Used to indicate the shaking back and forth of physical things in general and in modern times to toggle things on and off. E.g., ཁྱིས་རྔ་མ་དཀྲུག་དཀྲུག་རྒྱབ་པ། «for a dog to wag its tail». Note that གཡུག་པ་ is used for «waving» the hand or swinging the arms or something held in the hand. iv) «To shake up (the contents)», «to resuspend...». It also has the specific meaning of shaking something up to resuspend the contents. e.g., when drinking soupy foods from a bowl; [TC] འཁོར་ལོ་བསྐོར་ནས་ཤིང་ཕོར་དཀྲུག་པ། «rotate the contents of the wooden bowl then shake it (then drink it)». 2) «To confuse, to mix up». Here it is used to mean i) «to get things out of order physically» e.g., གོ་རིམ་དཀྲུགས་པ་ «to mess up the order, to put out of order» and also ii) «to confuse mentally» (not to cause agitation per se but a state of being mixed up) and hence also «to confound» e.g., སེམས་དཀྲུག་པ། «to confuse (not agitate) the mind», ཀླད་པ་དཀྲུག་དཀྲུག་གཏོང་བ། «to cause confusion in the brain / to cause to be muddled / addled». 3) Meaning to break up a previously good situation by causing disturbance. i) «To cause trouble», «to stir up trouble», «to create disturbance / agitation / disharmony / unrest / trouble / disruption» in human affairs or in the human environment. E.g., [TC] འབྲེལ་ལམ་དཀྲུག་པ། «to disrupt existing good relations». ii) «To upset», «to disrupt (existing good situation and turn it bad)», «to disturb» for other situations, E.g, [TC] ཟས་ངན་གཅིག་གིས་ཁོག་པའི་སྟོད་སྨད་དཀྲུག །མི་ངན་གཅིག་གིས་སྡེ་ཡི་ཕུ་མདའ་དཀྲུག «one bad food upsets the whole stomach top to bottom; one bad man upsets the whole district from highlands to valleys».
II. 1) «Stirrer». i) The long rod used in a churn for churning milk, butter, etc. ii) Any stick, etc. used for stirring anything. 2) Someone who stirs up trouble, «a trouble-maker»; in Australian slang «a stirrer». 3) Anything or anyone that causes disturbance, agitation.

དཀྲུག་ཤིང་ [dkrug shing] 1) «A stirrer», the wooden rod used for stirring up liquids e.g., the rod used in a butter or Tibetan tea churn. 2) Lit. the «stick of discord», a metaphor for creating discord amongst others by verbal means such as slander or divisive talk. E.g., དཀྲུག་ཤིང་རྒྱག་པ་ «to stir up trouble», «to create discord».

དཀྲུགས་ [dkrugs] 1) Imp. of དཀྲུག་པ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྲུག་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲུགས་པ་ [dkrugs pa] I. Past of དཀྲུག་པ་ q.v.
II «Stirring». The name of the eighth of the ten behaviours that were deemed unacceptable at the second council at Vaiśhālī; see རུང་བ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་གཞི་བཅུ་ «ten unacceptable grounds».

དཀྲུགས་ཡིག་ [dkrugs yig] phrase> «Jumbled composition». This term is the Tibetan equivalent of «poor / bad / jumbled English composition». It refers to the situation where the various components of some wording are put all out of order so that the resulting composition is hard to understand or ambiguous, etc. The term is seen especially in grammar texts when they commenting on the final verses of Thumi's Thirty Verses or in texts concerning good composition.
[RYD] quotes one source as saying «kind of characters in Tibet» but this is a mistake for འཁྱུག་ཡིག་ q.v.

དཀྲུམ་ [dkrum] I. 1) Imp. of དཀྲུམ་པ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྲུམ་པ་ q.v.
II. Alt. way of writing ཀྲུམ་ q.v.

དཀྲུམ་པ་ [dkrum pa] v.t. དཀྲུམས་པ་/ དཀྲུམ་པ་/ དཀྲུམ་པ་/ དཀྲུམས་/. 1) «To chip» in the sense of breaking a piece off something so that it is not whole. Often used in reference to cups and bowls, e.g., ཕོར་པའི་ཁ་དཀྲུམས་པ། «to chip the lip of a bowl». E.g., «to chip the edge of a knife». 2) In some cases «to fracture». 3) In some cases «to break into shards» or «to smash into pieces» like happens when porcelain or glass materials are dropped, etc., and smash into little pieces.

དཀྲུམས་ [dkrums] 1) Imp. of དཀྲུམ་པ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྲུམ་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲུམས་པ་ [dkrums pa] Past of དཀྲུམ་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲེ་ [dkre] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཕོ་མཚན་གྱི་ཏོག་ «testicle» q.v.

དཀྲོག་ [dkrog] Part of དཀྲོག་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲོག་པ་ [dkrog pa] v.t. དཀྲོགས་པ་/ དཀྲོག་པ་/ དཀྲོག་པ་/ དཀྲོགས་/. This verb has the general sense of «to stir up and cause to emerge». 1) Related to སྐྲོག་པ་ q.v. «To churn» as in [TC] འོ་མ་དཀྲོགས་ནས་མར་བཏོན་པ། «to churn milk to produce butter». 2) «To roust», «to stir up». To stir someone / something and make them emerge rapidly or suddenly. E.g., [TC] གཉིད་དཀྲོགས་པ་ «to roust from sleep»; རྟ་དཀྲོགས་པ་ «to roust the horses». Because of the sense of immediate rousing, in certain contexts this could be translated as «scare» or «scare up» or «surprise» but it really has the sense of «stirring up and making come out» rather than causing fright or surprise. E.g., [TC] ནགས་གནས་བྱ་རྣམས་དཀྲོགས་ནས་སྐད་རྒྱག་ཏུ་འཇུག་པ། «the birds of the forest were sent flying and squawked as they went».

དཀྲོག་གཏམ་ [dkrog gtam] «An untrue story» with the connotation of «twisted tale / story».

དཀྲོགས་ [dkrogs] 1) Imp. of དཀྲོག་པ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྲོག་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲོགས་པ་ [dkrogs pa] Past of དཀྲོག་པ་ q.v.

དཀྲོགས་མ་ [dkrogs ma] Same as བསྲུབས་མ་ a «churning stick / rod» i.e., the rod used in a butter or tea (or other) churn.

དཀྲོང་བསྐྱེད་ [dkrong bskyed] «Rousting Generation». A particular style of visualization of the deity in Buddhist secret mantra practice. In it, the full visualization of the deity is produced merely on remembering it. This is distinct from the other ways of producing the visualization of a deity. In the four other ways, e.g., in the ཆོ་ག་གསུམ་བསྐྱེད་ three rituals' generation q.v., the visualization is produced in a sequence of steps. The last stage of those steps is sometimes spoken of as a sudden appearance of the deity, e.g., like a fish leaping from water, however, that is not the same generation as this one here. The difference is that this one has no preparatory stages or sequence to the visualization at all; it is the immediate production of the entire deity without the use of seed-syllables, sceptres, etc., as a basis for the development of the visualization. The term literally means «being generated by rousting it up» on the spot, from the space of fundamental reality. E.g., [BKM] བསྒོམ་བཟླས་རྒྱུན་ཁྱེར་སྐབས་སུ་ཆོ་ག་སུམ་བསྐྱེད་དང་། འཁྲུལ་འཁོར་སྐབས་སུ་སྐད་ཅིག་དཀྲོང་བསྐྱེད་ཡིན། «in the case of the meditation and recitation (of the deity) for regular purposes, (the deity is visualized using) the Three Liturgies Generation and in the case of asana practice, through instantaneous Rousting Generation.»

དཀྲོལ་ [dkrol] I. 1) Imp. of དཀྲོལ་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of དཀྲོལ་བ་ q.v.
II. Past part of འགྲོལ་བ་ q.v.

དཀྲོལ་བ་ [dkrol ba] I. v.t. དཀྲོལ་བ་/ དཀྲོལ་བ་/ དཀྲོལ་བ་/ དཀྲོལ་/. Intransitive form is འཁྲོལ་བ་ q.v. Meaning «to play musical instruments where a rattling movement is required» as in e.g., «to ring» a bell, «to play» cymbals of various kinds. E.g., [TC] རོལ་མོ་དཀྲོལ་བ། «played the cymbals / rolled down on the cymbals»; དྲིལ་བུ་དཀྲོལ་བ། «rang the bell»; སིལ་སྙན་དཀྲོལ་ཅིང་རྔ་རྡུང་བ། «striking the small cymbals and beating the drum».
II. Past of འགྲོལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀག་ [bkag] Past of v.t. form I འགོག་པ་ q.v.

བཀག་པ་ [bkag pa] I. Past of v.t. form I འགོག་པ་ q.v. «To be in a state of having been stopped / repudiated / negated».
II. 1) Something in general which, due to the application of some method or technique is now in a state of prevention, is blocked off, stopped from going further. 2) «Proscribed», «prohibited», «forbidden» in the sense of behaviour that has been prohibited for others e.g., in གནང་བཀག་ q.v. 3) In debate, the situation where the opponent's thesis has been negated through one's own presentation, so that their line of argument is now blocked, stopped, and hence they are effectively defeated.

བཀང་ [bkang] Part of v.t. འགེངས་པ་ q.v.

བཀང་བ་ [bkang ba] Past of v.t. འགེངས་པ་ q.v.

བཀད་ [bkad] I. Past of v.t. འགད་པ་ q.v.
II. [Old] 1) The general name for an ordered arrangement of any kind; a row, order, roster, schedule, etc. E.g. [TC] དེ་རིང་ཡིག་སྐྱེལ་བཀད་ཁྱོད་ལ་འཁེལ་ཡོད། «today it is your turn to carry the letters» (in the roster that has been set up, today it falls to you). 2) The «pattern» of woven cloth.

བཀད་པ་ [bkad pa] Past of v.t. འགད་པ་ q.v.

བཀད་ས་ [bkad sa] 1) Either «a kitchen», «cookery» etc., as a i) place for making food or ii) the place where a cook does his work. 2)[Old] Acc. [ULS] and [LGK] this term was revised, together with མདུན་ཁང་ during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, འདུག་ས་ q.v. a place either for i) storing things in one place or ii) putting things so that they are arranged for use.

བཀན་ [bkan] I. Imp. of བཀན་པ་ q.v.
II. Past, present, and future part of བཀན་པ་ q.v.

བཀན་པ་ [bkan pa] v.t. བཀན་པ་/ བཀན་པ་/ བཀན་པ་/ བཀན་/. 1) [TC] defines as «to turn face upwards». However, this is a description of the hands being turned up and outwards while they are being used to support or brace against something. For example, there is something overhead which is in danger of falling; the hands are used to brace against it from underneath and in doing so the palms of the hands are turned up and out. E.g., སྒམ་ལ་ལག་པ་གྱེན་དུ་བཀན་པ། «put his hands up to brace against the box». 2) «To press up against / push up against / lean against» with the particular sense of «bracing against». Note that it does not mean «push against» in the sense of actually pushing something but using something as a support by bracing oneself against. E.g., [TC] རྐང་པས་རྩིག་པར་བཀན་པ། «braced himself by putting his foot against the wall»; རྡོག་པས་བཀན་པ། «leaned / pressed his shoe (sole) against it (as part of bracing his body—this refers to turning the sole of the shoe away from the body and putting it again a wall, etc., as part of bracing the body)». 3) «To bend». The verb གུག་པ་ with a transitive verb such as བྱེད་པ་ is the actual way of saying «to bend something»; this verb has the idea of pressing up against something so that it is «pushed over» and bending results. E.g., [TC] སྐམ་པས་གཟེར་བཀན་པ་ «to bend / push over a nail with pliers». 4) «To shrug off» meaning to be flippant about and shrug off things which should be attended to. E.g., [TC] རང་གི་ལས་འགན་བཀན་ནས་མ་སྡོད། «don't shrug off your duties and sit around».

བཀབ་ [bkab] Part of v.t. འགེབས་པ་ q.v.

བཀབ་པ་ [bkab pa] Past of v.t. འགེབས་པ་ q.v.

བཀའ་ [bka'] [Hon] Similar to གསུང་ in that it is the [Hon] for speech of a person. However, it has the specific sense of the speech, statement, or talk of an eminent person which must be listened to, which is authoritative, which comes as a command or precept that must be attended to.
I. «Word», «precept», «pronouncement», «utterance(s)», «decree», «order», «command», «instruction», «directive(s)». The speech of an eminent person that is authoritative. 1) Translation of the Sanskrit «vacana». In Buddhist texts, this is used to indicate the talk of the Buddha, the things he has said which are, by definition, instructions for and commands to the followers. E.g., སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་ meaning «the Buddha-word», what has been spoken by the Buddha which is to be taken as instruction by the followers. 2) Freq. used in Buddhist texts as an abbrev. of བཀའ་འགྱུར་ «the translated word» meaning the translations into Tibetan of the Buddha-word. E.g., in བཀའ་བསྟན་ «Buddha-word and treatises» q.v. Sometimes translated as «canon». 3) In the Nyingma system, there are the two types of dharma called བཀའ་གཏེར་ which are the Buddha-word and the concealed treasures q.v. Sometimes translated as «precepts». 4) Used to indicate a «command, order, instruction, edict» that has been given. This can be used for all levels of person and the exact sense will change according to the position of the person and the exact circumstance. E.g., in general བཀའ་གནང་སོང་། «told them to do it / gave an instruction (for something to be done) / ordered it to be done». The same thing from a minister could be any of those or «issued an order / commanded that it be done». E.g., in the case of a king བཀའ་བཅད་སོང་། «issued a decree / made an edict (regarding something or that something be done).
II. <ཚིག་གྲོགས་ phrase assistive> which when prefixed to certain other མིང་ names, usually those connected with speech that is an order or instruction, gives the [Hon] form of the name.

བཀའ་བཀྱོན་ [bka' bkyon] form of བཀའ་བཀྱོན་པ་ q.v. «Scolding», «rebuke», «reprimand», «chastisement».

བཀའ་བཀྱོན་པ་ [bka' bkyon pa] phrase> v.t. see བཀྱོན་པ་ for tense forms. The meaning is exactly the same as for the simple verb. «To scold», «to rebuke», «to reprimand», «to chastise». The phrase is used in a variety of ways and the exact shade of meaning must be known on context. E.g., in coll. ཕྲུ་གུ་བཀའ་བཀྱོན་པ་བཏང་སོང་། «scolded the child». E.g., [GSB] བཀའ་བཀྱོན་དྲག་པོ་ཞིག་མཛད་ནས། «rebuked him strongly then...».
[RYD] gives «to blame» but the term is never used that way; other terms such as གཡོག་པ་ are used for that.

བཀའ་འཁོར་ལོ་ [bka' 'khor lo] «Wheel of the buddha-word». See བཀའ་འཁོར་ལོ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ q.v.

བཀའ་འཁོར་ལོ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ [bka' 'khor lo rim pa gsum] phrase> «The three, successive wheels of the Buddha word». An abbrev. of སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three, successive levels of the wheel of dharma, the words of the Buddha». See under ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་.

བཀའ་འགྱུར་ [bka' 'gyur] «Translated Word» or «Translations of the Word». When the texts of Buddhism were translated into Tibetan, they were translated into two main collections: the བཀའ་འགྱུར་ «The Translated Buddha-word» and the བསྟན་འགྱུར་ «The Translated Treatises» q.v. The Translated Buddha-Word consists of the teachings of sūtra and tantra, translated mainly from the Indian texts of the time. There are a number of editions in Tibet and hence it exists as either 104 or 108 volumes (there are a few different editions in Tibet).

བཀའ་རྒྱ་ཅན་ལྔ་ [bka' rgya can lnga] phrase> «The Five With Command Seal». The profound dharmas of the Drukpa Kagyu lineage, when summed up, contain the teachings of development and completion stages. The completion stage is characterized as the བཀའ་རྒྱ་ཅན་ལྔ་ «The Five With Command Seal» i.e., the five component parts of view, meditation, conduct, fruition, and the all-important one, all of which have a command seal བཀའ་རྒྱ་. More fully described they are: 1) ལྟ་པ་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ the view which is ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāmudrā; 2) སྒོམ་པ་ནཱ་རོ་ཆོས་དྲུག་ the meditation which is the Six Dharmas of Nāropa; 3) སྤྱོད་པ་རོ་སྙོམས་དྲུག་ the conduct, which is the Six-fold teaching on Equalization of Taste; 4) འབྲས་བུ་རབས་བདུན་རྟེན་འབྲེལ་ the fruition, the seven successive ones interdependent relationship; and 5) ཀུན་གཅེས་བླ་མ་རྣལ་འབྱོར་ the all-important Guru-Yoga.

བཀའ་རྒྱུད་ [bka' rgyud] Mis-spelling of བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ q.v.

བཀའ་སྒོ་ [bka' sgo] Mis-spelling of བཀའ་བསྒོ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ [bka' brgyad] I. phrase> «The eight logos». The tantric teachings brought into Tibet in the first spread of dharma and upheld in what later became known as the Nyingma tradition had three main levels to them: Mahāyoga, Anuyoga, and Atiyoga. The teachings of Mahāyoga are concerned mainly with the visualization and practice of a ཡི་དམ་ personal deity. The complete teachings of Mahāyoga centre around eight main personal deities. These are the eight «logos» of the Mahāyoga system. They are also called སྒྲུབ་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ «the eight logos of practice».
The name «eight logos» was coined by Trungpa Rinpoche. It is remarkably accurate. Unfortunately, over-use of the term «logo» in the consumer/business oriented culture of the United States makes it seem odd to people who have been inundated by the verbiage of that system. Because of that, translators have tries to come up with other translations. However, none of them captures the meaning of the original, where «eight logos» does. For example, the term is sometimes referred to as «The eight deities» but the term does not refer only to the specific eight deities of the system; it refers to the entire teaching and meaning of which these deities are the obvious representations (logos). Since the term བཀའ་ also means the «orally transmitted word / precepts / commands to be followed regarding something, they have been called «the eight pronouncements» but that is not the meaning intended at all. The term has also been translated as «the eight sadhana teachings» but that also is not the intended meaning. It is true that there are sadhanas associated with each of the personal deities, but the teachings are not on the sadhanas per se, they are about the meaning of reality as represented by the deities.
The eight principal personal deities of the system are of two types. First there is a group of five representatives of transcendence over the world. They represent each of the five main aspects of buddha activity. After them are the འཇིག་རྟེན་པའི་སྡེ་གསུམ་ three representatives of non-transcendent category. The eight are: 1) འཇམ་དཔལ་སྐུ་ Mañjuśhrī in the form of Yamantaka, who is the body logo; 2) པདྨ་གསུང་ Hayagrīva of the padma family who is the speech logo; 3) ཡང་དག་ཐུགས་ Yangdag Heruka who is the mind logo; 4) བདུད་རྩི་ཡོན་ཏན་ Amṛitakuṇḍalin who is the qualities logo; 5) ཕུར་པ་ཕྲིན་ལས་ Vajrakīlaya who is the activity logo; 6) དམོད་པ་དྲག་སྔགས་ The curses, wrathful mantra; 7) རྦོད་གཏོང་མ་མོ་ The sorcerers, the Mamo; and 8) འཇིག་རྟེན་མཆོད་བསྟོད་ Worldly Praise and Offering. Collectively the eight are called སྒྲུབ་སྡེ་བརྒྱད་ «the eight classes of accomplishment».
II. phrase> «The eight precepts». A name given in the Kagyu school to the main instructions that Tilopa gained from human gurus. It is the བཀའ་བབ་བཞི་ four lines of transmission q.v. plus the four root instructions of the ནཱ་རོའི་ཆོས་དྲུག་ Six Dharmas of Nāropa q.v.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ཀྱི་རྒྱུད་ [bka' brgyad kyi rgyud] phrase> «The tantras of the eight logos». The tantras that are the sources of the teaching of the བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ eight logos.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་དྲག་པོ་རང་བྱུང་རང་ཤར་ [bka' brgyad drag po rang byung rang shar] «The Eight Logos called The Self-Arising Self-Shining-Forth Wrathful Ones». The name of the Eight Logos system revealed as a terma by Vidyadhara Godem. See under བྱང་གཏེར་བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ q.v. See also བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རྣམ་གསུམ་ The Three Eight Logos.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་བདེ་གཤེགས་འདུས་པ་ [bka' brgyad bde gshegs 'dus pa] «The Eight Logos called Assembled Sugatas». The name of the Eight Logos system revealed as terma by ཉང་རལ་ཉི་མའི་འོད་ཟེར་ Nyang Ral Nyima Ozer. See also བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རྣམ་གསུམ་ The Three Eight Logos.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རྣམ་གསུམ་ [bka' brgyad rnam gsum] «The Three Eight Logos» meaning the three main treasures of བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ Eight Logos practice that have been revealed in the Nyingma system. They are the བཀའ་བརྒྱད་གསང་རྫོགས་, བཀའ་བརྒྱད་བདེ་གཤེགས་འདུས་པ་, བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རང་ཤར་ q.v.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རྫོང་འཕྲང་པོ་ [bka' brgyad rdzong 'phrang po] «Eight Logos Difficult Path of the Fortress». The name of one particular transmission of the eight logos; this one is བཀའ་མ་ Kama, not གཏེར་མ་ Revealed Treasure (for that see བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རྣམ་གསུམ་ «The Three Eight Logos»). It was passed down through four sets of transmissions called the མཁས་པ་བཞི་ four experts. The path is a difficult one in the sense that only fortunate students, ones who are suitable vessels can follow it and it is a fortress because it is the impregnable fortress of the realization of the buddha's teaching.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རང་ཤར་ [bka' brgyad rang shar] Abbrev. of བཀའ་བརྒྱད་དྲག་པོ་རང་བྱུང་རང་ཤར་ q.v.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་གསང་བ་ཡོངས་རྫོགས་ [bka' brgyad gsang ba yongs rdzogs] «The Eight Logos called Totally Complete Secret». The name of the Eight Logos system revealed as a terma by གུ་རུ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་དབང་ཕྱུག་ Guru Chowang. See also བཀའ་བརྒྱད་རྣམ་གསུམ་ The Three Eight Logos.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་གསང་རྫོགས་ [bka' brgyad gsang rdzogs] Abbrev. of བཀའ་བརྒྱད་གསང་བ་ཡོངས་རྫོགས་ q.v.

བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ལྷ་ཚོགས་ [bka' brgyad lha tshogs] phrase> «The assembled deities of the Eight Logos»; the eight main deities comprising the བཀའ་བརྒྱད་ Eight Logos with all of the deities of their maṇḍalas included.

བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ [bka' brgyud] «Kagyu». The name of one of the four main transmissions of the Buddha's dharma that developed in Tibet on the basis of Indian Buddhist lineages. བཀའ་ literally means «command» and in this case particularly means the guru's command; བརྒྱུད་ is not the same as རྒྱུད་ and has the particular meaning of a lineage of instructions that has been passed from one person to another through direct, face to face, communication. Hence «command lineage» is the meaning.
The Kagyu School was founded by Marpa Lotsāwa in Tibet at the beginning of the 11th century A.D. as a direct transmission of the teachings that he received from the Indian paṇḍit and siddha ནཱ་རོ་པ་ Nāropa whose guru was the great Indian siddha ཏཻལོཔ་ Tilopa. Marpa's other main teacher was another of the great Indian siddhas called Maitripa. The lineage was purely a yogic lineage until the time of Gampopa when monasticism was introduced as well.
The Kagyu School is known as a གྲུབ་བརྒྱུད་ «practice lineage» because of its emphasis on gaining experience as opposed just to gaining knowledge. The specialty of the Kagyu lineage is its transmission of the ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāmudrā teachings on the basis of devotion to the guru. Many sub-lineages of the Kagyu lineage developed. Most but not all of them developed after Gampopa in a grouping known as they བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ཆེ་བཞི་ཆུང་བརྒྱད་ «the four great and eight lesser Kagyu» schools though there are other Kagyu lineages coming from earlier figures as well.

བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་གོང་མ་ [bka' brgyud gong ma] phrase> «Kagyu forefathers». The previous great masters and lineage holders of the Kagyu tradition.

བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ཆུང་བརྒྱད་ [bka' brgyud chung brgyad] phrase> «The Eight Lesser Kagyu Schools». See བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ཆེ་བཞི་ཆུང་བརྒྱད་ «the Four Greater and Eight Lesser Kagyu Schools» for details.

བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ཆེ་བཞི་ [bka' brgyud che bzhi] «The Four Greater Kagyu Schools». See བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ཆེ་བཞི་ཆུང་བརྒྱད་ «the Four Greater and Eight Lesser Kagyu Schools» for details.

བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ཆེ་བཞི་ཆུང་བརྒྱད་ [bka' brgyud che bzhi chung brgyad] «The Four Greater and Eight Lesser Kagyu Schools». There are many lineages of the བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Kagyu teaching, some from before Gampopa, some from Gampopa himself, and some appearing after Gampopa. The Four Greater and Eight Lesser Schools are sets of schools that appeared after Gampopa, coming from Gampopa's chief disciples. Thus the «Four Greater and Eight Lesser schools» is a formulation that does not include all of the Kagyu traditions; it is really an abbreviated statement of what happened to the Kagyu lineage after Gampopa. Kagyu schools that came into existence prior to Gampopa include the Marpa Kagyu and Rechung Nyengyu; from Gampopa himself there and is the Dvagpo Kagyu and another transmission; these lineages exist separately from the four greater and eight lesser schools.
The four greater Kagyu schools are: 1) ཀརྨ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ the Karma Kagyu founded by one of the three men from Kham, Dusum Khyenpa; 2) འབའ་རོམ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ the Barom Kagyu founded by Barom Darma Wangchuk; ཚལ་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་, 3) the Tshalpa Kagyu founded by Lama Zhang, Zhang Tshalpa Tsondru Drakpa; and 4) the ཕག་གྲུ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ the Phakdru Kagyu tradition founded by Phagmo Drupa another of the three men from Kham.
The eight lesser schools appeared due to eight of the great students of Phagmo Drupa. They are: 1) the འབྲི་གུང་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drigung Kagyu founded by Kyobpa Jigten Gonpo; 2) the སྟག་ལུང་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Taglung Kagyu founded by Taglung Thangpa Tashi Palden; 3) the ཁྲོ་ཕུ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Trophu Kagyu founded by Drogon Gyaltsha; 4) the Lingre Kagyu founded by Lingje Repa Pema Dorje (and which became the source of the འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drukpa Kagyu); 5) the སྨར་ཚང་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Martsang Kagyu founded by Choje Marpa Dondrup; 6) the ཡེལ་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Yelpa Kagyu founded by Yelpa Yeshe Tsek; 7) the གཡའ་བཟང་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Yazang Kagyu founded by Zarawa Yeshe Senge; and 8) the ཤུག་གསེབ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Shugseb Kagyu founded by Nyephu Gyergom Chenpo.

བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་པ་ [bka' brgyud pa] A follower of the བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Kagyu tradition.

བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ [bka' brgyud rin po che] «Kagyu Rinpoche». 1) In the writings of the Drukchen Padma Karpo, this usually refers to སྒམ་པོ་པ་ Dvagpo Lhaje Gampopa. 2) In Drukpa Kagyu writings, a guru of the འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་ Drukpa Kagyu tradition in general.

བཀའ་བསྒོ་ [bka' bsgo] form of བཀའ་བསྒོ་བ་ q.v. An «order», «edict», «public order / notice», «command».

བཀའ་བསྒོ་བ་ [bka' bsgo ba] I. phrase> v.t. see བསྒོ་བ་ for tense forms. This term has two main usages. 1) General usage. i) «To make / give an edict», «to order». A person in a high place gives a command which is to be followed, like a law. E.g., «the governor gave the order to ...». ii) «To make / give an edict», «to order», «to give a public order / notice». An order given by a government office or official to the public concerning something which is to be followed e.g., «The council (government / authorities (etc.)) hereby order that persons may not spit in public places». 2) Specific usage. «To command / order». In Buddhist dharma texts this is specifically used when an accomplished master subdues an evil spirit or powerful spirit that is doing harm then gives them orders about how they should henceforth conduct themselves in accord with the dharma and binds them to good. In such a circumstance, the master «orders / commands» the spirit to do good. The spirit is usually ordered to become a protector of the Buddha's dharma and is freq. bound under oath to do so. If they are bound under oath they are known as དམ་ཅན་ q.v.
II. phrase> The true noun form is written བཀའ་བསྒོ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བཅད་ [bka' bcad] 1) «Decree», «edict» as given by a king or other high personage. 2) «Edict», «order» as given by the government or a government official. In some cases this has the sense of a law because of the power of the person or office involved but note that the word for a law that has been set into place a legal system is ཁྲིམས་ q.v.

བཀའ་བཅོས་ [bka' bcos] Abbrev. of བཀའ་འགྱུར་ and བསྟན་བཅོས་ q.v.

བཀའ་ཆད་ [bka' chad] «Punishment», «penalty».

བཀའ་ཆད་གཏོང་བ་ [bka' chad gtong ba] phrase> v.t. see གཏོང་བ་ for verb tenses. «To punish», «to penalise». E.g., to incur the wrath of a dharma protector and be punished for doing something wrong.

བཀའ་ཆེམས་ [bka' chems] [Hon] 1) Equivalent of ཞལ་ཆེམས་ q.v. the last will or testament before death. 2) Equivalent of ཞལ་གདམས་ meaning advice, teaching or instruction but being the final or last advice given before a person dies.
Note that this is a more general form. When ཞལ་ཆེམས་ is used, it always means something that someone heard in person. This form could mean that or it could mean something that was written down and known of in that way.

བཀའ་ཆོས་ [bka' chos] «(Dharma) teaching» general name for any teaching a spiritual teacher gives to his students. E.g., བཀའ་ཆོས་གནང་བ། «(for a teacher) to give teachings».

བཀའ་མཆིད་ [bka' mchid] Acc. [LGK] this term and འབེལ་བའི་གཏམ་ were revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཡང་དག་པའི་གཏམ་. It refers to teaching or advice written (in a letter) or given verbally. It specifically refers to some kind of ཡང་དག་པའི་གཏམ་ kindly-given advice which is about reality or which is authentic advice. For example, the Friendly Letter to a King in which Nāgārjuna writes heartfelt advice in a letter sent to his friend and student, a local king, contains བཀའ་མཆིད་ this kind of «kindly given advice about reality». [TC] glosses it as ཕྱག་བྲིས། «letter from a higher person» but it is advice which might but not necessarily come in a letter. E.g., [TC] མཉེས་གཤིན་པའི་བཀའ་མཆིད་སྤྱི་བོར་ཡང་ཡང་བསྩལ་དུ་གསོལ། «we request repeatedly requested (and obtained) real advice from (the lama, etc.) coming from his kindly disposition». This quote has the image of a lama sitting, at peace and pleased with those below him, being asked for some talk about what moves him. The talk will, since he is a lama and since he is giving it from his love and pleasure with those below him, be good advice about the dharma or some related topic concerning what is true.

བཀའ་ཉན་ [bka' nyan] I. 1) «Subordinate»; someone who has to listen to and follow the words of a superior. In old Tibet this was used to refer to the various levels of attendants and servants as well as subordinates in government office or work situations. 2) «Subordinate» as a name for one's dharma and other protectors since they follow one's command.
II. A subordinate who is «obedient», «dutiful», someone who does what they are told, who listens to the words of the superior.

བཀའ་གཏེར་ [bka' gter] phrase> Abbrev. of བཀའ་མ་ and གཏེར་མ་ «Kama and Terma», «Buddha-word and Treasures» q.v. The teachings of རྙིང་མ་པ་ the Nyingmapa tradition as a whole are carried in two streams: 1) བཀའ་མ་ «The Buddha-word» are the instructions spoken by the Buddha to his disciples that have been written down and passed down from teacher to student orally since the time of the Buddha; 2) གཏེར་མ་ «The Treasures» are the teachings and artefacts revealed by various special individuals at times later than the Buddha.
Note that another formulation in the Nyingmapa tradition says that the teachings of the tradition are carried in three streams, not two, adding «pure visions» to the above two.

བཀའ་རྟགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི་ [bka' rtags kyi phyag rgya bzhi] Same as བཀར་བཏགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི་ q.v.

བཀའ་བསྟན་ [bka' bstan] phrase> Abbrev. of བཀའ་བསྟན་བསྒྱུར་ q.v.

བཀའ་བསྟན་བསྒྱུར་ [bka' bstan bsgyur] «Translations of Word and Treatise» Abbrev. of བཀའ་འགྱུར་ and བསྟན་འགྱུར་ «Kangyur and Tangyur» i.e., the words of the Buddha translated into Tibetan and the commentaries and treatises to the Buddha-word by Indian paṇḍitas translated into Tibetan. The term is usually used as a convenient way of referring to the entire corpus of translated works in the Tibetan Buddhist canon.

བཀའ་བསྟན་བཅོས་ [bka' bstan bcos] Same as བཀའ་བསྟན་ q.v.

བཀའ་ཐ་མ་ [bka' tha ma] phrase> 1) In general, «the final teachings / precepts» transmitted by a teacher. 2) «The final Buddha-word». An abbrev. of སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་ཆོས་འཁོར་ལོ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་གྱི་ཐ་མ་ «the final of the three turnings of the wheel of dharma, the dharma which is the buddha's precepts / doctrine / word». See ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ for explanation.

བཀའ་ཐང་སྡེ་ལྔ་ [bka' thang sde lnga] phrase> «The Five Chronicles». In the wood bird year of the fifth རབ་བྱུང་ Rabjung, Orgyen Lingpa uncovered five chronicles from their places of concealment at བསམ་ཡས་ Samye and ཤེལ་བྲག་ Sheldrag. The chronicles were originally spoken by པདྨ་འབྱུང་གནས་ Padmasaṃbhava about five different groups of his time in Tibet. They were: 1) རྒྱལ་པོ་བཀའ་ཐང་ «Chronicle of the King»; 2) བཙུན་མོ་བཀའ་ཐང་ «Chronicle of the Queens»; 3) བློན་པོ་བཀའ་ཐང་ «Chronicle of the Ministers»; 4) ལོ་པཎ་བཀའ་ཐང་ «Chronicle of the Translators and Paṇḍits»; and 5) ལྷ་འདྲེ་བཀའ་ཐང་ «Chronicle of the Gods and Ghosts».

བཀའ་ཐང་བསྡུས་པ་ [bka' thang bsdus pa] «Condensed Chronicles». Padmasambhava himself gave two accounts of his life which were recorded by his disciples. One is very extensive and is called པདྨ་བཀའ་ཐང་ «The Chronicles of Padma». The other, which is very brief, was recited by Padmasambhava at the request of Mutri Tsanpo. It was hidden as a གཏེར་མ་ treasure at Padma's instruction and was revealed by ཨོ་རྒྱན་གླིང་པ་ Orgyan Lingpa in the 14th century.

བཀའ་དང་པོ་ [bka' dang po] phrase> 1) In general, «the first teachings / precepts» transmitted by any religious teacher. The initial presentation of the doctrine of a religious system by someone who is the founding teacher of what becomes a whole system of religion. 2) Specifically, «the initial Buddha-word». Abbrev. of སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་ཆོས་འཁོར་ལོ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་གྱི་དང་པོ་ meaning «the first of the three turnings of the wheel of dharma, the dharma which is the buddha's precepts / doctrine / word». See ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ for explanation.

བཀའ་དྲིན་ [bka' drin] [Hon] of དྲིན་ q.v. «Kindness», «graciousness». E.g., [BCA] འཇམ་དབྱངས་བཀའ་དྲིན་གྱིས་ «through the kindness of Mañjughoṣha...». E.g., [KBC] ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་བཀའ་དྲིན་དྲན་པའི་དགོས་པའོ། «is the need for remembering the kindness of the translators».

བཀའ་དྲིན་ཅན་ [bka' drin can] [Hon] of དྲིན་ཅན་ q.v.
I. «Kind», «gracious». E.g., [KBC] བདག་གི་བླ་མ་བཀའ་དྲིན་ཅན་ «my own guru, the very kind...»
II. «The kind one(s)», «the gracious one(s)».

བཀའ་དྲིན་གསུམ་ [bka' drin gsum] phrase> «The three kindnesses». The term བཀའ་དྲིན་གསུམ་ལྡན་ «possessing the three kindnesses» is commonly used in the vajra vehicle.
I. [DGT] gives the common Tibetan formulation that it refers to a vajra guru who has the three kindness of providing the student with: 1) དབང་བསྐུར་བ་ «bestowing empowerment»; 2) རྒྱུད་བཤད་པ་ «explaining the tantra»; and 3) མན་ངག་གནང་བ་ «giving the upadeśha».
II. [SKD] gives a quote from a tantra which shows that it refers to a guru who is the cause of the development of ground, path, and fruition in a practitioner's being.

བཀའ་དྲིན་གསུམ་ལྡན་ [bka' drin gsum ldan] phrase> Lit. «of the three kindnesses» and meaning who has been / is kind in three ways. Usually in reference to བཀའ་དྲིན་གསུམ་ལྡན་བླ་མ་ «the guru who has been kind in three ways» q.v.

བཀའ་དྲིན་གསུམ་ལྡན་བླ་མ་ [bka' drin gsum ldan bla ma] phrase> Lit. «guru of the three kindnesses» but meaning «guru who has been kind in three ways». See བཀའ་དྲིན་གསུམ་ for the three ways that a guru is kind.

བཀའ་གདམས་ [bka' gdams] «Kadam» meaning བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ the Kadampa School or pertaining to the Kadam system. E.g., [KBC] བཀའ་གདམས་གོང་མ་ «the Kadampa forefathers».

བཀའ་གདམས་སྐུ་མཆེད་གསུམ་ [bka' gdams sku mched gsum] «The three brothers of the Kadam». The three men who were spiritual brothers and were the three principal Tibetan disciples of འབྲོམ་སྟོན་པ་ Dromtonpa. They are: 1) པོ་ཏོ་བ་ Potowa; 2) སྤྱན་སྔ་བ་ Chan Ngnawa; and 3) ཕུ་ཆུང་བ་ Phuchungwa. There is also one more, very special disciple of Atīśha called ཁམ་ལུང་པ་ q.v.

བཀའ་གདམས་གླེགས་བམ་ [bka' gdams glegs bam] «The Kadampa Volumes (of Scriptures)»; a name for two sets of Kadampa instructions that were put down in writing and kept as volumes of scripture. There are two volumes in total, one for each set. See བཀའ་གདམས་ཕ་ཆོས་བུ་ཆོས་ «Kadampa Senior and Junior Dharmas (teachings)» for the contents and sources.

བཀའ་གདམས་གླེགས་བམ་ཕུ་ཆོས་ [bka' gdams glegs bam phu chos] «The Kadampa Volumes of the Senior's (Scriptures)»; see བཀའ་གདམས་གླེགས་བམ་ q.v.

བཀའ་གདམས་གླེགས་བམ་བུ་ཆོས་ [bka' gdams glegs bam bu chos] «The Kadampa Volumes of the Junior's (Scriptures)»; see བཀའ་གདམས་གླེགས་བམ་ q.v.

བཀའ་གདམས་སྒྲོལ་མ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ [bka' gdams sgrol ma bcu gnyis] Abbrev. of བཀའ་གདམས་པའི་སྒྲོལ་མ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ q.v.

བཀའ་གདམས་ཆོས་བཞི་ [bka' gdams chos bzhi] «The four dharmas of the Kadam». Atīśha declared that his stages of the path teaching embodied in the བྱང་ཆུབ་ལམ་གྱི་སྒྲོན་མེ་ The Lamp of Path to Enlightenment q.v. had four greatnesses to it that distinguished it from all other teachings. His lineage of teachings became known as the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa, so these four things became known as the four dharmas of the Kadampa's. See under ལམ་རིམ་གྱི་ཆེ་བ་བཞི་ for the four items. All of the later ལམ་རིམ་ stages of the path literature of Tibet claimed these four greatnesses as their basis.

བཀའ་གདམས་རྙིང་མ་ [bka' gdams rnying ma] «The old Kadam School». The name given to the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa system that started with Atīśha's main disciple འབྲོམ་སྟོན་པ་ Dromtonpa and lasted until it was incorporated into the དགེ་ལུགས་པ་ Gelugpa school by ཙོང་ཁ་པ་ Tsongkhapa. After its incorporation into the Gelugpa, it became known as the བཀའ་གདམས་གསར་མ་ New Kadam.

བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ [bka' gdams pa] «Kadampa».
I. The name that was later given to the lineage of teachings that started with the Indian master ཨ་ཏི་ཤ་ Atīśha when he came to Tibet and was carried on by his Tibetan disciples. The Kadampa lineage was later recognized to have three main streams of instruction: 1) གཞུང་ «Text» which presents the view primarily through the བཀའ་གདམས་གཞུང་དྲུག་ six, standard Buddhist texts preferred by the Kadampa traditions; 2) གདམས་ངག་ «Oral Instructions» which presents the view primarily through the oral instructions that began in Tibet with Jowo Atīśha and passed on down through his disciples in three distinct streams; and 3) མན་ངག་ «Upadeśha» which presents the innermost oral instructions on practice that are handed down through the gurus of the line. The latter went out from Atīśha in two streams but were rejoined again; see བཀའ་གདམས་ཕ་ཆོས་བུ་ཆོས་ Kadampa Senior and Junior Dharmas (teachings).
II. The name given to a follower of that school, «a Kadampa».

བཀའ་གདམས་པའི་སྒྲོལ་མ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ [bka' gdams pa'i sgrol ma bcu gnyis] «The twelve Tārās of the Kadampas». In this case, the name Tārā refers to female protective principles, not the usual Tārā devis. [DGT] explains them as follows:
«པན་ཆེན་བློ་བཟང་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ Panchen Lama Lozang Chokyi Gyaltsen gives the first eleven as: 1) གཙོ་བོ་དམག་ཟོར་མ་ «The principal one (of the twelve), Magzorma»; 2) མ་ཅིག་དཔལ་གྱི་ལྷ་མོ་ «Machig Palgyi Lhamo»; 3) མ་ཅིག་རྡོ་རྗེ་རབ་བརྟན་མ་ «Machig Dorje Rabtanma»; 4) ལྷ་མོ་དུད་སོལ་མ་ «Devi Vetali»; 5) ལྷ་མོ་ཕྱག་བཞི་མ་ Four-armed Devi; 6) ལྷ་མོ་དུས་མཚན་མ་ «Devi Kālaratri»; 7) རང་བྱུང་རྒྱལ་མོ་ «Rangjung Gyalmo»; 8) ལྷ་མོ་ནམ་མཁའི་གོས་ཅན་ «Sky-clad Devi»; 9) ལྷ་མོ་ནམ་གྲུ་མ་ «Devi Revati»; 10) ལྷ་མོ་ཙནྟྲི་ཀ་ Devi Chandrika; and 11) ལྷ་མོ་ཨེ་ཀ་ཛ་ཏི་ «Devi Ekajati». The twelfth one is a unclear in his work; one person gives it as རྡོ་རྗེ་གཤོག་རྒོད་མ་ and another gives it as ཨ་ཕྱི་ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྒྲོལ་མ་ Achi Chokyi Dronma. All of the above are identified from a text ཨེ་ཝཾ་ Evam.
«According to the names given by the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa themselves, they are: 1) གསེར་མཚོ་མ་; 2) འོད་མཚོ་མ་; 3) བསྟན་སྐྱོང་མ་; 4) ཡིད་འཛིན་མ་; 5) སྟོབས་པོ་ཆེ་; 6) དྲག་ཤུལ་ཅན་; 7) ཁྲག་མདོག་མ་; 8) དུད་ཁ་མ་; 9) ཐོགས་མེད་མ་; 10) ཤུགས་ཅན་མ་; 11) དབང་སྡུད་མ་; 12) ལས་འཛོམས་མ་».

བཀའ་གདམས་པའི་ལྷ་བཞི་ [bka' gdams pa'i lha bzhi] See བཀའ་གདམས་ལྷ་བཞི་ q.v.

བཀའ་གདམས་ཕ་ཆོས་བུ་ཆོས་ [bka' gdams pha chos bu chos] «Kadampa Senior and Junior Dharmas (teachings)». A name for the མན་ངག་ upadeśha of the Kadampa school that came from Atīśha in two streams and which were collected together and preserved in volumes of written scripture called བཀའ་གདམས་གླེགས་བམ་ The Kadampa Volumes (of Scriptures)» q.v.
The two sets of instructions are the ཕ་ཆོས་བུ་ཆོས་ «Senior and Junior Dharmas». The Senior dharmas are one volume consisting of the upadeśha received from Atīśha by the senior disciple འབྲོམ་སྟོན་པ་རྒྱལ་བའི་འབྱུང་གནས་ Dromtonpa. The junior dharmas are one volume consisting of the upadeśha received from Atīśha by the junior disciples རྔོག་ལོ་ལེགས་པའི་ཤེས་རབ་ Ngog Lotsawa Legpa'i Sherab and ཁུ་སྟོན་བརྩོན་འགྲུས་གཡུང་དྲུང་ Kuton Tsondru Yungdrung.

བཀའ་གདམས་ཕོ་བྲང་ [bka' gdams pho brang] «Kadampa Palace». The name for the personal chambers of the head lamas at both རྭ་སྒྲེང་ Radeng and བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ Tashi Lhunpo monasteries.

བཀའ་གདམས་གདམས་ངག་པ་ [bka' gdams gdams ngag pa] «Kadampas of the oral instructions' lineage». Three main transmissions of the view developed in the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa lineage q.v. following Atīśha. This is the name for a person who follows the second transmission, in which the view is primarily explained through གདམས་ངག་ the general oral instructions of the lineage.

བཀའ་གདམས་མན་ངག་པ་ [bka' gdams man ngag pa] «Kadampas of the upadeśha lineage». Three main transmissions of the view developed in the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa lineage q.v. following Atīśha. This is the name for a person who follows the third transmission, in which the view is primarily explained through མན་ངག་ upadeśha.

བཀའ་གདམས་གཞུང་དྲུག་ [bka' gdams gzhung drug] «The six (main) texts of the Kadampas». The spiritual friends of the Kadampa school rely particularly on six texts for practice. [DGT] gives as: 1-2) the two texts for faith, སྐྱེས་རབས་ «Jataka tales» and ཆེད་དུ་བརྗོད་པའི་ཚོམས་ «the bits expressed on need»; 3-4) the two texts for samādhi which are about the bhūmis, the བྱང་ས་ Bodhisatvabhūmi and མདོ་སྡེ་རྒྱན་ Sūtralaṅkara; and 5-6) the two texts for conduct, the སྤྱོད་འཇུག་ Bodhisatvacaryāvatāra and བསླབ་བཏུས་ the Śhikṣhā-samuccaya.

བཀའ་གདམས་གཞུང་པ་བ་ [bka' gdams gzhung pa ba] «Kadampas of the textual lineage». Three main transmissions of the view developed in the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa lineage q.v. following Atīśha. This is the name for a person who follows the second transmission, in which the view is primarily explained through གཞུང་ the standard, Buddhist texts favoured by the tradition. There are six of these texts: see བཀའ་གདམས་གཞུང་དྲུག་ «the six texts of the Kadampa».

བཀའ་གདམས་གཞུང་ལུགས་དྲུག་ [bka' gdams gzhung lugs drug] Same meaning as བཀའ་གདམས་གཞུང་དྲུག་ q.v.

བཀའ་གདམས་ལམ་རིམ་པ་ [bka' gdams lam rim pa] «Kadampas of the stages of the path». The name for a བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa follower who follows the ལམ་རིམ་ stages of the path literature of the Kadampa. This can refer either to someone who followed the Kadampa prior to its incorporation in the Gelugpa tradition or since then.

བཀའ་གདམས་གསར་མ་ [bka' gdams gsar ma] «The new Kadampa School». The name given to the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa system after it was incorporated into the Gelugpa system at the time of Tsongkhapa. See also བཀའ་གདམས་རྙིང་མ་ «The old Kadampa School».

བཀའ་གདམས་ལྷ་ཆོས་བདུན་ [bka' gdams lha chos bdun] «The seven deities and dharmas of the Kadampa School». [DGT] gives as: 1) ཐུབ་པ་ «Muni» (meaning ཤཱཀྱ་ཐུབ་པ་ Śhākyamuni Buddha) q.v.; 2) སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ «Avalokiteśhvara»; 3) མི་གཡོ་བ་ «Acala»; 4) སྒྲོལ་མ་ «Tārā»; and 5-7) སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ་ «the Tripiṭaka». This comes down to བཀའ་གདམས་ལྷ་བཞི་ «the four deities of the Kadampa» and the སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ་ Tripiṭaka.

བཀའ་གདམས་ལྷ་བཞི་ [bka' gdams lha bzhi] «The four deities of the Kadampa». [DGT] gives as: 1) ཐུབ་པ་ «Muni» (meaning ཤཱཀྱ་ཐུབ་པ་ Śhākyamuni Buddha) q.v.; 2) སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ «Avalokiteśhvara»; 3) མི་གཡོ་བ་ «Achala»; 4) སྒྲོལ་མ་ «Tārā».

བཀའ་མདའ་ [bka' mda'] Abbrev. of བཀའ་བློན་ and མདའ་དཔོན་ «minister and commander».

བཀའ་བསྡུ་ [bka' bsdu] «Council» or «Buddhist Council». Following the Buddha's parinirvāṇa, the Śhrāvakas met to བསྡུ་བ་ gather and codify his བཀའ་ teachings. The assemblies that gathered for doing that were called བཀའ་བསྡུ་ which has usually been translated into English as «council». See བཀའ་བསྡུ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three councils».

བཀའ་བསྡུ་གཉིས་པ་ [bka' bsdu gnyis pa] «The second council». See བཀའ་བསྡུ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three, successive councils».

བཀའ་བསྡུ་དང་པོ་ [bka' bsdu dang po] «The first council». See བཀའ་བསྡུ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three, successive councils».

བཀའ་བསྡུ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ [bka' bsdu rim pa gsum] «The three (successive) councils». Following the parinirvāṇa of the Buddha, there were three great assemblies of the saṅgha called to deal with major issues that had arisen. 1) The first was convened in Rājagṛha in the year following the Buddha's final nirvāṇa. In the presence of the gathering of 500 arhats, ཀུན་དགའ་བོ་ Ananda for the མདོ་སྡེ་ Sūtras, the close retinue for the འདུལ་བ་ Vinaya, and འོད་སྲུང་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahā Kāśhyapa for the མངོན་པ་ Abhidharma gathered the Buddha's teachings into the སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ་ three baskets. 2) The second was convened at Vaiśhālī in Kasmapuri vihāra one hundred and ten years after the Buddha by the reign of King Vigatāśhoka. Over time some monks had been doing certain things which they claimed were within the rules of the Vinaya but which others felt were not appropriate behaviour. Over 700 arhats gathered to deal with these issues. They concluded by proclaiming རུང་བ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་གཞི་བཅུ་ ten grounds of behaviour that were not acceptable q.v. 3) The third was convened during the reign of King Kaniṣhka more than hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa—the exact time is reported differently in different places. At this conference, whatever teachings of the Buddha that had not been written down were written down and the eighteen sub-schools convened.

བཀའ་བསྡུ་གསུམ་པ་ [bka' bsdu gsum pa] «The third council». See བཀའ་བསྡུ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three, successive councils».

བཀའ་བསྡུས་མཛད་པ་ [bka' bsdus mdzad pa] phrase> [Hon] v.t. see མཛད་པ་ for verb tenses. To make a summary of a body of teachings. E.g., སློབ་དཔོན་དགའ་རབ་རྡོ་རྗེས་རྫོགས་ཆེན་རྒྱུད་འབུམ་ཕྲག་དྲུག་ཅུ་རྩ་བཞིར་བཀའ་བསྡུས་མཛད་ནས། «Master Garab Dorje summed up the word contained in the six million, four hundred thousand Great Completion tantras …»

བཀའ་གནང་ [bka' gnang] See བཀའ་གནང་བ་ for the verb form. «(An) order / to command (to do something)». When an order has been given that something may be done, it becomes a permit / grant for that thing so, in some cases «permit / grant» are also suitable.

བཀའ་གནང་བ་ [bka' gnang ba] phrase> v.t. see གནང་བ་ for verb tenses. «To order / to command (to do something)», «to give an order / command». When an order has been given that something may be done, it becomes a permit / grant for that thing so, in some cases «to permit / grant» are also suitable.

བཀའ་པོད་ལྔ་ [bka' pod lnga] «The five groupings of the Buddha word». Same as གཞུང་པོ་ཏི་ལྔ་ q.v.

བཀའ་ཕྱག་ཆུ་བོ་གཉིས་འདྲེས་ [bka' phyag chu bo gnyis 'dres] phrase> «The Combined Rivers of Kadampa and Mahāmudrā» which refers to the contents of the teaching given in the དྭགས་པོ་ཐར་རྒྱན་ «Jewel Ornament of Liberation» of Gampopa in which he combines the precepts of the Kadampa tradition that he learned from Atīśha with the view of ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāmudrā that he learned from Milarepa into one teaching of sūtra and tantra.

བཀའ་ཕྱག་གཉིས་ [bka' phyag gnyis] Same meaning as བཀའ་ཕྱག་ཆུ་བོ་གཉིས་འདྲེས་ q.v.

བཀའ་བབ་ [bka' bab] Altern. spelling of བཀའ་བབས་ q.v.

བཀའ་བབ་བཞི་ [bka' bab bzhi] Altern. spelling of བཀའ་བབས་བཞི་ q.v.

བཀའ་བབས་ [bka' babs] phrase> 1) «A transmission» meaning a particular set of precepts that have been transmitted as a body of teaching from one generation to another. Moreover, the teachings are transmitted through a particular line of people who were always authorized by their teacher or prophesied as the holders and transmitters of the teaching in their generation. E.g., see བཀའ་བབས་བཞི་. 2) «A transmitter» meaning the person who receives a particular set of precepts and who then becomes the transmitter of it themselves. E.g., in བཀའ་བབས་བཞི་ q.v.

བཀའ་བབས་བཞི་ [bka' babs bzhi] «The four lines of transmitted precepts». A number of «four lines of transmitted precepts» are referred to in Tibetan literature.
1) Referring to the early sources in India of tantric teachings that later came into Tibet.
i) In the Kagyu lineage, it refers to the four lines of transmission of tantric precepts that came to Tilopa through the human gurus Nāgārjuna, Kriṣhṇapada, Lavapa, and ḍākiṇī Sumati Samantabhadri (a.k.a. Kalwa Zangmo) and which became the basis of the Kagyu lineage. These are also called ཐུན་མོང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་བཀའ་བབས་བཞི་ the four lines of transmission of the uncommon precepts. They are [JKE]: 1) གཏུམ་མོའི་བཀའ་བབས་ «the line of transmission of Tummo»; 2) སྒྱུ་ལུས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་བབས་ «... of illusory body»; 3) འོད་གསལ་གྱི་བཀའ་བབས་ «... of luminosity»; 4) འཕོ་བ་དང་བར་དོའི་བཀའ་བབས་ «... of transferrence and the bardo». For the lineages before Tilopa, see བཀའ་བཞི་བརྒྱུད་པ་ the lineages of the four lines of transmission.
2) i) Referring to the four main lines of transmission of Marpa's teaching that arose in Tibet. The four came because of Marpa having four main disciples who were known as the ཀ་ཆེན་བཞི་ four great pillars, q.v. ii) The same term is also used to mean the four «transmitters» of the teaching, the four great pillars themselves.

བཀའ་བར་པ་ [bka' bar pa] 1) In general, «the middle (set of) teachings / precepts» transmitted by a teacher. 2) «The middle Buddha-word». Abbrev. of སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་ཆོས་འཁོར་ལོ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་གྱི་བར་པ་ «the middle of the three turnings of the dharma wheel, the dharma which is the buddha's precepts / doctrine / word». See ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་རིམ་པ་གསུམ་ for explanation.

བཀའ་བར་མ་ [bka' bar ma] The same as བཀའ་བར་པ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བློ་བདེ་བ་ [bka' blo bde ba] [Old] «Conversation which is expressed in words that make the other pleased». This is especially application in situations, such as the monastic life of Buddhism, in which great respect and honour were required between all parties. Opp. is བཀའ་བློ་མི་བདེ་བ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བློ་མི་བདེ་བ་ [bka' blo mi bde ba] [Old] 1) «Conversation which is not pleasing to the other». This is especially application in situations, such as the monastic life of Buddhism, in which great respect and honour were required between all parties. 2) See བཀའ་བློ་མི་བདེ་བའི་ལྷག་མ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བློ་མི་བདེ་བའི་ལྷག་མ་ [bka' blo mi bde ba'i lhag ma] The remainder of not being happy at a reprimand». The name of one of the precepts of a fully-ordained Buddhist monk. See also བཀའ་བློ་མི་བདེ་བ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བློན་ [bka' blon] 1) The name given to the «cabinet ministers» previously in Tibet, before the Communist Chinese takeover. 2) A «minister», someone in the close circle of advisors of a king.

བཀའ་འབུམ་ [bka' 'bum] Lit. «one hundred thousand writings /statements» but the literal meaning should not be used. This is the name given to the collected works of someone, usually someone notable. It is synonymous with གསུང་འབུམ་ q.v.

བཀའ་མ་ [bka' ma] «The Buddha-word». 1) In general, everything that the Buddha himself actually spoke, the entirety of the Buddha-word. The Tibetan བཀའ་ has the sense of «instruction to do / command» and the words of the Buddha have that quality, hence the translation. 2) All Buddhist traditions in Tibet pass on their teachings by passing on the Buddha word orally, from teacher to student, as is the standard practice in all Buddhist traditions, everywhere. However, one tradition in Tibet, རྙིང་མ་པ་ the Nyingmapa tradition, also passes its teachings on through another system, called གཏེར་མ་ «Treasures». Therefore, the Nyingmapa tradition alone makes a point of distinguishing བཀའ་མ་, the Buddha-word as one form of transmission and the term is mentioned regularly in that tradition: see བཀའ་གཏེར་ «Buddha-word and treasures» and བརྒྱུད་པའི་བཀའ་སྲོལ་གསུམ་ «the three ways of the teachings being transmitted». The other three, principal Tibetan Buddhist traditions only teach by transmission of the Buddha word, therefore they do not have to distinguish it from anything else; hence, unlike the Nyingmapa tradition, they do not use this term བཀའ་མ་ very much.

བཀའ་མོལ་ [bka' mol] Any kind of conversation between people without the implication that some particular subject is examined and debated. This is similar to but slightly different from བགྲོ་གླེང་ and related words q.v. It could refer to a «conversation», «talk», «consultation», and also «conference».

བཀའ་གཙིགས་ [bka' gtsigs] 1) «Testament». Similar to བཀའ་ཆེམས་ and mostly used in the sense of words that have been inscribed somewhere, such as on a stone pillar, obelisk, etc., as a testament for later generations. 2) The words of an oath as in མནའ་ཚིག་ q.v. and usually meaning that have been recorded somewhere. 3) [Hon] for a higher person's letter, usually with advice or command in it.

བཀའ་སྩལ་ [bka' stsal] form of བཀའ་སྩལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀའ་སྩལ་བ་ [bka' stsal ba] phrase> v.t. see སྩལ་བ་ for verb tense forms. 1) [Hon] for a higher person «to reply to a question with information or to give reply in the course of conversation». 2) [Hon] used to indicate that a great person is saying something to another, providing information, telling about something, or giving a command to a lesser person. This is used e.g., where a higher person is giving a speech to an audience, giving dharma teachings, or speaking about a special subject to an audience. It is often used in the combined sense of the higher person both giving advice and command at the same time.
II. phrase> The true noun form is written བཀའ་སྩལ་ q.v.

བཀའ་སྩོལ་ [bka' stsol] Imp. of བཀའ་སྩལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀའ་སྩོལ་བ་ [bka' stsol ba] Same as བཀའ་སྩལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བསྩལ་བ་ [bka' bstsal ba] Past and fut. of བཀའ་སྩལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀའ་བཞི་བརྒྱུད་པ་ [bka' bzhi brgyud pa] «The lineages of the Four Transmitted Precepts». Tilopa received four main sets of teachings called the བཀའ་བཞི་ or བཀའ་བབས་བཞི་ «four lines of transmitted precepts» q.v. 1) The lineage of the precepts of the Great Seal came through Vajrapāṇi, Saraha, Luipa, Dharikapa, Ding-gī-pa, to Tilopa. 2) The lineage of the precepts of the Father Tantras came through Guhyapati, Lord of the Tenth Bhumi Lodro Rinchen, Nāgārjuna, and Mataṇgīpa to Tilopa. 3) The lineage of the precepts of the Mother Tantras came Sumati Samantabhadrī, Tanglopa, Shinglopa, and Karṇaripa to Tilopa. 4) The lineage of the precepts of Luminosity came through Vajrapāṇi, Dombī Heruka, Vinasa, Lawapa, and Indrabhūti to Tilopa.
A Tibetan source for details is the extensive set of texts, བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་གསེར་ཕྲེང་ «Golden Rosary of the Kagyus» that detail the historical aspects of the Kagyu lineage.
It is clearly explained by the second Drukchen, Kunga Paljor, in his Catalogue called «Flowers of Words» as follows:
Now, the personage of the four kāyas and five wisdoms, great Vajrablessed the Keeper of the Secret, Vajrapāṇi, and proclaimed him to be holder of the Store of the Secret of all phenomena. That Keeper of the Secret blessed the siddha gurus of the four transmissions of the command. In addition, the great brahmin known as Saraha was blessed in person by the Keeper of the Secret and after that took his seat as the grandfather in general of the eight-four siddhas. He instructed the great acharya Luipa who instructed both the great king Dārikapa and Dinggapa, who instructed Tillipa, and that was the Mahāmudrā transmission of the command. Also, the Keeper of the Secret blessed the tenth level bodhisatva Lodro Rinwho instructed acharya Nagarjuna, who instructed acharya Matangi who instructed Tillipa, and that was the father lineage of the transmission of the command. Also, the Keeper of the Secret instructed Sumati Samantabhadri, a ḍākiṇī who was equal in fortune to the buddha, who instructed acharya Thanglopa, who instructed Shinglopa, who instructed the great acharya Karṇaripa, who instructed Tillipa, and that was the mother lineage of the transmission of the command. And the Keeper of the Secret instructed Dombhi Heruka who instructed the barmaid Vināsa, who instructed king Dārikapa and his son acharya Lavapa, who instructed king Indraūti, who instructed Tillipa, and that was the luminosity transmission of the command.

བཀའ་བཞིན་ཉན་པ་ [bka' bzhin nyan pa] I. phrase> v.t. see ཉན་པ་ for tense forms. «To listen», «to obey», «to do as (you are) told». The meaning is to listen to the instructions given by a superior and to act accordingly. The term in Tibetan can mean simply «to be obedient» but usually has the sense of someone who has faith in another and hence does as they are told, instructed. It is often used in the same way that Westerners would say «good dog» to their dog who has done just the right thing just as the master wished.
II. A person who, because of faith in their guru, master or other superior, listens to what they are told to do and then does just as they have been told. As with the verb, it can refer simply to «an obedient person» but usually has the sense of a good person who pays attention to and then follows what they are told to do because of faith in the superior.

བཀའ་ཡི་ཆད་ཐོ་བསྒྲག་པ་ [bka' yi chad tho bsgrag pa] «The proclaiming of the command covenant». Secret mantra liturgy terminology of the old translation school.

བཀའ་ཡི་ཆད་མདོ་འབུལ་བ་ [bka' yi chad mdo 'bul ba] «The uttering of the command covenant». Secret mantra liturgy terminology of the old translation school.

བཀའ་ཡིག་ [bka' yig] «Official letter». A letter coming from someone in an official post giving official instructions.

བཀའ་ལུང་ [bka' lung] 1) Meaning སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བཀའ་སྟེ་ལུང་བསྟན་ «the Buddha's word, the authoritative spiritual statement(s)». This has the sense of the spiritual statements of the Buddha which, because they are completely authoritative, are «commands» to be followed. Because of this, [NTC] has translated the term «command prophesy» but this contains the mistake of assuming that ལུང་བསྟན་ always means «prophecy». In fact, it means «authoritative statements given by the Buddha which are commands to be followed». 2) Meaning གོང་མའི་བཀའ་སྟེ་ལུང་བསྟན་ «(spoken) teaching / instructions» given by a lama or other superior person e.g., བླ་མས་བཀའ་ལུང་གནང་སོང་། «the lama provided instruction». 3) Defined by [TC] as གོང་མའི་བཀའ་ཤོག་ «any decree given in writing from a person above, such as an emperor or any other superior». There are in English many different terms to be used according to whom is issuing the decree / command / etc. E.g., «(written) order(s)», «(written) edict», «official order», «written command(s)». 4) «Reading transmission». [Hon] for ལུང་ in the sense of ལུང་འབོག་པ་ «the imparting of a reading transmission». 5) Acc. [TC] ལྷའི་མོ་བརྟག་ «divination arrived at based on the use of or provided by a deity».

བཀའ་ཤོག་ [bka' shog] «Official document», «official certificate», «official decree», etc. General name for any letter or document which has been handed down by a higher authority. E.g., 1) Official authorization from the government or powers that be regarding anything; marriage certificates, birth papers, passports, licenses, etc. 2) Official decree of any sort in writing. This includes written orders of all kinds.

བཀའ་སྲུང་ [bka' srung] 1) «Command guard». A name for dharma protectors in the larger sense, any one who guards the teaching. Here the term བཀའ་ means the word of the buddha, the teachings of the dharma. 2) A «personal guard», «a body guard» e.g., the body guards of the Dalai Lama, or the president of a country, or a private person who has hired someone as a body guard.

བཀའ་སྲོལ་གསུམ་ [bka' srol gsum] «The three systems of the word». Terminology unique to the རྙིང་མ་པ་ Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. The Nyingmapa tradition has three, specific and different ways in which the teaching is passed on. They are: 1) རིང་བརྒྱུད་བཀའ་མ་ «the distant lineage of the Buddha word»; 2) ཉེ་བརྒྱུད་གཏེར་མ་ «the close lineage of Terma; 3) ཟབ་མོ་དག་སྣང་གི་བརྒྱུད་པ་ «the lineage of profound visions».

བཀའ་སྲོལ་གསུམ་པའི་བྱང་སེམས་ [bka' srol gsum pa'i byang sems] «Three Traditions of Bodhicitta». Longchenpa gathered all three traditions of transmission of the bodhicitta vows: 1) the tradition of Mañjuśhrī via Nāgārjuna and Chandrakīrti; 2) the tradition of Maitreya via Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, and 3) the tradition of Mañjuśhrī via Nāgārjuna and Śhāntideva.

བཀར་ [bkar] I. Part of དགར་བ་ q.v.
II. Equivalent to བཀའ་ + ར་ with the ར་ being a ལ་དོན་ la-equivalent phrase linker that shows specific cases of grammar.

བཀར་བཏགས་ [bkar btags] I. phrase> Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཁྲིམས་བསྒྲགས་པ་ «announcement of new laws».
II. phrase> 1) The act of «keeping in mind», «registering something firmly in mind». 2) To be «bound under oath».
III. The «signifiers of the Buddha's dharma», which are basic precepts of the dharma that were taught as fundamental and were taught repeatedly. For example ལྟ་བ་བཀའ་རྟགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི་ the four seals taught by the Buddha that signified a teaching was the view according to the words of the buddha.

བཀར་བཏགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི་ [bkar btags kyi phyag rgya bzhi] «The four seals that signify (the Buddhist) view». See ལྟ་བ་བཀའ་རྟགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི་.

བཀར་བཏགས་བཞི་ [bkar btags bzhi] phrase> «The four signifiers». Four statements that signifying that something conforms to the Buddha's teaching. See ལྟ་བ་བཀའ་རྟགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་བཞི་ «the four seals that signify the view according to the buddha».

བཀར་བཏགས་གསུམ་ [bkar btags gsum] phrase> «The three signifiers». The first three of the བཀར་བཏགས་བཞི་ «the four signifiers» q.v.

བཀར་བ་ [bkar ba] Past of དགར་བ་ q.v.

བཀལ་ [bkal] I. Part of འཁལ་བ་ q.v.
II. Part of འགེལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀལ་ཐགས་ [bkal thags] Abbrev. of སྐུད་པ་ and ཐག་པ་. Lit. «thread and rope» but meaning all kinds of cord from fine thread to thick rope.

བཀལ་བ་ [bkal ba] I. Past and fut. of འཁལ་བ་ q.v.
II. Past of འགེལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀས་ [bkas] I. Part of འགས་པ་ q.v.
II. Condensed form of བཀའ་ཡིས་ which is the agentive form བཀའ་ q.v. meaning «by command», etc.
III. meaning a command given or granting of permission etc., by a person having the position to do so.

བཀས་བཅད་ [bkas bcad] «Decree». See བཀས་བཅད་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ q.v. E.g., [KBC] རྒྱལ་པོའི་བཀས་བཅད་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་གམ། སྡེ་སྣོད་ངོས་འཛིན་གྱི་ཕྱག་ཅེས་བྱ་སྟེ་ «called the homage or the piṭaka identification decreed by the king». (referring to the homage decreed necessary by ཁྲི་རལ་པ་ཅན་ King Ralpachen at the beginning of a Buddhist text translated from another language into Tibetan).

བཀས་བཅད་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ [bkas bcad rnam pa gsum] «The three decrees». A name given to the three, specific decrees made by King Tri Ralpachen when he commanded that the previous translations of the བཀའ་བསྟན་བསྒྱུར་ Translated Word and the Translated Treatises be re-translated and settled once and for all. The three are as follows. 1) That henceforth here in Tibet the three Vinaya systems other than the གཞི་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡོད་པར་སྨྲ་བ་ would not be installed and their སྡེ་སྣོད་ collections of the buddha-word would not be translated. 2) The tantras themselves of mantra would not be re-translated. 3) That terms of other countries such as China, Sahor, and so on that had found their way into the translations, and also Tibetan terms that were obscure, local dialect only, or not fitting to the task would all be examined and replaced with Tibetan equivalents that made sense to the translators. In doing this, the language and / or meaning of the Buddhist texts of the Central Land of India, Magadha, was to be followed, not the texts of other places because this was the land and place of the buddha himself.
The above were the decrees made prior to starting the work. There were other decrees made at the instigation of the translators as the work proceeded. For example, it was decreed that henceforth, all texts would have a title followed by a specific homage that would indicate which type of teaching was being presented in the text.

བཀས་བཅད་པ་ [bkas bcad pa] phrase> 1) The act of having «issued a decree (formally in writing)» e.g., for a king to issue a decree (in writing) or for a ruler to order something in writing. 2) The act of having «determined something (e.g., to have been judged or have a punishment passed or not) according to the law».

བཀས་པ་ [bkas pa] Past of འགས་པ་ q.v.

བཀུ་ [bku] Part of བཀུ་བ་ q.v.

བཀུ་བ་ [bku ba] v.t. བཀུས་པ་/ བཀུ་བ་/ བཀུ་བ་/ བཀུས་/. Meaning «to do something to a base substance so that its liquid essence is extracted / expressed / expelled / drawn out». E.g., [TC] སྨན་བསྐོལ་ཏེ་ཁུ་བ་བཀུས། «the medicinal herbs were boiled and their tincture extracted»; སྨན་བཀུས་ཏེ་སྨན་རོ་དོར། «the medicinal herbs were put through the extraction process and the waste was thrown out».

བཀུག་པ་ [bkug pa] Past of འགུགས་པ་ q.v.

བཀུམ་པ་ [bkum pa] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this is a form of བཀུམས་པ་ q.v.

བཀུམས་པ་ [bkums pa] Past of འགུམས་པ་ q.v.

བཀུར་ [bkur] I. 1) Imp. of བཀུར་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of བཀུར་བ་ q.v.

བཀུར་སྟི་ [bkur sti] 1) «Respect», «honour», «regard for» in the same sense that one pays respect to or has regard for old people who might not be especially holy or great but who are worthy of respect / honour because of their experience or even just their age. 2) «Veneration», «honouring», «esteem» in the sense of the treatment that one gives to anyone or anything seen as much higher / holier than oneself. The sense is very close to the English sense of «honouring» something much higher than oneself by actions of mind, speech, and body. It is the overall art of showing respect, the way that ones treats such things, which includes both the mental attitude of «respect», «honour» and also the verbal and physical and acts of «veneration», «worship», and «service» i.e., general respectful care. The term with this meaning is freq. used in Buddhist texts to show the attitude and behaviour expressed towards a teacher seen as special. It is also used freq. in regard to the dharma itself with is worthy of honour and worship. E.g., [BCA] འགྲོ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་སྨན་གཅིག་པུ། བདེ་བ་ཐམས་ཅད་འབྱུང་བའི་གནས། བསྟན་པ་རྙེད་དང་བཀུར་སྟི་དང་། བཅས་ཏེ་ཡུན་རིང་གནས་གྱུར་ཅིག། «The teaching is the sole medicine for the unsatisfactoriness of migrators and the place that every happiness comes from; may it remain for a long time and with that be discovered and venerated».
Note that the Tibetan term contains all of this meaning, however and unfortunately, there is no single English word that does.

བཀུར་སྟི་བྱ་བ་ [bkur sti bya ba] Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «satkāra». See under བཀུར་སྟི་ for base meaning. The addition of བྱ་བ་ adds the sense of «the general action of», «the art of», «the behaviour / conduct of».

བཀུར་སྟི་བྱེད་པ་ [bkur sti byed pa] phrase> v.t. see བྱེད་པ་ for tense forms. «To honour» etc., the verb form of the noun བཀུར་སྟི་ q.v. for explanation.

བཀུར་བསྟི་ [bkur bsti] Mis-spelling of བཀུར་སྟི་ q.v.

བཀུར་བ་ [bkur ba] I. v.t. བཀུར་བ་/ བཀུར་བ་/ བཀུར་བ་/ བཀུར་/. The base meaning has the two connotations of «to revere, to venerate» and «to stay close to / adhere to». There is no specific word in English that carries both connotations. Translations so far have used words that carry more of the first sense, such as «to esteem», «to worship», «to venerate», «to respect», «to honour». Occasionally, translations use words that carry more of the second sense, such as «to serve», «to attend» though these lose the first. Note that «to serve / to attend» better translate སྟེན་པ་ q.v. E.g., In the name of one of the Hīnayāna subschools མང་པོས་བཀུར་བ་ «the greatly revered (because their leader was respected / venerated by many)»; ལྷ་ལྟར་བཀུར་བ། «worshipped like a god»; ཕ་མ་གོང་དུ་བཀུར་བ། «giving high respect to one's parents».
II. Cognate to the verb. Hence «esteem», «worship», «veneration», «respect», «honour», «reverence», «service».

བཀུར་འོས་ [bkur 'os] 1) «Worthy of respect» as in someone or something that is worthy of one's regard in general. 2) «Worthy of veneration», «worthy of honour / being honoured» as in someone or something that is seen as very special—often as holy—and hence worthy of being regarded with respect and treated with veneration. See under བཀུར་བསྟི་ for more about both meanings.

བཀུས་ [bkus] 1) Imp. of བཀུ་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of བཀུ་བ་ q.v.

བཀུས་ཏེ་བོར་བ་ [bkus te bor ba] phrase> Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and was like saying ཁུ་བ་བཏོན་པའི་སྙིགས་ «the leavings of discharged semen».

བཀུས་པ་ [bkus pa] Past of བཀུ་བ་ q.v.

བཀོག་པ་ [bkog pa] Past of v.t. form II འགོག་པ་ q.v.

བཀོང་ [bkong] 1) Imp. of བཀོང་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of བཀོང་བ་ q.v.

བཀོང་བ་ [bkong ba] v.t. བཀོང་བ་/ བཀོང་བ་/ བཀོང་བ་/ བཀོང་/. «To cause loss of heart» / «to bring on fear and timidity in another person». E.g., [TC] ཕ་རོལ་པོའི་སྤ་བཀོང་སྟེ་སེམས་ཞུམ་པར་བྱས་སོ། «the other's bravery was deflated and he was reduced to timidity».

བཀོད་ [bkod] I. Past of v.t. འགོད་པ་ q.v.
II. see བཀོད་པ་ q.v.

བཀོད་སྟོང་ནམ་ཚ་ [bkod stong nam tsha] «Kotong Namtsha». One of མ་སང་སྤུན་དགུ་ Nine Masang Brothers q.v.

བཀོད་པ་ [bkod pa] I. Past of v.t. འགོད་པ་ q.v.
II. 1) «Arrangement», «placement», «design», «layout» i.e., the way in which something has been put together, arranged, done. E.g., in དམག་དཔུང་གི་བཀོད་པ་གསར་དུ་བསྒྲིགས་པ། «the army re-grouped (its forces after one battle in preparation for the next)» where བཀོད་པ་ means the way that the troops were sent out / placed in the field by their commanding officers for any given battle / skirmish. E.g., མཁའ་མཉམ་འགྲོ་བའི་མ་ལུས་པ། །སངས་རྒྱས་ས་ལ་བཀོད་པའི་ཕྱིར། «in order to set / array every one of the migrators extensive as space at the level of a buddha...» meaning in order to take the various sentient beings to buddhahood and set them up at that place. 2) Similar to the verb, also used to mean written records that have been made.
III. Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཁྲོ་བ་.

བཀོད་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ [bkod pa chen po] 1) «A great display, arrangement, etc.» 2) «Great Display», the name of a tantra; abbrev. of ཨ་ཏི་བཀོད་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Ati Display q.v.

བཀོད་པ་མཐའ་ཡས་ [bkod pa mtha' yas] «Infinite Array», the name of a bodhisatva at the time of Buddha. Translation from the Sanskrit «anantavyuha».

བཀོད་མ་ [bkod ma] Any thing that has a stream of water or liquid shooting upwards from it. 1) «Fountain». 2) «Geyser».

བཀོད་མའི་ཆུ་ [bkod ma'i chu] phrase> «Water fountain» or «fountain of water».

བཀོད་མའི་ཆུ་ལྟ་བུའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་ [bkod ma'i chu lta bu'i sems bskyed] See རྣམ་པར་སྨིན་པའི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་དགུ་ «nine arousals of mind of full ripening».

བཀོན་པ་ [bkon pa] [Old] Def. as འཁོན་དུ་འཛིན་པ་ «to have animosity, enmity».

བཀོལ་ [bkol] 1) Part of བཀོལ་བ་ q.v. 2) Past and fut. part of v.t. འཁོལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀོལ་སྤྱོད་ [bkol spyod] The forced labour of humans or animals who are bound into service. Hence «servitude», «slavery», «forced labour». In the case of animals it refers to them being forced into menial and difficult service, e.g., horses being pressed into service as pack animals.

བཀོལ་བ་ [bkol ba] I. Past and fut. of v.t. འཁོལ་བ་ q.v.
II. v.t. བཀོལ་བ་/ བཀོལ་བ་/ བཀོལ་བ་/ ཁོལ་/. This verb is similar to དགར་བ་ but slightly different from it. Both terms have the sense of «isolating something from a larger group». However, དགར་བ་ has the sense of picking things out based on a particular quality that they have, i.e., segregating them. This verb has the very simple meaning of picking one thing out of a group, of pulling one thing out, or pulling it off to the side. Note that there is no sense of reason for the «pulling out» and no sense of good or bad associated with it. Hence «to draw aside», «to set aside» or «to pull out», «to single out». For example, there is the common phrase ཟུར་དུ་བཀོལ་བ། meaning to pull out and set aside one thing from a larger group, e.g., དེབ་མང་ལས་གཅིག་ཟུར་དུ་བཀོལ་བ། «to pull out one book from a stack of books». E.g., [TC] མི་མང་པོའི་དཀྱིལ་ནས་ཁོ་བོ་ལོགས་སུ་བཀོལ་སོང་། «he was singled out of the large group of people» meaning that one person was called up, called out, from the midst of many people and made to come forward (for reasons unknown and no negativity or speciality implied).

བཀྱག་ [bkyag] Part of འགྱོག་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱག་པ་ [bkyag pa] Fut. of འགྱོག་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱགས་ [bkyags] See བཀྱགས་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱགས་པ་ [bkyags pa] Past of འགྱོག་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱལ་བ་ [bkyal ba] 1) Pointless or meaningless talk such as blather, talking nonsense, incoherent speech and so on. 2) Useless talk such as gossip or wanton talk or idle talk

བཀྱིག་ [bkyig] See བཀྱིག་པ་

བཀྱིག་ཐག་ [bkyig thag] «Tie» / «strap» / «lace» i.e., any rope etc., used to tie something with.

བཀྱིག་པ་ [bkyig pa] Fut. of འཁྱིག་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱིགས་ [bkyigs] See བཀྱིགས་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱིགས་པ་ [bkyigs pa] Past of འཁྱིག་པ་ q.v. «Tied», «tied up».

བཀྱེ་ [bkye] See བཀྱེ་བ་ q.v.

བཀྱེ་བ་ [bkye ba] Fut. of v.t. འགྱེད་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱེས་ [bkyes] See བཀྱེས་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱེས་པ་ [bkyes pa] Past of v.t. འགྱེད་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱོན་ [bkyon] 1) Imp. of v.t. བཀྱོན་པ་ q.v. 2) Part of v.t. བཀྱོན་པ་ q.v.

བཀྱོན་པ་ [bkyon pa] v.t. བཀྱོན་པ་/ བཀྱོན་པ་/ བཀྱོན་པ་/ བཀྱོན་/. [Hon] for གཤེ་བ་ q.v. meaning «to scold / reprimand / chastise / criticize». Often seen in བཀའ་བཀྱོན་པ་ meaning «to fault someone verbally», «to scold them».

བཀྲ་ [bkra] «Clear with its beautiful, many colours». A basic intertsheg of the Tibetan language with the general sense of brilliance of colour or brilliance of visual appearance. It does not have the sense of «glittering» which has often been ascribed to it. It is combined with various other མིང་ grammatical names or ཚིག་ཕྲད་ connectors to give words that contain its meaning.

བཀྲ་བ་ [bkra ba] I. This term is used in reference to visual appearances in particular and combines two connotations: 1) that the appearance strikes the eye as beautiful and 2) that the appearance is very vivid, bright, possibly dazzling because of its clear brilliance. An example of how this is would be the appearance of a field of flowers of differing colours seen in the summertime sun; bright, colourful, clear, and brilliant. It is joined with other words to convey this meaning.
II. [Mngon] epithet for a lizard, given that many lizards have a brilliantly coloured appearance.

བཀྲ་མི་ཤིས་ [bkra mi shis] I. «Inauspiciousness». The opp. of བཀྲ་ཤིས་ q.v.; that which is «not good», «not auspicious, «a calamity».
II. «Inauspicious», etc. per the noun's meaning, including also «unlucky», that which is not lucky. Hence also «unfortunate», «calamitous».

བཀྲ་མི་ཤིས་པ་ [bkra mi shis pa] Opp. of བཀྲ་ཤིས་པ་ q.v. That which has inauspiciousness associated with it. Also, «unlucky», that which is not lucky. E.g., [KBC] རྒྱ་མཚོར་འགྲོ་བ་ལ་བཀྲ་མི་ཤིས་པ་བྱས་ཏེ་ «you have brought me bad luck for my journey across the ocean». «Misfortune», «calamity».

བཀྲ་མི་ཤིས་པའི་རྟགས་ངན་པ་ [bkra mi shis pa'i rtags ngan pa] phrase> «Bad sign / omen», «inauspicious sign / omen», «sign of misfortune», «sign of impending bad», etc.

བཀྲ་ལམ་མེ་ [bkra lam me] [Exp] An མྱོང་ཚིག་ experiential language term. This has the particular meaning of «vividly clear and brilliant in its appearance». Note that it does not mean «iridescent» or «glittering» or the like. This term should not be confused with ཁྲ་ལམ་མེ་; this term is mainly used for the mind; ཁྲ་ལམ་མེ་ is used for visual phenomena. For other experiential words, see མྱོང་ཚིག་.

བཀྲ་ལམ་མེ་བ་ [bkra lam me ba] [Exp] The noun or adj. form of བཀྲ་ལམ་མེ་ q.v.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ [bkra shis] 1) «Auspiciousness / goodness». The term has the connotation of everything being completely good. It tends to have two main meanings from that: «goodness» and «auspiciousness», though there are other possibilities depending on context such as «fortune / prosperity / happiness and etc., all things good and that all things do go well». E.g., in one well-known prayer in Kagyu texts, there is the phrase, བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་བླ་མ་རྣམས་ཀྱི་བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཤོག། which means «May the goodness (note: not auspiciousness / prosperity / or any of the other possibilities) of all the Kagyu gurus be present». There are many other prayers where good fortune is being supplicated for and in that case, it means just that. And in others still, wealth is being supplicated for and in that case, it means just that. And so on. The context has to be examined and wording used correspondingly.
In coll. it has more the sense of «good fortune / good luck» e.g., the common phrase བཀྲ་ཤིས་བ་ཤོག། «May all things turn out well».
2) Because the Buddhist understanding is that things good and bad all arise as dependent occurrences, this term actually means, may the རྟེན་འབྲེལ་ «dependent relations» involved at this time be good and not bad. Thus, the term བཀྲ་ཤིས་ becomes synonymous with «good dependent relations». 3) The name is used to refer to the eight things which the Buddha spoke well of and which henceforth were called «auspicious» by his followers. These are the བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྫས་བརྒྱད་ «eight auspicious substances» and བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་ «eight auspicious symbols» q.v. 4) «Auspiciousness». One of བྱེད་པ་བཅུ་གཅིག་ eleven calculators of astrology.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཀྱི་ཚིགས་སུ་བཅད་པ་ [bkra shis kyi tshigs su bcad pa] «Verse(s) of auspiciousness». Four line stanzas of auspiciousness usually recited at the end of major rites or liturgies.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་བརྗོད་པ་ [bkra shis brjod pa] «Expression of auspiciousness». The name given to the recitation or expression of wishes for goodness. This is often included as a part of the concluding section of liturgies. The conclusion usually has dedications of merit followed by prayers of aspiration. The latter can also have expressions of auspiciousness included, too.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་ [bkra shis rtags brgyad] «Eight auspicious symbols». Also translated as «eight auspicious emblems», «eight auspicious signs». They are: 1) གདུགས་མཆོག་ «excellent umbrella»; 2) གསེར་ཉ་ «golden fish»; 3) བུམ་པ་ «vase»; 4) པདྨ་ padma, «lotus flower»; 5) དུང་དཀར་ «white conch»; 6) དཔལ་བེའུ་ «endless knot»; 7) རྒྱལ་མཚན་ «victory banner»; 8) འཁོར་ལོ་ «wheel».

བཀྲ་ཤིས་པ་ [bkra shis pa] That which has བཀྲ་ཤིས་ «auspiciousness, goodness», etc.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་པའི་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་ [bkra shis pa'i rtags brgyad] See བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་པའི་མདོ་ [bkra shis pa'i mdo] phrase> «Sutra of auspiciousness», general term for referring to sutras which are classed as being auspicious; འཕགས་པ་དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་རྗེས་སུ་དྲན་པའི་མདོ་ The Sutra of the Recollection of the Noble Three Jewels is classed as such.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་པའི་རྫས་བརྒྱད་ [bkra shis pa'i rdzas brgyad] See བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྫས་བརྒྱད་.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་བྱ་བ་ [bkra shis bya ba] «Performance of auspiciousness». The name given to a section commonly found in Buddhist liturgies of various types in which བཀྲ་ཤིས་བརྗོད་པ་ expressions of auspiciousness are made.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཚལ་ [bkra shis tshal] «Auspicious Grove». The name of one of དུར་ཁྲོད་བརྒྱད་ the eight charnel grounds q.v. This is the charnel ground of fire.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཚེ་རིང་མཆེད་ལྔ་ [bkra shis tshe ring mched lnga] phrase> «Tashi Tseringma and four sisters». See ཚེ་རིང་མཆེད་ལྔ་ «The five Tsering sisters».

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཚེ་རིང་མ་ [bkra shis tshe ring ma] «Tashi Tseringma». The name of ཚེ་རིང་མཆེད་ལྔ་ the leading sister of five Tseringma sisters of long-life q.v.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་མཛེས་ལྡན་ [bkra shis mdzes ldan] «Beautiful Auspiciousness». The name of one of the རྒྱུད་བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen tantras of the མན་ངག་གི་སྡེ་ Upadeśha section of the རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་མཛེས་ལྡན་ཆེན་པོའི་རྒྱུད་ [bkra shis mdzes ldan chen po'i rgyud] «Beautiful Auspiciousness Tantra»; see བཀྲ་ཤིས་མཛེས་ལྡན་.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྫས་ [bkra shis rdzas] phrase> «Auspicious substances» usually in reference to the བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྫས་བརྒྱད་ «eight auspicious substances» q.v.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྫས་བརྒྱད་ [bkra shis rdzas brgyad] «The eight auspicious substances». There were eight articles specifically blessed by Buddha which have been regarded as sacred since then in the Buddhist tradition. [DGT] gives: 1) མེ་ལོང་ mirror; 2) གི་ཝང་ Bezoar (elephant bile medicine); 3) ཞོ་ curds; 4) རྩྭ་དཱུར་བ་ Durva grass; 5) ཤིང་ཏོག་བིལྦ་ Wood-apple fruit; 6) དུང་དཀར་གཡས་འཁྱིལ་ right-coiling conch shell; 7) ལི་ཁྲི་ vermilion powder; 8) ཡུངས་ཀར་ mustard seed.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྫས་རྟགས་ [bkra shis rdzas rtags] «The eight auspicious substances and signs» see བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྫས་བརྒྱད་ and བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཟླ་བ་ [bkra shis zla ba] phrase> «Auspicious month»; an epithet for a month that has neither days added nor subtracted but is exactly 30 days long. (Tibetan astrological calculations sometimes result in a month having as many as two dates repeated by the addition of the same day again or as many as two dates removed).

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ [bkra shis lhun po] «Tashi Lhunpo» the name of a large, Gelugpa monastery in the region of གཙང་ Tsang. The monastery was built in 1447 A.D. by དགེ་འདུན་གྲུབ་ the first Dalai Lama. It became the seat of the པཎ་ཆེན་ Panchen Lama in Tsang.

བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོའི་དགོན་པ་ [bkra shis lhun po'i dgon pa] «Tashi Lhunpo Monastery». See under བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ Tashi Lhunpo q.v.

བཀྲག་མདངས་ [bkrag mdangs] «Lustre». The བཀྲག་མདངས་ is the light given off when the complexion of anything is so fine that it radiates light; i.e. «lustre». It could also be termed «radiance» but the term མདངས་ is a little subtle and «lustre» seems more appropriate. E.g., in the case of a beautiful woman who has excellent, glowing skin, it is said that her skin has «a lustre to it»; her skin is བཀྲག་མདངས་. A flower that has a beautiful lustre has བཀྲག་མདངས་. «Brilliance» could also fit some circumstances but again, the basic sense is a lustre rather than brilliance which is usually much stronger.

བཀྲག་རྩི་ [bkrag rtsi] «Gloss», «varnish», «lacquer». Any clear substance placed over the top of something else to make it shiny and bring out the underlying pattern / design, etc.

བཀྲབ་ [bkrab] See བཀྲབ་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲབ་པ་ [bkrab pa] I. v.t. བཀྲབས་པ་/ བཀྲབ་པ་/ བཀྲབ་པ་/ བཀྲོབས/. Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, མང་པོའི་ནང་ནས་འདམས་པ་ «to select one from among many». It means «to select» or «to pick out» one as most suitable for whatever reason from a larger group. E.g., [TC] ས་བོན་ལེགས་པར་བཀྲབ། «selecting the seed carefully»; འོས་མིའི་ནང་ནས་དྲག་ཤོས་བཀྲབ་རྒྱུ། «the fiercest of the suitable ones should be selected».
II. «An appointee», «designate», etc.; someone who has been selected by a king or other similar power to do certain duties. Generally this will be a lesser position than a བློན་པོ་ minister.

བཀྲབས་ [bkrabs] See བཀྲབས་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲབས་པ་ [bkrabs pa] Past of བཀྲབ་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲམ་ [bkram] See བཀྲམ་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲམ་པ་ [bkram pa] Past of འགྲེམས་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲལ་ [bkral] Past part of བཀྲལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀྲལ་བ་ [bkral ba] I. Past of v.t. འགྲེལ་བ་ q.v.
II. v.t. བཀྲལ་བ་/ བཀྲལ་བ་/ བཀྲལ་བ་/ བཀྲོལ་/. «To tax», «to charge» in the sense of imposing or a placing a burden. E.g., to impose taxation or to charge a commission or to impose a fee for services or goods, including rental. E.g., [TC] ཞིང་ཁྲལ་བཀྲལ་བ། «to charge farm tax». Taxation in Tibet, as in many societies, was not necessarily a monetary one. In fact, more often than not was exacted in terms other than monetary ones. The term is also used in the metaphoric sense of applying something which is a burden e.g., «to tax the mind».

བཀྲི་ [bkri] See བཀྲི་བ་ q.v.

བཀྲི་བ་ [bkri ba] v.t. བཀྲིས་པ་/ བཀྲི་བ་/ བཀྲི་བ་/ བཀྲིས་/. Acc. [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, དྲང་བ་. [LGK] gives more information: it means, when written in new signs, དྲང་བ་ or འཁྲིད་པ་ or འཁྲིད་པ་ «to lead or guide». E.g., [TC] ལམ་བཟང་ལ་བཀྲི་བ། «to guide / lead along on the good path (of dharma, etc.)».

བཀྲིས་ [bkris] 1) Imp. of བཀྲི་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of བཀྲི་བ་ q.v.

བཀྲིས་པ་ [bkris pa] Past of བཀྲི་བ་ q.v.

བཀྲས་ལྷུན་ [bkras lhun] Abbrev. of བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ «Tashi Lhunpo».

བཀྲུ་ [bkru] See བཀྲུ་བ་ q.v.

བཀྲུ་བ་ [bkru ba] Fut. of འཁྲུད་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲུས་ [bkrus] See བཀྲུས་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲུས་པ་ [bkrus pa] Past of འཁྲུད་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲེན་པ་ [bkren pa] 1) «Destitute», a person who is not merely poor, not merely a beggar, but who is «destitute». 2) Strong avarice, i.e., «greed». Or also someone who is «very miserly».

བཀྲེས་ [bkres] I. Part of བཀྲེས་པ་ q.v.
II. Abbrev. of བཀྲེས་པ་ «hunger» q.v.

བཀྲེས་སྐོམ་ [bkres skom] Abbrev. of བཀྲེས་པ་དང་སྐོམ་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲེས་སྐོམ་གྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་ [bkres skom gyi sdug bsngal] «The unsatisfactoriness / suffering of hunger and thirst». E.g., the Buddha taught that the unsatisfactoriness of hunger and thirst is one of the principal sufferings experienced by beings born in the animal realm.

བཀྲེས་པ་ [bkres pa] I. v.i. བཀྲེས་པ་/ བཀྲེས་པ་/ བཀྲེས་པ་//. «To be hungry»; same meaning as ལྟོགས་པ་ q.v. E.g., [TC] གྲོད་ཁོག་བཀྲེས་པ། lit. «to have a hungry stomach» but this is the standard Tibetan way of saying «to be hungry».
II. See also སྐོམ་པ་ «thirst». 1) «Hunger» / «hungry person» in the general sense of hunger. E.g., བཀྲེས་པ་དང་སྐོམ་པ་ «hunger and thirst» which according to the Buddha is one of the sufferings of beings born in the animal realm. 2) «Hunger». One of the རེག་བྱ་བཅུ་གཅིག་ eleven sensations and one of the འབྱུང་འགྱུར་གྱི་རེག་བྱ་བདུན་ «the seven tangibles of touch» q.v. 3) «A hungry person / being». E.g., [KBC] བཀྲེས་པ་ཟས་དང་སྐོམ་པ་ཆུ་ལ་གདུང་བ་ལྟ་བུ་ «like a hungry person aching for food and a thirsty person longing for water».

བཀྲེས་པ་དང་སྐོམ་པ་ [bkres pa dang skom pa] Often abbrev. as བཀྲེས་སྐོམ་.
I. phrase> v.i. «to be hungry and thirsty».
II. phrase> «Hunger and thirst» or «hungry and thirsty ones». E.g., the Buddha taught that བཀྲེས་སྐོམ་གྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་ «the unsatisfactoriness of hunger and thirst» is one of the sufferings experienced by beings born in the animal realm.

བཀྲོངས་ [bkrongs] See བཀྲོངས་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲོངས་པ་ [bkrongs pa] Past of དགྲོང་བ་ q.v. E.g., «dead» but not «killed».

བཀྲོབས་ [bkrobs] Imp. of བཀྲབ་པ་ q.v.

བཀྲོལ་ [bkrol] I. 1) Imp. of v.t. བཀྲལ་བ་ q.v. 2) See བཀྲོལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀྲོལ་རྒྱ་ [bkrol rgya] «Ringing mudrā». Secret mantra terminology. The abbrev. name of the mudrā of ringing the bell.

བཀྲོལ་བ་ [bkrol ba] Past of འགྲོལ་བ་ q.v.

བཀླག་ [bklag] See བཀླག་པ་ q.v.

བཀླག་ཆོག་ [bklag chog] «Liturgy» or «liturgical text». The general name for rituals and rites that have been written down in a form suitable for reading aloud. E.g., བྱིས་པ་འཇུག་པའི་དབང་བསྐུར་བཀླག་ཆོག་ཏུ་བཀོད་པ་ «the child's entry empowerment written out in the form of a liturgy (for reading out loud)».
One translator gives «arranged for easy reading» however that is not the meaning. This is a text that has been arranged as a liturgy, i.e., for reading.

བཀླག་པ་ [bklag pa] Fut. of v.t. ཀློག་པ་ q.v.

བཀླགས་ [bklags] See བཀླགས་པ་ q.v.

བཀླགས་ཆོག་ [bklags chog] Same as བཀླག་ཆོག་ q.v.

བཀླགས་པ་ [bklags pa] Past of ཀློག་པ་ q.v.

བཀླུབ་ [bklub] See བཀླུབ་པ་ q.v.

བཀླུབ་པ་ [bklub pa] Fut. of v.t. ཀླུབ་པ་ q.v.

བཀླུབས་ [bklubs] See བཀླུབས་པ་ q.v.

བཀླུབས་པ་ [bklubs pa] Past of v.t. ཀླུབ་པ་ q.v.

འཀན་འཁུར་བ་ ['kan 'khur ba] Corrupted form of འགན་འཁུར་བ་ q.v.

རྐང་ [rkang] 1) «Marrow» being the jelly-like substance on the inside of the bones. i) One of the ལུས་ཟུངས་བདུན་ «seven body constituents: q.v. ii) One of མངལ་སྐྱེས་ཁམས་དྲུག་ «the six elements of birth in a womb» q.v. 2) «The marrow» meaning the pith, the essential nature of something, and also the kernel which is at the core of something. 3) Aspect or part of something larger. 4) An individual length of something, e.g., [TC] ཤིང་རྐང་གཅིག་ «a single beam / plank of wood», སྐྲ་རྐང་གསུམ་ «three strands of hair»; སྐུད་པ་རྐང་གཅིག་ «one length of thread».

རྐང་སྐོང་བ་ [rkang skong ba] phrase> «Verse padding» or «verse filler». More literally, «line padding» or «line filler». Abbrev. of རྐང་པ་ཁ་སྐོང་གི་ཡི་གེ་ q.v.

རྐང་ཁྲག་རྡོ་ [rkang khrag rdo] [Khams] «feet like stone» a phrase used to indicate how tired and worn out the feet become when someone is constantly working hard. See also ལག་ཁྲག་རྡོ་.

རྐང་ཁྲི་ [rkang khri] Same as རྐང་སྟེགས་ q.v.

རྐང་མགྱོགས་ [rkang mgyogs] «Swift footedness», the name of the ability to run literally like the wind, one of the ordinary siddhis.

རྐང་གླིང་ [rkang gling] «Thigh-bone trumpet». A trumpet made of the thigh bone (femur). It is used in certain tantric practices.

རྐང་འགྲོ་ [rkang 'gro] 1) «Passage (tax)»; the name of a particular type of tax assessed when any people or animals would cross property owned by someone. See also རྐང་འགྲོ་ལག་འདོན་. 2) «Foot traveller»; someone who travels by foot, usually meaning someone who makes their passage on a long journey by foot, e.g., those who in earlier times would travel from country to country on foot. 3) [Mngon] i) An epithet for «animals». ii) Meaning «foot-soldiers», the type of armed force that goes on foot.

རྐང་འགྲོ་ལག་འདོན་ [rkang 'gro lag 'don] «Passage and sales», the general name for two types of taxes that used to be exacted earlier in Tibet which were 1) རྐང་འགྲོ་ «passage» tax q.v. and 2) ལག་འདོན་ sales tax. These taxes were often assessed by very wealthy landowners who were out to get whatever profit they could get. E.g., རྐང་འགྲོ་ལག་འདོན་གྱི་ཁྲལ་རིགས་འཐེན་པ། «assessed the taxes of passage and sales» meaning that someone was stationed in a place, actually assessing and collecting these taxes from people.

རྐང་རྗེས་ [rkang rjes] «Footprint». This can be either: 1) an actual footprint; or 2) the «footprint» which is the «trace» or «mark» or «track» left behind by something else.

རྐང་རྗེས་ལག་བསུབ་ [rkang rjes lag bsub] A saying which exists in English as «wiping out the good that he has done». Used in reference to someone who does good work and then effectively wipes it out by doing bad things later.

རྐང་གཉིས་ [rkang gnyis] The translation of a term from ancient India which is a metaphor for humans. It means those who go on two legs. It lit. translates as «bipeds». A more useful translation is probably «humankind», «mankind». The term is found throughout the Buddhist sūtras. E.g., རྐང་གཉིས་གཙོ་བོ་ «the chief of bipeds (humans)» is an epithet for the Buddha.

རྐང་གཉིས་གཙོ་བོ་ [rkang gnyis gtso bo] «The chief of bipeds (humans). See under རྐང་གཉིས་. An epithet of the Buddha.

རྐང་རྟེན་ [rkang rten] [Old] Acc. [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, འཛེགས་ཐེམ་ step of a stair.

རྐང་སྟེགས་ [rkang stegs] phrase> Lit. «foot support» and meaning any «stool», «step», «stand» that a person can stand on in order to raise himself higher. For example, like a «foot stool», or a chair etcetera used for the purpose. Also, in some contexts «a step up».
Other names for the same are རྐང་ཁྲི་, རྐང་རྟེན་, and [Hon] ཞབས་སྟེགས་.

རྐང་ཐང་ [rkang thang] «Pedestrian». The name given to someone who makes their way, their passage, by foot. 1) In general, «a pedestrian», someone who travels by foot. 2) In the case of a soldier, it is an «infantryman» or a «foot-soldier». 3) In the case of མི་བཅུ་བཞི་ the fourteen types of humans, it is the type of king who travels by foot as opposed to horse, elephant, or chariot.

རྐང་མཐིལ་ [rkang mthil] [Non-Hon] The «sole of the foot». I.e., the under-surface of the foot. The top surface is called the རྐང་བོལ་ «top of the foot».

རྐང་དྲུག་ [rkang drug] [Mngon] Lit. «six-feet», a metaphor for a སྦྲང་མ་ bee. E.g., [KSM] ཀྭ་ཡེ་བློ་གསལ་རྐང་དྲུག་གཞོན་ནུ་རྣམས། །བརྡ་དག་སྦྲང་རྩིའི་དགའ་སྟོན་སྤྱོད་འདོད་ན། «Hey! You six-legged, youthful ones of clear intellect, if you would like to enjoy the feast of honey of pure signs of language...».

རྐང་དྲུག་ཚེས་ [rkang drug tshes] [Mngon] Lit. «Six-legged one's day» meaning the thing that presents a field day for bees; an epithet for «mango tree».

རྐང་གདུབ་ [rkang gdub] «Anklet». One type of ornamentation common in ancient India. See also གདུབ་. At that time and still now, anklets were worn as a loose chain just above the anklebone. Women's anklets usually had small bells attached. A particular style of earring derived from the style of ornamentation of ancient Indian culture. They are one of the ལོངས་སྤྱོད་རྫོགས་པའི་རྒྱན་བཅུ་གསུམ་ «the thirteen adornments of the saṃbhogakāya», one of ཡབ་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་དྲུག་ «the six symbolic ornaments of the male», and ཡུམ་གྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ལྔ་ «the five symbolic ornaments of the female».

རྐང་གདུབ་ཅན་ [rkang gdub can] «Ankletted», i.e., having a རྐང་གདུབ་ q.v.

རྐང་འདྲེན་ [rkang 'dren] See the verb རྐང་འདྲེན་པ་ for explanation. «Shame», «disgrace», «embarrassment», «loss of name» that is brought on a group by the actions of a member of the group. E.g., [KBC] བསྟན་པའི་རྐང་འདྲེན་དུ་འགྱུར་བ། «to become a (source of) embarrassment to the doctrine». For honorific form see ཞབས་འདྲེན་ q.v.

རྐང་འདྲེན་པ་ [rkang 'dren pa] phrase> v.t. see འདྲེན་པ་ for tense forms. Meaning for one person to do something which brings loss of the good name to the group they belong to. Hence «to be an embarrassment to (others in / the group)», «to bring disgrace / shame on (one's group)», «to be a public embarrassment to», etc. Note that the meaning is not mere embarrassment but that the group's good name has been reduced. This often causes the group to be embarrassed publicly / disgraced because of it. For honorific form see ཞབས་འདྲེན་པ་ q.v.

རྐང་པ་ [rkang pa] 1) That which allows something to move or travel. i) «Leg», «foot». The term refers to the whole physical leg including foot and is often used in a general way to refer to any part. E.g., མིའི་རྐང་པ་དང་ལག་པ་ «the legs and arms of a man»; རྐང་པའི་མཛུབ་མོ་ «the big toe of the foot (leg)». ii) «Leg». In classical works that derive from India, e.g., , in the teachings of the Buddha, this term is often used in a metaphoric way to indicate that which allows something else to happen or perform. E.g., རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ་བཞི་ «the four legs of miracles» q.v. In that case, although it sounds a little odd to the English ear at first, the term «leg» is an accurate translation because the meaning is not one of «basis» but of «that which moves something, allows it to travel». iii) «Leg». The name of the vertical stroke on long Tibetan consonant letters. Some of the consonant letters are said to have legs and others not; see ཡི་གེ་རྐང་པ་ཅན་. iv) «Leg» a measure of distance used in thangka painting. It is defined as the length of the vertical stroke of long Tibetan consonant letters (see immediately preceding definition). Four legs make one ཆ་ཆུང་ smaller proportion in size q.v. 2) «Leg» in the sense of that which supports something else, e.g., the leg of a table. Depending on context it will be «leg», «foot», «pedestal», «pillar», «base», «foundation», etc. E.g., ཟམ་པའི་རྐང་པ། «pillar / pylon of a bridge»; རྐུབ་སྟེགས་ཀྱི་རྐང་པ་ «legs of a chair». 3) «A line» in ཚིགས་བཅད་ verse. Translation of the Sanskrit «pada». A single line of verse in the Sanskrit system of versification is called a «pada» or «foot / leg» of verse.

རྐང་པ་ཁ་སྐོང་གི་ཡི་གེ་ [rkang pa kha skong gi yi ge] «Verse-filler», «verse-filling letter» / «verse padder», «verse-padding letter». More literally, «line-filling letter», etc. Grammar term. The name given to a letter functioning as a ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector which is additionally functioning ཁ་སྐོང་ to fill, i.e., pad, a རྐང་པ་ line of ཚིགས་བཅད་ verse.
Tibetan poetry is made by constructing a series of lines of prose with each line having exactly the same number of syllables per line. Sometimes in constructing a line of verse, extra syllables are needed to pad the line up to the correct number of syllables. There are several techniques for providing the padding. One technique is to use longer forms of words to give more syllables. The technique referred to with this term here is the use of connectors which in their normal form are part of ཚེག་བར་ an intertsheg but which can be split off from it and written as a separate intertsheg.
Firstly, the three connectors ར་, འི་, and འང་ are written either by suffixing them to intertshegs, e.g., as པར་, པའི་, and པའང་ or by writing them as separate intertshegs following the word they are modifying e.g., as པ་རུ་, པ་ཡི་, and པ་ཡང་. In the former case they count as one syllable in the latter case they count as two syllables, thus adding one more syllable to a line.
Secondly, the connectors འོ་, འུ་, or འམ་ can function as verse padding not because they replace a cognate connector which was previously part of a word but because, in being added to an intertsheg, they add a syllable to that item and hence increase the number of syllables per line. For example, བྱ་ is a one-syllable intertsheg whereas བྱའོ་ and བྱའུ་ and བྱའམ་ are two- syllable intertshegs.

རྐང་པའི་ཉྭ་ [rkang pa'i nyva] «Calf» meaning «calf of (the) leg».

རྐང་པས་རྫི་བ་ [rkang pas rdzi ba] phrase> v.i. see རྫི་བ་ for tense forms. «To tread on», «to step on». The term does not mean «trample» has the sense of stepping on something or someone because of thinking it or the person is of no account. This phrase is used because, in Buddhist culture, one does not step on or tread on with one's feet something which is worthy of respect. E.g., a Buddha in the long-ago past is reported in the sutras to have said to his followers: [MPP] དགེ་སློང་དག་ཁྱེད་གང་གིས་ཀྱང་བྲམ་ཟེའི་ཁྱེའུ་བཟང་དག་དེའི་ལུས་ལ་རྐང་པས་མ་རྫི་ཤིག །དེ་ཅིའི་ཕྱིར་ཞེ་ན། བྱང་



ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་སེམས་དཔའ་ཆེན་པོ་འདི་མི་སྐྱེ་བའི་ཆོས་ལ་བཟོད་པ་ཐོབ་པའི་ཕྱིར་རོ། ‘Monks, none of you should step on the brahmin boy Bhadrau’s body with your feet! Why? [219] It is because this bodhisatva mahāsatva has attained forbearance with respect to the unborn dharma.

རྐང་བོལ་ [rkang bol] The «top (surface) of the foot». This is not the «ankle» as some have given but the top or upper surface of the foot i.e., the other surface compared to the རྐང་མཐིལ་ «sole of the foot».

རྐང་འབམ་ [rkang 'bam] «Elephantiasis of the legs»; one way of referring to the disease འབམ་ནད་ «elephantiasis» q.v.

རྐང་མང་ [rkang mang] [Mngon] «Many-legged». 1) Epithet of the animal «crab». 2) Epithet of the ནྱགྲོདྷ་ Nyagrodha tree q.v. The tree visibly puts out many roots at its base and also has many aerial roots.

རྐང་མར་ [rkang mar] «Marrow», «bone-marrow». The substance found in the centre of living bones, «marrow». 2) One of བདུད་རྩི་ལྔ་ the five amṛitas q.v.

རྐང་མིག་ [rkang mig] Translation of the Sanskrit «akṣhipāda». See དྲང་སྲོང་རྐང་མིག་ «Ṛiṣhi Akṣhipāda». Followers of his system are called རྐང་མིག་པ་ q.v.

རྐང་མིག་པ་ [rkang mig pa] «Follower of Akṣhipāda» meaning a follower of the tenets of the Hindu school established by དྲང་སྲོང་རྐང་མིག་ «Ṛiṣhi Akṣhipāda».

རྐང་བཞི་ [rkang bzhi] [Mngon] 1) «Quadruped». The general name for four-footed beings, animals. 2) An epithet for བཞི་མདོ་ which is one of བྱེད་པ་བཅུ་གཅིག་ eleven calculators of astrology.

རྐང་ལག་ [rkang lag] Abbrev. of རྐང་པ་ and ལག་པ་. «Hands and feet / arms and legs / extremities / limbs».

རྐང་ལག་འགྱུས་པ་ [rkang lag 'gyus pa] Abbrev. of རྐང་ལག་རྣམ་པར་འགྱུས་པ་ q.v.

རྐང་ལག་རྣམ་པར་འགྱུས་པ་ [rkang lag rnam par 'gyus pa] «Arms and legs emerged». Translation of the Sanskrit «praṣhākhā». The name given to the embryo in a human womb during the fifth week after conception. This is the final phase of མངལ་གྱི་གནས་སྐབས་ལྔ་ five stages of growth in the womb. The mass has been a relatively unformed mass in the previous four stages. It has now become defined and has head, legs, and arms. According to Tibetan medicine, this is the basic human form which now continues to grow and develop until birth.
[RYD] gives «moving the limbs» but that is mistaken. Here, འགྱུས་པ་ q.v. refers to the limbs having come out / emerged (and note the past tense).

རྐང་ཤུབས་ [rkang shubs] Lit. «foot cover». 1) Meaning ལྷམ་ shoe q.v. 2) Meaning ཨུ་མུ་སུ་ sock / stocking q.v.

རྐང་སུག་ [rkang sug] Abbrev. of རྐང་པ་ and སུག་པ་; same meaning as རྐང་ལག་ q.v.

རྐང་གསུམ་ [rkang gsum] Abbrev. of རྐང་གསུམ་པ་ q.v.

རྐང་གསུམ་པ་ [rkang gsum pa] 1) «Tripod». Translation of the Sanskrit «mandzi». 2) [Mngon] metaphor for དྲེའུ་ «a mule» q.v. 3) [RYD] gives as epithet of Vaiśhravaṇa, one of the རྒྱལ་ཆེན་རིགས་བཞི་ four great kings.

རྐན་ [rkan] «Palate» i.e., the bony structure at the roof of the mouth. The «palate» is one of the eight སྐྱེ་གནས་ «production places», the places in the head and throat used in the pronunciation of Tibetan letters.

རྐན་ནད་དྲུག་ [rkan nad drug] «The six diseases of the palate» according to Tibetan medicine.

རྐུ་ [rku] See རྐུ་བ་ q.v.

རྐུ་བ་ [rku ba] v.t. བརྐུས་པ་/ རྐུ་བ་/ བརྐུ་པ་/ རྐུས་/. «To thieve», «to rob», «to pilfer», «to burgle» (note that the correct form is burgle—burglarize is a very recent American corruption). This verb is used to describe the action of a རྐུན་མ་ «thief» and although it can be translated as «to steal», it is not the same as མ་བྱིན་ལེན་པ་ which is the generic term for stealing. The word རྐུ་བ་ specifically means theft by devious means. Thieves in Asia, even these days but especially in earlier times, were usually skilled at their art and usually came at night, under cover of dark, or used some means of trickery so that the owner of the goods would not know that they were being robbed. This verb is used only to mean that kind of theft where there is no harm or threat of harm but where there is thievery by deceit or craft. E.g., [TC] གཞན་ནོར་རྐུ་བ། «to obtain another's wealth by thievery, deception, etc.»; འཇབ་བུས་རྐུ་བ། «robbed by a sneak thief»; བརྣོགས་ཏེ་རྐུ་བ། «stayed concealed and robbed»; མངོན་སུམ་དུ་འཕྲོག་བཅོམ་དང་འཇབ་བུས་རྐུ་བ། «daylight robbery and sneaky theft».
Again, the Tibetan name given to someone who practices theft by craft is རྐུན་མ་. Someone who is armed or uses force for robbery is specifically called a ཇག་པ་. Some who do not know English so well have tried to make the distinction «thief» for རྐུན་མ་ and «bandit» or «robber» for ཇག་པ་ but that is incorrect. A thief in English is generally someone who tries to རྐུ་བ་ rob by craft rather than force but a robber can equally be a རྐུན་མ་ thief as well as an ཇག་པ་ armed robber. A bandit is not necessarily even a robber and if a bandit is a robber even then a bandit is not necessarily one who robs by force. Thus in this case, the onus is on the translator to choose a wording appropriate the context which indicates theft by craft rather than theft by force.
Note also the more general verb འཕྲོག་པ་ «to rip off» and the polite way of saying that someone stole something: མ་བྱིན་པར་ལེན་པ་ taking something that wasn't offered / not yours to take.

རྐུན་བྱི་ [rkun byi] Abbrev. of རྐུན་མ་ and བྱི་པོ་ «thieves and rapists / perverts / etc» meaning thieves and people who have illicit sex with young people not of age q.v.

རྐུན་མ་ [rkun ma] 1) A «thief», «robber». Someone who uses craft or cunning to རྐུ་བ་ thieve from others. In Tibetan, this one word covers all types of thieves and robbers though in English there are many different types and the correct translation will have to be supplied on context. E.g., thief, robber, bandit, embezzler, burglar, etc., could all translate this term. Note though that there is a distinction made in Tibetan between theft by craft/cunning and theft by force. Persons who practice theft by craft/cunning are called རྐུན་མ་ and those who steal by force are called ཇག་པ་ q.v. Also see རྐུ་བ་ «to thieve» for more. 2) [Dialect] «Thievery», «robbery» i.e., the activity of a thief.

རྐུབ་ [rkub] 1) The area of the body called «the buttocks». Tibetans use the one term to cover less coarse and coarse meanings. Thus the English following coll. terms are all correct translations, depending on context: from less crude to coarse: «backside», «bottom», «behind», (English slang) «bum», (English / American slang) «arse». See also འཕོངས་, which is a nicer term for the same. 2) The «anus» itself. Again, the one term is used to indicate less coarse and more coarse senses and the following English terms are all fitting: «bum», «bottom», «arsehole». 3) «Bottom / backside / underside». The term is used to mean the bottom end or underside or foot of something, just like the English «bottom» can be used to mean both the buttocks of the body and the bottom of a jar. E.g., in modern Tibetan, མོ་ཏའི་རྐུབ་ means the «underside / underbody / underbelly» of a car; བུམ་པའི་རྐུབ་ «the bottom / underside of a vase».

རྐུབ་སྐྱགས་ [rkub skyags] See རྐུབ་བཀྱག་.

རྐུབ་བཀྱག་ [rkub bkyag] This one word is used to cover all pieces of furniture / devices for sitting on: «chair», «stool», «seat», «bench», «couch», etc. [TC] mentions that it is also seen in the form རྐུབ་སྐྱགས་. One dictionary claims that it is རྐུབ་རྒྱག་ but that is mistaken because the word is derived from the noun རྐུབ་ «backside» + the past of the verb འགྱོག་པ་ «to hold up / support». (The term སྐྱགས་ is a corrupted form of the past of འགྱོག་པ་.)

རྐུབ་རྒྱག་ [rkub rgyag] Mis-spelling of རྐུབ་བཀྱག་ q.v.

རྐུབ་སྟེགས་ [rkub stegs] «Seat / chair / bench»; same as རྐུབ་བཀྱག་ q.v.

རྐུབ་སྡོད་ [rkub sdod] phrase> 1) «Seated at the rear / end» meaning seated in the last or end position. 2) «Coming last» meaning someone left-out, someone left in the end position.

རྐུབ་ཙོས་ [rkub tsos] Same as རྐུབ་ཚོས་ q.v.

རྐུབ་ཚོས་ [rkub tshos] «The buttocks», «the rump» or «the bottom / behind» of a being. This term refers to the fleshy area around the རྐུབ་ anus q.v. See also འཕོངས་ཚོས་ which is a nicer term for the same. See also ཨོང་དོ་.

རྐུས་ [rkus] Imp. of རྐུ་བ་ q.v.

རྐེ་བ་ [rke ba] For some part of the body to be thin, lean, emaciated.

རྐོ་ [rko] See རྐོ་བ་ q.v.

རྐོ་བ་ [rko ba] v.t. བརྐོས་པ་/ རྐོ་བ་/ བརྐོ་བ་/ རྐོས་/. 1) «To excavate / carve out / dig out». Similar to but different from འདྲུ་བ་ which has the more general sense of «to dig». E.g., [TC] ས་རྐོ་བ། «to excavate the earth»; ཁྲོན་པ་བརྐོས། «to dig out a well»; ཡུར་བུ་བརྐོ་བཤང་། «the muck from excavating an irrigation ditch»; རྩ་བ་ནས་བརྐོས་པ། «thoroughly excavated». 2) «To carve», «to engrave», «to gouge». This is the verb used to indicate the production of a picture, drawing, etc. on the surface of something by some carving out process. E.g., ཤིང་དཔར་རྐོ་བ། «to carve a wood-block» for use in printing a text. E.g., རྡོ་རིང་བརྐོས་བཙུགས། «the engraved rock obelisk was erected»; པར་རྐོ་བ། «to carve a design (in wood etc.)»; བརྐོས་ཕོར་ «mould» i.e., a mould with relief carving inside used to make a design by pouring terra-cotta, etc. into it.

རྐོས་ [rkos] I. Imp. of རྐོ་བ་ q.v.
II. «Engraving», «carving», «gravure». The act of carving, engraving, etc. (see the verb རྐོ་བ་) to produce an image on metal, wood, etc. E.g, རྐོས་མཁན་ is «an engraver, a carver».

རྐོས་རྒྱག་པ་ [rkos rgyag pa] phrase> v.t. see རྒྱག་པ་ for tense forms. To do the work of རྐོས་ carving, engraving, i.e., «to carve, engrave» images onto metal, wood, etc.

རྐོས་མཁན་ [rkos mkhan] «Engraver», «carver». A person who does the work of རྐོས་ engraving, carving on metals, wood, etc. In modern times, this includes anyone who makes lithographic plates, metal plates for printing, too.

རྐྱག་ [rkyag] Probable mis-spelling of སྐྱག་པ་ q.v.

རྐྱང་ [rkyang] I. 1) «Kyang». The name of a wild animal that lives on the mountain slopes. It is a member of the horse family and is about the size of a small pony. 2) Abbrev. of རྐྱང་མ་ q.v.
II. Meaning «all by itself», with nothing else added in or nothing else accompanying it. The context will determine the translation. i) «Bare». In grammar, meaning a name-base consonant that has no super-fixed or sub-fixed consonants. E.g., ག་རྐྱང་དང་ག་རྩེགས་འདོགས་གཉིས་ཀར་བ་འཕུལ་ «letter ba is fronted to both bare ga (consonant) and super/sub-fixed ga (consonant)». E.g., ག་ is the bare form of the consonant letter ga whereas རྒ་ and གྱ་ and others like them are not the bare consonant but the superfixed / subfixed consonant. ii) «Pure» or «totally» when used with colours, e.g., དཀར་པོ་དཀར་རྐྱང་ «pure white» or «totally white» depending on the context, i.e., meaning white with no other colours either mixed in or mottled, etc., with the white colour. iii) «Alone», «all by itself» e.g., གཅིག་པུ་གཅིག་རྐྱང་ «one (person, etc.) all by itself».

རྐྱང་པ་ [rkyang pa] 1) To indicate that something is purely that with nothing else in it at all, e.g., གསེར་རྐྱང་། «gold alone», དངུལ་རྐྱང་། «just silver», བལ་རྐྱང་། «only wool», ནང་མི་རྐྱང་པ། «just family», དཀར་རྐྱང་དཀར་པོ། «pure white (colour) i.e., not a shade of white but pure white—this structure is used for all colours. 2) To indicate something by itself, something unique, that itself and nothing else, just that alone. Also bare, solitary e.g., མི་སོ་སོ་རྐྱང་པ། «each individual himself», གྲྭ་པ་གྲྭ་རྐྱང་། «monks and monks alone». The common usage in dharma works is སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་རྐྱང་པ་ or the like where it shows that the noun being modified སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་ etc., has become separated away from any connection with anything else. This is often pejorative because for instance, actual emptiness exists only in relationship to something which is empty hence a «bare emptiness» is a conceptualized form of emptiness become isolated away from something which it must exist in connection with. 3) «Bare letter». Grammar term. A consonant which is the name-base (མིང་གཞི་) of a word and which has not been modified in any of the possible ways that a name-base may be modified. E.g., ཁ་ as the word mouth is a «bare letter» because it has no vowels, suffixes, prefixes, super or sub-fixed letters added to it.

རྐྱང་ཕྱག་ [rkyang phyag] Mis-spelling of བརྐྱངས་ཕྱག་ q.v.

རྐྱང་མ་ [rkyang ma] Translation of the Sanskrit «lalanā». The name of the left hand one of the རྩ་གསུམ་ three main channels of the subtle body q.v.

རྐྱང་ཤིང་ [rkyang shing] Mis-spelling of རྒྱང་ཤིང་ q.v.

རྐྱན་ [rkyan] A certain type of vessel used to bring tea, ཆང་ chang (beer and the like) and other such drinks to the table for the people who will drink it. E.g., in a tavern, an order of beer could be bought to the table in this kind of vessel. The vessel in Tibetan was pot-bellied with a handle and long spout. It would be usually made of copper but wealthier people might have them made of silver. It can also be used to refer to something which is pot-bellied in shape.
In modern coll. it could be used to refer to any kind of teapot, coffee-pot, jug for beer, etc.

རྐྱན་བུ་ [rkyan bu] A smallish རྐྱན་ vessel q.v. Or, the term can be used to refer to a smallish pot-bellied shape.

རྐྱལ་ [rkyal] I. See རྐྱལ་བ་ q.v.
II. «Swimming». Often prefixed to other words to give further meaning. e.g., རྐྱལ་རྒྱག་པ་ «to swim», རྐྱལ་རྫིང་ «swimming hole/pool/lake, etc.»

རྐྱལ་རྒྱག་པ་ [rkyal rgyag pa] phrase> v.t. see རྒྱག་པ་ for tense forms. «To swim» in water.

རྐྱལ་པ་ [rkyal pa] «Kyalpa». 1) The name given to a bag sewn of supple leather (see མཉེད་པ་) and used by nomads for treating milk. The bag was sewn like a large balloon (about three feet in diameter). The top was left open and milk poured into it till almost full. The top was closed off and then the whole bag with milk was pushed and shoved around making the milk inside slosh about, like it would be in a churn. After some labour (hours) the cream would separate first, then the butter would be removed, finally after a lot of work, a kind of cheese would be expressed (like quark). The various products were either removed and used or the whole thing was taken to completion in which case the cheese was extracted and the remaining whey was used as a nutritious drink. 2) A smaller version of the bag about the size of a hand was also used for the same purpose.

རྐྱལ་བ་ [rkyal ba] v.t. རྐྱལ་བ་/ རྐྱལ་བ་/ རྐྱལ་བ་/ རྐྱོལ་/. «To swim» in water. In Tibet, swimming was not done for pleasure as it is in many Western countries, in fact most Tibetans could not swim. Hence the verb has the cultural sense of «to travel somewhere / get across by swimming». E.g., [TC] ཆུ་ཀླུང་རྐྱལ་བ། «to swim across a river»; ཆུ་བོའི་ཚུ་རོལ་ནས་རྐྱལ་ཏེ་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་འགྲོ་བ། «he went to the other side of the river by swimming from this side».

རྐྱལ་བུ་ [rkyal bu] Small version of the རྐྱལ་པ་ q.v.

རྐྱལ་རྩེད་ [rkyal rtsed] The «sport of swimming / swimming for enjoyment».

རྐྱེན་ [rkyen] I. Translation of the Sanskrit «pratyaya» meaning a «condition» or «circumstance» that functions as an ancillary or co-operative cause required to bring about a result from a རྒྱུ་ [Skt. hetu] (primary) cause. In English the one word «cause» suffices for all types of cause whether principal or secondary whereas in ancient India, the principal cause from which something was produced, the principal cause of any result, was specifically called the hetu རྒྱུ་ «cause» and the conditions or circumstances which aided the cause to turn into a result were specifically called the pratyaya རྐྱེན་ «conditions» / «circumstances». For example, a seed is the primary cause of a plant that grows from it however, it must also have other conditions, which are ancillary causes, of sunlight, moisture, nutrients, and so forth to grow. These other causes are the རྐྱེན་ conditions or circumstances necessary to produce the result from the actual cause. The two terms have been translated into English in various ways in order to get around the fact that English calls both causes. A popular way to make the distinction is to call རྒྱུ་ «cause» and རྐྱེན་ «condition» or «circumstance». Another popular way is to call them «principal causes» and «secondary causes» or «co-operative causes» respectively. The latter approach suits philosophical texts where the distinction between them is crucial as much as is their meaning as causes. However, there are many cases where རྐྱེན་ has the full sense of «circumstance» or «condition» and it would be clumsy to translate them as «secondary causes».
1) The two terms are used to describe the two kinds of causes behind the production of conventional things such as flowers, humans, worlds, etc. 2) They were used by the Buddha as part of the description of how dualistic mind creates cyclic existence. The karmic seeds that have been planted in the mind-stream by karmic action are the རྒྱུ་ causes that later are activated to produce results which are the experiences of cyclic existence for a being. The རྐྱེན་ conditions needed for them to ripen are several; see རྐྱེན་བཞི་ the four conditions. 3) «Circumstance». In Tibetan grammar, the various ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connectors that function to produce cases have no meaning until they are actually put in place. Until they are put in place they are called the རྐྱེན་ «circumstances» by which a case is formed in general; after they are put in place they are the actual རྣམ་དབྱེ་ cases themselves and are then called either སྒྲ་ term of the case or the རྣམ་དབྱེ་ཡི་ས་ the sites of the case, i.e., the case markers. 4) In a general sense, the རྐྱེན་ are «circumstances», «conditions», «influencing factors», «controlling factors». E.g., there is the specific pair of མཐུན་རྐྱེན་ «conducive circumstances / conditions» and འགལ་རྐྱེན་ «adverse circumstances / conditions» and these are often just summarized as རྐྱེན་ circumstances. Like those examples, རྐྱེན་ is often put after another name to make a noun phrase that indicates some kind of conditioning. E.g., ནད་རྐྱེན། «circumstances of becoming ill»; འཆི་རྐྱེན། «conditions of death». 5) The word is sometimes used in Tibetan to mean «circumstances» in the negative sense just like in English e.g., «due to the circumstances prevailing I was unable to...». In this case it is being used to mean རྐྱེན་ངན་ «mishaps / things not gone well». E.g., in རྐྱེན་ཐུབ་པ་ «able to bear hardship / deal with bad circumstances». 6) «Condition». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «pratyatataḥ». The name of the fourth of ཀུན་འབྱུང་བདེན་པའི་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ «the four aspects of the truth of source» and the eighth of འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་རྣམ་པ་བཅུ་དྲུག་ «the sixteen aspects of the Four Noble Truths».
II. [Old] 1) The «name» or «term» for something. 2) Used to refer to ཀེར་ལེབ་སྒུར་གསུམ་ «the three things of uprights, flats, and bent-overs». In earlier times, there was a taxation system in central Tibet that taxed a locale according to the number of men (ཀེར་ uprights), area of land (ལེབ་ flats), and yaks (སྒུར་ bent-overs). In its terminology རྐྱེན་ was the circumstances of the taxation, i.e., those three things.

རྐྱེན་གྱི་རྣམ་ཤེས་ [rkyen gyi rnam shes] «Conditioning consciousness». In Buddhist schools that assert ཚོགས་བརྒྱད་ eight-fold consciousness, this is another name for the eighth consciousness.

རྐྱེན་གྱི་ཡི་གེ་ [rkyen gyi yi ge] «Condition letters». In Sanskrit, these are the letters «a», «ga», and «ma». In Tibetan they are the punctuation marks (called letters in Tibetan) called the དབུ་ (the mark ༄༅ which is used at the very beginning of text) and ཤད་ (the mark ། which is used at the end, to delimit text).

རྐྱེན་ངན་ [rkyen ngan] phrase> Lit. bad circumstances but meaning misfortune, things not gone well because the co-operative causes were not good. It can be used to refer to a variety of situations where the circumstances did not turn out well e.g., in the general sense, «misfortune / mishap / bad luck / difficulties» and in the particular sense «incident (negative sense) / accident / disaster / calamity».

རྐྱེན་ཐུབ་པ་ [rkyen thub pa] phrase> v.i. see ཐུབ་པ་ for tense forms. «To face / withstand / deal with the difficulties / mishaps», etc. of some situation.

རྐྱེན་ཐེག་པ་ [rkyen theg pa] phrase> v.i. see ཐེག་པ་ for tense forms. Same meaning as རྐྱེན་ཐུབ་པ་ q.v. but with the literal sense of being able to bear rather than stand up to.

རྐྱེན་སྣང་ [rkyen snang] Meaning རྐྱེན་གྱི་སྣང་བ་. Within some given context, an appearance of any type at all which, in its appearance becomes the condition for something else. The term will mostly have to be translated according to context e.g. «appearances which are the circumstance or condition for …»
Although this has been glossed as «events» and «incidents» in [RYD] and other dictionaries, that is not the meaning. In general བྱུང་བ་ or འབྱུང་བ་ translate as «event». The term here means «events of appearance which are then the condition for something else to happen».
Usually, in Buddhist presentations, the something else that will happen is specifically a reaction in mind. There are three main reactions to an appearing object in the consciousness to which it appears: liking, not liking, and neutral feelings because of which there are desire, aversion, and delusion respectively. Thus, «condition» comes to mean «the condition for a dualistic reaction in mind, coming out as an affliction belonging to the three main types of affliction.

རྐྱེན་བྱུང་ [rkyen byung] phrase> «Conditions arisen», «condition events», «conditions which have occurred», «occurences of conditions», where condition means a phenomenon which has arisen which then becomes a condition, within cause and condition's cause and effect, for something else to occur.

རྐྱེན་སྨན་ [rkyen sman] «Medicine» that is administered for curing the conditions causing a disease, rather than the root of the disease.

རྐྱེན་རྩི་ [rkyen rtsi] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was used in the བརྡ་རྙིང་ old signs prior to the first language revision; after the revision it was standardized to རྐྱེན་སྨན་ q.v.

རྐྱེན་བཞི་ [rkyen bzhi] «The four conditions».
I. In Buddhism, according to the མངོན་ཆོས་ Abhidharma, all compounded phenomena are produced through རྒྱུ་ principal causes and རྐྱེན་ co-operative causes i.e., conditions. Usually རྒྱུ་དྲུག་ six principal causes and four (occasionally six) conditions for them are explained; they create the འབྲས་བུ་ལྔ་ five results q.v. As [SKD] says: འདུས་བྱས་ཆོས་རྣམས་སྐྱེད་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་དྲུག་དང་། །རྐྱེན་བཞི་དེ་དག་གིས་བསྐྱེད་འབྲས་བུ་ལྔ། «the creators of compounded phenomena (as a whole) are the six causes and the four conditions; they produce the five results». The four conditions are the conditions needed for the production of a (dualistic) consciousness. Such a consciousness is then the basis of all compounded phenomena of cyclic existence.
The four conditions as given in the Abhidharmakoṣha are: 1) དམིགས་རྐྱེན་ «objective / referenced condition»; 2) བདག་རྐྱེན་ «governing condition»; 3) དེ་མ་ཐག་རྐྱེན་ «immediate condition»; and 4) རྒྱུ་རྐྱེན་ «causal condition». The objective condition is that an object of the particular consciousness is required; e.g., for an eye consciousness to be produced, an object of the eye is required. The governing condition is that a དབང་པོ་ functioning sense of the consciousness is required; e.g., for an eye consciousness to be produced, a functional eye sense faculty is required. The immediate conditions is that mind consciousness is required (in schools that assert eight-fold consciousness, it is that the eighth and seventh consciousnesses are required) and in schools that assert six-fold consciousness, it is the sixth consciousness that is required. The རྒྱུ་ causal condition is the principal cause for any given consciousness to arise. In schools that assert eight-fold consciousness, it is the alāya consciousness, in schools that assert six-fold consciousness, it is the mind consciousness.
II. In medicine, there are four co-operative conditions by which disease is made to occur. They are: དུས་དམན་ལྷག་ལོག་པ་ «worsened due to bad time»; གདོན་གྱིས་བློ་བུར་དུ་འཚེ་བ་ «sudden harm by dons»; ཟས་དམན་ལྷག་ལོག་པ་ «worsened due to bad food»; སྤྱོད་ལམ་དམན་ལྷག་ལོག་པ་ «worsened due to bad conduct».

རྐྱེན་གསུམ་ [rkyen gsum] «Three conditions».
I. A sub-set of the རྐྱེན་བཞི་ q.v. four causal conditions for a consciousness to occur. They are: 1) དམིགས་རྐྱེན་ objective condition; 2) བདག་རྐྱེན་ dominant condition; 3) དེ་མ་ཐག་རྐྱེན་ immediate condition.
II. 1) གཡོ་བ་མེད་པའི་རྐྱེན་ the unchanging condition; 2) མི་རྟག་པའི་རྐྱེན་ the impermanent condition; 3) ནུས་པའི་རྐྱེན་ the effective condition.

རྐྱོང་བ་ [rkyong ba] v.t. བརྐྱངས་པ་/ རྐྱོང་བ་/ བརྐྱང་བ་/ རྐྱོངས་/. «To stretch out» in the sense of stretching something out across something else; «to extend» in the sense of extending or stretching out; and «to spread» in the sense of stretching something out across. Opp. is སྐུམ་པ་ «to retract, draw in» q.v. E.g., [TC] རྐང་ལག་བརྐྱངས་ཏེ་ཉལ། «he lay down stretched out»; ལག་པ་ཡར་རྐྱོངས། «raise your hand!»; ཉལ་ས་བྱུང་ན་རྐྱོང་ས་དྲན། «if you find a place to lie down, you will think of a place to stretch out (because a resting place could be very cramped and unpleasant)»; ལྷ་ལུང་ལ་འདྲེ་ལག་བརྐྱངས། either lit «ghostly spirits reached out to the land of the gods» or metaphorically for someone in a worse position to look up and reach for someone in a better position; བརྐྱང་བསྐུམ་གཉིས་ཐུབ། «able to stretch and retract». Also see རྒྱོང་བ་.

རྐྱོངས་ [rkyongs] Imp. of རྐྱོང་བ་ q.v.

རྐྱོན་ [rkyon] Probable mis-spelling of སྐྱོན་ q.v.

རྐྱོལ་ [rkyol] Imp. of རྐྱལ་བ་ q.v.

ལྐུག་པ་ [lkug pa] Mis-spelling of ལྐུགས་པ་ q.v.

ལྐུགས་ [lkugs] See ལྐུགས་པ་ q.v.

ལྐུགས་པ་ [lkugs pa] I. v.i. ལྐུགས་པ་/ ལྐུགས་པ་/ ལྐུགས་པ་//. See below.
II. See below.
Tibetan language uses this verb and related noun in three ways.
1) The primary meaning is «to be mute», «to be dumb» i.e., not able to speak because of a speech inability only and with no implication of a mental disorder or incapability. This meaning is differentiated in texts as ངག་སྐུགས་པ་ «mute of speech».
2) A second meaning is «to be stupid», «mentally incapable». This meaning is differentiated in texts as ཡིད་སྐུགས་པ་ «mentally dumb», «stupid». The word is commonly used in the coll. with exactly this sense. E.g., just as in English one exclaims—in either abusive or non-abusive ways— «You fool!», «Idiot!», «Dummy!» so in Tibetan one exclaims «ལྐུག་པ་(!!)» with all of those connotations included. And just as in English one says—in either abusive or non-abusive ways— «He's a fool!», «He's an idiot!», «He's stupid!» so in Tibetan one says ཀོ་ལྐུག་པ་རིད། with all of those connotations included.
3) Moreover, and as with the English word «dumb» the term is applied to people who have been born or become mentally retarded. It is used as a general name for people who are mentally retarded and because of it cannot speak at all or cannot formulate speech properly. It was common in Tibet and still is common these days in Nepal for the general community to include people who, due to disease from birth, were mentally retarded and mute or, more often, unable to speak properly. I have lived in communities with them; they are usually able to produce a gurgling sound but not able to make articulate speech. These people are called ལྐུགས་པ་ meaning quite literally that they «are dumb retards»; they are mentally retarded and cannot speak either at all or properly because of it. When the coll. language uses the term to refer to anyone at all as being «stupid» it can include this meaning. When used with invective, the word can be an extremely derogatory way of saying «Retard! Mongoloid! Idiot! Stupid fool» just as is done in English speaking cultures.

NOTE: A translator has to understand this range of usage and apply it correctly. In classical texts, including those from India, it usually means someone who is simply and literally (and without denigration intended) «a mental retard» (who is unable to communicate via speech). Though it can also be and is used to indicate someone who is mute for whatever reason, e.g., in some stories because of having had their tongue cut out. In native Tibetan texts, there is the additional possibility that the term is being used in the derogatory sense of «stupid person!» «dumb person!», etc. The context has to be examined (or heard in the case of speech) to understand the appropriate meaning.
In classical Buddhist literature from ancient India, two examples serve to illustrate the usages. 1) The first meaning is intended e.g., in the famous example of the non-expressibility of that which is beyond words, such as emptiness. Here the texts mention «inexpressible, like a ལྐུགས་པ་ mute who, although he can taste བུ་རམ་ raw sugar cannot express the taste of it to other». In this case, the meaning is of being «mute» specifically in the ངག་ལྐུགས་པ་ speech sense. A second, very common phrase indicating the same is ལྐུགས་པས་རྨི་ལམ་རྨིས་པ་ལྟ་བུ། «the mute who dreams a dream» but cannot tell you about it. 2) The second meaning is most commonly seen in the definition of the མི་ཁོམ་པའི་གནས་བརྒྱད་ «eight unfree states». Here ལྐུགས་པ་ is one of the unfree states. In this context, it has often been translated as «mute» or «deaf and mute» because of a misunderstanding of the meaning of the term; these are very misleading translations and should be abandoned. In this case it specifically refers to ཡིད་ལྐུགས་པ་ people who are mental retarded, whose mind / brain complex does not function sufficiently clearly to understand the teaching of dharma.

ལྐོག་གྱུར་ [lkog gyur] Abbrev. of ལྐོག་ཏུ་གྱུར་པ་ q.v.

ལྐོག་ཏུ་གྱུར་པ་ [lkog tu gyur pa] I. phrase> «Hidden / hidden», «non-obvious», «not evident (to the senses)». Translation of the Sanskrit «parokṣha». Defined as the opp. of མངོན་དུ་གྱུར་པ་ «evident, obvious» it has the meaning of that which is not evident, which is not obvious, to the senses. In the Tibetan system, it is defined within the context of the གཞལ་བྱའི་གནས་གསུམ་ three places of evaluation q.v. as the level of phenomenon which is not evident to the senses i.e., which cannot be known directly by the senses (physical or mental).
It is used to refer to things which are not at all evident to the senses both in abstract and physical senses. E.g., a very common usage in Buddhism is to refer to karmic cause and effect which is extremely subtle and cannot not be directly known by the conventional mind-stream e.g., རྒྱུ་འབྲས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་བཞག་ནི་ཤེས་བྱ་ཤིན་ཏུ་ལྐོག་གྱུར་ཡིན་པས་ཐམས་ཅད་མཁྱེན་པ་སངས་རྒྱས་ཁོ་ནའི་སྤྱོད་ཡུལ་ལས་གཞན་གྱི་སྤྱོད་ཡུལ་མ་ཡིན་པ། «the various facets of cause and effect are so extremely hidden that they are only the domain of the omniscient one, the Buddha, not the domain of others». E.g., an example of usage in regard to physical things is that when learned Tibetans engage Western atomic theory, they speak of རྡུལ་ atoms, as being ཆོས་ phenomena that are ལྐོག་གྱུར་ hidden from i.e., cannot be known directly to, the senses because of their smallness.
II. phrase> The term can be used as a noun, in which case it means ལྐོག་ཏུ་གྱུར་པའི་ཆོས་ phenomenon which is not directly accessible by the senses.

ལྐོག་ན་མོ་ [lkog na mo] Altern. translation of the Sanskrit «parokṣha»; the usual translation is ལྐོག་གྱུར་ q.v. meaning hidden from normal ways of knowing.

ལྐོག་མ་ [lkog ma] «The throat» specifically meaning the front area of the neck.

ལྐོག་མའི་ལྷ་གོང་ [lkog ma'i lha gong] Lit. «the god's ball at the throat» and meaning the «larynx».

སྐ་ཅིག་ [ska cig] 1) Mis-spelling of སྐད་ཅིག་ q.v. 2) Mis-spelling of སྐ་ཅོག་ q.v.

སྐ་ཅོག་ [ska cog] «Ka and Chog». Abbrev. of the names of two of the three translators called སྐ་ཅོག་ཞང་གསུམ་ «The three—Ka, Chog, and Zhang».

སྐ་ཅོག་ཞང་གསུམ་ [ska cog zhang gsum] «The three—Ka, Chog, and Zhang». Abbrev. of the names of the three translators who became famous as three especially effective and prolific translators in the first spread of dharma in Tibet. As young men they were amongst the ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་རབ་དགུ་ nine best translators at the time of ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེའུ་བཙན་ King Trisong Deutsen. Later, at the time of that king's grandfather, they became famous as the greatest of Tibetan translators. They translated large amounts of བཀའ་བསྟན་ Buddhist scriptures into Tibetan and later were amongst the great, senior editors who, in the time of Tri Ralpachen, revised the earlier translations and settled them into their final forms. Their full names are: 1) སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས་ Kawa Paltseg; 2) ཅོག་རོ་ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ Chogro Lu'i Gyaltsen, and 3) ཞང་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ་ Zhang Yeshe De q.v. All were close disciples of Padmasambhava and amongst the རྗེ་འབངས་ཉི་ཤུ་ལྔ་ Twenty-five Lord and Subjects who were accomplished disciples of Padmasambhava.

སྐ་བ་ [ska ba] I. 1) «Astringent». Altern. spelling of བསྐ་བ་, the name of one of རོ་དྲུག་ the six tastes q.v. 2) The name of an ancient Tibetan line; the line that the translator སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས་ Kawa Paltseg belonged to.
II. Like གར་པོ་ q.v. «Thick» for foods like soup, or dough, strong in taste or density. E.g., [TC] འབྲས་ཐུག་སྐ་བ། «thick (not weak and runny) rice soup».

སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས་ [ska ba dpal brtsegs] «Kawa Paltseg». The name of a translator who was particular important in the translation into Tibetan of the བཀའ་བསྟན་ Buddhist scriptures. He was one of the ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་རབ་དགུ་ nine best translators at the time of ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེའུ་བཙན་ King Trisong Deutsen and later, at the time of that king's grandfather, was also one of the greatest translators at the time of King Ralpachen. He became famous as one of a group of three especially effective and prolific translators; see སྐ་ཅོག་ཞང་གསུམ་ «Ka, Chog, and Zhang». His family line was སྐ་བ་ and his personal name was དཔལ་བརྩེགས་. He was one of the group of རྗེ་འབངས་ཉི་ཤུ་ལྔ་ «the twenty-five, Lord and subjects».

སྐ་རགས་ [ska rags] Same as སྐེ་རགས་ and སྐེད་རགས་. Any kind of sash, belt, etc which is fastened around the outside of the waist. The term refers to a variety of clothing devices in the Indian and Tibetan traditions. 1) A leather belt around the waist. 2) A wide sash worn by Tibetan and Nepali mountain woman in a particular arrangement around the waist and usually with a very large, intricately designed buckle often made of silver, the whole of which serves to keep their kidneys warm as much as it does an ornament. 3) «Sash / sash-belt». They are one of the ལོངས་སྤྱོད་རྫོགས་པའི་རྒྱན་བཅུ་གསུམ་ «the thirteen adornments of the saṃbhogakāya» and one of ཡུམ་གྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ལྔ་ «the five symbolic ornaments of the female». For the peaceful deities, it is the belt worn to keep up the silk pantaloons both for males and females. For the semi-wrathful and wrathful female deities, it is the waist-belt of bone from which the bone ornament skirt hangs down.

སྐ་རགས་ཕ་གུ་ཅན་ [ska rags pha gu can] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, སྐ་རགས་རྒྱན་ཅན་ «a སྐ་རགས་ sash belt with ornament».

སྐག་ [skag] 1) Because of the astrology connected with it, a specific obstacle belonging to a specified time. The obstacle could be for a specific year (ལོ་སྐག་), month (ཟླ་སྐག་), or day (ཞག་སྐག་) or for a specific time (དུས་སྐག་) in general. See also ལོ་ཟླ་ཞག་གི་དུས་ for an example. Depending on the context, this could be translated in a variety of ways. The coll. phrases «unlucky star(s)», «bad omens», «bad astrology» all fit with this. E.g., ལོ་སྐག་ could be translated as «bad year astrologically» or «negative circumstances (because of the astrology) for the year», etc. 2) The name of a star and a corresponding constellation. In Sanskrit, it is called «aśhleṣhā». According to Western sources [MWS] it is «Alpha Hydroe». In the Indian astrology system, it is the ninth of the རྒྱུ་སྐར་ཉི་ཤུ་རྩ་བརྒྱད་ 28 constellations. Other names for it are: གདེངས་ཅན་ལྷ་མོ་ «Hooded Goddess» and ཝ་ «fox» q.v.

སྐད་ [skad] I. 1) Meaning «articulated sound» of a being such as a human. i) The meaningful «language», «speech», «dialect», «way of talking / speaking» spoken among humans or other beings. E.g., མིའི་སྐད་ «human speech» or «human languages». E.g., ཁོའི་སྐད་ཁྱད་མཚར་པོ་འདུག། «his way of speaking is strange». E.g., རྒྱ་ནག་གི་སྐད་ «Chinese language»; ཡུལ་སྐད་ «local dialect», «dialect of the area / region / country»; རང་གི་སྐད་ «one's own language / dialect». ii) «Terminology», «jargon», «vocabulary». The term is placed after another word or phrase to indicate a specific type of language. E.g., the specialized terminology of medicine can be called སྨན་སྐད་ «medical terminology / jargon / vocabulary»; ཆོས་སྐད་ «the language of dharma (as opposed to the normal, colloquial language of Tibet). iii) Any verbal expression of humans and other articulate beings, whether meaningful or not; the sound that they give off e.g., «talk», «yell», «scream», «howl», «shout», «cry (out to another)», etcetera. iv) «Wording». The way that something has been spoken of, the wording used to describe something which is often referred to in texts with འདི་སྐད་ལ་་་་. v) The term can refer to sounds made by non-humans which are expressions intended to convey meaning, e.g., བྱ་སྐད་ «the sound (meaning talk of) birds; ཀླུ་སྐད་ «the language of ཀླུ་ nāgas», etc. 2) Abbrev. of སྐད་ཆ་ meaning «the talk between people», «the conversation», «what was said on a certain occasion».
II. Used after an expression, as of indicating that one is reporting what has been said; «there is talk that (whatever preceded) happened», «it is said that (whatever preceded)», etc. Often found in history books not where one is quoting sources but simply saying «this is what is said». E.g., in [OTT] ཐམས་ཅད་ས་ལ་འགྱེལ་ཞིང་བརྒྱལ་པར་གྱུར་སྐད། «it is said that all of them fell to the ground, unconscious».
III. In སྐད་ཅིག་ q.v.

སྐད་ཀྱི་དོད་པོ་ [skad kyi dod po] See the usual abbrev. སྐད་དོད་ q.v.

སྐད་གྲགས་ [skad grags] «Fame», «renown», «repute». E.g., མི་སྐད་གྲགས་ཆེན་པོ་ «a famous person», «a person of great repute», «a person who is very well-known», «someone who everyone has heard of».

སྐད་གྲགས་ཆེན་པོ་ [skad grags chen po] phrase> «Very famous», «renowned», «very well known». E.g., མི་འགའ་ཤས་དཔེ་མ་སྲིད་ཕྱུག་པོ་སྐད་གྲགས་ཆེན་པོ་ «some people who are extremely rich and very famous».

སྐད་རྒྱག་པ་ [skad rgyag pa] phrase> v.t. see རྒྱག་པ་ for tense forms. «To shout», «to yell out» e.g., སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱག་པ་ «to shout very loudly».

སྐད་སྒྱུར་ [skad sgyur] 1) «Interpreter / translator». 2) «Interpretation / translation». This term emphasizes oral translation and not great expertise in terminology. It would be used as a way of describing anyone who translates orally from one language to another, whether they are capable or not and whether they are scholars who know the terms of intricacies of the languages involved or not. It is similar to སྒྲ་སྒྱུར་ q.v. for explanation. Note that this term is not the same as the Sanskrit ལོ་ཙྪཱ་བ་ q.v.

སྐད་སྒྲ་ [skad sgra] 1) «Sounds / noises» in general. 2) «the sound of voices / talk / conversation» e.g., ཕྱི་ལོགས་ནས་སྐད་སྒྲ་གོ་བ། «hearing the sound of voices coming from outside».

སྐད་ཅིག་ [skad cig] Abbrev. of སྐད་ཅིག་མ་ q.v.

སྐད་ཅིག་གཅིག་གིས་ [skad cig gcig gis] phrase> of time. «Instantaneously», «in an instant», «in a single moment». E.g., [BCA] སྡིག་ཆེན་རྣམས། སྐད་ཅིག་གཅིག་གིས་ངེས་པར་སྲེག་པར་བྱེད། «(bodhicitta) in an instant definitely consumes great degradations».

སྐད་ཅིག་བཅུ་དྲུག་ [skad cig bcu drug] Abbrev. of སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་ q.v.

སྐད་ཅིག་བཅུ་དྲུག་པ་ [skad cig bcu drug pa] Abbrev. of སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་པ་ q.v.

སྐད་ཅིག་བཅོ་ལྔ་ [skad cig bco lnga] phrase> Abbrev. of སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅོ་ལྔ་ q.v.

སྐད་ཅིག་གཉིས་ཙམ་ [skad cig gnyis tsam] «A few moments» as in [BCA] ཐོན་ཁར་མི་རྟོག་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད། །སྐད་ཅིག་གཉིས་ཙམ་བསྒོམ་པར་བྱ། «at the end, meditate for a few moments on non-conceived emptiness».

སྐད་ཅིག་མ་ [skad cig ma] Usually translated as «instant» or «moment». Translation of the Sanskrit «kṣhaṇam» meaning a very short moment of time. The length of one «instant» is defined in variously in the Indian philosophical traditions as being a specific fraction of the time it takes to snap a finger. One system e.g., says that there are 65 «instants» in a single finger-snap. In Abhidharma, it is defined as 120 དུས་མཐའི་སྐད་ཅིག་མ་ of the shortest «moments». 2) སྐད་ཅིག་མ་ is also used to mean སྐད་ཅིག་མས་ «instantly», «only for an instant (moment)». 3) Buddhist philosophy contains the idea of coarse and subtle impermanence; སྐད་ཅིག་མ་ is one name given to «subtle impermanence».

སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་ [skad cig ma bcu drug] «The sixteen moments». See མཐོང་ལམ་སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་ q.v.

སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་པ་ [skad cig ma bcu drug pa] «The sixteenth moment». The final moment of the path of seeing. The next moment the practitioner arrives on the སྒོམ་ལམ་ path of meditation. See མཐོང་ལམ་སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་ q.v.

སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅོ་ལྔ་ [skad cig ma bco lnga] phrase> «The fifteen moments». The first fifteen moments of the སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་པ་ sixteen moments path of seeing. These are distinguished from the next moment, སྐད་ཅིག་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་པ་ the sixteenth moment, because that one is the final moment of the path of seeing and because they are still within cyclic existence where the sixteenth is not.

སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་ [skad cig ma'i sbyor ba] «Connection of the instantaneous type». The fourth of the སྦྱོར་བ་བཞི་ four connections and seventh of the ཤེར་ཕྱིན་དངོས་པོ་བརྒྱད་ eight main subjects of prajñāpāramitā. When explained in detail, it has སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བའི་ཆོས་བཞི་ four topics which belong to སྦྱོར་བ་བཞིའི་ཆོས་སོ་དྲུག་ the thirty-six topics of the four connections and are part of the ཤེར་ཕྱིན་དོན་བདུན་ཅུ་ seventy topics of prajñāpāramitā.

སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་མཚོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་བཞི་ [skad cig ma'i sbyor ba mtshon byed kyi chos bzhi] «The four topics which elucidate connection of the instantaneous type». Same meaning as སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བའི་ཆོས་བཞི་ the four topics of connection of the instantaneous type q.v.

སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བའི་ཆོས་བཞི་ [skad cig ma'i sbyor ba'i chos bzhi] «The four topics of connection of the instantaneous type». The topics belonging to a detailed exposition of སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་ connection of the instantaneous type q.v. They are: 1) རྣམ་པར་སྨིན་པ་མ་ཡིན་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་གི་སྦྱོར་བ་ the connection of instantaneous type which is not full ripening; 2) རྣམ་པར་སྨིན་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་ the connection of instantaneous type which is full ripening; 3) མཚན་ཉིད་མེད་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་ the connection of instantaneous type which is without characteristics; 4) གཉིས་སུ་མེད་པའི་སྐད་གཅིག་གི་སྦྱོར་བ་ the connection of instantaneous type which is non-dual.

སྐད་ཅིག་མི་རྟག་ [skad cig mi rtag] phrase> «momentary impermanence», the impermanence of things as known instant by instant.

སྐད་ཅིག་ཙམ་ [skad cig tsam] «Mere instant».

སྐད་ཅིག་རེ་རེ་ལ་ [skad cig re re la] «In each instant».

སྐད་ཅིག་ཤེས་པ་ [skad cig shes pa] «awareness occuring by the instant».

སྐད་གཅིག་ [skad gcig] 1) Abbrev. of སྐད་ཅིག་གཅིག་ «one instant». 2) Mis-spelling of སྐད་ཅིག་ q.v.

སྐད་ཆ་ [skad cha] 1) «Talk», «speech», «words» i.e., when a person says something in words. 2) «Discussion, conversation, (verbal) discourse» between two people e.g., ང་ཚོ་སྐད་ཆ་བཤད་ཀྱི་ཡིན། «we will have a discussion / we will talk together».

སྐད་ཆ་བཤད་པ་ [skad cha bshad pa] phrase> See v.t. བཤད་པ་ for verb tenses. Coll. «to talk (with someone)», «to talk (together)».

སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་ [skad chen po] phrase> 1) «Loud / very loud / noisy» in regard to anything that is producing noise e.g., འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་ «a very loud / noisy machine». 2) For a human who has to speak up to be heard. E.g., སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ། «Speak up! (I can't hear you) / speak loudly, please!».

སྐད་གཉིས་པ་ [skad gnyis pa] [Mngon] lit. «the one with two voices». 1) An epithet of the bird «Parrot». 2) An epithet meaning a person who is fully conversant with two languages, i.e., a translator. Often used in classical literature as an alternative and honorific way of referring to a ལོ་ཙྪཱ་བ་ lotsawa q.v. Note that the bird parrot is the emblem of a translator in the classical Indian and Tibetan cultures.

སྐད་དོད་ [skad dod] «Equivalent». Abbrev. of སྐད་ཀྱི་དོད་པོ་ meaning a term in one language which is the proper or official or standardized equivalent of a term in another language.
In Tibetan literature, the term is nearly always used to indicate that a specific Tibetan term is the official translation equivalent of a specific Sanskrit term. For example [ZGT], དོན་དམ་གྱི་སྐད་དོད་པར་མ་ཨརྠ་ཞེས་པས། «don dam, the translation equivalent of 'artha'» or «the original term 'artha' that don dam stands for». Possible translations would be «original term» or «(Sanskrit) equivalent term» or «equivalent» or «translation equivalent». Since the meaning of དོད་པོ་ is «stand in», «replacement», an alternative rendering for the above example would be, «don dam», standing for the original «artha».

སྐད་གདངས་ [skad gdangs] 1) In general, the particular quality of the voice; high, low, strong, weak, loud, etc. at any given moment. The quality of the spoken sound. This includes, but is not limited to, the «tone» of the voice. 2) «Accent». The particular accent that one has when speaking a language. 3) The general voice of a song, the quality of the voice is as the song is sung: loud, soft, rough, etc. This is quite different from དབྱངས་ which is the Tibetan word used to mean the particular tune or melody of a song.

སྐད་ཟུར་ཆག་པ་ [skad zur chag pa] phrase> «Corrupted language». Same as ཟུར་ཆག་གི་སྐད་ q.v.

སྐད་ཡིག་ [skad yig] Abbrev. of སྐད་ཆ་ and ཡི་གེ་ meaning «language, spoken and written».

སྐད་རིགས་ [skad rigs] «Languages» meaning the various types of languages that there are. E.g., there are the སྐད་རིགས་ཆེན་པོ་བཞི་ «four major languages of India».

སྐད་རིགས་ཆེན་པོ་བཞི་ [skad rigs chen po bzhi] phrase> «The four major languages». In ancient India it was considered that there were four, major languages. See under སྐད་རིགས་བཞི་ «the four languages» for a listing.

སྐད་རིགས་བཞི་ [skad rigs bzhi] «The four languages (of the Buddha's time in ancient India)». [DGT] gives as: 1) སཾསྐྲྀཏ་ལྷའི་སྐད་ «Sanskrit, the language of the gods»; 2) པྲ་ཀྲྀ་ཏ་རང་བཞིན་གྱི་སྐད་ «Prakṛit, the common language»; 3) ཨ་བ་བྷྲཾ་ཤ་ཟུར་ཆག་གི་སྐད་ «Avabhraṃśha, the corrupted language»; 4) པི་ཤ་ཙི་ཤ་ཟའི་སྐད་ «Piśhaci, the flesh-eater's language».

སྐད་ལུགས་ [skad lugs] «Dialect». The particular dialect of a language spoken in a particular place. This term includes variations in written and spoken spelling, vocabulary, and idiom. In Tibet there were many different dialects. The principal ones were: དབུས་སྐད་ central dialect; ཁམས་སྐད་ Kham dialect; གཙང་སྐད་ Tsang dialect; and ཨ་མདོ་སྐད་ Amdo dialect. Note that dialect is different from སྐད་གདངས་ «accent».

སྐད་ལོག་ [skad log] Speaking loudly or making any kind of clamour when it is out of place. E.g., [TC] ཚོགས་འདུའི་གྲལ་དུ་སྐད་ལོག་མ་རྒྱག «don't speak loudly when seated in the rows of the assembly / when in the audience».

སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆུང་ངུ་ [skad shugs chung ngu] 1) «Loud voice» e.g., སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆུང་ངུས་ «(spoke) softly», «with a soft voice». 2) «Loud sound / noise».

སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོ་ [skad shugs chen po] «In a loud voice» e.g., སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོས་ «(spoke) loudly», «with a loud voice». 2) «Loud sound / noise» e.g., སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ་སོང་། «made a loud noise / did it while making a loud noise / made a great din».

སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ [skad gsar bcad] phrase> «Language revision». The original Tibetan language and grammar as formulated by ཐུ་མི་སཾབྷོཊ་ Thumi Saṃbhoṭa went through three revisions. See སྐད་གསར་བཅད་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ «three language revisions».

སྐད་གསར་བཅད་གཉིས་པ་ [skad gsar bcad gnyis pa] «The second language revision». See སྐད་གསར་བཅད་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three language revisions».

སྐད་གསར་བཅད་དང་པོ་ [skad gsar bcad dang po] «The first language revision». See སྐད་གསར་བཅད་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three language revisions».

སྐད་གསར་བཅད་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ [skad gsar bcad rnam pa gsum] «Three language revisions» or «three revisions to the (Tibetan) language». The Tibetan language went through three སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ «language revisions». In the second revision only there were changes to the grammar itself made for the ease of reading and writing. In all three revisions there were changes made to the vocabulary in general.
The first two revisions happened during the old phase of Buddhism in Tibet during what is regarded as the period of སྔ་འགྱུར་ earlier translations. These two revisions occurred in the time of the kings ཁྲི་ལྡེ་སྲོང་བཙན་ Tridey Srongtsen and ཁྲི་རལ་པ་ཅན་ Tri Ralpachen respectively. Each revision was a specific event that happened at the king's decree. The third revision happened at the beginning of the later spread of Buddhism in Tibet during what is regarded as the period of གསར་འགྱུར་ new translations. The third is considered to have happened at a King's decree because the later spread started with a decree of ལྷ་བླ་མ་ཡེ་ཤེས་འོད་ the King Lha Lama Yeshe Od and the third revision was an integral part of the great translation revival that happened at the time. The third language revision is considered to have lasted from the beginning of the re-introduction of Buddhism in Tibet through the period that the initial years of the གསར་མ་ new phase of Buddhism in Tibet. This corresponds to the period of starting with རིན་ཆེན་བཟང་པོ་ the great translator Rinchen Zangpo and lasting through the work of དྷརྨ་པཱ་ལ་བྷ་དྲ་ the great translator Dharmapālabhadra.
The orthography of the period before the first two revisions is called བརྡ་རྙིང་ «old signs» or «old orthography» and the orthography after the second revision is called བརྡ་གསར་ «new signs» or «new orthography».

སྐད་གསར་བཅད་གསུམ་པ་ [skad gsar bcad gsum pa] «The third language revision». See སྐད་གསར་བཅད་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་ «the three language revisions».

སྐན་ [skan] I. <ཚིག་ཕྲད་ phrase connector> This is first connected after རེ་ and then the phrase རེ་སྐན་ is written after a verbal declaration to indicate that one is saying declaring quite definitely that the particular action of the verb and words connected to it are not! going happen. E.g., ཁྱོད་འགྲོ་རེ་སྐན། «You are not going!» and with the two senses of not going to do that particular thing (in this case you are not going to go) and I am stating that categorically». See under རེ་ for more.
II. Sometimes seen as an incorrect spelling of རྐན་ q.v.

སྐནདཧ་ [skandha] Translit. of the Sanskrit «skandha». Translated into Tibetan with ཕུང་པོ་ q.v.

སྐན་དཧ་ [skan dha] Corrupted form of སྐནྡྷ་ q.v.

སྐབས་ [skabs] 1) Time not in the general sense but in reference to some particular time e.g., འདིའི་སྐབས་སུ་་་་ «at this point (in time)...». Hence, «when», «during», «at the time of ...», and also «then». 2) A particular interval or period of time; a certain occasion or context. E.g., འདིའི་སྐབས་སུ་་་་ «in this context, ...», «on this occasion», «in this case». 3) Section or chapter of written material. There are several standard divisions utilized in writing a text in the Sanskrit tradition and these were carried into the Tibetan tradition. A ལེའུ་ e.g., is generally equivalent to an English chapter. A སྐབས་ having the sense of a particular circumstance within a larger whole i.e., a particular topic within a whole subject, is another way of dividing a text, e.g., , the Abhisamayālaṅkāra by Asaṅga is written in སྐབས་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ eighteen abhisamayas.

སྐབས་ཀྱི་དོན་ [skabs kyi don] «Meaning at hand», «actual subject of discussion», and similar phrases. This phrase is used usually in Tibetan texts or in verbal explanations when some digression from the main topic has occurred and now the author or speaker wants to indicate a return to the meaning which is the actual subject under discussion.

སྐབས་སྐབས་ [skabs skabs] Same as སྐབས་སྐབས་སུ་ q.v.

སྐབས་སྐབས་ལ་ [skabs skabs la] Same as སྐབས་སྐབས་སུ་ q.v.

སྐབས་སྐབས་སུ་ [skabs skabs su] phrase> «Sometimes», «from time to time», «occasionally», «at times», «now and then».

སྐབས་བརྒྱད་ [skabs brgyad] phrase> «Eight sections» etc., usually in reference to the eight sections of the Abhisamayalankara which are the ཤེར་ཕྱིན་དངོས་པོ་བརྒྱད་ eight main topics of that text q.v.

སྐབས་དང་སྐབས་སུ་ [skabs dang skabs su] phrase> «In one place or another», «from time to time», «here and there». E.g., [KBC] གཞུང་གི་སྐབས་དང་སྐབས་སུ་སྟོན་པར་འགྱུར་བ་ «will be taught in one place or another in the text».

སྐབས་དེར་ [skabs der] Meaning depends on context: following the three meanings given under སྐབས་ q.v., it can be «at that point», «in that context», «at that time», «in that case», «in that chapter» (section, etc.) any of which sometimes could be simply rendered as «there» in certain cases.

སྐབས་འདིར་ [skabs 'dir] Meaning depends on context: following the three meanings given under སྐབས་ q.v., it can be «at this point», «in this context», «on this occasion», «at this time», «in this chapter (section, etc.) any of which sometimes could be simply rendered as «here» in certain cases. Sometimes it also has the sense of «now, here». Etcetera.

སྐབས་བབ་ [skabs bab] form of སྐབས་སུ་བབ་པ་ q.v.

སྐབས་བབས་ [skabs babs] Altern. spelling of སྐབས་བབ་ q.v.

སྐབས་སྦྱོར་བདུན་པ་ [skabs sbyor bdun pa] «». Acc. [POD], the name of a tantra which is one of the six branch tantras of ཨ་ནུ་ཡོ་ག་ Anuyoga.

སྐབས་ཡོད་པ་ [skabs yod pa] For something to include a certain situation as part of its overall existence, for something to include or be subject to that. For example, our bodies include the situation of death, they are subject to death. E.g., འཆི་བའི་སྐབས་ཡོད་ན། བདག་ཅག་ལྟ་བུ་ཅིའི་ཕྱིར་མི་འཆི། «If (the great gods) are subject to death, why would beings like us (ordinary humans) not die?»

སྐབས་རེ་ [skabs re] In coll. «sometimes»; meaning «on occasion», «not very often».

སྐབས་ལ་བབ་པ་ [skabs la bab pa] Same as སྐབས་སུ་བབ་པ་ q.v.

སྐབས་སུ་ [skabs su] Meaning depends on context: following the three meanings given under སྐབས་ q.v., it can be «now», «in context of ...», «on occasion of ...», «in the case of», «at the time(s) of ...», «in chapter (section, etc.) ...». Hence, it can also mean «when» and then in some constructions can mean «while» or «during».

སྐབས་སུ་བབ་པ་ [skabs su bab pa] I. phrase> v.i. past of སྐབས་སུ་འབབ་པ་. Note that, as with the verb འབབ་པ་ in general, mis-spelling or variant spellings are freq. met with; e.g., སྐབས་སུ་བབས་པ་ is common. 1) Some general thing having been explained or mentioned earlier, this phrase, which means «in the current context» is used to indicate that a consideration of its particular meaning in the current context will be done. Thus, «(that), in this context» or «in this case». (The verb can be altered to past, present, future forms to give an appropriate change in meaning, e.g., the future construction «in certain contexts it will be...».) 2) This phrase serves to indicate that the time for something to be done has arrived. For example in a text detailing some liturgical procedure, the phrase སྐབས་སུ་བབ་པ་ would indicate «at this point (it is time to ...)» or «the time has come for ...», «now it is time to ...».
II. phrase> per the verb. The true noun form is written སྐབས་བབ་ q.v.

སྐབས་སུ་བབས་པ་ [skabs su babs pa] phrase> altern. way of writing སྐབས་སུ་བབ་པ་ q.v.

སྐབས་སུ་འབབ་པ་ [skabs su 'bab pa] phrase> v.i. see འབབ་པ་ for tense forms. The phrase has the sense of «in this particular time / case». It has a sense of bringing the current conversation or talk into the present situation. It does not translate literally.

སྐབས་གསུམ་གནས་ [skabs gsum gnas] [Mngon] Lit. «abode of the ones of the third case (སྐབས་གསུམ་པ་)», meaning «abode of the gods». Meaning the places where gods dwell, the heavenly estates.

སྐབས་གསུམ་པ་ [skabs gsum pa] phrase> [Mngon] A general name for gods (devas).

སྐབས་གསུམ་དབང་པོ་ [skabs gsum dbang po] phrase> [Mngon] Lit. «Lord of the Gods». Here སྐབས་གསུམ་པ་ means «gods»; the term overall is an epithet of ལྷའི་དབང་པོ་ Indra.

སྐམ་ཐུན་ [skam thun] «Dry substances» (here ཐུན་ means «section» or «group»). In secret mantra ཚོགས་འཁོར་ feast gatherings, various substances are gathered and used in the offering. The ཐུན་རྫས་ grouped substances are the two groups of རློན་ཐུན་ wet and dry substances. This is the name for the dry ones. [RTZ] Vol. tsa, page 291 ff. lists the following and give complete details. Such as ཡུངས་ནག་ dark mustard; ཡུངས་ཀར་ light mustard; ཟིར་ནག་པོ་ལྕགས་ཕྱེ་ powered iron; ཟངས་ཕྱེ་ powdered brass; རྡོ་ཕྱེ་ powdered stone; སྐེ་ཚེ་, ཤངས་ཚེ་, གུ་གུལ་ frankincense; ར་ཁྲག་ dried goat's blood; ཁྱི་ཁྲག་ dried dog's blood; ཕག་ཁྲག་ dried pig's blood, etc.

སྐམ་པ་ [skam pa] I. With the general sense of «pinching». 1) «Tongs», «pincers», «pliers», «tweezers», etc., the name of appliances used for grasping things. 2) «Red-clay» used for making terra-cotta items such as clay pots and so forth. 3) The «trigger» of a gun.
II. With the general sense of «dry». 1) That which, lacking water, is dry and hence the opp. of being wet. E.g., མེ་ཤིང་སྐམ་པ་ «dry fire-wood». 2) A cow or similar female milk-giving animal that has gone dry of milk, e.g., མཛོ་མོ་སྐམ་པ་ «a dry female dzo.»

སྐམ་པོ་ [skam po] 1) «Dry / dried / dried-out» and also «desiccated». E.g., ལོ་མ་སྐམ་པོ་ «dried leaves» meaning leaves that have dried out; འོ་མ་སྐམ་པོ་ «desiccated milk» meaning milk that has been deliberately dried to be useful. 2) «Thin / skinny / lean» and also «emaciated». Used to refer to humans and animals. E.g., མི་ཤ་སྐམ་པོ་ «a thin person» because they are normally thin or «an emaciated person» because of sickness, lack of food, etc.

སྐམ་སྨྱུག་ [skam smyug] [Modern] Lit. «dry pen» but meaning «ball-point» style pen that carries its own ink. It is «dry» because, unlike a fountain pen, etc., it does not need liquid ink from an external source. See also ནག་སྨྱུག་, སྨྱུ་གུ་, and ཞ་སྨྱུག་.

སྐམས་པ་ [skams pa] Probable mis-spelling of སྐམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐར་ [skar] Usually for སྐར་མ་ q.v.

སྐར་སྐྱོད་ [skar skyod] phrase> [Mngon] «Roving star». An epithet for the སྲིན་བུ་མེ་ཁྱེར་ firefly q.v.

སྐར་ཁུང་ [skar khung] 1) «Window», «skylight», etc.; any opening in the wall or roof of a house for the admission of light into the house. 2) [Old] «Star table». The name of a table of astrological calculations used in the Vinaya for calculating the date of the lunar month.

སྐར་ཁྱིམ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ [skar khyim bcu gnyis] «The twelve houses of the zodiac». In Kālachakratantra, the sun is said to have twelve houses and these correspond to the European system's twelve zodiacal signs (see also ཁྱིམ་ «house»). The following are literal translations of the names; see the individual entries for more information. [TC] enumerates them with reasons but gives them in incorrect order. [SCD] also enumerates them and give reasons for them. [DGT] gives them in correct order as: 1) ལུག་གི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the sheep»; 2) གླང་གི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the bull»; 3) འཁྲིག་པའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the couple»; 4) ཀརྐ་ཊའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of karkaṭa»; 5) སེང་གེའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the Lion»; 6) བུ་མོའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the girl»; 7) སྲང་གི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the scales»; 8) སྡིག་པའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the scorpion»; 9) གཞུའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the bow»; 10) ཆུ་སྲིན་གྱི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the makara»; 11) བུམ་པའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the vase»; 12) ཉའི་ཁྱིམ་ «House of the fish».

སྐར་རྒྱལ་ [skar rgyal] Translation of the Sanskrit «puṣhya». The meaning of the Sanskrit is: Flower; Blossom; Uppermost; Best. 1) «The star Gyal», i.e., the star named Gyal which acc. [SCD] is the eighth of the རྒྱུ་སྐར་ཉི་ཤུ་རྩ་བརྒྱད་ twenty-eight stars / constellations of the lunar zodiac. 2) The name of a person in Sanskrit. For example, it is the name of a former buddha.

སྐར་ཆ་ [skar cha] 1) «(A) second»; the unit of time which is one sixtieth of a minute. 2) The basic unit in the pay scale for determining how much a worker earns.

སྐར་ཆེན་ [skar chen] Lit. «the great star» but meaning the same as the English «the morning star» which is an epithet of the planet Venus. It receives its Tibetan and English epithets because it is the brightest «star» by far in the dawn sky.

སྐར་ལྟས་ [skar ltas] «Star seeing» / «star omens». The system of predicating good and bad omens on the basis of examining the signs of stars—their strength of their light, their colour and so on.

སྐར་ལྟས་མཁན་ [skar ltas mkhan] «A star seer» meaning a person who makes prognostications for the future based on སྐར་ལྟས་ the good and bad omens derived from observing stars.

སྐར་མདའ་ [skar mda'] «Shooting star» i.e., a meteor.

སྐར་མདོག་ [skar mdog] «The colour of stars». Used in the practice of སྐར་ལྟས་ «star seeing».

སྐར་དཔྱད་ [skar dpyad] «Astrology», the observation and analysis of time, planets, and stars to determine auspicious and inauspicious times.

སྐར་དཔྱད་པ་ [skar dpyad pa] An «astrologer», someone who practices སྐར་དཔྱད་ q.v.

སྐར་ཕྱེད་བརྒྱད་ [skar phyed brgyad] A Tibetan coin used in earlier times in Tibet. Acc. [TC] it was made of silver and worth three-quarters of a Tibetan ཞོ་ Zho, and half a Tibetan ཊཾ་ Tam.

སྐར་ཕྲེང་ [skar phreng] «Constellation». The name of one of ལྷ་མ་ཡིན་གྱི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར་བཞི་ the four cities of the Asuras.

སྐར་མ་ [skar ma] 1) The celestial body «star». E.g., ཉི་ཟླ་སྐར་ «sun, moon, and stars». The term སྐར་མ་ also includes «constellations». E.g., in རྒྱུ་སྐར་ཉི་ཤུ་རྩ་བརྒྱད་ the twenty-eight main constellations found along the annual transit of the moon through the night-time skies. The term is often placed before the name of a star or constellation to indicate that is what is being talked about e.g., སྐར་མ་ཆུ་སྟོད་ «the constellation Purvasadha». 2) The duration of time «(one) minute». 3) «Markers». The name of the markings that show weight on the beam of a beam balance. 4) A Tibetan measure of weight equal to one-tenth of a ཞོ་ Zho and one-hundredth of a སྲང་ Srang q.v. 5) «Asterisk». Used in modern times as a name for the English sign called an asterisk. 6) «Stars (and their light)» are one of འོད་གསལ་རྟགས་བཅུ་ «the ten signs of luminosity».

སྐར་མ་ཞྭ་ [skar ma zhva] [Khams] «wearing the stars as a hat» a phrase used to indicate having to stay outside, under the stars at night.

སྐར་མ་འོད་ཆེན་ [skar ma 'od chen] phrase> «Bright star». The specific term for a what is called a «bright star» in English.

སྐར་མ་ལ་དགའ་བ་ [skar ma la dga' ba] «Star Lover». The name of a Brahmin boy mentioned in the Sutra of being Skilled in the Means of the Great Secret.

སྐར་མའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ [skar ma'i rgyal po] phrase> [Mngon] «King of Stars», an epithet for the moon.

སྐར་མར་འཚེ་བ་ [skar mar 'tshe ba] phrase> [Mngon] «Star Harmer», an epithet for the moon (because it covers up stars as it travels).

སྐར་རྩིས་ [skar rtsis] «Astrology». In the Buddhist tradition deriving from ancient India, astrology was the fifth of the རིག་གནས་ཆུང་བ་ལྔ་ five minor areas of knowledge. Astrology in that tradition is the art of རྩིས་པ་ making calculations based on the གཟའ་ planets, སྐར་ stars, and their དུས་ཚིགས་ conjunctions in time. The astrology system usually followed in Tibet was the one from India based in the Kālachakra tantra.

སྐར་རྩིས་ཀྱི་རིག་གནས་ [skar rtsis kyi rig gnas] phrase> «The field of knowledge of astrology». One of the རིག་གནས་ཆུང་བ་ལྔ་ «The five minor branches of knowledge» of ancient India that were also brought into Tibetan culture. See also སྐར་རྩིས་ «astrology».

སྐར་རྩིས་མཁན་ [skar rtsis mkhan] «Astrologer». A person who practices astrology.

སྐར་རྩིས་རིག་པ་ [skar rtsis rig pa] «The study of Astrology». The study of སྐར་རྩིས་ astrology q.v. is one of the རིག་གནས་ཆུང་བ་ལྔ་ five minor areas of knowledge. Note that the study of astrology in the Indian / Tibetan traditions includes a knowledge of astronomy and mathematics.

སྐར་འོད་ [skar 'od] 1) «Starlight», «light of stars». 2) [Mngon] An epithet for སྲིན་བུ་མེ་ཁྱེར་ «the insect, firefly».

སྐལ་ [skal] Abbrev. of སྐལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐལ་མཉམ་ [skal mnyam] 1) Defined in Abhidharma as meaning another being of the same status as oneself. This is then used to mean someone of the «same status» of knowledge, the «same (general karmic situation) lot», the «same species or type (of being)» because of being born as the same type of migrator, and so on. 2) The quality of belonging to the same class of beings, more commonly defined as རིས་མཐུན་པ་. 3) Same status, as one of the fourteen non-associated formations. 4) Unfailing good luck, constant success.

སྐལ་མཉམ་གྱི་རྒྱུ་ [skal mnyam gyi rgyu] Abbrev. of སྐལ་བ་མཉམ་པའི་རྒྱུ་ q.v.

སྐལ་མཉམ་པ་ [skal mnyam pa] I. 1) «Those of the same lot» meaning those having equivalent circumstances, those of equal lot. See also སྐལ་མཉམ་ q.v. 2) «Equal Lot». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «sabhagātā». One of the ལྡན་མིན་འདུ་བྱེད་བཅུ་བཞི་ fourteen non-associated formatives. This refers to sentient beings who have been born at the same level and hence share a similar world.
II. Of the «same lot», «congruent». A term used to mean that things belong to the same thread of fortune or events. E.g., in སྐལ་བ་མཉམ་པའི་རྒྱུ་ q.v. where the cause and its effect are connected in the sense of having the same class.

སྐལ་ལྡན་མི་ཡི་ཚོགས་འཁོར་ [skal ldan mi yi tshogs 'khor] «The feast gathering of fortunate human beings». Secret mantra terminology regarding ཚོགས་འཁོར་ feast gathering. Here, fortunate means those who have had the extreme good fortune of entering the secret mantra vehicle. One of several names for a feast gathering each of which shows a quality of the feast: e.g., དགྱེས་ལྡན་ལྷ་ཡི་ཚོགས་འཁོར་, དམ་ལྡན་རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་ཚོགས་འཁོར་, འབྱོར་ལྡན་ཡོ་བྱད་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་འཁོར་, འབྱོར་ལྡན་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་འཁོར་, འབྱོར་ལྡན་བསོད་ནམས་ཀྱི་ཚོགས་འཁོར་, and ལྷག་པ་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་ཚོགས་འཁོར་.

སྐལ་པ་ [skal pa] 1) Mistaken for བསྐལ་པ་ q.v. 2) Mistaken for སྐལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐལ་བ་ [skal ba] 1) The «portion», «share», «allotment», «quota» received after something has been divided up. E.g., the share of an inheritance. 2) i) «Lot», «fortune» in the sense of the particular circumstances that one receives because of one's particular fortune, good or bad. Because of the Buddhist influence in Tibet it has the sense of ལས་སྐལ་ «karmic lot». E.g., ད་ལྟའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་རྣམས་ཀྱི་བགོ་སྐལ་དུ་སུམ་ཅུ་པ་དང་རྟགས་ཀྱི་འཇུག་པ་གཉིས་འབའ་ཞིག་སྣང་ «It is the lot of beings nowadays that only The Thirty and Application of Gender Signs are extant». ii) It can also mean good fortune per se which is usually referred to in Tibetan with ལམ་འགྲོ་ or བསོད་བདེ་. iii) «Fortune»; in the context of Buddhist tantra, it refers specifically to the merit and connection that makes for the fortunate of being able to meet with the teachings of secret mantra and enter that vehicle; see སྐལ་བ་དང་ལྡན་པ་. 3) A small token that represents something larger that one hasn't attained to; a token in place of what one really wanted.

སྐལ་བ་ངན་པ་ [skal ba ngan pa] phrase> «Bad fortune», «mis-fortune». See སྐལ་བ་ meaning 2) for more.

སྐལ་བ་ཅན་ [skal ba can] I. «Fortunate» or «having the good fortune of...» or «having the fortune necessary to». 1) Used in the general sense of being fortunate. 2) Used in the specific sense of having the merit necessary to enter a particular situation that requires a certain level of merit. In this case it comes to mean «worthy». See also སྐལ་བ་མེད་པ་ for unworthy.
II. Same meanings as above but the noun form e.g., «fortunate one», «worthy one».

སྐལ་བ་མཉམ་པ་ [skal ba mnyam pa] phrase> «Equal in fortune» or «equally fortunate». See སྐལ་བ་ meaning 2) for more.

སྐལ་བ་མཉམ་པའི་རྒྱུ་ [skal ba mnyam pa'i rgyu] phrase> «Congruent cause» or «cause of the same lot». One of the རྒྱུ་དྲུག་ six causes q.v. A cause whose effect belongs to the same class as it, thus they are both of the same lot. E.g., rice produces rice, unvirtuous karmas produce unvirtuous results.

སྐལ་བ་དང་ལྡན་པ་ [skal ba dang ldan pa] «Fortunate ones»; those who are fortunate. In the context of Buddhist tantra, it refers specifically to those who have the merit and connection, i.e., who are fortunate enough, to meet with the teachings of secret mantra and enter that vehicle.

སྐལ་བ་དྲུག་ [skal ba drug] «The six fortunes». These are the same as ལེགས་པ་དྲུག་ the six excellences q.v.

སྐལ་བ་མེད་པ་ [skal ba med pa] I. «Those without the fortune» or «those who lack the fortune (to ...). This is used to mean those who are a class of people who are without the karmic fortune needed to do something. For example, it is applied to those who do not have the fortune at all that would allow them to enter the vajra vehicle. Thus it ends up meaning «unworthy» or «those who are unworthy». See also སྐལ་བ་ཅན་ for worthy.
II. «without fortune», «not worthy».

སྐལ་བ་དམན་པ་ [skal ba dman pa] I. «Less-fortunate ones» or «those of lesser / inferior fortune». This is used to mean those people as a group who are a lesser class of people because of having karmic fortune which does not come up to a certain standard. For example, it is used to refer to those beings who do not have the greater fortune that allows them to enter the vajra vehicle.
II. cognate to the noun.

སྐལ་བ་བཟང་པོ་ [skal ba bzang po] phrase> «Excellent fortune». An excellent degree of fortune. See also the common abbrev. སྐལ་བཟང་ q.v.

སྐལ་མེད་ [skal med] Abbrev. of སྐལ་བ་མེད་པ་ q.v.

སྐལ་དམན་ [skal dman] Abbrev. of སྐལ་བ་དམན་པ་ q.v.

སྐལ་བཟང་ [skal bzang] «Good / excellent fortune». Abbrev. of སྐལ་བ་བཟང་པོ་ meaning of very good fortune. 1) «Kaysang» common man's name in Tibet. 2) The name of one of the སྦྱོར་བ་ཉེར་བདུན་ «the twenty seven co-incidences». 3) Not to be confused with བསྐལ་བཟང་ q.v.

སྐས་ [skas] Any ladder or stairway or means for going up and coming down. Whereas སྐས་ཀ་ means a discrete ladder or set of steps, སྐས་ by itself refers to the fact of something that allow one to go up and down. E.g., it could be a set of steps cut into a mountain pass; the steps are not a སྐས་ཀ་ but the presence of the steps on the side of the mountain is a སྐས་.

སྐས་ཀ་ [skas ka] «Ladder», «staircase», «flight of steps», etc.; any stepped device that allows for ascent and descent.

སྐས་ཐེམ་ [skas them] 1) An individual «step» or «stair» in a flight of steps / stairs. 1) An individual «step» or «rung» of a ladder.

སྐས་འཛེག་ [skas 'dzeg] The «stairs» or a «staircase» within a house. See སྐས་འཛེག་པ་ for the verb form. This is a specific term; the general term for something with steps is སྐས་ཀ་ or ཐེམ་སྐས་ q.v.

སྐས་འཛེག་པ་ [skas 'dzeg pa] phrase> v.t. see འཛེག་པ་ for verb tense forms. «To ascend / climb / mount stairs / a staircase / ladder». See སྐས་འཛེག་ for the noun form.

སྐུ་ [sku] I. 1) Official translation equivalent of the Sanskrit «kāya» ཀཱ་ཡ་ q.v. with the particular meaning of «body». In this case it is the [Hon] for ལུས་ «body». The Sanskrit also has the meanings «collection», «assemblage» which Tibetan texts also explain as the meaning intended here. E.g., when speaking of the body of a buddha, the word སྐུ་ is always used. For an explanation of the various bodies of a buddha, see སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ «bodies of a buddha». 2) Abbrev. of སྐུ་འདྲ་ q.v.
II. <ཚིག་གྲོགས་ phrase assistive> which when prefixed to certain other མིང་ grammatical names gives the [Hon] form of the name. It is used in this way only to form the honorific of words referring to the body or things such as clothing associated with the body e.g., སྐུ་གཟུགས་ [Hon] for «bodily-form» is derived by adding སྐུ་ before གཟུགས་པོ་ which is the [Non-Hon] with the same meaning.

སྐུ་ཁམས་ [sku khams] [Hon] for one's body or personage. E.g., in Kham [Dialect] སྐུ་ཁམས་བཟང་པོ་ཨེ་གདའ། «are you well?».

སྐུ་འཁྲིལ་བག་ཆགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku 'khril bag chags pa'i dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark of a full, taut body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «vṛttagātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུ་གྲིབ་ [sku grib] [Hon] for གྲིབ་ with the meaning of the disease that comes from the negative influence of contact with defiled things.

སྐུ་མགྲོན་ [sku mgron] [Hon] «guest», «visitor» at festive occasions who is close to the person putting on the occasion. E.g., an «honoured guest» at a feast.

སྐུ་རྒྱན་ [sku rgyan] 1) [Hon] for རྒྱན་ or རྒྱན་ཆ་ meaning any kind of ornamentation placed on the body. 2) [Hon] for རྒྱན་ meaning the stake in betting games.

སྐུ་རྒྱབ་ [sku rgyab] [Hon] 1) «Behind», «at the back of» in general. 2) «Back of the body» in particular.

སྐུ་རྒྱབ་མི་སྟོན་ [sku rgyab mi ston] «Not showing one's back». E.g., see ཕྱི་འགྲོས་ q.v.

སྐུ་རྒྱས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku rgyas pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of a developed body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «utsāhagātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུ་སྒེར་གྱི་སྐུ་ཆས་ [sku sger gyi sku chas] [Hon] «Private property», «personal property» or «... possessions / things / effects» as in the personal possessions of an important person, dignitary, etc. E.g., the personal effects of H. H. the Dalai Lama. See also སྐུ་སྒེར་ཡིག་ཚང་ for a similar term.

སྐུ་སྒེར་ཡིག་ཚང་ [sku sger yig tshang] [Hon] «Private office» as in the private office of an important person, dignitary, etc. E.g., the private office of H. H. the Dalai Lama. In Tibetan culture, as in European culture, the private office is usually run by the personal secretary to the dignitary or someone in another, very close position to the dignitary. See also སྐུ་སྒེར་གྱི་སྐུ་ཆས་ for a similar term.

སྐུ་ངེས་པ་ [sku nges pa] «Certain body» or «certainty of body». One of ངེས་པ་ལྔ་ «the five certainties» q.v. The saṃbhogakāya has five special attributes called the five certainties. This one is that the saṃbhogakāya has a form that has all of the མཚན་དཔེ་ marks and signs and has them fully evident.

སྐུ་ལྔ་ [sku lnga] «The five kāyas» i.e., the five bodies of a buddha. See སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ buddha bodies for a general discussion. There are several formulations of five buddha bodies in sutra Mahāyāna and in tantra, as well.
I. Meaning the five different types of kāya that are generally known and mentioned. In this case, it is not an assignment of the kāyas but a roundup of the names of the kāyas in general. They are [DGT]: 1) ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྐུ་ «svabhavikakāya»; 2) ཆོས་སྐུ་ «dharmakāya»; 3) ཡེ་ཤེས་ཆོས་སྐུ་ «jñānadharmakāya»; 4) ལོངས་སྐུ་ «saṃbhogakāya», and 5) སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ «nirmāṇakāya» q.v. However, note that in addition to these, there are some other, specific terms for specialized forms of some of the above found in sutra and tantra.
II. One formulation of five kayas introduces those five kāyas according to their individual functions and calls the svabhavikakāya the vajrakāya. 1) རང་དོན་མཐར་ཕྱིན་ཞི་བ་ཆོས་སྐུ་ «the final attainment of peace which is one's own aim, the dharmakāya»; 2) གཞན་དོན་ལྷུན་གྲུབ་ཟུང་འཇུག་ལོངས་སྐུ་ «the spontaneous unification which is for other's aims, the saṃbhogakāya»; 3) གང་འདུལ་ཐབས་མཁས་སྣ་ཚོགས་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ «the skilful means for those to be tamed, the diverse nirmāṇakāyas»; 4) སྐུ་གསུམ་སོ་སོར་མ་དྲེས་སྣང་ཆ་མངོན་པར་བྱང་ཆུབ་ «the appearing factor of the three kāyas individually without mixup which is manifest enlightenment»; and 5) སྟོང་ཆ་སྐུ་གསུམ་ཆོས་དབྱིངས་སུ་རོ་གཅིག་པ་རྡོ་རྗེའི་སྐུ་ «the empty factor of the three kāyas being one taste in the dharmadhātu which is the vajra kāya».
III. Another formulation gives them as the five different manifestations of enlightenment, i.e., as the conquerors of the five families e.g., སྐུ་ལྔ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ «the five kāyas of the conquerors». In this case, the kāyas are being equated with the manifest forms of the ཡེ་ཤེས་ལྔ་ five wisdoms.
IV. There are other formulations as well.

སྐུ་ལྔ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ [sku lnga rgyal po] «The five kāyas of the conquerors». The five forms of རྒྱལ་བ་རིགས་ལྔ་ the conquerors of the five families.

སྐུ་ལྔ་ལྷུན་གྱིས་གྲུབ་པ་ [sku lnga lhun gyis grub pa] phrase> «The five kāyas of spontaneity» are the five forms of saṃbhogakāya which are the forms of རྒྱལ་བ་རིགས་ལྔ་ the conquerors of the five families.

སྐུ་མཆེད་ [sku mched] [Hon] of སྤུན་མཆེད་ q.v. 1) «Relative» meaning either i) a brother / sister having the same parents or ii) relatives of the same family line. E.g., ཐོགས་མེད་སྐུ་མཆེད་ Asaṅga's brother. 2) «Relative», «relation(s)» used to mean disciples of the same guru.

སྐུ་མཆེད་གསུམ་ [sku mched gsum] 1) Meaning «the three brothers» in general. 2) Abbrev. of བཀའ་གདམས་སྐུ་མཆེད་གསུམ་ «three brothers of the Kadam» q.v.

སྐུ་འཇམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku 'jam pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of a soft body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «mṛdugātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུ་ཉ་གྲོ་ཏ་ལྟར་ཆུ་ཞེང་གབ་པའི་མཚན་བཟང་ [sku nya gro ta ltar chu zheng gab pa'i mtshan bzang] «Body well-proportioned like the Nyagrodha tree». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two marks of a great being. An altern. rendering of ཤིང་ཉྱགྲོདྷ་ལྟར་ཆུ་ཞེང་གབ་པ་ «(body) well-proportioned like the Nyagrodha tree» q.v.

སྐུ་གཉིས་ [sku gnyis] «The two kāyas» i.e., the two bodies of a Buddha. This is a division of a buddha into mind and form aspects. [DGT] gives as: 1) གཟུགས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ «form body» and 2) ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ «reality body» (mind). See སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ for an explanation of the various kāyas of a buddha.

སྐུ་གཉེར་ [sku gnyer] «Shrine keeper». The name for someone who has the responsibility for taking care of a Buddhist shrine. The term, which literally means «keeper of the statues», reflects the fact that most Tibetan temples featured སྐུ་འདྲ་ statues as representations of enlightenment. The term is usually used to indicate the person in a monastery who has the official position of taking care of all of the shrines and their contents. In smaller monasteries and temples, he would do the work himself; in larger monasteries, he would be the superintendent of a number of workers who would do the actual work of cleaning bowls, making offerings, and doing all of the general shrine duties.
Alternative terms with the same meaning are དཀོན་གཉེར་, ལྷ་གཉེར་, ལྷའི་འཚོ་བ་.

སྐུ་སྟོད་སེངྒེ་འདྲ་བ་ [sku stod seng+ge 'dra ba] «Torso like a lion». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «siṃhapūrvardhakāya». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two marks of a great being. Also comm. written as རོ་སྟོད་སེངྒེ་འདྲ་བ་ q.v.

སྐུ་སྟོད་སེངྒེ་འདྲ་བའི་མཚན་བཟང་ [sku stod seng+ge 'dra ba'i mtshan bzang] «The excellent mark of torso like a lion». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two marks of a great being. See སྐུ་སྟོད་སེངྒེ་འདྲ་བ་.

སྐུ་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku dag pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of pure body». Acc. [TC] one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. [NDS] gives as སྐུ་རྣམ་པར་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a completely pure body» with the same meaning.

སྐུ་དྲང་བ་ [sku drang ba] «Straight body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «tṛjugātra». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two marks of a great being.

སྐུ་དྲང་བའི་མཚན་བཟང་ [sku drang ba'i mtshan bzang] «The excellent mark of a straight body». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two marks of a great being. See སྐུ་དྲང་བ་.

སྐུ་དྲིན་ [sku drin] [Hon] of དྲིན་ q.v. Like བཀའ་དྲིན་ q.v.

སྐུ་གདུང་ [sku gdung] 1) [Hon] for ཕུང་པོ་ or རོ་ «the corpse of a great person». The corpse of a great person in the Tibetan system was usually either སྐུ་གདུང་ཞུམ་པ་ ceremonially cremated or mummified and placed in a གདུང་རྟེན་ reliquary or, rarely, a tomb. 2) Alternative word for རིང་བསྲེལ་ the relics that come from a corpse of a holy person. 3) A stupa or reliquary for containing the corpse or cremated remains of a holy person; a གདུང་རྟེན་.

སྐུ་གདུང་གི་རིང་བསྲེལ་ [sku gdung gi ring bsrel] «Body corpse relics». The name of one of རིང་བསྲེལ་གསུམ་ the three types of relics q.v.

སྐུ་གདུང་འབར་བ་ [sku gdung 'bar ba] «The Blazing Relics». Name of one of the རྒྱུད་བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen tantras of the མན་ངག་གི་སྡེ་ Upadeśha section of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ The Great Completion.

སྐུ་གདུང་རིགས་ལྔ་ [sku gdung rigs lnga] «The five types of corpse (ringsel)» meaning སྐུ་གདུང་རིང་བསྲེལ་རིགས་ལྔ་ «the five types of relic of the corpse type (see རིང་བསྲེལ་གསུམ་). [DGT] gives as: 1) ཤ་རི་རམ་; 2) ཆུ་རི་རམ་; 3) བ་རི་རམ་; 4) ཉ་རི་རམ་; 5) པཉྫ་རི་རམ་. See also ཤ་རཱི་རཾ་ for comment.

སྐུ་མདོག་ [sku mdog] [Hon] «Body colour», «colour of the body». Usually seen in Buddhist secret mantra liturgies where the body of a deity is being described. E.g., སྐུ་མདོག་སྔོན་པོ་ཞལ་གཅིག་ཕྱག་གཉིས་ «body blue in colour, with one face, two arms».

སྐུ་འདྲ་ [sku 'dra] «Statue», «image», «likeness». General name for any representation of image of the body.

སྐུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ [sku rdo rje] phrase> «Vajra body». One of the རྡོ་རྗེ་གསུམ་ three vajras q.v.

སྐུ་རྣམ་པར་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku rnam par dag pa'i dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark of a completely pure body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «viṣhuddhagātra anuvyañjani». Acc. [NDS] one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. [TC] gives as སྐུ་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «... a pure body» with the same meaning. This means that the body has no faults, is completely free of defects. It is one of the སྐུའི་སྐྱོན་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of faultless body» q.v.

སྐུ་རྣམ་པར་སྤྲས་པ་ [sku rnam par spras pa] «Body fully decorated (with the eighty excellent insignia)». Often used as one of many descriptions of a tathāgata. See སྐུ་ལེགས་པར་བརྒྱན་པ་ for full information.

སྐུ་པང་ [sku pang] [Hon] «lap».

སྐུ་པར་ [sku par] [Hon] «Photograph (of a person)». Also spelled སྐུ་དཔར་.

སྐུ་པུར་ [sku pur] [Hon] «corpse». Also spelled སྐུ་སྤུར་.

སྐུ་དཔུང་ [sku dpung] [Hon] «Shoulder».

སྐུ་སྤུར་ [sku spur] [Hon] «corpse». Also spelled སྐུ་པུར་.

སྐུ་སྤྱིའི་ཡོན་ཏན་བཅུ་ [sku spyi'i yon tan bcu] «The ten general qualities of the body». One grouping of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུ་ཕུང་ [sku phung] [Hon] «corpse» or «dead body».

སྐུ་ཕྱག་ [sku phyag] [Hon] «prostration».

སྐུ་ཕྲག་ [sku phrag] [Hon] «shoulder».

སྐུ་ཕྲེང་ [sku phreng] [Hon] «successive incarnations», «successive embodiments», «incarnation line». The term is usually used to refer to tulkus and their tulku incarnations. It is not usually used to indicate the succession of an ordinary person's previous lives. When understood that way because of context, it could more simply translated as «lifetimes».
The term is also spelled སྐུ་འཕྲེང་.

སྐུ་འཕྲེང་ [sku 'phreng] Alt. spelling of སྐུ་ཕྲེང་ q.v.

སྐུ་བག་ [sku bag] [Hon] 1) Bride. 2) A son's or grandson's wife.

སྐུ་བལ་གྱི་རིང་བསྲེལ་ [sku bal gyi ring bsrel] phrase> «Body carapace relics». The name of one of རིང་བསྲེལ་གསུམ་ the three types of relics q.v. One translator has called these «clothing relics» but that is incorrect; these are the dead body parts, hair and nails, that are left behind sometimes when a great being dies.

སྐུ་བེར་ [sku ber] [Hon] «cloak».

སྐུ་བྱི་དོར་བྱས་པ་ལྟ་བུའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku byi dor byas pa lta bu'i dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark of a body which seems to be cleaned and polished». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «mṛṣhṭgātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. This means that a buddha's body, even if it has not been washed, always has the appearance of being cleaned and rubbed. It is one of the སྐུའི་སྐྱོན་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of faultless body» q.v.

སྐུ་བྲིས་ [sku bris] [Hon] «paintings (of deities)».

སྐུ་དབང་ [sku dbang] [Hon] «power», «authority».

སྐུ་འབག་ [sku 'bag] [Hon] of འབག་ q.v.

སྐུ་སྨད་ཀྱི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ [sku smad kyi dpe byad bzhi] «The four minor marks of the lower body». One grouping of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. They are: 1) དཀུ་ཟླུམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «rounded hips»; 2) དཀུ་སྐབས་ཕྱིན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «good waistline»; 3) དཀུ་མ་རྙོངས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «waist not elongated»; 4) དཀུ་ཕྱང་ངེ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «flat abdomen».

སྐུ་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku gtsang ba'i dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark of a clean body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «ṣhucigātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. This means that the body is completely clean, i.e., it does not have any of the normal excretions like wax coming from the ears, accretions near the eyes, etc. It is one of the སྐུའི་སྐྱོན་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of faultless body» q.v.

སྐུ་ཚ་ [sku tsha] [Hon] for ཚ་བོ་ q.v.

སྐུ་ཚད་ [sku tshad] 1) «Body-size»; the size of the body. 2) «Body-heat»; the heat of the body.

སྐུ་ཚབ་ [sku tshab] 1) [Hon] for ཚབ་ meaning a person who stands in for and takes the place of another, important or great person. This is used both in the secular and religious worlds and there are a variety of terms in English for it, depending on the context. i) E.g., in the secular world: the «regent» of a king or other ruling figure; an «ambassador»; «representative»; «deputy»; «proxy»; «agent»; «substitute»; «stand-in». ii) In the religious world: a person who is a representative for a great teacher or lama. Also «regent», which is the name given to a one teacher who holds the lineage of and stands in for another great teacher who has died; the regent cares for the situation and maintains the teaching until the other teacher is re-born and gains his majority. 2) [Hon] A representation that stands for something else, e.g., a statue, an image.

སྐུ་ཚེ་ [sku tshe] [Hon] for ཚེ་ «(a human) life». It means both i) life-energy (སྲོག་) and ii) the duration of life, i.e., «life-span» or «lifetime», which is often simply contracted to «life». E.g., རྒྱལ་པོ་ནི་སྐུ་ཚེ་མཐར་ཕྱིན་ཏེ་གཤེགས་སོ།, «the king reached the end of his life and passed on» or «the king having come to the end of his lifespan, passed on.»

སྐུ་ཚེ་སྙུང་བ་ [sku tshe snyung ba] phrase> v.i. see སྙུང་བ་ for tense forms. [Hon] for ན་བ་ being sick in general. Note that སྐུ་ཚེ་ q.v. is the [Hon] for someone's life and སྙུང་བ་ q.v. is the honorific for being sick so, unlike what is given in [RYD], this does not mean being feverish or having some other particular disease.

སྐུ་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སོ་གཉིས་དང་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ [sku mtshan bzang po so gnyis dang dpe byad bzang po brgyad cu] «The excellent thirty-two excellent major marks and eighty minor marks of the body». The body of a མཆོག་གི་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ supreme nirmāṇakāya buddha has སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two major markings and སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty minor markings q.v.

སྐུ་མཚམས་ [sku mtshams] [Hon] of མཚམས་ q.v. meaning the retreat of someone who is being spoken of in the honorific.

སྐུ་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་ [sku rdzu 'phrul gyi cho 'phrul] «Miraculous feats of body miracles». One of the སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་གསུམ་ three miraculous activities by which a Buddha tames sentient beings. This refers to miraculous feats at the level of the body. Also just called རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་ q.v. for more information.

སྐུ་ཞུམ་པ་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku zhum pa med pa'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of an un-sunken body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «adīnagātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. This means that the body does not have the appearance of being withered, reduced, withdrawn but is full and outstanding.

སྐུ་བཞི་ [sku bzhi] «The four kāyas» i.e., «the four bodies (of a buddha)». [DGT] gives as: 1) སྤྲུལ་པའི་སྐུ་ «the emanation body»; 2) ལོངས་སྤྱོད་རྫོགས་པའི་སྐུ་ «the complete enjoyment body»; 3) ཡེ་ཤེས་ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ «the wisdom reality body»; and 4) ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ «the essential body». See སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ for an explanation of the various kāyas of a buddha.

སྐུ་ཟླ་ [sku zla] [Hon] for ཟླ་བོ་ «spouse» q.v.

སྐུ་གཟུགས་ [sku gzugs] 1) [Hon] for ལུས་ and གཟུགས་པོ་ body. 2) [Hon] for a representation of the physical form of a holy being, such as the buddha. It is used to refer to any kind of image, whether a two-dimensional painting or a three-dimensional statue.

སྐུ་ཡོན་ [sku yon] 1) [Hon] for ཡོན་ཏན་ q.v. 2) [Hon] A gift, payment, or fee given in return for services rendered. The appropriate term will depend on the relationship between the person providing the service or assistance and the person receiving it. This term was used for cases where the recipient of the assistance or services was generally regarded as a higher or more important person.

སྐུ་རགས་ [sku rags] [Hon] for སྐ་རགས་ «belt», «sash», etc. E.g., a སྐུ་རགས་ is one of the ལོངས་སྤྱོད་རྫོགས་པའི་རྒྱན་བཅུ་གསུམ་ «the thirteen adornments of the saṃbhogakāya» in which case it is a sash of silk tied around the waist as a belt for the silken pantaloons.

སྐུ་རས་བྲིས་ [sku ras bris] phrase> «Cloth painting (of an important person or item, such as a deity)».

སྐུ་རིམ་པར་འཚམས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku rim par 'tshams pa'i dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark of a well-proportioned body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «anūrvagātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. This means that the various parts of his body are well-proportioned with respect to each other. It differs from the major mark of having a symmetrical body; that refers to the height and width being of good symmetry.

སྐུ་ལ་སྨེ་བ་དང་གནག་བག་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku la sme ba dang gnag bag med pa'i dpe byad] phrase> [NDS] «The minor mark of body free of freckles and moles». Translation of the Sanskrit «vyapagatatilakālakagātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. It is one of the སྐུའི་སྐྱོན་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ «the four minor marks of faultless body» q.v.

སྐུ་ལ་རྫོགས་ [sku la rdzogs] «Complete in Body». The name of one of དུར་ཁྲོད་བརྒྱད་ the eight charnel grounds. This is the charnel ground of the south.

སྐུ་ལུགས་མ་ [sku lugs ma] phrase> «Cast image» of some honoured person, such as the Buddha.

སྐུ་ལེགས་པར་བརྒྱན་པ་ [sku legs par brgyan pa] «His body nicely adorned (with the thirty two marks of a great being)». Often used as one of many descriptions of a tathāgata.
Note the following: it is standard in Buddhist texts to speak this way: [MPP] སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་སུམ་ཅུ་རྩ་གཉིས་པོ་དག་གིས་སྐུ་ལེགས་པར་བརྒྱན་པ། དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་པོ་དག་གིས་སྐུ་རྣམ་པར་སྤྲས་པ། «his body nicely adorned with the thirty-two marks of great being and body fully decorated with the eighty excellent insignia». Note that the word «adorned» is always used with the marks, connoting a greater level of ornamentation and the word «decorated» is always used with the eighty insignia.

སྐུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གྲིམས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku shin tu grims pa'i dpe byad] [TC] gives as one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གཞོན་ཤ་ཅན་གྱི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku shin tu gzhon sha can gyi dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark of very youthful body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «sukumāragātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གསལ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku shin tu gsal ba'i dpe byad] phrase> «The minor mark of very conspicuous body». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «prasannagātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུ་གསུང་ཐུགས་ [sku gsung thugs] phrase> «Body, speech, and mind». The [Hon] form of ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་ q.v. Translation of the Sanskrit «kāya vāk citta». This term is used in reference to spiritually advanced and enlightened beings. In order to differentiate it from the [Non-Hon] form, some translators capitalize Body, Speech, and Mind here and leave them in lower case for the [Non-Hon] form. Others insert the word «enlightened» before the phrase—enlightened body, speech, and mind—to make the differentiation.

སྐུ་གསུང་ཐུགས་མི་ཟད་པ་རྒྱན་གྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་ [sku gsung thugs mi zad pa rgyan gyi 'khor lo] phrase> «The inexhaustible wheel of ornamentation which is enlightened body, speech, and mind». A term from the higher tantras which is used to indicate the full fruition of the tantric vehicle. It refers to the quality of someone who has obtained the full perfection of སྐུ་གསུང་ཐུགས་ enlightened body, speech, and mind.
«Wheel» means «sphere» and refers to the all-encompassing situation of everything that there is, whatever there could be. Ornamentation refers to the display that occurs when body speech and mind have become the enlightened forms thereof. The wheel of ornamentation is inexhaustible because it is the final enlightenment that continues on and on.
Some have translated this as «inexhaustible enlightened body, speech, and mind ...» but that is incorrect since མི་ཟད་པ་ directly describes རྒྱན་གྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་ the wheel of ornamentation and not སྐུ་གསུང་ཐུགས་ enlightened body, speech, and mind».
What is it that is the inexhaustible wheel of ornamentation? When body speech and mind are not the experiences of body, speech, and mind on the path but are the full-blown forms when enlightenment has been obtained, they are an inexhaustible situation which is the all-encompassing sphere of reality that is ornamented by all the phenomena that exist. This phrase contains an enormous depth of meaning, summarizing both path and fruition concepts of the vajra vehicle, and cannot be explained easily in a short dictionary definition.

སྐུ་གསུང་ཐུགས་གསང་ [sku gsung thugs gsang] Meaning སྐུ་ཡི་གསང་བ་ and གསུང་གི་གསང་བ་ and ཐུགས་ཀྱི་གསང་བ་.

སྐུ་གསུམ་ [sku gsum] phrase> «The three kāyas». Translation of the Sanskrit «trikāya». Abbrev. of སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་གསུམ་ «the three bodies of a buddha» q.v. and also see སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ «bodies of a buddha» for an explanation of the various bodies / kāyas of a buddha q.v.

སྐུ་གསུམ་གྲུབ་པ་ [sku gsum grub pa] «Accomplishment of the Three Kāyas», name of a text

སྐུ་གསུམ་ལ་བསྟོད་པ་ [sku gsum la bstod pa] «Praise of the Three Bodies». Translation of the Sanskrit «kāyatrayastotra». The name of a text by ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་ Nāgārjuna. This text is one is categorized as part of the བསྟོད་ཚོགས་ praise collection.

སྐུ་བསོད་ [sku bsod] «Merit», «level of merit», «personal merit». [Hon] for བསོད་ནམས་. Note that it is used mainly in the sense of personal fortune that comes because of merit. E.g., Putowa said དང་པོ་འབུལ་རྒྱུ་མེད་སྐབས་་་སྐུ་བསོད་རྒྱས་ཏེ་་་ «first, when you have nothing to offer... then, when your level of merit has increased...»

སྐུག་ [skug] See སྐུག་པ་ q.v.

སྐུག་པ་ [skug pa] v.t. བསྐུགས་པ་/ སྐུག་པ་/ བསྐུག་པ་/ སྐུགས་/. «To place» a bet part of engaging in a wager or «to put up» one's stakes in a competition where the winner takes the stakes». E.g., [TC] རྒྱལ་སྐུག་པ། «to put up the stake» e.g., in a card game for money each person puts up their portion of the stake; རྒྱན་ཆེན་པོ་བསྐུགས་པ། «to place a very large bet» e.g., in a dice game (the most common betting game amongst Tibetans). Note that this does not mean to engage in the competition, whatever it might be, but refers to putting down the bet, adding to the pot, putting up one's stake, etc., prior to engaging in the game. These days in coll., this term has dropped away in favour of the more general terms འཛུགས་པ་ and འཇོག་པ་ e.g., རྒྱན་ཆེན་པོ་བཙུགས་པ་ and རྒྱན་ཆེན་པོ་བཞག་པ་ are the exact equivalents of the example རྒྱན་ཆེན་པོ་བསྐུགས་པ། given above.

སྐུགས་ [skugs] I. Imp. of སྐུག་པ་ q.v.
II. «The stake» in a bet or wager.

སྐུགས་སུ་བཙུགས་པ་ [skugs su btsugs pa] phrase> [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, རྒྱལ་བཙུགས་པ་. See རྒྱལ་འཛུགས་པ་ «to place a bet».

སྐུང་ [skung] See སྐུང་བ་ q.v.

སྐུང་བ་ [skung ba] v.t. བསྐུངས་བ་/ སྐུང་བ་/ བསྐུང་བ་/ སྐུངས་/. Meaning to put something somewhere so that it stays out of view , hence «to hide away (and keep secret)» or «to conceal (and keep concealed)» or «to bury away (from view)». E.g., [TC] དངོས་ཡོད་གནས་ལུགས་སྐུང་བ། «phenomena are present (for the senses), their inner reality is hidden from view»; མི་ངན་བསྐུངས་པ། «the bad man was hidden away»; ཁྲིམས་འགལ་དངོས་རིགས་སྐུང་བ། «to keep the real breakages of the law hidden»; སྐྱོན་ཆ་ནམ་ཡང་མི་སྐུང་། «never, ever hiding faults away».

སྐུངས་ [skungs] Imp. of སྐུང་བ་ q.v.

སྐུད་ [skud] I. See སྐུད་པ་ q.v.
II. See སྐུད་པ་ q.v.

སྐུད་པ་ [skud pa] I. v.t. བསྐུས་པ་/ སྐུད་པ་/ བསྐུ་བ་/ སྐུས་/. To apply something to the surface of something else by rubbing or smearing; similar to འབྱུག་པ་ q.v. Hence «to apply», «to put on», «to spread on», «to rub on», «to daub». E.g., [TC] སྨན་བསྐུས་པ། «spread the medicine on»; བཀྲག་རྩི་སྐུད་པ། «to apply gloss / varnish»; སྐྲ་ལ་སྐྲ་སྣུམ་བསྐུ་བ། «will rub hair oil through the hair».
II. Having the meaning of a thin thread of string of any material. Thus «thread», «yarn», «string», «wire». E.g., ལྕགས་སྐུད་ «iron wire»; དར་སྐུད་ «silk thread»; དངུལ་སྐུད་ «silver thread». Note that thicker cord or rope is ཐག་པ་ q.v. Note that the verb used to describe the creating of thread is འཁལ་བ་ «spinning» as in སྐུད་པ་འཁལ་བ་, not འཐག་པ་ which is used to describe the braiding etc., of cord and rope.

སྐུན་བུ་ [skun bu] 1) General name for a small container, such as a small basket or pouch, for holding things. 2) [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, གཞོང་བུ་ a small basin or bowl or container.

སྐུམ་ [skum] See སྐུམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐུམ་པ་ [skum pa] v.t. བསྐུམས་པ་/ སྐུམ་པ་/ བསྐུམ་པ་/ སྐུམས་/. 1) Opp. of རྐྱོང་བ་ «to extend out». «To draw back in», «to pull inwards», «to retract». E.g., རྐང་བསྐུམས་ «leg(s) drawn up». E.g., [TC] རྐང་ལག་ཚུར་བསྐུམས། «arms and legs drawn in»; བརྐྱང་བསྐུམ་བདེ་པོ་འདུག «sitting with one leg stretched out and the other drawn in is comfortable». Freq. seen in tantric liturgies with its opp. as བརྐྱང་བསྐུམ་ to describe deities who have one leg stretched out and the other drawn up. 2) «To shrink». E.g. in the case of a corpse which shrinks over time. 3) «To keep to oneself», «to keep private». E.g., [TC] སྐད་ཆ་སྐུམ་པ། «to back off from conversation / to reduce one's conversation level (though not meaning to remain silent)»; བསམ་འཆར་བསྐུམས་ནས་མི་ཤོད་པ་ «kept his thoughts private and did not speak».

སྐུམས་ [skums] Imp. of སྐུམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐུའི་སྐྱོན་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཞི་ [sku'i skyon med pa'i dpe byad bzhi] «The four minor marks of faultless body». One group of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v. They are: 1) སྐུ་ལ་སྨེ་བ་དང་གནག་བག་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «body is free of freckles and moles»; 2) སྐུ་རྣམ་པར་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a completely pure body»; 3) སྐུ་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a clean body»; 4) སྐུ་བྱི་དོར་བྱས་པ་ལྟ་བུའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a body which seems to be cleaned and polished».

སྐུའི་ཁོ་ལག་ཡངས་ཤིང་བཟང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ [sku'i kho lag yangs shing bzang ba'i dpe byad] «The minor mark of body maṇḍala broad and elegant». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «pṛthucārumaṇḍagātra anuvyañjani». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty excellent marks of a great being q.v.

སྐུའི་རྒྱུད་དཔལ་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་མཉམ་པར་སྦྱོར་བ་ [sku'i rgyud dpal sangs rgyas thams cad mnyam par sbyor ba] phrase> «Tantra of Body, The Glorious (Tantra), The Union of Every Buddha». The name of one of the eighteen tantras that comprise Mahāyoga; see མ་ཧཱ་ཡོ་གའི་རྒྱུད་སྡེ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ «The eighteen classes of Mahāyoga tantra». The first of the རྩ་རྒྱུད་སྡེ་ལྔ་ five root explanatory tantras of the Mahāyoga, the སྐུའི་རྒྱུད་ tantra dealing with body aspect of buddhahood, called the དཔལ་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་མཉམ་པར་སྦྱོར་བ་ «The Glorious (Tantra), The Union of Every Buddha» [POD].

སྐུའི་རྒྱུད་སངས་རྒྱས་མཉམ་སྦྱོར་ [sku'i rgyud sangs rgyas mnyam sbyor] «Tantra of Body, The Union of the Buddhas». Abbrev. of སྐུའི་རྒྱུད་དཔལ་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་མཉམ་པར་སྦྱོར་བ་ q.v.

སྐུའི་དམ་ཚིག་ [sku'i dam tshig] phrase> «Samaya of the body». A term of secret mantra. One of the many དམ་ཚིག་ samayas of secret mantra.

སྐུའི་གནས་བདུན་མཐོ་བའི་མཚན་བཟང་ [sku'i gnas bdun mtho ba'i mtshan bzang] «The excellent mark of seven upper places on the body». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two marks of a great being. This does not mean that there are «seven important» or «main features» or «seven protuberances» on a buddha's body as some have given but refers to seven upper surfaces on a buddha's body. For the list of the seven see མཚན་བཟང་གི་བདུན་མཐོ་བ་.

སྐུའི་སྤུ་གྱེན་ཏུ་ཕྱོགས་པ་ [sku'i spu gyen tu phyogs pa] «The hairs of the body turn upwards». One of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two marks of a great being. An altern. rendering of སྤུའི་རྩེ་མོ་གྱེན་དུ་ཕྱོགས་པ་ «the hair tips turn upwards» q.v.

སྐུའི་གསང་བ་ [sku'i gsang ba] «The secret which is body». One of གསང་བ་གསུམ་ the three secrets q.v.

སྐུའི་སྲས་ [sku'i sras] Lit. «son of the body» meaning the «physical son (of the Buddha)» who was སྒྲ་གཅན་འཛིན་ Rāhula. This is one of a group of three terms meaning the sons of the buddha in relation to the buddha's body, speech, and mind. See also གསུང་གི་སྲས་ «speech sons» and ཐུགས་ཀྱི་སྲས་ «mind sons».

སྐུར་ [skur] 1) Imp. of སྐུར་བ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐུར་བ་ q.v.

སྐུར་བདེབ་ [skur bdeb] Mis-spelling of སྐུར་འདེབས་ q.v.

སྐུར་འདེབས་ [skur 'debs] «Denigration». The noun form of སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ q.v. One of a pair of terms. This term represents the extreme of denigration or understatement; the term སྒྲོ་འདོགས་ q.v. represents the other extreme of exaggeration or overstatement q.v.

སྐུར་འདེབས་ཀྱི་མཐའ་ [skur 'debs kyi mtha'] phrase> «The extreme of denigration». When describing anything, there are two possible extremes. One is the extreme of seeing more in something than is actually present in it and the other is the extreme of seeing less in it than is actually present in it. This is the extreme of སྐུར་འདེབས་ seeing less in it than is actually there. It pairs with the term for the other extreme སྒྲོ་འདོགས་ཀྱི་མཐའ་ q.v.

སྐུར་འདེབས་སྒྲོ་འདོགས་ [skur 'debs sgro 'dogs] 1) Abbrev. of the two nouns «སྐུར་འདེབས་ and སྒྲོ་འདོགས་» or of their verb forms «སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ and སྒྲོ་འདོགས་པ་», which are the two extremes of understating and overstating something. See the individual terms for their meanings. 2) The same abbrev. but meaning «སྐུར་འདེབས་ and/or སྒྲོ་འདོགས་. It is used this way: reality is something which is beyond verbal description. Hence any attempt to describe reality will be a case of «denigration and / or exaggeration» because any description of it will be either overstating it or understating it.

སྐུར་འདེབས་པ་ [skur 'debs pa] Abbrev. of སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ q.v.

སྐུར་བ་ [skur ba] I. v.t. བསྐུར་བ་/ སྐུར་བ་/ བསྐུར་བ་/ སྐུར་/. Generally meaning to put something on or give something to someone else. 1) «To confer» or «to bestow (upon)», «to grant». The term does not merely mean to give but has the honourable sense of «bestowing or conferring». E.g., in དབང་བསྐུར་བ་ the Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit «abhiṣheka», which refers to the very high action of «bestowal of empowerment (in the tantric sense)» and «inauguration of a king». E.g., compare འགན་བསྐུར་བ་ «to confer a position of responsibility» as a matter of honour, to འགན་འགེལ་བ་ which means simply the placement of responsibility onto someone and to འགན་འཁྲི་བ་ which the imposition of responsibility on someone, like it or not. 2) «To hand something valuable or important over to someone to take somewhere», «to hand over to / entrust to». E.g., [TC] ངག་ལན་སྐུར་བ། «to hand over an answer (to a messenger who will carry it)»; ཡིག་འཕྲིན་བསྐུར་བ། «to entrust a letter (to a messenger to carry)»; དངུལ་བསྐུར་བ། «entrusted (a messenger) with money (to be taken)»; མཁའ་ལམ་ནས་སྐུར་བ། «sent it via air-mail».
II. Cognate to the verb meanings. 1) «Bestowal» and sometimes an abbrev. for དབང་བསྐུར་བ་ «empowerment». 2) «Denigration», etc., the name given to assertions which explain something which is present as not being present or which present something which is a virtue as a fault. This is mostly used in philosophy in the form སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ q.v. It is used there in the sense that somebody is assigning more to something than it actually has or claiming that its good qualities / correct arguments / features are in fact bad qualities / incorrect arguments / negative aspects. It is not only used in philosophy though, it is also used to fault others in the form of belittling them / denigrating them. In the same way as just described someone's good qualities are cast as bad or they have faults ascribed to them which do not exist. The verb form is this «to denigrate». Some translators have mistakenly given «to depreciate» when they mean «to deprecate» which could be fitting. Also, «to slander» in its correct meaning of claiming that someone did or is so and so when in fact they have not also is fitting. In coll. usages, «to put down» could be used too, though in the end, «denigration / to denigrate» is the closest fit.

སྐུར་བ་བཏབ་པ་ [skur ba btab pa] phrase> Past form of སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ q.v.

སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ [skur ba 'debs pa] I. phrase> v.t. see འདེབས་པ་ for tense forms. Defined as གཞན་ལ་ཡོན་ཏན་ཡོད་པ་རྣམས་མེད་པ་དང་། བཟང་པོ་རྣམས་ངན་པར་བཅོས་པའི་སྨོད་ཚིག «to make talk or statements that devalue something or someone else by the artifices either of making out that good qualities existing in the subject do not exist there or that the subject's good parts are not good but bad». This term is used both philosophically and non-philosophically. The sense in Tibetan is that some «excess» which is not there has been added though here excess has the negative sense of adding a detraction and not just stating it as it is. The opposite is སྒྲོ་འདོགས་པ་ which means to add an exaggeration, saying that something exists in something when it does not. In either case there is the addition of something which means that both approaches are extremes; i.e., neither approach actually states it as it is.
The correct meaning is English is «to denigrate», «to understate», «to deprecate», «to belittle». The use of «denial» which is common among translators is slightly incorrect; one is not denying that there are good qualities in the subject at hand, rather one is asserting that the good that exists does not exist. Furthermore, the common translation «depreciation» is simply incorrect; this mistake seems to have arisen with non-native English-speaking translators who have mistakenly used the word «depreciation» for the word «deprecation». «Deprecation» could be correct, especially in some non-philosophical circumstances. The translation «repudiate» is also incorrect since repudiation does not (necessarily) involve denigration.
This term is used in philosophical contexts in the sense of examining whether a statement is correct or not. If an assertion mis-states the actual situation by understating or belittling it, then the assertion is སྐུར་འདེབས་པ་. The opposite is an assertion which overstates a situation by making it out to be more than it is or making out that it has good qualities when it in fact has bad qualities; such an assertion is སྒྲོ་བཏགས་པ་. In non-philosophical contexts, «to slander» is correct only in some cases and is not really a correct translation for this term, «to deprecate» in others, e.g., སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པའི་ལྟུང་བྱེད་ q.v.
II. phrase> per the verb. The true noun form is written སྐུར་འདེབས་ q.v.

སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པའི་ལྟུང་བྱེད་ [skur ba 'debs pa'i ltung byed] «The downfall of slander». One of the ལྟུང་བྱེད་འབའ་ཞིག་པ་དགུ་བཅུ་ ninety downfalls-only of a bhikṣhu, this is the downfall of slandering another དགེ་སློང་ bhikṣhu through considering him to be involved in one of the thirteen Saṅghaviśheṣha (thirteen acts requiring assembly of the saṅgha) when he has not been seen to do so, has not been heard of doing so, and there is no reason for suspecting him of having done so.

སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པའི་མཐའ་ [skur ba 'debs pa'i mtha'] «The extreme of denigration». See སྒྲོ་འདོགས་པ་ which is the extreme of seeing more in something than is actually present in it and the other extreme སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ which is the extreme of seeing less in something than is actually present in it.

སྐུར་བཞེངས་པ་ [skur bzhengs pa] phrase> v.t. see བཞེངས་པ་ for tense forms. «To manifest as the body of the deity». This has a very precise meaning in the རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion tradition where the deity is regarded as being already existent in the actuality of alpha purity and hence the deity is not «visualized» but, really existing, is brought forth into manifest presence.

སྐུལ་ [skul] 1) Imp. of སྐུལ་བ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐུལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐུལ་འདེབས་ [skul 'debs] «incitement», «pressure», «exhortation». E.g., [TC] ལས་འགན་བསྒྲུབ་རྒྱུར་སྐུལ་འདེབས་བྱེད། meaning to rebuke someone who has not been doing their work in such a way that they do their work again; «to exhort someone to fulfil their obligations».

སྐུལ་བ་ [skul ba] v.t. བསྐུལ་བ་/ སྐུལ་བ་/ བསྐུལ་བ་/ སྐུལ་/. 1) With the basic meaning «to press someone or something towards doing something», the verb has a wide range of uses. Hence «to urge», «to exhort», «to goad», «to admonish to...», «to encourage», «to instigate», «to incite», etc. E.g., [TC] ལག་ལེན་བྱེད་པར་སྐུལ་བ། «to urge to get on with the practice»; ཁུར་སེམས་སྐུལ་བ། «to urge to be responsible»; ནན་གྱིས་སྐུལ་བ། «to press to...»; ཁྲལ་འུལ་སྐུལ་བ། «to press to provide taxes and transportation tax». 2) To provide the impetus needed to get someone or something to do something». This has a very wide range of usage. i) For a person, «to get them interested / to invoke their action / to persuade them to action». Hence «to invoke», «to provoke», «to incite», «to persuade to», «to push / press / compel / make to do», «to co-erce», «to stimulate». E.g., [TC] ཟིང་འཁྲུག་བསྐུལ་བ། «incited a revolt»; རྒྱུ་ནོར་གྱིས་སེམས་བསྐུལ་བ། «to motivate / persuade with goods and wealth»; ལྷ་འདྲེས་རྒྱུད་བསྐུལ་བ། «stimulating the mind with (talk of) gods and ghosts». E.g., དྲན་པ་སྐུལ་བ་ «to make remember, to remind». E.g., ཁོས་དེ་བྱེད་པ་ལ་སྐུལ་གྱི་འདུག་ «he is pressing me / pushing me (not forcing) to do that». ii) For physical things, it means inducing a physical object to activity, thus there are the above wordings as in [BKM] འཇམ་རླུང་དལ་བུས་བསྐུལ་བ་ཡི༔ མེ་ལྕེ་སོར་བཞི་ཙམ་དུ་སྦར༔ «the gentle coercion of the smooth wind makes the flames blaze to about four finger widths». There are also the usages «to impel», «to propel», «to excite». E.g., སྐྱ་བ་ནི་གྲུ་གཟིངས་སྐུལ་བྱེད་དམ་སྐྱོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོ་བྱད་ཅིག «an oar is a thing used to propel or move a boat».

སྐུལ་བྱེད་ [skul byed] I. Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «chunda». The name of a ཉན་ཐོས་ śhrāvaka disciple and also of a bodhisatva disciple at the time of the Buddha.
II. [Mngon] name for something used to goad on, incite, encourage, exhort, or excite to action. 1) «A goad» of any kind such as «a whip» (for horses and other animals). 2) A goad, incitement, exhortation made to get other humans doing some desired thing. 3) «Propellor». A material thing used to bring some other material thing into motion. E.g., the སྐུལ་བྱེད་ of a rowing boat is a name for the oars.

སྐུལ་མ་ [skul ma] 1) The «stimulus», «motivating factor», «exhortation», «incitement», «inspirational means», «urging», etc. The means used to སྐུལ་བ་ rouse another's mind to some task at hand. 2) A person who has been inspired, urged, incited and hence gone ahead and actually engaged in some activity.

སྐུལ་ཚིག་ [skul tshig] «(The) imperative». The Tibetan grammatical term meaning 1) «the imperative» form of a verb and also 2) the «imperative tense».
Tibetan grammar in fact only defines དུས་གསུམ་ three verb tenses—past, present, and future. The imperative is not a verb tense in Tibetan but a mood. Despite that fine detail, it seems best to translate it as «imperative tense».
There are two main ways to make the imperative tense in Tibetan: 1) use the appropriate connector from the set ཅིག་, ཞིག་, and ཤིག་ alone to announce the imperative mood; 2) use the imperative form of a verb alone or use the imperative form of a verb followed by the appropriate connector. For example, to convey the idea «Sit!», one could use the imperative form སྡོད། alone or the imperative followed by ཅིག as in སྡོད་ཅིག. There is no difference at all in meaning between any of these constructions.
In Tibetan, like in English, the imperative is usually constructed with ཐ་དད་པའི་བྱ་ཚིག་ a transitive verb. However, unlike English, it is also constructed with the intransitive. Thus, you will find examples of intransitive verbs with an imperative form in this dictionary and they are correct.

སྐུས་ [skus] Imp. of སྐུད་པ་ q.v.

སྐེ་ [ske] «The neck» meaning the neck part in general. See also མགྲིན་པ་, མཇིང་པ་, and ལྟག་པ་.

སྐེ་དཀྲིས་ [ske dkris] Cloth to wear around the neck i.e., «scarf», «muffler».

སྐེ་བཀག་ [ske bkag] [Dialect] «strangulation».

སྐེ་འགག་ [ske 'gag] A disease that results in rapid death due to blockage of the throat. Probably diphtheria.

སྐེ་ཆིངས་ [ske chings] 1) The wrapping around the neck of anything, e.g. cords around the neck of a ritual vase. 2) [Modern] i) «Necktie / tie», «cravat». ii) «(neck) scarf».

སྐེ་མཇིང་ [ske mjing] «The neck» but with the generalized sense of the neck as a whole. See སྐེ་ and མཇིང་པ་ q.v.

སྐེ་ཚེ་ [ske tshe] 1) «Dark mustard» which is used as a medicine, 1) «Dark mustard seed» which is used in secret mantra liturgies. Also called སྐེ་ཚེ་ནག་པོ་ and ནག་མོ་ q.v.

སྐེ་རགས་ [ske rags] Same as སྐ་རགས་ q.v.

སྐེགས་ [skegs] Name of a particular bird. [TC] gives some details.

སྐེད་ [sked] See སྐེད་པ་.

སྐེད་རྒྱན་ [sked rgyan] «A sash or other ornament worn at the waist».

སྐེད་ཆིངས་ [sked chings] «Waist-band», «waist-belt / belt», «sash (for the waist)», etc.; a general term for any binding around the waist area.

སྐེད་པ་ [sked pa] 1) Part of the body. «The lower back area» around the kidneys. E.g., སྐེད་པ་བཅུས་པ། «strained lower back» or སྐེད་པ་ན་བ་ «lumbago» or «sore kidneys». However, since it is at the waist area it is sometimes used in the sense of «the waist». E.g., belts and other ties that go around this area are called སྐེད་རགས་ «waist-belt or sash». The back of the body above the waist starts with སྐེད་པ་ «lower back / kidneys» goes up through the སྒལ་ཚིགས་ «back / spine», and comes up to the ལྟག་པ་ which is the nape of the neck starting at its base. For a division of the front of the body in the abdominal area see གྲོད་པ་ «abdomen as a whole». 2) A narrow passage or path in the high mountains.

སྐེད་རགས་ [sked rags] Same as སྐ་རགས་ q.v.

སྐེམ་ [skem] See སྐེམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐེམ་པ་ [skem pa] I. v.t. བསྐམས་པ་/ སྐེམ་པ་/ བསྐམ་པ་/ སྐོམས་/. 1) «To dry (out)», i.e., to remove the moisture / liquid / water from something to make it dry. Hence also «to dehydrate» and «to desiccate». E.g., [TC] གྲིབ་མར་སྐེམ་པ། «to dry in the shade»; ཉི་མར་སྐེམ་པ། «to dry in the sun»; མེར་སྐེམ་པ། «to dry by a fire»; གྱོན་ཆས་སྐེམ་པ། «to dry clothes». 2) For the body to lose weight or to become emaciated.
II. Like རིད་པ་ q.v. and usually written as སྐེམ་པོ་ q.v.

སྐེམ་པོ་ [skem po] Cognate to the verb སྐེམ་པ་ q.v. 1) «Dry» or «dried / desiccated». 2) For the body to be of meagre proportions compared to the norm. This is used in regard to the body for two main uses. i) Being «thin» or «skinny» as opposed to «fat». ii) Being «emaciated» due to lack of food or water or «lost weight» due to sickness, etc.

སྐེམས་ [skems] Altern. way of writing imp. of སྐེམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐོ་ [sko] See སྐོ་བ་ q.v.

སྐོ་བ་ [sko ba] v.t. བསྐོས་པ་/ སྐོ་བ་/ བསྐོ་བ་/ སྐོས་/. «To appoint» someone to a position. There are various words in English that are appropriate in specific contexts. E.g., «to commission», «to elect / select for a particular position or duty», «to charge (with a particular duty)». E.g., [TC] རྒྱལ་སྲས་རྒྱལ་སར་བསྐོ་བ། «the prince was appointed to the position of king»; ཞང་ཉེའི་སྲས་མོ་བཙུན་མོར་བསྐོས་པ། «the sister of a man from the mother's side of the family was selected to be consort»; ལས་འགན་བསྐོ་བར་མི་འོས་པ། «not suitable to be appointed that responsibility». This also includes the meaning of being appointed or placed in a particular position because of the power of karma, i.e., because of «being destined for» that position. E.g., [TC] ལས་ཀྱིས་བསྐོས་པའི་སྐལ་བ། «the fortune of being destined to it by karma»; གནམ་གྱིས་བསྐོས་པ། (emperors in China were said to be) «heaven-appointed».

སྐོགས་པ་ [skogs pa] Generally meaning an «outer covering», «wrapper», «casing», «envelope, «shell». Note the related term ཀོག་ q.v. 1) The natural covering of something, e.g., «the shell» of an egg», «bark» of a tree, etc. 2) The cover placed over something, e.g., ཡིག་སྐོགས་ «an envelope» for a letter, ཉལ་སྐོགས་ «a pillow case» / «pillow slip».

སྐོང་ [skong] See སྐོང་བ་ q.v.

སྐོང་བ་ [skong ba] I. v.t. བསྐངས་པ་/ སྐོང་བ་/ བསྐང་བ་/ སྐོངས་/. 1) Meaning «to fulfil» the needs or hopes of someone's mind so that they are satisfied. E.g., in རེ་བ་བསྐངས་ «to fulfil (one's own or another's) wishes». In liturgies with offerings and praises that are made for fulfilling the needs of protectors, spirits, etc., it means «to appease». This has the further meaning of satisfying such deities or other persons by making up for one's deficiencies in regard to them, so also «to amend» and «to make up for shortcomings and omissions». 2) «To make up for some deficiency» as in «to complete the count of something which is incomplete», «to fill something which is incomplete», «to make whole», «to add something that was missing». E.g., [TC] མི་གྲངས་ཁ་བསྐང་རྒྱུ། «to bring the head count up (to where it should be)»; དཔེ་ཆའི་མཇུག་ཁ་སྐོང་བ། «to add a supplement / addendum to a book (which is done in Tibetan tradition to complete something that was left out in the body of the text when it was written)».
II. v.t. བསྐོངས་པ་/ སྐོང་བ་/ བསྐོང་བ་/ སྐོངས/. «To summon up», «to call together», «to gather for», «to muster». E.g., [TC] ཚོགས་འདུ་བསྐོངས། «called together a meeting»; ནུས་ཤུགས་ཇི་ཡོད་བསྐོང་བ། «will muster all of his strength».
III. Based on verb I above. 1) Grammar term. «Padding» or «filler». Used in reference to words or (usually) grammatical connectors which are used merely as padding to make the number of syllables in a line of verse come out as desired. 2) «Restoration». Written as the past, present, or future forms (the three are regularly mixed up in this case) to mean the name of a particular practice of restoring connection with one's protectors; see བསྐང་བ་ for explanation. In this case the term has two connotations. Firstly, and according to the literal meaning, there is the sense of «restoration» (to bring back to fullness) of the samaya-based connection that a person has with their protectors. Secondly, it has the sense of appeasing the protectors so that the protectors are happy with the practitioner again. This two-fold meaning is usually explained in the Buddhist tradition with the words ཚིམ་པ་དང་ཚང་བར་བྱེད་པའི་དོན་ «having the combined meaning of «to appease and to make whole» e.g., as seen in [TC].

སྐོངས་ [skongs] Imp. of v.t. form I and form II སྐོང་བ་ q.v.

སྐོན་ [skon] 1) Imp. of སྐོན་པ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐོན་པ་ q.v.

སྐོན་པ་ [skon pa] I. v.t. བསྐོན་པ་/ སྐོན་པ་/ བསྐོན་པ་/ སྐོན་/. Meaning «to make someone to put on and གྱོན་པ་ wear something such as clothes». Hence «to dress (another)», «to clothe another», «to put clothes on (someone). E.g., [TC] ཕྲུ་གུར་གོས་གསར་བསྐོན། «the child was made to wear the new clothes»; རྩམ་པ་རང་གིས་བརྐུས་ནས་རྩམ་ཁུག་གཞན་མགོར་བསྐོན། «after stealing tsampa yourself, making someone else wear the tsampa sack (a saying meaning doing something by craft yourself then letting it be blamed on someone else)».
II. 1) «Trap» or «snare» for catching wild animals such as deer, etc. 2) [Old] Acc. [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, གཞོང་པ་ q.v. It means small bowls / vessels for holding things such as shrine offerings.

སྐོམ་ [skom] I. Part of སྐོམ་པ་ q.v.
II. Abbrev. of སྐོམ་པ་ «thirst» or «a drink, something to quench the thirst» q.v.

སྐོམ་པ་ [skom pa] I. v.i. སྐོམས་པ་/ སྐོམ་པ་/ སྐོམ་པ་//. «To be thirsty». E.g., [TC] ཁ་སྐོམ་པ། is the standard way of saying «to be thirsty»; སྐོམས་ན་བཏུང་བ་འཐུང་། ལྟོགས་ན་ལྟོ་ཆས་ཟ། «when you are thirsty, drink liquids; when you are hungry, eat food»; བཀྲེས་སྐོམ་གྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། «the unsatisfactoriness of hunger and thirst». i) In the Buddhist sutras, it is sometimes used to lit. mean «to be thirsty for something» but having the sense «to be very eager» e.g., in the Gaṇḍavyūha Sutra བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ་མཐོང་བར་དགའ་ཞིང་སྐོམ་ «was glad and eager to be seeing the bodhisatva Samantabhadra».
II. See also བཀྲེས་པ་ «hunger». 1) Anything for slaking the thirst, i.e., «drink», e.g., སྐོམ་པ་གྲང་མོ། «cold drink». 2) «Thirst». One of the རེག་བྱ་བཅུ་གཅིག་ eleven sensations and one of the འབྱུང་འགྱུར་གྱི་རེག་བྱ་བདུན་ «the seven tangibles of touch» q.v. 3) «A thirsty person / being». E.g., སྐོམ་པ་རྣམས་སྐོམ་པ་དང་བྲལ། «the thirsty were freed of thirst».

སྐོམས་ [skoms] 1) Imp. of སྐེམ་པ་ q.v. 2) See སྐོམས་པ་ q.v.

སྐོམས་པ་ [skoms pa] Past of སྐོམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐོར་ [skor] I. 1) Imp. of སྐོར་བ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐོར་བ་ q.v.
II. 1) «Class», «division» lit. meaning a round or cycle of something. See also the notes on special usage, below. 2) A «district», «area». 3) The «surrounds», «area nearby», «vicinity». 4) Indicating approximately a certain amount, about this amount, around this much, roughly this much. E.g., སློབ་ཕྲུག་བརྒྱ་སྐོར་ལྷ་སར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད་ «about one hundred students went to Lhasa». 5) «Concerning», «regarding», «about» something. E.g., ང་ཚོའི་ཕ་ཡུལ་སྐོར་སྐད་ཆ་བཤད་སོང་། «we talked about our homeland». 6) The «theme» of.
III. In dharma language, the term has specific usages in reference to literature. 1) It is appended to a noun to give the basic sense of «a collection of literature about that thing». E.g., ཆོས་སྐོར་ means things related to or about the subject of dharma. When the term is added after the name of a collection of texts, it means «a collection of texts concerning that subject». E.g., མི་གཡོ་བ་སྐོར་ seen in the index of a volume or in the name of a text would indicated either a section of the volume containing texts regarding the deity མི་གཡོ་བ་ Achala. 2) The term is also used to mean a group of texts that together make up an anthology. In this case, སྐོར་ corresponds either to the English «anthology» or «-ology». E.g., Longchenpa has several སྐོར་གསུམ་ trilogies in his collected words such as the ངལ་གསོ་སྐོར་གསུམ་ which should not be translated as «The Relaxation Cycle» but as «The Relaxation Trilogy».
In general, the translation «cycle» that has become habitual usage is not a very good one; it is far too literal. The real meaning in most cases is «set» or, as mentioned above, -ology». For example, the famous གནམ་ཆོས་ teachings of Mingyur Terton as a set are referred to as གནམ་ཆོས་སྐོར་. It would be commonplace these days for someone to translate that as «The Heavenly Dharma Cycle (of Teachings)». However, it would be much better to translate it as «The
Heavenly Dharma Set / Section / Anthology» as appropriate. In many cases, the simple plural «The Heavenly Dharma Teachings / Texts» is appropriate. This last point is something for translators to think about; in English, «cycle» is not used for this purpose. Its use is an abberation due to over-literal translation.

སྐོར་བ་ [skor ba] I. v.t. བསྐོར་བ་/ སྐོར་བ་/ བསྐོར་བ་/ སྐོར་/. Intransitive form is འཁོར་བ་ q.v. Meaning «to cause to turn / revolve / rotate / circle around» i.e., «to turn», «to rotate». E.g., འཁོར་ལོ་སྐོར་བ་ «to turn / spin / rotate a wheel». E.g., [TC] འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་སྐོར་བ། «to (turn on a machine and) make it turn» which can also mean «to use a machine»; རྟ་ཁ་སྐོར་བ། «to steer / ride a horse»; ཡང་སྐོར་བསྐྱར་སྐོར། «turn it again and yet again» or «turning it round and round»; མགོ་སྐོར་བ། «to make the head spin (to confuse someone)». 2) «To surround», «to encircle», «to circle», «to ring» something and hence also «to encompass». E.g., [TC] མཐའ་ནས་རིམ་གྱིས་བསྐོར་བ། «gradually encircled / surrounded»; གངས་རིས་བསྐོར་བ། «circled by snow mountains»; ལྕགས་རིས་བསྐོར་བ། «encompassed / ringed / circled / surrounded by iron mountains». 3) «To travel about» or «to make the rounds (of a particular situation)». E.g., [TC] ཁ་བསྐོར་བ་ «to ask questions of a group, going round a person at a time»; གནས་སྐོར་བ་ «to go on pilgrimage / to travel about to the sacred places»; ཁྲོམ་བསྐོར་བ་ «to go around the market». In some cases this could mean «to wander» or «to roam». 4) To make circumambulation. E.g., སྐོར་བ་བསྐོར་བ་ «to circumambulate»; same as སྐོར་བ་རྒྱབ་པ།.
II. 1) «Circumambulation» e.g., སྐོར་བ་གཉིས་བརྒྱབ་པ། «he made two circumambulations»; སྐོར་ལམ། «circumambulation path». 2) See under སྐོར་.

སྐོར་ཚེ་ [skor tshe] [Old] a particular item within or portion of a larger whole. For example, the chapters of a book could be referred to this way. Also, a particular circumstance within a larger situation.

སྐོར་ཚོ་ [skor tsho] Same as སྐོར་ཚེ་ q.v.

སྐོར་ལམ་ [skor lam] «Circumambulation path» meaning 1) a pathway built for doing circumambulations or 2) the route taken for doing circumambulation whether it is a set-up path or not.

སྐོར་ལོག་ [skor log] «Reverse circumambulation». In Buddhist thought, one should circumambulate with the right shoulder to the object of veneration, i.e., should walk in a clockwise direction. In Bonpo thought, one should circumambulate with the left shoulder to the object of veneration, i.e., should walk in an anti-clockwise direction. Walking in the reverse of the expected mode in called སྐོར་ལོག་.

སྐོར་གསུམ་ [skor gsum] 1) «Trilogy», a written work in three parts. 2) «Three sections / cycles» of written works.

སྐོལ་ [skol] 1) Imp. of སྐོལ་བ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐོལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐོལ་བ་ [skol ba] v.t. བསྐོལ་བ་/ སྐོལ་བ་/ བསྐོལ་བ་/ སྐོལ་/. Intransitive form is འཁོལ་བ་ q.v. «To boil», i.e., to cause something to boil, to bring to the boil. E.g., ཆུ་བསྐོལ་བ། «the water was boiled»; ཇ་སྐོལ། lit. «Boil the tea!» but this is the Tibetan way of saying «(boil the water and) make the tea!».

སྐོས་ [skos] Imp. of སྐོ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱ་ [skya] I. See སྐྱ་བ་ q.v.
II. 1) The «harvest» or «crop» or «produce» of a year not meaning the actual ལོ་ཏོག་ harvest but the totality of the harvest and the produce of various foods and drinks that come from it in any given year. 2) Indicating a pale colour. E.g., [TYL] ཁ་དང་མིག་གཉིས་སྐྱ་ལོག་འགྲོ་ «(at the time of death) the mouth and eyes turn pale». i) In ancient India, ordained people of various spiritual traditions wore coloured robes, e.g., Buddhist monks and various Hindu priests and sadhus whereas the laypeople wore white. Thus the laypeople in all those traditions were described as མི་སྐྱ་བོ་ «whitish people» but meaning the non-ordained followers of the religion. ii) Added after the name of a colour, it indicates that colour in a pale / whitish version though in the case of white, it means «grey». 3) A «wall» but specifically of a room in a house. Note that it is a subset of meaning of རྩིག་པ་ which means a built up wall in general; it is used to refer to any kind of «wall» or «partition» within a house, not only the main རྩིག་པ་ walls on the outside. 4) In སྐྱ་བ་ meaning an oar, paddle, boat-pole. 5) «Plain». i) In the case of foods, meaning plain, dull, insipid; not having any of the fats, oils, and so on that would make the food much tastier. ii) In the case of items, meaning plain, not filled in, without ornamentation, unpainted, and so on.

སྐྱ་ཀ་ [skya ka] Alt. though grammatically incorrect spelling of སྐྱ་ག་ q.v.

སྐྱ་སྐྱ་ [skya skya] phrase> For colours, meaning «whitish» form of the colour but for white meaning a «greyish» form.

སྐྱ་ག་ [skya ga] 1) The bird «crow». Note that crows in South-east Asia are not always completely black. The common crow is black with a white blaze on the chest. Tibetans also often use the Sanskrit-derived term ཀ་ཀ་ to mean crow. See also བྱ་རོག་ «black crow». 2) «Magpie»; although the term actually refers to the crow, since the Magpie bird is very similar in appearance to the common crow of this area, the word is sometimes used to mean the Magpie.

སྐྱ་ལྡེབས་ [skya ldebs] «Wall surface», «surface (of a wall)».

སྐྱ་བ་ [skya ba] I. v.t. བསྐྱས་པ་/ སྐྱ་བ་/ བསྐྱ་བ་/ སྐྱོས་/. 1) «To move» or «to shift» dwelling place / residence to a new location. E.g., རུ་བ་སྐྱ་བ། «for nomads and the like to shift camp / move their settlement to a new place». 2) [Old] [TC] gives as སྐྱེལ་བ་ q.v.
II. 1) The wooden stick-like article used to push along or row a boat hence «paddle», «oar». Note that it does not necessarily refer to an «oar» but commonly referred in Tibet to a «pole» which was used by boatman «to pole» a ferry across a river, etc. E.g., [TC] གྲུ་སྐྱ་ «boat oar / paddle / pole»; སྐྱ་བ་རྒྱག་པ། «to row / pole / use the oars»; སྐྱ་བ་སྐྱོད་པ། «to row / pole / dip the oars / pull along with oars / move along by poling». 2) The churning stick / pole used in a tea churn for churning the tea. 3) Used in conjunction with colours, meaning a whitish version of that colour. E.g., དམར་སྐྱ་ is red and white mixed to give pink. In མི་སྐྱ་བོ་ «whitish person» and meaning «laymen» it refers to the fact that laymen in ancient India wore white in contrast to the adherents of various religions who wore other colours.

སྐྱ་བོ་ [skya bo] I. «Layman». The name is derived from the fact that in ancient India the ordained people wore brightly coloured robes and the lay people, the unordained ones, wore white mostly. Thus the term really means «the pale-clothed» ones.
II. Used to refer to anything which is either a «pale shade» or a shade of another colour with white mixed into it. E.g., སྐྱ་བོ་ «whitish», «pale» or (assuming the other colour is black) «grey». In combination with other colours it gives the shade of the colour, e.g., དམར་སྐྱ་ «pink» or «pale red», etc.

སྐྱ་མེར་རེ་ [skya mer re] [Onomat] describing the way that something is ཕྱུར་བུར་བཀང་བ་ filled up to overflowing with whitish fluid. E.g., འཁོར་ལོ་བཞིའི་གནས་རྣམས་ཀྱང་བདུད་རྩིའི་སྐྱ་མེར་གྱིས་ཁེངས་ «the places of the four chakras are also filled to overflowing with the whiteness of the amrita».

སྐྱ་རིས་ [skya ris] 1) «Sketch» meaning a very quickly executed drawing. 2) An outline or drawing done with pencil, etc. In Tibet, where there were no pencils, this was usually done with charcoal.

སྐྱ་རེངས་ [skya rengs] «Dawn». The early part of the dawn at the time of ནམ་ལངས་ «daybreak». This term has the sense of «the light of dawn in the sky». It refers to the period between the first light of dawn when the sun's light faintly appears and the period just before the actually sun rises when the sky often turns a reddish colour. Sunrise itself is called ཉི་ཤར་. The dawn period overall is further divided into three periods called སྐྱ་རེངས་གསུམ་ «the three parts of dawn» q.v.

སྐྱ་རེངས་སྐར་མ་ [skya rengs skar ma] This term corresponds exactly to the English «the morning star» i.e., «Venus» in the sky at dawn.

སྐྱ་རེངས་ཐ་མ་ [skya rengs tha ma] «The end of / late dawn» which is the third period of སྐྱ་རེངས་ the dawn before the sun rises. This is the period when the sky has gone from the pale colours of the early dawn to the reddish colours of the dawn just before the sun rises.

སྐྱ་རེངས་དང་པོ་ [skya rengs dang po] «The early dawn» or «first light» which is the first period of སྐྱ་རེངས་ the dawn before the sun rises. This is the period when the sky just has the first rays of light in it and corresponds to the beginning of ནམ་ལངས་ «daybreak».

སྐྱ་རེངས་བར་མ་ [skya rengs bar ma] «The middle dawn» which is the second period of སྐྱ་རེངས་ the dawn before the sun rises. This is the period when the sky has a medium amount of light in it but before the colours of the late dawn have appeared.

སྐྱ་རེངས་གསུམ་ [skya rengs gsum] «The three (parts of) dawn». The period of dawn between the first light in the sky and the time just before sunrise is called སྐྱ་རེངས་ «dawn» and is divided into three parts: 1) སྐྱ་རེངས་དང་པོ་ «first (light of) / early dawn»; 2) སྐྱ་རེངས་བར་མ་ «middle dawn»; and 3) སྐྱ་རེངས་ཐ་མ་ «late dawn». These are also known as: 1) སྐྱ་རེངས་ «pale dawn»; 2) སྔོ་རེངས་ «blue dawn»; དམར་རེངས་ «red dawn» in reference to the colour of the sky at those times.

སྐྱ་སང་ [skya sang] «Whitish» in colour; have a whitish colour.

སྐྱ་སེང་ [skya seng] 1) Same as སྐྱ་སང་ q.v. 2) Translation of the Sanskrit «pāṇḍu». Pāṇḍu was the name of the father of the five Paṇḍavas, who were one important group of very ancient heroes mentioned in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata.

སྐྱ་སེང་གི་བུ་ལྔ་ [skya seng gi bu lnga] phrase> «The five Paṇḍava sons». The five sons of སྐྱ་སེང་ Paṇḍu q.v. [SCD] gives a good listing of each of their several names.

སྐྱ་སེར་ [skya ser] 1) Lit. «white and yellow» meaning མི་སྐྱ་ «laymen» and monks since laymen traditionally wore white and monks yellow. Note that the term སྐྱ་ here does not mean «grey» as some have given. 2) The colour «pale yellow» or «light yellow».

སྐྱ་སེར་གཉིས་ [skya ser gnyis] «Laity and monastics both». See སྐྱ་སེར་ q.v.

སྐྱག་པ་ [skyag pa] 1) «Stool», «faeces», «shit» i.e., the waste excreted from the anus. See also དྲི་ཆེན་. 2) Appended to other words indicates the excrement from orifices other than the anus, e.g. མིག་སྐྱག་པ་ the excrement from the tear ducts of the eyes, and རྣ་སྐྱག་པ་ the wax excreted from the ears.

སྐྱང་ནུལ་ [skyang nul] [Old] Acc. [ULS] and [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཞལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱབས་ [skyabs] 1) «Refuge». Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «saraṅa». One of many སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མཚན་ epithets of the buddha. 2) «Refuge», «protector», «protection», «shelter». The general name for a person (not a thing!) who actually provides protection / shelter to others or who is seen by others as their place of refuge. E.g., in Tibet, in dharma circles, the honorific epithet སྐྱབས་རྗེ་ q.v. would be given by a group to the lama who they saw as their principal protector, dharmically speaking. The term could be literally translated as «refuge lord» but actually means «our main person who we go to for spiritual refuge».

སྐྱབས་འགྲོ་ [skyabs 'gro] form of སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ་ q.v. «Refuge», «taking refuge», «going for refuge».

སྐྱབས་འགྲོ་བདུན་ཅུ་པ་ [skyabs 'gro bdun cu pa] «The Seventy verses on Taking Refuge» by Āchārya Chandrakīrti.

སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བ་ [skyabs bcol ba] «Refugee» e.g., རྒྱ་གར་ནང་ལ་བོད་མི་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བ་མང་པོ་ཡོད་རེད། «there are many Tibetan refugees in India».

སྐྱབས་རྗེ་ [skyabs rje] phrase> Lit. «refuge lord». In Tibet, in dharma circles, this was an [Hon] epithet given by a group to the lama who they saw as their principal protector, dharmically speaking. The term literally translates as «refuge lord» but actually means «our main person who we go to for spiritual refuge». It might be used e.g., by monks for the main lama in charge of their monastery, or by one person for their root guru, or by a group of people all of the same dharma lineage for the lama seen as the head of that lineage.
It has a sense similar to the old English wording «lord protector», still used for the King and others of high status in society. The difference is that the Tibetans used it only for their spiritual masters.
The term has translated as «His Holiness» recently but this is a great exaggeration over the actual usage. It is simply a term used to indicate a person who is seen as a main refuge for someone else. The person next door could be called by the title if you saw him as a saviour of some kind. Lord of Refuge is a literal translation but that is not what it really means. It means «a (not the) main person to whom I look for spiritual (mostly) succour». It does not imply a concensus about someone's spiritual accomplishment but simply that one person chooses to see another person as special, usually in a spiritual way.
Note that the terms His Holiness and His Eminence etc., were originally applied to Tibetan lamas in the eighties following a system worked out by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Since then the terms have often been over-zealously applied, it seems by other people in other dharma groups, mostly because of wanting their guru to be the guru of gurus and other variations on that theme. It seems to me that the original system worked out by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and his people, in which only selected persons of exceptional stature were accorded these titles was a good scheme. Certainly this term would not rate as «His Holiness» in that system.

སྐྱབས་གནས་ [skyabs gnas] «Place of refuge» meaning སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བའི་གནས་ the place that someone goes for refuge / shelter / protection. E.g., [KBC] དེང་ཕྱིན་ཆད་དག་སྣང་སྦྱང་བ་དང་ཕྱག་མཆོད་དང་སྐྱབས་གནས་སུ་འཛིན་དགོས་ཏེ། «from today onward you should train in pure perception and take (such beings) as the places of homage, offerings, and refuge».

སྐྱབས་སྦྱིན་གྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ [skyabs sbyin gyi phyag rgya] «The mudrā of bestowing protection». The name of a ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ mudrā used in Buddhist practice.

སྐྱབས་སྦྱིན་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ [skyabs sbyin phyag rgya] Abbrev. of སྐྱབས་སྦྱིན་གྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ q.v.

སྐྱབས་འོས་ [skyabs 'os] 1) «Worthy as a refuge». Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «śharaṇya». One of many སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མཚན་ epithets of the buddha. 2) «Worthy of shelter / refuge» meaning someone who is in need of shelter, who should be given shelter.

སྐྱབས་ཡུལ་ [skyabs yul] phrase> «Refuge object», «object of refuge», «place of refuge». The place to which a person goes for refuge. Usually seen in secret mantra liturgies where the first phase of the practice is to take refuge. E.g., [BKM] མཐར་ནི་སྐྱབས་ཡུལ་རང་ལ་བསྟིམ་ «At the end, (after taking refuge) dissolve the refuge object into you». E.g., སྐྱབས་ཡུལ་ལྷ་ཚོགས་ «the deity assemblies that are the refuge object».

སྐྱབས་ཡུལ་མཆོད་གནས་ [skyabs yul mchod gnas] phrase> «Place of refuge and offering». The place to which a person goes for refuge and makes offerings.

སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ་ [skyabs su 'gro ba] I. phrase> v.i. see འགྲོ་བ་ for tense forms. The direct Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit «śharaṇaṃ gacchāmi» which means «to go for refuge». It is often translated «to take refuge» but «to go for refuge» meaning «to seek refuge» is an exact translation of the original Sanskrit that makes sense. E.g., སངས་རྒྱས་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ་ «to go for refuge in the Buddha». [Hon] form is སྐྱབས་སུ་མཆི་བ་ q.v.
II. phrase> per the verb; the taking of refuge, the going for refuge. The true noun form is written སྐྱབས་འགྲོ་ q.v.

སྐྱབས་སུ་མཆི་བ་ [skyabs su mchi ba] I. phrase> v.i. see མཆི་བ་ for tense forms. [Hon] form of སྐྱབས་སུ་འགྲོ་བ་ «to go for refuge / shelter / protection». E.g., ཆོས་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་མཆིའོ། «I / we go for refuge in the dharma».
II. phrase> «The going for or taking of refuge / shelter / protection».

སྐྱབས་སེམས་ [skyabs sems] 1) «Refuge / bodhicitta». An abbrev. of སྐྱབས་འགྲོ་ and སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, the two activities of taking refuge and arousing bodhicitta that precede all ཐེག་ཆེན་ Mahāyāna Buddhist rituals, meditations, and liturgical practices. 2) «The mind of refuge» meaning སྐྱབས་འགྲོ་བའི་སེམས་ a mind which is concerned with, thinking about, or intending to take refuge.

སྐྱབས་གསུམ་ [skyabs gsum] «The three refuges» or «the threefold refuge» meaning the refuge of a Buddhist which consists of three refuges; see དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ «the three jewels (of refuge).

སྐྱལ་ [skyal] Probable mis-spelling for རྐྱལ་ q.v.

སྐྱས་ [skyas] «Nomad's encampment», «nomad camp». In some contexts it also means a larger settlement of people, not just nomads.

སྐྱས་ཆེན་པོ་ [skyas chen po] phrase> «Large camp», «an encampment», «a settlement». A large encampment of nomads or any other large encampment or a whole settlement with many people in it. It is also used metaphorically to refer to life of a person who is now dying given that that was their settlement for that life.

སྐྱས་ཆེན་པོ་འདེགས་པ་ [skyas chen po 'degs pa] I. phrase> v.t. see འདེགས་པ་ for tense forms. «To strike camp and move on» or «to end the settlement and move on» that is, to pack up a major dwelling place such as an encampment, settlement of many people, etc., and move on. It is also used to metaphorically to refer to a dying person in the sense that they are packing up སྐྱས་ཆེན་པོ་ the settlement of this life and moving on.
II. phrase> 1) Same as the verb form. The act of packing up camp or one's dwelling place and moving on. 2) It is used to refer to the time of death, because that is the time that one packs up the camp of this life and moves on to the next. E.g., in prayers to the buddhas asking for assistance for a dying person [KLZ] སྐྱས་ཆེན་པོ་ནི་འདེགས༔ «the person is striking camp up and moving on» meaning that they are finishing with this life and going on to the next.

སྐྱས་འདེགས་པ་ [skyas 'degs pa] Similar to སྐྱས་ཆེན་པོ་འདེགས་པ་ but usually used only in reference to packing up one's dwelling place or camp and move on.

སྐྱི་ [skyi] I. See སྐྱི་བ་ q.v.
II. 1) Abbrev. of སྐྱི་བ་ i) meaning the plant; ii) meaning interest on a loan. 2) Used in conjunction with many other terms to refer to the thin outer layer of some other layer. E.g., it is the very thin and supple leather that is produced when a thicker leather hide has its inner surface skived away. E.g., it is the outer white membrane on flesh.

སྐྱི་གས་ [skyi gas] A crack in skin.

སྐྱི་གོས་ [skyi gos] Clothes or accessories, such as gloves, made from skived leather.

སྐྱི་གྲི་ [skyi gri] «Skiving knife»; a very sharp knife for skiving leather.

སྐྱི་སྒམ་ [skyi sgam] A སྒམ་ box, chest, or trunk lined outside with leather.

སྐྱི་ནག་ [skyi nag] phrase> 1) Hide with a black outer surface. 2) [SCD] gives as the name of a pasture land in Tsang province.

སྐྱི་ལྤགས་ [skyi lpags] phrase> Any skin that is very thin. E.g., leather skived so that it is very supple and thin and which is used for gloves and other fine clothing or chamois leather used for cleaning.

སྐྱི་བ་ [skyi ba] I. v.t. བསྐྱིས་པ་/ སྐྱི་བ་/ བསྐྱི་བ་/ སྐྱིས་/. «To borrow» anything of value. E.g., [TC] དངུལ་སྐྱི་བ། «to borrow silver / money»; འབྲུ་སྐྱི་བ། «to borrow grain»; རང་ལ་མེད་དུས་གཞན་ནས་སྐྱིས། «when you don't have it yourself, borrow it from another!» Note that this term is exactly equivalent to གཡར་བ་. It is used instead of གཡར་བ་ in some places, e.g., in གཙང་ Tsang. It is used by both borrower and loaner alike, i.e., the borrower says «may I borrow something» and the loaner would reply, «yes, I will loan it to you». Thus, it is a term which primarily means to «borrow» from another but when the other is referring to the process it of course changes to «loan» in English; e.g., འོད་ཟེར་ལགས་ཁྱེད་ཀྱིས་ང་ལ་སྒོར་བརྒྱ་སྐྱི་གནང་དང་། རྗེས་སུ་ངས་ཁྱེད་རང་ལ་གཏན་གཏན་རྩི་འབུལ་ཞུས་ཆོག འོད་ཟེར་སྨྲས་པ། ལགས། བསྐྱི་ཆོག། One person says, «Ozer, may I borrow 100 coins from you, please?» Ozer says, «yes, it's all right for you to borrow it / I can loan it to you».
II. The name of a plant whose fruit is used as a ཤིང་སྨན་ tree-derived medicinal substance.

སྐྱི་བུང་ [skyi bung] [Old] to be frightened and anxious; lit. «skin is crawling» with fear and apprehension.

སྐྱི་བུངས་ [skyi bungs] Same as སྐྱི་བུང་ q.v.

སྐྱི་བུད་པ་ [skyi bud pa] phrase> v.i. see བུད་པ་ for tenses. «To moult» or «to shed a skin» e.g., as a snake sheds its skin.

སྐྱི་བུན་པ་ [skyi bun pa] [Old] «To be numb with fear».

སྐྱི་འབྲས་ [skyi 'bras] phrase> The fruit of the སྐྱི་བ་ plant which is used as a medicine.

སྐྱི་མོ་ [skyi mo] The outer, thin layer of a skin or hide. E.g., with leather, this is used for fine garments and items like fashion gloves.

སྐྱི་རྨ་ [skyi rma] A རྨ་ wound etc., on the surface of the skin.

སྐྱི་ཞྭ་ [skyi zhva] phrase> A hat made from very thin skin or hide.

སྐྱི་ཟིང་ཟིང་ [skyi zing zing] To be so afraid that the small hairs are standing up and the skin is crawling.

སྐྱི་གྱའ་བ་ [skyi g-ya' ba] To be so afraid such that the small hairs are standing up and the skin is numb.

སྐྱི་ཤ་ [skyi sha] phrase> 1) The skin and the flesh under it. 2) Flesh inside the skin.

སྐྱི་ཤིང་ [skyi shing] A piece of wood put into the ground then used as a basis for cutting the skin away from flesh.

སྐྱི་སེར་ [skyi ser] Either «wind» in general or the same as ལྷགས་པ་ «cold wind». It has the sense of a breeze that blows up. E.g., [TC] བྱང་སྐྱི་སེར་གྱི་རླུང་པོ་མ་བརྒྱབ་ན། །ལྷོ་ཙན་དན་གྱི་ཤིང་ནགས་འགུལ་མི་ཡོང་།། If a breeze from the north does not blow up, the Sandalwood forests of the south will not blow about».

སྐྱི་བསེར་ [skyi bser] Same as སྐྱི་སེར་ q.v.

སྐྱིགས་བུ་ [skyigs bu] «Hiccough».

སྐྱིད་ [skyid] A general term for mind and/or body being in a happy frame. It is also used to describe outer things that bring a happy frame of mind.

སྐྱིད་གླུ་ [skyid glu] Any kind of happy song or song sung on a happy occasion.

སྐྱིད་འགོ་ [skyid 'go] The beginning point of a happy frame of mind.

སྐྱིད་རྒན་ [skyid rgan] phrase> A person whose life is falling or has fallen apart but who goes about with a happy frame of mind.

སྐྱིད་ཆུ་ [skyid chu] «The Kyichu River» which is the large river that flows by Lhasa. It comes from the southern face of Nyenchen Thanglha Range.

སྐྱིད་ཆེས་ [skyid ches] A greater level of a happy frame of mind, a very happy frame of mind, or something that is worthy of that level of happiness.

སྐྱིད་སྡུག་ [skyid sdug] Abbrev. of སྐྱིད་པོ་ and སྡུག་པོ་ 1) Lit. meaning «the good and bad times», «the ups and downs», «joys and sorrows», «happiness and sadness», pleasure and pain». This includes the idea of the «conditions of life» as being good or bad. 2) As a term with both meanings combined, it refers to «the means of livelihood» or «that which one uses as a livelihood». This includes the idea of the «welfare (good and bad) of a group or person. 3) The body of any group that has been set up for some purpose. Hence, «the society» of that club or group; «the membership» of the group», etc.

སྐྱིད་པ་ [skyid pa] 1) used the same as སྐྱིད་པོ་ or 2) comparative form of སྐྱིད་པོ་.

སྐྱིད་པའི་གདུང་རབས་ཕྱེད་དང་བཅུ་གསུམ་ [skyid pa'i gdung rabs phyed dang bcu gsum] «The twelve and a half happy generations» which refers to the kingly line of Tibet going from ལྷ་ཐོ་རི་གཉན་བཙན་ King Lha Tho Tho Ri to ཁྲི་རལ་པ་ཅན་ King Tri Ralpachen.

སྐྱིད་པོ་ [skyid po] I. «Happiness» of a person in general. The term does not have the special connotations of «glad» or «joyful» but simply means the general state of happiness of body and mind. E.g., in Tibetan, if asked in general how you are, you usually reply སྐྱིད་པོ་འདུག། «I'm well» (fine in body and mind).
II. «Happy» or «nice»; used in reference to anything that has no hardship attached but which is just nice to experience. E.g., in reference to a place སྣང་བ་སྐྱིད་པོ་ «a nice place», «a pleasant place» meaning a place that brings a happy state of mind.

སྐྱིད་པོ་གཏོང་བ་ [skyid po gtong ba] phrase> see v.t. གཏོང་བ་ for tense forms. «To be happy» in whatever you are doing. It is very common in coll. to say སྐྱིད་པོ་ཐོང་ «Be happy!» or «Enjoy yourself!».

སྐྱིད་ཚལ་ [skyid tshal] phrase> A garden or park created for enjoyment.

སྐྱིད་འཛོམས་ [skyid 'dzoms] phrase> «Happy / enjoyable in every way».

སྐྱིད་ཡུལ་ [skyid yul] phrase> A happy place, land, area.

སྐྱིན་གོར་ [skyin gor] [Old] 1) Acc. [ULS] and [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs རྩངས་པ་ «lizard» q.v. 2) [LGK] also gives as the name of གངས་སྦལ་, a creature-derived medicine.

སྐྱིན་པ་ [skyin pa] 1) The «repayment» to be made for anything borrowed or the «replacement» for something borrowed and damaged or lost. 2) «The reprisal» needed in the case of an enemy.

སྐྱིན་ཚབ་ [skyin tshab] The «pledge» or «security» put up against a loan e.g., a valuable item might be put up as security against the loan of money.

སྐྱིབས་ [skyibs] A specific meaning of གཡབ་ q.v. The term refers to some kind of ledge that is jutting out from some other place. The term is usually prefixed with another intertsheg to indicate the type of ledge or overhang. The three most common usages are: ཆར་སྐྱིབས་, བྱ་སྐྱིབས་, and བྲག་སྐྱིབས་.

སྐྱིལ་ [skyil] 1) Imp. of སྐྱིལ་བ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐྱིལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ [skyil krung] Lit. «crossed (like a lattice) and drawn up». Translation of the Sanskrit «asana». 1) In general, postures of the body deliberately assumed for the purpose of effecting a change in the mind and body together. E.g., in hatha yoga asanas are the main method used for unifying mind and body. In the Tibetan system, this term was mainly used to indicate the posture of the legs and the term འཁྲུལ་འཁོར་ was used to indicate the postures of yoga. 2) In particular, the crossing of the legs into a posture for the purpose of effecting a change in mind and body. Often in reference to རྡོ་རྗེའི་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ vajrāsana.

སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་སྣོལ་བ་ [skyil krung snol ba] I. phrase> v.t. see སྣོལ་བ་ for tense forms. This is the verb form used to indicate doing སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ q.v. It means «to cross and draw the legs up into a cross-legged posture».
II. phrase> per the verb. «The crossing and drawing up...»

སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ཕྱེད་པ་ [skyil krung phyed pa] The so-called 'half-vajra posture' or 'half-lotus posture' in which the right foot is drawn in and the left foot is left out a little. Also called སེམས་དཔའི་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ «satvāsana». Note that this is a particular posture; it is not just a case of «legs loosely crossed» as some have translated it but the specific posture mentioned above. See also སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་.

སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ཕྱེད་པས་ལང་བ་ [skyil krung phyed pas lang ba] Terminology the འཁོར་འདས་རུ་ཤན་ «parting into sides» preliminaries of the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut system of རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Great Completion. Lit. «to rise into the half-vajra posture». This means to assume a particular posture which is part of that system of teachings. The posture is secret and can be obtained through oral instruction from a qualified teacher.

སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་བྱེད་པ་ [skyil krung byed pa] phrase> v.t. see བྱེད་པ་ for tense forms. 1) «To assume a yogic posture in general». 2) «To assume a cross-legged posture, to sit with the legs crossed». Note that the specific way to say «to cross the legs up into a posture» is སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་སྣོལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་བཞི་ [skyil krung bzhi] «The four postures». They are: 1) to 3) རྡོ་རྗེ་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་གསུམ་ «the three vajra postures (of the channels, winds, and drops)» and 4) བདེ་སྟོང་གི་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ «the posture of bliss-emptiness».

སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་གསུམ་ [skyil krung gsum] phrase> «The three postures». They are: 1) to 3) རྡོ་རྗེ་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་གསུམ་ «the three vajra postures (of the channels, winds, and drops)».

སྐྱིལ་དཀྲུང་ [skyil dkrung] Mis-spelling of སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ q.v.

སྐྱིལ་བ་ [skyil ba] I. v.t. བསྐྱིལ་བ་/ སྐྱིལ་བ་/ བསྐྱིལ་བ་/ སྐྱིལ་/. Intransitive form is འཁྱིལ་བ་ q.v. 1) To do anything so that a flow of water is stopped and the water dammed up. Hence «to dam (up)», «to pen (up)», «to build a levy / bank etc., to stop the flow of water». E.g., [TC] ཕུ་ཆུ་རྫིང་བུར་བསྐྱིལ། «the streamlets of the upper valley were dammed in a small reservoir»; ཤྭ་འོད་ཇི་ཡོད་ཆུ་མཛོད་ནང་དུ་བསྐྱིལ་ཐུབ་ཡོད། «the flood waters, no matter how great, can be contained by the dam». 2) «To keep», «to detain», «to pen up», «to retain» anything in general. E.g., [TC] མི་ངན་བསྟེན་སྐྱིལ། «to detain bad people (as the police might do with a suspect)» or «to hold (as with a criminal or suspect who has been apprehended)»; སྐོང་སྐྱིལ། «to round up then retain» (as one might do with workers who had left; they are rounded up and brought back and then kept from leaving»); བཀག་སྐྱིལ། «to prevent from leaving and thus retain (as one might do with a child i.e., to prevent from leaving and keep in)». E.g., [KBC] རྫོགས་པའི་སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་དཔལ་བེའུ་རུ་བསྐྱིལ། «(the dharma) retained in the endless, glorious knot in the enlightened mind of the perfect buddha».
II. «Dammed (water)» e.g., བསྐྱིལ་ཆུ་ «dammed waters»; used in reference to waters that have been dammed by human intervention.

སྐྱིལ་མོ་ཀྲུང་ [skyil mo krung] Same as སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་ q.v.

སྐྱིལ་མོ་དཀྲུང་ [skyil mo dkrung] Mis-spelling of སྐྱིལ་མོ་ཀྲུང་ q.v.

སྐྱིས་ [skyis] Imp. of སྐྱི་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱུ་ [skyu] A measure of distance which runs from half-way down the furthermost joint of the thumb (the one with the thumbnail on it) to the top of the thumb. This is usually the length from the beginning of the thumbnail to the edge of the thumb.

སྐྱུ་གང་ [skyu gang] 1) A མཐེབ་སྐྱུ་ made by pressing the thumb into a piece of dough to produce a depression in the dough. 2) Cream for rubbing onto the face. 3) A measure of distance which runs from half-way down the furthermost joint of the thumb (the one with the thumbnail on it) to the top of the thumb. This is usually the length from the beginning of the thumbnail to the edge of the thumb.

སྐྱུ་རུ་ [skyu ru] I. [SCD] gives:
«I: a kind of medicinal fruit called སྐྱེར་ཤུན་.
II: in Sikk. and སྐྱུར་མོ་ in Lhasa, signify a sour liquid or vinegar (Jä.).»

II. For སྐྱུ་རུ་ར་ q.v.
III. [RYD] «olive», «the olive tree».
IV. སྐྱུ་ plus the phrase linker རུ་.

སྐྱུ་རུ་ར་ [skyu ru ra] 1) «Emblic Myrobalan». One of ཨ་བར་སྐྱུར་གསུམ་ the three main types of Myrobalan. 2) [SCD] gives «Jä. in his Dict. says: «In later times the word seems to have been used also for the olive, and skyu-ru shing, the olive tree, which in Sikkim is called kha skyur-pohi shing.»

སྐྱུ་རུམ་ [skyu rum] [Old] Acc. [ULS] and [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཚོད་མ་ q.v. [TC] clarifies: 1) a type of ཐུག་པ་ soup, and 2) (sour) pickled vegetables used as a condiment on food.

སྐྱུག་ [skyug] See སྐྱུག་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱུག་པ་ [skyug pa] I. v.t. བསྐྱུགས་པ་/ སྐྱུག་པ་/ བསྐྱུག་པ་/ སྐྱུགས་/. «To vomit», «to wretch». Note that, in English, when one vomits and does not vomit up something unusual but simply the normal contents of the stomach because of being sick, etc., the verb «to vomit» is sufficient to describe it, e.g., «he vomited». However, in Tibetan, one has to say «he vomited vomit», so the standard way of saying «to vomit» in the normal sense is སྐྱུག་པ་སྐྱུག་པ།. When some unusual thing is vomited up, both Tibetan and English mention the thing specifically. E.g., ལྟོ་མ་ཞུ་བར་བསྐྱུགས། «vomited up undigested food»; ཁྲག་བསྐྱུགས། «vomited blood».
II. 1) «Vomit», i.e., the liquid or semi-solid matter vomited out of the mouth. E.g., སྐྱུག་པ་བསྐྱུགས་པ། lit. «vomited vomit» is the usual way in Tibetan of saying what in English would be «vomited». 2) «Purgative» the name given in medicine to a substance given as a means of inducing vomiting to rid the stomach of bad contents.

སྐྱུག་སྨན་ [skyug sman] «Emetic» medicine for inducing vomiting in order to clear the digestive tract.

སྐྱུག་ལོག་པ་ [skyug log pa] phrase> v.i. see ལོག་པ་ for tense forms. «To be ready to vomit» / «to feel nauseated, disgusted».

སྐྱུགས་ [skyugs] Imp. of སྐྱུག་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱུང་ [skyung] See སྐྱུང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱུང་ཀ་ [skyung ka] [SCD] gives as the bird «jackdaw». [TC] gives as a black bird with red beak and feet.

སྐྱུང་བ་ [skyung ba] v.t. བསྐྱུངས་པ་/ སྐྱུང་བ་/ བསྐྱུང་བ་/ སྐྱུངས་/. 1) Meaning «to cast off and leave far behind», «to abandon and put behind»; «to give up completely», «to discard completely». E.g., [TC] སྒེར་སེམས་བསྐྱུང་བ། «will leave thoughts only of myself behind»; ང་རྒྱལ་རྩ་བསྐྱུང་། «will give up pride totally»; ཁེངས་པ་སྐྱུང་བ་ «to be modest, humble (because the way of ཁེངས་པ་ q.v. haughtiness has been given up). 2) «To lessen» in amount / degree or «to reduce» in size / extent. E.g., [TC] མི་འབོར་བསྐྱུང་བ། «reduced the population»; བར་ཐག་བསྐྱུངས་པ། «reduced the intervening distance».

སྐྱུངས་ [skyungs] Imp. of སྐྱུང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱུད་ [skyud] See སྐྱུད་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱུད་པ་ [skyud pa] v.i. བསྐྱུད་པ་/ སྐྱུད་པ་/ བསྐྱུད་པ་//. Acc. [ULS] and [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, བརྗེད་པ་ «to forget» with the specific meaning of «not remembering / forgetting about». E.g., [TC] རོ་ལྡན་གྱི་ཟས་སྐྱུད་པ། «to forget what good food tastes like»; གཞོན་ནུའི་སྐབས་ཀྱི་བྱ་སྤྱོད་ཕལ་ཆེར་བསྐྱུད་པ། «had mostly forgotten the activities of youth»; སྔར་མྱོང་སྡུག་བསྔལ་མ་སྐྱུད་ཨང་། «don't forget your previous sufferings!»

སྐྱུར་ [skyur] 1) Imp. of v.t. སྐྱུར་བ་ q.v. 2) Present part of v.t. སྐྱུར་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱུར་པོ་ [skyur po] «Sour» because of being acidic. 1)Meaning sour tasting substances. Same as སྐྱུར་མོ་ q.v. 2) Meaning something which has gone sour / rancid.

སྐྱུར་བ་ [skyur ba] I. v.t. བསྐྱུར་བ་/ སྐྱུར་བ་/ བསྐྱུར་བ་/ སྐྱུར་/. 1) Mentally speaking, «to give up on», «to abandon» in the sense of «to forsake», «to go back on something which one has previously adhered to», «to leave behind something for something else seen as better, «to back down» or «to back off from». E.g., ཁས་ལེན་དམ་བཅའ་བསྐྱུར། «to give up on a promise or commitment; to forsake a commitment»; མུན་བསྐྱུར་སྣང་འགྲོ། «to abandon darkness for light»; ཐ་མག་འཐེན་རྒྱུ་ཨ་རག་བཏུང་རྒྱུ་སྐྱུར་ཅིག «give up drinking and smoking!». མི་བསྐྱུར་བར་རྒྱུན་དུ་བརྩོན་འགྲུས་ «unflagging, continuous perseverance». 2) Physically speaking, «to toss off / away», «to cast off something which is now seen as rubbish or as useless». E.g., གཡང་སྐྱུར་ཤིག «toss it away into the ravine!»; ཆུར་སྐྱུར་བ། «to fling rubbish into a river»; ཁ་ལུད་བསྐྱུར་བ། «expectorated».
II. 1) «Sour». Translation of the Sanskrit «amlaḥ». One of the རོ་དྲུག་ six tastes. The particular taste sensation that occurs when something acidic touches the tongue. This is also one of སྨན་གྱི་རོ་དྲུག་ the six flavours used in describing the quality of a medicinal substance q.v. 2) Like སྐྱུར་མོ་ referring to acidic-tasting things in general. 3) [Dialect] «faded (colour / dye)» e.g., [TC] གོས་ཀྱི་ཚོས་མདོག་སྐྱུར་འདུག «the colour of the clothes was faded».

སྐྱུར་བྱེད་གསུམ་ [skyur byed gsum] «The three sour producers» meaning ཨ་བར་སྐྱུར་གསུམ་ q.v.

སྐྱུར་མོ་ [skyur mo] «Sour» because of being acidic; sour tasting, sour tasting substances. Same as སྐྱུར་པོ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་ [skye] I. See སྐྱེ་བ་ q.v.
II. See སྐྱེ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་དགག་གནས་ [skye dgag gnas] «Production, cessation, and abiding» or «birth, cessation, and dwelling» meaning the three phases that anything belonging to dualistic mind passes through. E.g., རྣམ་རྟོག་སྐྱེ་དགག་གནས་བྲལ་བའི་གཤིས་ནམ་མཁའ་ལྟ་བུ་ «the basic disposition divorced from the birth, cessation, and dwelling of discursive thoughts like space...».

སྐྱེ་དགུ་ [skye dgu] Lit. «the nine (types of) birth (i.e. beings)». Acc. [TC] this refers to all sentient beings in the sense of all the combinations of birth that are possible within cyclic existence; i.e., beings from the desire realm who die and pass on to their next birth in any of the three realms, beings from the form realm who die and pass on to their next birth in any of the three realms, and beings from the formless realm who die and pass on to their next birth in any of the three realms. Thus «beings of all nine kinds» more literally and «all kinds of beings» less literally.
[DGT] gives the same meaning 1-3) འདོད་པའི་ཁམས་ལས་ཚེ་འཕོས་ཏེ་ཁམས་གསུམ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་གསུམ་ «at the time of transference from the desire realm», 4-6) གཟུགས་ཁམས་ལས་ཚེ་འཕོས་ཏེ་ཁམས་གསུམ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་གསུམ་ «the three births in the three realms», 7-9) གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས་ལས་ཚེ་འཕོས་ཏེ་ཁམས་གསུམ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་གསུམ་ལ་བྱའོ་ «at the time of transference from the form realm». [DGT] says that some people maintain that the དགུ་ in སྐྱེ་དགུ་ is incorrect and should be རྒུ་. These people maintain that the term does not mean the «nine» types of birth which are the three births in the three realms but means «all kinds of births».
E.g., [KBC] སྐྱེ་དགུ་ཐམས་ཅད་བདེ་བར་མཛད་པས་བཀུར་སྟི་ཆེན་པོ་ཐོབ་པ་ན། «bringing happiness to every one of the nine types of beings, (Śhāntideva) received great honours.

སྐྱེ་དགུ་ཐམས་ཅད་ [skye dgu thams cad] «Every one of the nine (types of) beings». See སྐྱེ་དགུ་ for meaning and example. Note that this is often translated as «all beings» or «various types of beings» however this is an inexact translation that loses the precise meaning of the term སྐྱེ་དགུ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་དགུའི་བདག་པོ་ [skye dgu'i bdag po] phrase> Lit. meaning «the master of all the different beings». Translation of the Sanskrit «prajāpata». 1) A general name for a man of the རྗེ་རིགས་ high caste. 2) Epithet (in India) for a རྒྱལ་པོ་ king. 3) Epithet (in India) for the god ཚངས་པ་ Brahma. 4) Another name for the important star / constellation སྣར་མ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་དགུའི་བདག་མོ་ [skye dgu'i bdag mo] Translation of the Sanskrit «prajāpati». Lit. meaning «the mistress of all the different beings». 1) Another name for རྗེ་རིགས་མ་ q.v.; a woman of the རྗེའུ་རིགས་ high caste of India. 2) Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་དགུའི་བདག་མོ་ཆེན་མོ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་དགུའི་བདག་མོ་ཆེན་མོ་ [skye dgu'i bdag mo chen mo] Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «mahāprajāpati». Lit. meaning «the great mistress of all the different beings». 1) The name of an aunt of the Buddha who was his chief nurse when he was young and who later became one of his ཉན་ཐོས་ śhrāvaka nuns. 2) [Mngon] Epithet of the Hindu goddess Durga.

སྐྱེ་དགུའི་བདག་མོ་གནས་པ་ [skye dgu'i bdag mo gnas pa] Translation of the Sanskrit «prajāpativāsinī». Meaning of the Sanskrit: She Who Dwells in Prajāpati/Lord of Beings.

སྐྱེ་འགག་ [skye 'gag] Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་བ་ and འགག་པ་ q.v. 1) With the general meaning of «arising and ceasing» or «birth and cessation» i.e., འབྱུང་བ་ and འཇིག་པ་ «origination and decay». 2) Meaning «things which are subject to arising and ceasing» which is an epithet of འདུས་བྱས་ composite or མི་རྟག་པའི་དངོས་པོ་ impermanent things.

སྐྱེ་འགག་གཉིས་མེད་ [skye 'gag gnyis med] phrase> «Devoid of both arising and ceasing» an epithet for འདུས་མ་བྱས་ non-composite or རྟག་པའི་དངོས་པོ་ permanent phenomena.

སྐྱེ་འགག་གནས་གསུམ་ [skye 'gag gnas gsum] «Threefold arising, ceasing, dwelling». Used as a description of all the dharmas of samsara and nirvana: they arise to begin with, dwell in the interim, then cease at the end.

སྐྱེ་འགག་མེད་པ་ [skye 'gag med pa] I. phrase> «Lacking birth and cessation», «without birth-cessation», «unborn-unceasing». Used as a description of non-dualistic realities which are beyond the domain of production followed by its disintegration. E.g., སྐྱེ་འགག་མེད་པའི་ཆོས་སྐུ་ «the unborn-unceasing dharmakāya». E.g., ཆོས་ཉིད་དུས་གསུམ་སྐྱེ་འགག་མེད་པའི་ངང་ «dharmatā, the state without the three times, without birth-cessation».
II. phrase> «that which is unborn and unceasing», etc. per the adj. form. This in some contexts is also better translated as «absence of birth and cessation».

སྐྱེ་འགགས་གནས་གསུམ་ [skye 'gags gnas gsum] Altern. spelling of སྐྱེ་འགག་གནས་གསུམ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་འགྲོ་ [skye 'gro] «Born migrators» or «beings with birth and migration». A general term that means སེམས་ཅན་ཀུན་ «all sentient beings». The term lit. means «the ones who are སྐྱེ་བ་ born within cyclic existence and who འགྲོ་བ་ shift about through becoming». The term is mainly found in older literature, such as the writings of the Nyingma tradition.

སྐྱེ་རྒ་ན་འཆི་ [skye rga na 'chi] «Birth, old age, sickness, and death». See སྐྱེ་རྒ་ན་འཆིའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་.

སྐྱེ་རྒ་ན་འཆི་བཞི་ [skye rga na 'chi bzhi] «The four—birth, old age, sickness, and death—». See སྐྱེ་རྒ་ན་འཆིའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་.

སྐྱེ་རྒ་ན་འཆིའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་ [skye rga na 'chi'i sdug bsngal] «The sufferings (or unsatisfactoriness') of birth, old age, sickness and death». The four great sufferings that attend taking a human birth in cyclic existence.

སྐྱེ་རྒུ་ [skye rgu] «The many, various beings». Similar meaning to སྐྱེ་དགུ་ q.v. also see རྒུ་.

སྐྱེ་རྒུ་མཐའ་དག་ [skye rgu mtha' dag] The many, various beings in their entirety. I.e., all beings but see སྐྱེ་རྒུ་.

སྐྱེ་སྒོ་ [skye sgo] Translation of the Sanskrit «yonayaḥ». 1) «The door of birth» meaning the «gate of rebirth» or «gateway to birth» in general. E.g., in the སྐྱེ་སྒོ་བཞི་ «four gates of birth» q.v. 2) Meaning the «womb». 3) Meaning the «vagina».

སྐྱེ་སྒོ་བཞི་ [skye sgo bzhi] «The four gates of birth». Translation of the Sanskrit «catvāro yonayaḥ». Same as the སྐྱེ་གནས་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ [skye mched] «Āyatana». Translation of the Sanskrit «āyatana». The āyatanas are defined as the means by which རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ consciousness of ཡུལ་ an object སྐྱེ་བ་ arises in and / or མཆེད་པ་ ignites and blazes in a sentient being. The āyatanas were said by the Buddha to be like the doors or causes to the production of the six sense consciousness. There are སྐྱེ་མཆེད་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve āyatanas: the དབང་པོ་དྲུག་ six sense-faculties plus the ཡུལ་དྲུག་ six objects of the six senses. The six āyatanas which are the six sense-faculties are called the ནང་གི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་ «six inner āyatanas» and the six corresponding to the six objects are called the ཕྱིའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་ «six outer āyatanas».
Since there is no term for these in English at all, many different terms have been coined. Many writers prefer to use the Sanskrit or Pali, as has been done above. «Source(s)» is a common translation, as is «sense base(s)», «sensory field(s)», «sense-field(s)», and «bases».

སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ཀྱི་ཡན་ལག་ [skye mched kyi yan lag] «The link of the āyatanas» usually written as སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་གི་ཡན་ལག་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་མཆེད་བཅུ་གཉིས་ [skye mched bcu gnyis] «The twelve āyatanas». Human beings have twelve སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «āyatanas» q.v. [NDS] gives their abbrev. names as: 1) མིག་ «eye»; 2) རྣ་བ་ «ear»; 3) སྣ་ «nose»; 4) ལྕེ་ «tongue»; 5) ལུས་ «body»; 6) ཡིད་ «mind»; 7) གཟུགས་ «form»; 8) སྒྲ་ «sound»; 9) དྲི་ «smell»; 10) རོ་ «taste»; 11) རེག་བྱ་ «touch»; 12) ཆོས་ «dharmas».
These are called in full: 1) མིག་གི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «eye āyatana»; 2) རྣ་བའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «ear āyatana»; 3) སྣའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «nose āyatana»; 4) ལྕེའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «tongue āyatana»; 5) ལུས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «body āyatana»; 6) ཡིད་ཀྱི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «mind āyatana»; 7) གཟུགས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «form āyatana»; 8) སྒྲའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «sound āyatana»; 9) དྲིའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «smell āyatana»; 10) རོའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «taste āyatana»; 11) རེག་བྱའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «touch āyatana»; 12) ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་ «dharma āyatana».
These twelve are divided into ནང་གི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་ «the six inner āyatanas» and ཕྱིའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་ «the six outer āyatanas» q.v. The first six listed above are the inner ones. They are the six sense faculties of the six senses of a person. The outer ones are the ones from 7) to 12) listed above. They are the objects which, upon interaction with the sense faculties, result in the production of the six consciousnesses. For this reason, the āyatanas are sometimes translated as the «sources». However, a much closer translation is «igniters».

སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་ [skye mched drug] phrase> «The six sources», «the six āyatanas». Translation of the Sanskrit «ṣhaḍāyatana». The six āyatanas are a crucial part of the process that drives sentient beings' cycling through births in deluded existence, being the fifth of the རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བའི་ཚུལ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve processes of dependent-related arising q.v. for more information. The āyatanas referred to here are the ནང་གི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་ six internal āyatanas.

སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་གི་ཡན་ལག་ [skye mched drug gi yan lag] «The link of the six āyatanas». One of the རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བའི་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve processes of dependent-related arising q.v.

སྐྱེ་འཆི་ [skye 'chi] Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་བ་ and འཆི་བ་ «birth and death».

སྐྱེ་འཇུག་ [skye 'jug] Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་བ་དང་འཇུག་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བདུན་ [skye bdun] Same as སྐྱེ་བ་བདུན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་ལྡན་ [skye ldan] Translation of the Sanskrit «jāti»; see ཛཱ་ཏི་.
I. 1) «That which takes birth» meaning སེམས་ཅན་ sentient beings q.v. 2) «That which is produced» meaning འཇིག་རྟེན་ the worlds and universes q.v.
II. The plant substance «nutmeg». Also called སྣ་མ་ Nama in Tibetan. 1) It is one of the ཕྱིའི་རྩ་བ་སྨན་བརྒྱད་ the eight outer principal medicines. 2) It is one of སྨན་བཟང་པོ་དྲུག་ the six excellent medicines.

སྐྱེ་ནས་མྱོང་འགྱུར་ [skye nas myong 'gyur] See སྐྱེ་ནས་མྱོང་འགྱུར་གྱི་ལས་.

སྐྱེ་ནས་མྱོང་འགྱུར་གྱི་ལས་ [skye nas myong 'gyur gyi las] phrase> Translation of the Sanskrit «utpaḍya vedanīyam karma». Lit. «karma which becomes experienced after a birth» but meaning a karma which, having been created, is experienced after one birth i.e., in the next rebirth. One of དུས་ཀྱི་སྒོ་ནས་ཕྱེ་བའི་ལས་གསུམ་ «the three kinds of karma distinguished from the perspective of time».

སྐྱེ་གནས་ [skye gnas] I. «Production place». In Sanskrit and Tibetan grammar, the «production place» is the particular location in the head or throat which is the basis for the production of the sound of each of the consonants. Western linguists call it «the place of articulation». The བྱེད་པ་ producer acts on those locations to cause the production of sound. A particular style of རྩོལ་བ་ effort is involved in the production of the sound. According to both Sanskrit and Tibetan all three must be done correctly for each consonant and vowel to be pronounced correctly. The production places, producers, and efforts for Tibetan letters are the same as for the Sanskrit counterparts. The production place is said to be the basic cause of the sounds of the letters, like the casing of a bell.
Six production places are counted for Tibetan consonant letters according to the system of སི་ཏུ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉིན་བྱེད་ Situ Rinpoche (e.g., in [SGC]) though other authors sometimes count them differently (e.g., ངག་གི་གནས་བརྒྱད་ the eight production places q.v.). They are: 1) the མགྲིན་པ་ throat which is the production place of ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་འ་ཧ་ཨ་; 2) the རྐན་ palate which is the production place of ཅ་ཆ་ཇ་ཉ་ཙ་ཚ་ཛ་ཞ་ཡ་ཤ་ཨི་ཨེ་; 3) the སོ་ teeth which is the production place of ཏ་ཐ་ད་ན་ཟ་ལ་ས་; 4) མཆུ་ the lips which is the production place of: པ་ཕ་བ་མ་ཝ་ཨུ་ཨོ་; 5) སྤྱི་བོ་ the apex (which is the apex and surrounds of the tongue and which is also called the ལྕེ་རྩེའི་ཉེ་འདབས་), which is the production place of ར་; 6) སྣ་ the nose which, in conjunction with their individual production places, is the production place of ང་ཉ་ན་མ་. See each consonant letter individually for a complete listing of the production place, producer, and effort involved in its pronunciation.
II. Lit. «the place at which birth (for sentient beings) is produced»; births in cyclic existence are said to occur on four different places. These are called the four places of birth སྐྱེ་གནས་བཞི་ q.v.
III. [Mngon] for womb or woman's genitals.

སྐྱེ་གནས་ཀྱི་བར་དོ་ [skye gnas kyi bar do] phrase> «The birthplace bardo». Meaning the bardo of the birth and life experienced following that birth by a sentient being in cyclic existence. Because of the meaning, [NTC] calls it «bardo of the present life». In some Nyingma tantras it is altern. known as རང་བཞིན་བར་དོ་ «nature bardo» q.v. It is the first in the enumeration of the བར་དོ་རྣམ་བཞི་ four bardos presented in Nyingma tantra q.v.

སྐྱེ་གནས་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ [skye gnas rnam pa bzhi] phrase> Lit. «the four types of birth place» meaning the four different places / ways that birth can happen. Usually translated as «the four types of birth» or «the four modes of birth».
Buddhism states that there are four places from which birth can happen. They are birth from a womb, birth from an egg, birth from miraculous causes, and birth from warmth and moisture. The first two are self-explanatory. The third, birth from miraculous causes, refers to births from circumstances that beings in normal cyclic existence could not be born from, e.g., the great Buddhist masters from India, འཕགས་པ་ལྷ་ Āryadeva and པདྨ་སམྦྷ་ཝ་ Padmasaṃbhava, were each born from a lotus. The fourth covers births of beings such as insects; note that the explanation associated with this is essentially the same as the way that birth of insects and other small creatures was explained in the European tradition prior to the advent of modern science in the 18th and 19th centuries.
These full names are given by [NDS]: 1) མངལ་ནས་སྐྱེས་པ་ «birth from a womb»; 2) སྒོ་ང་ལས་སྐྱེས་པ་ «birth from an egg-birth»; 3) རྫུས་ཏེ་སྐྱེས་པ་ «miraculous birth»; and 4) དྲོད་གཤེར་ལས་སྐྱེས་པ་ «birth from warmth-and-moisture».
The verb forms of the four are: 1) མངལ་ནས་སྐྱེ་བ་ «to take birth from the womb»; 2) སྒོ་ང་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ་ «to take birth from an egg»; 3) དྲོད་གཤེར་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ་ «to take birth from warmth-and-moisture»; 4) རྫུས་ཏེ་སྐྱེ་བ་ «to take miraculous birth».
These four forms are mentioned in sūtra and tantra. In tantra, they are mentioned in the teachings on བསྐྱེད་རིམ་ development stage because the practice of development stage purifies the karmic seeds for all rebirths in cyclic existence and these four types of birth subsume all types of rebirth in cyclic existence. Thus, the teachings on development stage specifically say that practice of that stage purifies the seeds of the four kinds of rebirth.

སྐྱེ་གནས་བར་དོ་ [skye gnas bar do] Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་གནས་ཀྱི་བར་དོ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་གནས་བཞི་ [skye gnas bzhi] «The four modes of birth», «the four ways of taking birth», «the four types of birth». Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་གནས་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ or སྐྱེ་གནས་རིགས་བཞི་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་གནས་རིགས་བཞི་ [skye gnas rigs bzhi] «The four types of birth». Same as སྐྱེ་གནས་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་འཕགས་ [skye 'phags] Abbrev. of སོ་སོའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་ «individualized beings» and འཕགས་པ་ «superiors»; a term giving the sense of all beings, both those spiritually highly developed and not.

སྐྱེ་འཕགས་ཀྱི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་ [skye 'phags kyi sems bskyed] Meaning སེམས་བསྐྱེད་ the arousing of the mind of both སོ་སོའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་ «individualized beings» and འཕགས་པ་ «superiors». I.e., the actual arousing / production / generation of the bodhicitta for both ordinary and noble beings.
The very instant that the bodhicitta is generated in the mindstream of an individualized being, that person is called an སོ་སོའི་སྐྱེ་བོའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ «individualized being bodhisatva». The superior being who has aroused bodhicitta in their mindstream is called a འཕགས་པ་བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ «superior bodhisatva».

སྐྱེ་བ་ [skye ba] I. v.i. སྐྱེས་པ་/ སྐྱེ་བ་/ སྐྱེ་བ་//. Transitive form is སྐྱེད་པ་ q.v. 1) Meaning «for that which was not present previously to come about» i.e., «to be born», «to arise», «to come about», «to be produced». This one word in Tibetan covers all types of births / production / arisings unlike English which has a number of specialized words for specific types of birth. Thus in some cases the term has to be translated on context e.g., for an egg «to hatch», «to bear» young, etc. E.g., [TC] ཕྲུ་གུ་སྐྱེས་པ། «child was born»; ལོ་ཏོག་གསར་དུ་སྐྱེས་པ། «the harvest crops were starting to grow»; ཁ་ལས་སོ་སྐྱེ་བ། «to grow a tooth»; དགའ་བ་སྐྱེས་པ། «gave rise to joy»; ཤིང་ས་ལ་སྐྱེ། «a tree will grow in the ground»; ཕོ་རོག་ལ་སྐྲ་དཀར་མི་སྐྱེ། «white hair does not grow on ravens (ravens are only ever black)»; མ་སྐྱེས་པ་སྐྱེ་བར་འགྱུར། «what had not been produced (now) became produced». 2) Meaning «for that which was present previously to develop further» i.e., «to grow», «to develop». E.g., [TC] ལུག་བལ་རིང་པོར་སྐྱེས་པ། «the sheep's wool grew longer».
II. 1) «Birth». Sanskrit «jāti». E.g., ཕྲུ་གུ་སྐྱེ་བ་ «birth of a child»; སྐྱེ་ན་རྒ་ཤི་ «birth, sickness, old-age, and death». Birth in cyclic existence is one of the principal features of the process of sentient beings' cycling through deluded existence and hence is the eleventh of the རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བའི་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve links of dependent-related origination. See རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བའི་ཚུལ་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve processes of dependent-related arising for more information on birth in this context. Note that birth in this context does not mean «life» but is defined as taking birth in the womb, etc. Because sentient beings cycle in through སྐྱེ་བ་ «births», the term can also be translated as rebirth. A being who takes birth (and less freq. some «thing» which has come into being) is called lit. «a born one», a སྐྱེ་བོ་. 2) «Birth» meaning a ཚེ་ life. E.g., སེམས་ཅན་འཁོར་བར་སྐྱེ་བ་ «sentient beings take birth in cyclic existence / have births in cyclic existence». E.g., སྐྱེ་བ་སྔ་ཕྱི་ «former and later lives / births». 3) «Birth». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «jātiḥ». One of the fourteen ལྡན་མིན་འདུ་བྱེད་བཅུ་བཞི་ non-associated formatives. 4) «Arising» of something meaning the production, the new appearance of something. It should be noted that there is the «arousal» or «arising» of something in English but that there is no word «arisal» of!

སྐྱེ་བ་དགུ་ [skye ba dgu] phrase> «The nine births». This refers to འདོད་པ་ལས་ཁམས་གསུམ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་ taking rebirth from the desire realm into any of the three realms, གཟུགས་ལས་ཁམས་གསུམ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་ taking rebirth from the form realm into any of the three realms, and གཟུགས་མེད་ལས་ཁམས་གསུམ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་ taking rebirth from the formless realm into any of the three realms.

སྐྱེ་བ་ངེས་པ་ [skye ba nges pa] phrase> «A definite birth» is the kind of birth that is controlled by karma, for example the births of ordinary beings and བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ས་མ་ཐོབ་པ་རྣམས་ bodhisatvas who have not gained the levels; སྐྱེ་བ་མ་ངེས་པ་ is the opposite.

སྐྱེ་བ་སྔ་མ་ [skye ba snga ma] phrase> «Former life (lives)», «earlier life (lives)», «past life (lives)».

སྐྱེ་བ་ཅན་ [skye ba can] «(One who) has a birth». Refers to a being who has taken a birth in cyclic existence (i.e., because of karmic force).

སྐྱེ་བ་གཉིས་པ་ [skye ba gnyis pa] phrase> [Mngon] lit. «twice-born», meaning «a brahman». See also སྐྱེ་བ་བདུན་པ་.

སྐྱེ་བ་མཐུན་པ་ [skye ba mthun pa] phrase> «Equal birth» but meaning beings of equal rank or status due to birth, hence «born of the same rank», «same social status due to birth». Related to སྐྱེ་བ་མཐོ་བ་ and སྐྱེ་བ་དམན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བ་མཐོ་བ་ [skye ba mtho ba] phrase> «Higher birth» or «high-born». Meaning beings of greater rank or status due to birth, hence «born of higher rank», «higher social status due to birth». Related to སྐྱེ་བ་མཐུན་པ་ and སྐྱེ་བ་དམན་པ་ q.v. Same as སྐྱེ་ས་མཐོ་བ་.

སྐྱེ་བ་མཐོ་པོ་ [skye ba mtho po] phrase> «High-born». Meaning beings born into a high rank or social status. Similar to སྐྱེ་བ་མཐོ་བ་ but that means «higher» whereas this is «high».

སྐྱེ་བ་དང་འཇུག་པ་ [skye ba dang 'jug pa] «Life and entry», the two types of attainment at the completion of the Direct Crossing Path, which is the completion of the ཆོས་ཉིད་དུ་འཛིན་པ་ཟད་པའི་སྣང་བ་ Appearance of Dharmata Exhaustion. The two are སྐྱེ་བ་ལ་དབང་ཐོབ་པ་ «attainment of control over life» and འཇུག་པ་ལ་དབང་ཐོབ་པ་ «attainment of control over entry» respectively.

སྐྱེ་བ་བདུན་ [skye ba bdun] 1) In general, «seven births». 2) Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་བ་བདུན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བ་བདུན་པ་ [skye ba bdun pa] 1) «Seven-birthed (brahman)». In the Hindu system, a brahman who has been born a brahman for seven births in a row is regarded as specially holy and has special abilities. This is a noun meaning that kind of person. 2) «Seventh birth».

སྐྱེ་བ་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ [skye ba sprul sku] phrase> «Born nirmāṇakāya». There are different kinds of nirmāṇakāya (emanation body) of a buddha. This is one of the སྤྲུལ་པ་རྣམ་བཞི་ four, main types. This refers to a nirmāṇakāya, other than a supreme nirmāṇakāya that appears through the ordinary process of birth.

སྐྱེ་བ་མ་ངེས་པ་ [skye ba ma nges pa] phrase> «An indefinite birth» is the kind of birth that is not controlled by karma, for example the births of emanations of and བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ས་ཐོབ་པ་རྣམས་ bodhisatvas who have gained the levels; སྐྱེ་བ་ངེས་པ་ is the opposite.

སྐྱེ་བ་མེད་པ་ [skye ba med pa] phrase> «Birthless», «absence of birth», «without production», translation from the Sanskrit «anutpada». Used in reference to phenomena to indicate that they are, when they arise, empty because of being without production of empty of a solid, real entity. One of ཆོས་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད་བཅུ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བ་མེད་པའི་གནས་ལུགས་ [skye ba med pa'i gnas lugs] phrase> «Actuality of the unborn»; how it actually is with the unborn state of emptiness.

སྐྱེ་བ་དམན་པ་ [skye ba dman pa] phrase> 1) «Lower birth» or «low-born». Meaning beings of lower rank or status due to birth, hence «born of lower rank», «lower social status due to birth». Related to སྐྱེ་བ་མཐུན་པ་ and སྐྱེ་བ་མཐོ་བ་ q.v. Same as སྐྱེ་ས་དམན་པ་. 2) «Lower birth»; a common word for «woman» in general. When this meaning is intended, the phrase is commonly abbrev. to སྐྱེ་དམན་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བ་བཞི་ [skye ba bzhi] «The four births», abbrev. of སྐྱེ་གནས་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བ་བཞེས་པ་ [skye ba bzhes pa] phrase> [Hon] for སྐྱེ་བ་ལེན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བ་ལ་དབང་བ་ [skye ba la dbang ba] phrase> «Control over birth». 1) One of the དབང་བཅུ་ «ten controls» q.v. 2) One of two attainments of control; see སྐྱེ་བ་དང་འཇུག་པ་ «life and entry».

སྐྱེ་བ་དབང་ཐོབ་པ་ [skye ba dbang thob pa] phrase> «Attainment of control over life»; one of two attainments of control; see སྐྱེ་བ་དང་འཇུག་པ་ «life and entry».

སྐྱེ་བ་ལེན་པ་ [skye ba len pa] phrase> v.t. see ལེན་པ་ for tense forms. «To take a birth». This is not an intransitive verb so although «to be reborn» is a common translation it is technically not correct for this. The point contained in this particular way of talking in the Buddhist tradition is that one takes a birth because of one's karmic actions not that one just gets a birth either for no reason or a theistic reason. In the Buddhist technical way of speaking, ལེན་པ་ «to take» specifically means ཉེ་བར་ལེན་པ་ «to take hold of» as part of the process of deluded becoming.

སྐྱེ་བ་ལེན་ཚུལ་བཞི་ [skye ba len tshul bzhi] «The four modes (or ways) of taking a birth»; same meaning as སྐྱེ་གནས་རྣམ་པ་བཞི་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བའི་ཀུན་ཉོན་ [skye ba'i kun nyon] Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་བའི་ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བའི་ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོངས་པ་ [skye ba'i kun nas nyon mongs pa] phrase> One of the ཉོན་མོངས་གསུམ་ three afflictions q.v.

སྐྱེ་བའི་སྐད་ཅིག་ [skye ba'i skad cig] «The moment it is produced / born / arises». E.g., སྐྱེ་བའི་སྐད་ཅིག་མ་དང་པོ་ཕྱིན་ཆད་ «after the first moment of its production».

སྐྱེ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་ [skye ba'i sdug bsngal] «The unsatisfactoriness of birth». One of the སྡུག་བསྔལ་བརྒྱད་ «the eight unsatisfactorinesses» and one of སྡུག་བསྔལ་ཆེན་པོ་བཞི་ «the four great sufferings».

སྐྱེ་བའི་ཚུལ་ [skye ba'i tshul] «Way of taking birth» or «mode of birth». See the སྐྱེ་བ་ལེན་ཚུལ་བཞི་ «four modes of taking a birth».

སྐྱེ་བའི་ཡན་ལག་ [skye ba'i yan lag] «The link of birth». One of the རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བའི་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve processes of dependent-related arising q.v.

སྐྱེ་བའི་ཡུལ་ [skye ba'i yul] See སྐྱེས་པའི་ཡུལ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་བའི་རིམ་པ་ [skye ba'i rim pa] «Phases of life», «stages of life».

སྐྱེ་བའི་རིམ་གསུམ་ [skye ba'i rim gsum] «Three phases of life». Acc. [HNL], they are: 1) མངལ་དུ་སྐྱེ་བ་བཟུང་བ་ནས་བཙས་པའི་བར་ from conception in the womb to the moment of birth; 2) བཙས་ནས་ནར་སོང་པའི་བར་ from the moment of birth to adult maturity; 3) ནར་སོང་ནས་རྒན་པོའི་བར་ and from adult maturity to old age.

སྐྱེ་བོ་ [skye bo] Lit. «something which has been born, which has taken birth». 1) i) Usually in general reference to «beings who have སྐྱེ་བ་ལེན་པ་ taken a birth where taken specifically means ཉེ་བར་ལེན་པ་ taken hold of a due to delusion. ii) However, it can also mean «beings who have taken a birth», such as the bodhisatvas. Therefore, there is the term སོ་སོའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་ «individualized being» which specifically indicates a birth taken through delusion and the term འཕགས་པའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་ «superior being» which specifically indicates a spiritually advanced person not subject to that gross level of delusion. iii) It can also mean «human being(s) in general», «person», «people». 2) Occasionally used in reference to something which is present, e.g., in Tibetan grammar texts it is occasionally used to mean «that particular type of letter».

སྐྱེ་བོ་ཀུན་འཇུག་ [skye bo kun 'jug] «Brothel». Note that [RYD] gives «prostitute» but that is incorrect; see སྨད་འཚོང་མ་ for prostitute. This term is a term from classical literature, lit. meaning «a place that all beings come to»; see སྨད་འཚོང་གནས་ for a more common term.

སྐྱེ་བོ་བདག་འཛིན་ཅན་ [skye bo bdag 'dzin can] phrase> «A being having self-grasping»; «a being with self-grasping».

སྐྱེ་བོ་ཕལ་པ་ [skye bo phal pa] phrase> «The majority of beings» and usually used to indicate them as the ordinary sort of being in comparison to some more special type of being. The term itself does not mean «ordinary person» or «commoner» which are represented with ཐ་མལ་པ་ and other such phrases.

སྐྱེ་བོ་མང་པོ་ [skye bo mang po] phrase> «Many beings».

སྐྱེ་བོའི་ཚོགས་ [skye bo'i tshogs] phrase> 1) «The masses of (living) beings» meaning all the different groups of sentient beings as a whole. 2) «Assembly, crowd of people». E.g., [KBC] སྐྱེ་བོའི་ཚོགས་མང་པོ་འདུས་པའི་དབུས་སུ་སེང་གེའི་ཁྲི་མཐོན་པོ་བཤམས་པ་ «and set up a towering lion throne in the midst of a huge crowd of people who had been gathered». Note here that སྐྱེ་བོ་ has the sense of སོ་སོའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་ meaning ordinary «people» which is said that way in contrast to the subject of the sentence, the spiritual master Śhāntideva.

སྐྱེ་མེད་ [skye med] Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་བ་མེད་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་མེད་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་མཛོད་ [skye med rin po che'i mdzod] of a text by Nagarjuna on the Middle Way. «Treasury of Birthlessness».

སྐྱེ་དམན་ [skye dman] Meaning སྐྱེ་བ་དམན་པ་ q.v. 1) Standard term for བུད་མེད་ «woman». 2) Standard term for «wife» e.g., ཁོའི་སྐྱེ་དམན་ «his wife». See also བག་མ་ «bride».
This dictionary has no interest in Western debates over gender wording or correctness; it is simply presents the Tibetan language and tradition as it stood / stands. The Tibetan culture for centuries has and still does refer to a woman as «a person of inferior birth» in accordance with the ancient customs of the whole Asian continent. The Dalai Lama in a speech in the West in the year 2000 claimed that this was actually a corruption of སྐྱེ་བ་སྨན་པ་ meaning a birth that was beneficial to the person and to others, but his statement was an invention for the sake of making the Western women around him feel better; such a term or meaning has never been seen in the Tibetan language! Tibetan woman do not feel badly over the name because it does not carry with it the aggression that many Western women would like to ascribe to it. Rather, the name is part of a whole cultural context that gives it a very different sense to the ideas of Western women who might be upset by the apparent meaning. Of course, if the Dalai Lama had tried to explain that, such women would not have listened...

སྐྱེ་ཚེ་ [skye tshe] Corruption of སྐེ་ཚེ་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་ཟུག་ [skye zug] «Labour pains», the pains of a woman when giving birth.

སྐྱེ་ཟླ་ [skye zla] «Birth-month»; the month in which a child was born.

སྐྱེ་ཡུལ་ [skye yul] «Birth-place» in the sense of the country or land that one was born in. Cf. སྐྱེ་ས་.

སྐྱེ་རབས་ [skye rabs] Incorrect spelling of སྐྱེས་རབས་ q.v.

སྐྱེ་ཤི་ [skye shi] Abbrev. of སྐྱེ་བ་ birth and ཤི་བ་ death q.v.

སྐྱེ་ཤིང་ [skye shing] General name for «vegetation» (meaning both སྐྱེ་ non-woody and ཤིང་ woody).

སྐྱེ་ས་ [skye sa] 1) «Birthplace»; the actual place—town, etc.—where one was born. Cf. སྐྱེ་ཡུལ་. 2) «Birth-station» i.e., whether one was born in higher or lower social status.

སྐྱེ་ས་མཐོ་བ་ [skye sa mtho ba] Same as སྐྱེ་བ་མཐོ་བ་.

སྐྱེ་ས་དམན་པ་ [skye sa dman pa] Same as meaning 1) of སྐྱེ་བ་དམན་པ་.

སྐྱེ་སྲིད་ [skye srid] phrase> Lit. «the birth phase of becoming». This is birth as one of the སྲིད་པ་བཞི་ four phases of becoming q.v. It is defined as the moment of consciousness connecting with the place of birth, such as the womb.

སྐྱེགས་ [skyegs] 1) Abbrev. of རྒྱ་སྐྱེགས་ q.v. 2) Same as སྐེགས་ q.v.

སྐྱེངས་ [skyengs] See སྐྱེངས་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེངས་སྟབས་ [skyengs stabs] The state of being embarrassed and not able to speak because of it.

སྐྱེངས་པ་ [skyengs pa] v.i. སྐྱེངས་པ་/ སྐྱེངས་པ་/ སྐྱེངས་པ་//. «To be abashed / embarrassed / circumspect». The opp. of being brazen. Note that, because of having the quality of being able to be shamed, one might be modest etc., but the latter is a product of the former not the same as it, i.e., this is not «to be modest». This verb is mostly used in conjunction with speech, in which case it expresses a particular quality of being abashed / having a sense of what is appropriate to say and not. E.g., [TC] ཁ་མི་སྐྱེངས་པ། «no sense of shame with his speech» which is equivalent to «says what he wants without thinking of the effect»; ཁ་སྐྱེངས་གདོང་དམར། «embarrassed, he could not speak and his face reddened»; སྤྱང་ཀི་ཁ་མ་སྐྱེངས་ཙམ་དང་། ལུ་གུ་ཚེ་མ་ཟད་ཙམ། «the wolf was just not circumspect and the sheep were just not losing their lives».

སྐྱེད་ [skyed] 1) Imp. of སྐྱེད་པ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐྱེད་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེད་ཀ་ [skyed ka] Same as སྐྱེད་ཁ་ q.v.

སྐྱེད་ཁ་ [skyed kha] 1) «Interest». The interest derived from the མ་རྩ་ principal in a transaction or from a བུ་ལོན་ loan that had interest attached to it. This word is sometimes reduced to སྐྱེད་ which is suffixed to words to indicate interest based on a certain type of capital e.g., དངུལ་སྐྱེད་ interest on silver; འབྲུ་སྐྱེད་ interest on grain, etcetera. 2) «Profits» meaning any advantageous increase that accrues because of some basis e.g., ཡོན་ཏན་ལ་སྐྱེད་ཁ་འཕེལ་བ། «the profits of good qualities increase» [TC].

སྐྱེད་མཁན་ [skyed mkhan] Same meaning as སྐྱེད་པ་པོ་ q.v.

སྐྱེད་པ་ [skyed pa] v.t. བསྐྱེད་པ་/ སྐྱེད་པ་ / བསྐྱེད་པ་/ སྐྱེད་/. Intransitive forms are སྐྱེ་བ་ and also འབྱུང་བ་ q.v. 1) «To make something come about that was not present or had not happened before that»; «to produce something or to make something happen». There are many English words which suit on context such as «to arouse», «to give birth to», «to produce», «to bring about», «to create», «to generate», «to form», «to engender», «to grow», etc. E.g., བུ་ཕྲུག་སྐྱེད་པ། «to produce a child / make a baby», གློག་སྐྱེད་པ་ «to generate electricity». When used in the context of mind it means «to arouse / generate / create» something in the mind. E.g., བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ། is the standard way of saying «arousal of the bodhicitta» i.e., «to cause the mind of bodhi to arise in the mind-stream». It is also used when speaking of (creating) a visualization or some thought in the imagination. Hence also «to visualize / envision / imagine». 2) Like the intransitive form སྐྱེ་བ་ it also can be used in the second sense of taking something already produced further in which case it has the usages «to develop», «to enlarge / widen / expand / increase», «to cause to progress», «to enhance». E.g., [TC] སྤོབས་པ་བསྐྱེད་པ། «to develop self-confidence»; ཁང་པ་རྒྱ་བསྐྱེད། «to enlarge a house»; སྙིང་རུས་ཆེར་བསྐྱེད། «developed determination»; ཡིད་ཆེས་སྐྱེད་པ། «developed trust».

སྐྱེད་པ་པོ་ [skyed pa po] «The producer» or «creator» or «generator». Defined in grammar as the agent of a transitive verbal action which is the person or thing that causes the སྐྱེད་པ་ production, generation, creation, etc., of something. The term སྐྱེད་མཁན་ is equivalent.

སྐྱེད་བྱེད་ [skyed byed] 1) «The producer», «the creator», «the generator». Grammatically, equivalent in meaning to སྐྱེད་པ་པོ་ q.v. This is the thing that causes something to be སྐྱེད་པ་ produced / created / generated. i) When discussing the production of effects from causes in Buddhist texts on philosophy, it is used to mean རྒྱུ་ the principal cause that will produce its related effect; that effect will be the བསྐྱེད་བྱ་ the thing that will be produced. E.g., སྐྱེད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་རྒྱུ་ «the producing cause. 2) «The creator». Another name for the chakra at the navel, which is usually referred to as the སྤྲུལ་པའི་འཁོར་ལོ་ «emanation chakra». 3) [Mngon] i) «Procreator» meaning the father of a child. ii) «Creator» meaning the ས་གཞི་ basis of a world system from which the world system arises. iii) «Producer», an ancient epithet from India of མེ་ fire and མེ་ལྷ་ Agnideva, the god of fire.

སྐྱེད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་རྒྱུ་ [skyed byed kyi rgyu] «The producing cause».

སྐྱེད་མོས་ཚལ་ [skyed mos tshal] Translation of the Sanskrit «udyāna». A man made garden or grove or park for recreation and enjoyment.
A «pleasure grove» as is usually translated when referring to the gardens made by ancient Indian Kings for relaxation and enjoyment. These parks are often mentioned in the Buddhist sūtras.
E.g., སྐྱེད་མོས་ཚལ་དུ་འགྲོ་སྟེ། གྲོང་བར་དུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དང་། «He went off to a park and, having gone as far as the village, … «


སྐྱེད་ཚལ་ [skyed tshal] Abbrev. of སྐྱེད་མོས་ཚལ་ q.v.

སྐྱེད་སྲིང་ [skyed sring] The «bringing up», «rearing», «raising» of anything so that it is nurtured and grown up, e.g., of the young of beings, etc. Past form is བསྐྱེད་བསྲིངས་; e.g., [KBC] ཟས་ཀྱི་ཕུད་བྱིན། གོས་ཀྱི་རྩེས་གཡོགས། ཤིན་ཏུ་བྱམས་པས་བསྐྱེད་བསྲིངས་པའི་དྲིན་ཆེན་ཤ་སྟག་ཡིན་ «(my parents) fed me with the best food, dressed me in the best clothes, and through their great kindness alone brought me up with so much love».

སྐྱེན་པ་ [skyen pa] 1) «Quick», «swift» etc., same meaning as མྱུར་བ་ and མགྱོགས་པོ་. E.g., [TC] དར་སྐྱེན་པ་ «flourished very rapidly»; ནུབ་སྐྱེན་པ་ «waned quickly». 2) «Easily» or «easy to» e.g., [TC] ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ལངས་སྐྱེན་པ། «got angry easily». 3) Skilful at something and hence easily able to do it.
With all of these meanings combined, it can have the sense of «speeding up» a process. E.g., [GSB] འོན་ཀྱང་དྲན་པས་མ་ཡེངས་པར་བྱེད་ན། མཉམ་རྗེས་འདྲེས་སྐྱེན་པ་ལ་ཕན། «Nonetheless, if you do involve yourself in not being distracted by thinking, that will help to speed up the process of merging equipoise and post-attainment.»

སྐྱེམས་ [skyems] [TC] gives as [Hon] for བཏུང་བ་ i.e., «drink». However, note that this term is not originally a Tibetan term but is derived from [Chinese]. The Chinese has the specific sense of «drink oblations», i.e., drinks offered to higher persons or to deities e.g., see under གསེར་སྐྱེམས་ the «golden drink» offered to a superior, etc. Also note that [RYD] gives as the verb «to drink» but that is quite mistaken, this is a noun only and with a specific sense as mentioned above.

སྐྱེམས་སྟོང་ [skyems stong] The name of a place in the district called དྭགས་པོ་ Dvagpo prior to the Communist Chinese invasion.

སྐྱེམས་ཕུད་ [skyems phud] Secret mantra terminology regarding ཚོགས་འཁོར་ feast. The name for the select portion golden-drink offering; the name for the tea or other representation which is poured into the ཕུད་ཕོར་ vessel for the select offerings.

སྐྱེམས་ཤོག་ [skyems shog] «Kyem paper». The name, prior to the Communist Chinese invasion, for a very high quality paper that was produced in the place called སྐྱེམས་སྟོང་ Kyemtong. The paper was made in a process of washing and cleaning the fibrous material many times over to remove the coarse fibres and chunks and produce a very fine paper. [TC] gives that the paper was used for printing money.

སྐྱེམས་ཚུགས་ [skyems tshugs] «Drink vessel». The vessel used to hold a སྐྱེམས་ drink proffering or གསེར་སྐྱེམས་ golden drink. In liturgies where deities / protectors are being offered a drink oblation, the vessel has a specific, stylized design.

སྐྱེམས་གསོལ་ [skyems gsol] Abbrev. of སྐྱེམས་ཀྱི་གསོལ་བ་. [Hon] form of སྐྱེམས་ q.v. with essentially the same meaning. See also གསོལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱེར་ཁཎྜ་ [skyer khaNDa] Abbrev. of སྐྱེར་པའི་ཁཎྜ་ q.v.

སྐྱེར་པའི་ཁཎྜ་ [skyer pa'i khaNDa] A concentrated decoction of Berberis aristata.

སྐྱེལ་ [skyel] See སྐྱེལ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱེལ་གླ་ [skyel gla] 1) «Escort fee», like the fee paid to a driver who conveys someone from place to place. 2) «Conveyance fee», «freight charge»; the fee paid to a person or service that carries goods from one place to another.

སྐྱེལ་བདར་ [skyel bdar] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, སྐྱེལ་གླ་ q.v. [TC] gives as སྐྱེལ་བའི་བདལ་གླ་ which is «freight charge» or fee paid for conveying goods.

སྐྱེལ་བ་ [skyel ba] v.t. བསྐྱལ་བ་/ སྐྱེལ་བ་/ བསྐྱལ་བ་/ སྐྱོལ་/. 1) «To transport», «to convey», or «to carry» such as goods or passengers by any conveyance such as an animal, a boat, a wagon, a car, an aeroplane, etc. from one location to another. E.g., [TC] ཚོང་ཟོག་སྐྱེལ་བ། «to transport merchandise»; ནང་གཏམ་ཕྱིར་སྐྱེལ། «to convey the inside story to the world». 2) «To convey to» i.e., «to carry and deliver to», «to take to». E.g., ལན་སྐྱེལ། «to convey an answer / to deliver an answer»; སྨན་ཁང་ལ་བསྐྱལ་བ་ «was taken to the hospital». 3) «To send off» in the sense of sending off or seeing off a friend, acquaintance, etc., on their journey to another place. E.g., ལ་བར་སྐྱེལ་བར་འགྲོ་གི་ཡིན། «will go as far as the pass to see you off». 4) «To escort» someone or something on a journey to another place. 5) «To do or employ some method to do», «to carry out or deliver using some method». E.g., ཁ་སྐྱེལ་བ་ «to deliver a kiss»; མནའ་སྐྱེལ་བ་ «to take an oath»; གནོད་སྐྱེལ་བ་ «to engage in causing harm / injury». 6) «To spend or pass time» e.g., [TC] དོན་མེད་དུས་བསྐྱལ། «spent time meaninglessly»; མི་ཚེ་དོན་དང་ལྡན་པར་བསྐྱལ། «spent / lived his life in a meaningful way»; ཟ་མ་རྒྱགས་ཚད་བཟས་ནས་ཉི་མ་སྐྱེལ། «passing the day eating large amounts of food».

སྐྱེལ་མ་ [skyel ma] «An escort» (if plural can be an «escort» or «convoy»). 1) Someone who escorts and another person off on their journey, going with them to the door, gate, or even part of the way. The opp. of བསུ་མ་, a person who receives / welcomes another. 2) An escort for the distance of a journey whose job is to provide assistance and protection on the way.

སྐྱེལ་སོ་ [skyel so] «Conveyor», that which conveys or transports. E.g., མཐར་ཐུག་པའི་སྐྱེལ་སོ་ཟབ་པ་བ་་ «the profound conveyor of the ultimate».

སྐྱེས་ [skyes] I. See སྐྱེས་པ་ q.v.
II «Token of appreciation», «token of esteem», «gift», «present», etc. A token given to someone as a sign of esteem for them or their works, or of affection, or of happiness of having a connection with the person. It would be either a letter or a gift or both. E.g., Tibetans did not have greeting cards but would write a short letter of appreciation and give that with the same meaning as a Western greeting card. The token could be given on arrival, departure, after completion of some task. E.g., ཕེབས་སྐྱེས་ «a gift given on arrival / departure», འབྱོན་སྐྱེས་ « a departing gift»; གནང་སྐྱེས་ «a gift in appreciation (for whatever reason)».

སྐྱེས་ཆེན་ [skyes chen] Abbrev. of སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་མཆོག་ [skyes mchog] Abbrev. of སྐྱེས་བུ་མཆོག་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་ [skyes stobs] phrase> Same meaning as སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ and meaning སྐྱེས་པས་ཐོབ་པ་. The phrase is used to mean some good personal quality that a person was fortunate enough to have just through being born. In English the phrase «natural» is often used with the same meaning e.g., སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་རིག་པ་ and སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་ཤེས་རབ་ «natural intelligence» meaning a higher level of intelligence that someone was born with.

སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་རིག་པ་ [skyes stobs rig pa] phrase> See under སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་ for explanation.

སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་ཤེས་རབ་ [skyes stobs shes rab] phrase> See under སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་ for explanation.

སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ [skyes thob] phrase> Same meaning as སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་ q.v. for explanation and meaning སྐྱེས་པས་ཐོབ་པ་. It could be translated «acquired by birth» but it has more the sense of «by birth» e.g., སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་དགེ་བ་ a person who, by birth, is naturally a virtuous type of person and སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་མི་དགེ་བ་ a person who is naturally non-virtuous, and སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་མུ་སྟེགས་པ་ a person who is a Tīrthika by birth, someone who naturally tends towards wrong spiritual views. In Western culture, the qualities that come at birth are usually seen as purely fortuitous, however in Tibetan culture, what you get at birth are not «natural» qualities as it is said in English but the results of past actions.

སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་དགེ་བ་ [skyes thob kyi dge ba] phrase> See under སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ for explanation.

སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་མི་དགེ་བ་ [skyes thob kyi mi dge ba] phrase> See under སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ for explanation.

སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་མུ་སྟེགས་པ་ [skyes thob kyi mu stegs pa] phrase> See under སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ for explanation.

སྐྱེས་ཐོབ་ཤེས་རབ་ [skyes thob shes rab] Same as སྐྱེས་སྟོབས་ཤེས་རབ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་བདག་ [skyes bdag] [Mngon] Translation of the Sanskrit «prajapati». An epithet of the 5th year in a རབ་བྱུང་ 60 year cycle, the ལྕགས་མོ་ལུག་ལོ་ «Female Iron Sheep Year».

སྐྱེས་ནས་འདའ་བ་ [skyes nas 'da' ba] «nirvāṇa after rebirth». One of several types of practitioner who, having attained the ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་འབྲས་གནས་ fruition of non-return, go to nirvāṇa in various ways from there. This type goes to nirvāṇa one rebirth after they attain the fruit of non-return. There are three sub-types; see སྐྱེས་ནས་འདའ་བ་གསུམ་ «the three who go to nirvāṇa after rebirth».

སྐྱེས་ནས་འདའ་བ་གསུམ་ [skyes nas 'da' ba gsum] «The three who go to nirvāṇa after rebirth».
I. Three types of practitioner who, having attained the ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་འབྲས་གནས་ fruition of non-return, have one more rebirth before they attain nirvāṇa. The three are: 1) སྐྱེས་ཙམ་ནས་འདའ་བ་ «nirvāṇa after just rebirth»; 2) འདུ་བྱེད་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་འདའ་བ་ «nirvāṇa with the composites»; 3) འདུ་བྱེད་མེད་པར་འདའ་བ་ «nirvāṇa without the composites».
II. Three of the དགེ་འདུན་ཉི་ཤུ་ «twenty saṅghas» q.v.

སྐྱེས་པ་ [skyes pa] I. Past of v.i. སྐྱེ་བ་ q.v.
II. Translation of the Sanskrit «jata». 1) Lit. «someone who has been born», a being. This term is used widely just to signify a person or being. Note that the term is male gender. Because of this, the term also is used to mean «a man», «a being who is a man». The female of this term is never given with སྐྱེས་མ་ but with བུད་མེད་ «woman». 2) Another name for the important star / constellation གྲེ་ q.v. 3) A «produced» phenomenon.

སྐྱེས་པ་ཙམ་ [skyes pa tsam] «Just on being produced». The term for one of the several styles of production of the form of a deity in the unsurpassed tantra system of meditating on a deity. In the highest tantra systems the yidam deity is usually produced in a series of steps, starting with the seed-syllable of the deity. There is one style of meditation though in which the deity is produced, complete just on thinking about it. E.g., ལྷ་ཡི་རྣམ་པའི་གཟུགས་ཀྱི་ནི། །བཞིན་ལགས་ཁ་དོག་རྣམ་པར་ནི། སྐྱེས་པ་ཙམ་གྱི་རྣམ་པར་གནས། «The aspects of the form of the deity just on being produced are fully present as the deity's form with features of faces, hands, colour, (and so on)».

སྐྱེས་པ་རབས་ [skyes pa rabs] «Successive Lives». The name of a section of the recorded teachings of the Buddha. See སྐྱེས་པའི་རབས་ཀྱི་སྡེ་ «section of stories from the succession of lives».

སྐྱེས་པ་ལེན་པ་ [skyes pa len pa] Mis-spelling of སྐྱེ་བ་ལེན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་པའི་གནས་སྐབས་ལྔ་ [skyes pa'i gnas skabs lnga] «The five phases of life». These are a subset of the དུས་བརྒྱད་ eight periods of life q.v. See also དར་གུད་བཅུ་གཉིས་ «the twelve stages of life». Acc. [TC] they are: 1) བྱིས་པ་ childhood; 2) གཞོན་ནུ་ youth; 3) དར་ལ་བབ་པ་ adulthood; 4) དར་ཡོལ་ middle age; 5) རྒན་པོ་ old age.

སྐྱེས་པའི་ཡུལ་ [skyes pa'i yul] See the usual abbrev. སྐྱེས་ཡུལ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་པའི་རབས་ [skyes pa'i rabs] «Successive Lives». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «jātakam». The name of a section of the recorded teachings of the Buddha. See སྐྱེས་པའི་རབས་ཀྱི་སྡེ་ «section of stories from the succession of lives».

སྐྱེས་པའི་རབས་ཀྱི་སྡེ་ [skyes pa'i rabs kyi sde] «Section of stories from the succession of lives». Also known in English as the «Jataka Tales» and «Birth Tales». The name of a section of the recorded teachings of the Buddha. This is a section of discourses that related previous lives of the Buddha. See གསུང་རབ་ཀྱི་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ «the twelve branches of the excellent speech».

སྐྱེས་ཕྲན་ [skyes phran] 1) [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, དར་ལ་བབ་པ་ young adult q.v. 2) A small bracelet for the wrist.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ [skyes bu] «Person». Translation of the Sanskrit «puruṣha». The Sanskrit term summed up from [MWD] means «a person», «a human-being». E.g., it is used in Sanskrit grammar to indicate the 1st, 2nd, 3rd «person». It is used in other contexts to indicate the sense of a human, mankind. In Sanskrit texts it was also used to give the sense of «man» e.g., in [EBD] puruṣhakāraka «manly performance».
The term only appears in Tibetan as a translation of the Sanskrit in Buddhist texts; it is not used in the coll. (the term མི་ is used in coll. for the same meaning). It often appears as part of a longer phrase, mirroring its use in the Indian Buddhist tradition. In particular, it was used in epithets, e.g., སྐྱེས་བུ་ཁྱུ་མཆོག་ «leader of men» and སྐྱེས་བུ་འདུལ་བའི་ཁ་ལོ་སྒྱུར་བ་ «the one who steers the beings to be tamed» are common epithets of the Buddha.
The Tibetan etymology is [KHN] ལས་ལས་སྐྱེས་པའི་བུ་ lit. «a child born from karma». The term is neutral e.g., སྐྱེས་བུ་ངན་པ་ «a bad person»; སྐྱེས་བུ་བཟང་པོ་ «a good person».

སྐྱེས་བུ་སྐྱེས་མཆོག་ [skyes bu skyes mchog] [Mngon] «Supreme Among Beings» one of the many epithets of the Buddha. Sometimes translated as «the best of men».

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཁྱུ་མཆོག་ [skyes bu khyu mchog] «Leader of beings». An epithet of the Buddha. The term actually means the one who, because he is the best and most capable, is the leader of the herd, with the herd in this case being all sentient beings.

སྐྱེས་བུ་གང་ཟག་བརྒྱད་ [skyes bu gang zag brgyad] «The eight persons of the holy beings». Same as སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་རིམ་པ་བརྒྱད་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་ངུ་ [skyes bu chung ngu] Same meaning as སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་ངུའི་ལམ་ [skyes bu chung ngu'i lam] Same meaning as སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བའི་ལམ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བ་ [skyes bu chung ba] «The lesser person» or «person of inferior scope». This indicates the middle one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three beings q.v. It shows the person of lesser capacity. The term means སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བའི་བློ་ «the person of lesser mental capacity». It refers to a person whose mental horizon can only encompass goodness at a worldly level. This person is defined in the ལམ་རིམ་ «graded stages» literature as someone whose spiritual journey is limited to an intention to practice virtue that produces worldly merit. In other words, it refers to འཇིག་རྟེན་གྱི་བསོད་ནམས་ཆ་མཐུན་གྱི་དགེ་བ་ an ordinary worldly person who practices their virtue in order to avoid rebirth in the three lower realms, i.e., to obtain a birth in the three higher realms of saṃsāra.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བའི་ལམ་ [skyes bu chung ba'i lam] «The path of the lesser person» or «the path of the person of inferior scope». This indicates the path followed by the lesser of the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three beings q.v. It is the path of concerning oneself with enduring that one stays out of the three lower realms and obtains a birth in the higher realms. It is the path of སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བ་ an inferior person because the person is only concerned for themselves and even then is only concerned for the next life, not seeing that they need to escape from cyclic existence altogether.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོ་ [skyes bu chen po] 1) «The great person» or «person of great scope». This indicates the highest one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three beings q.v. It shows the person of greatest capacity. One translator gives «advanced» but it is not that the person is advanced per se, it is that the person is སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་བློ་ «the person of great mental capacity», i.e., that the person has the greatest ability or scope in terms of Buddhist practice. It refers to a person whose mental horizon encompasses not merely a better rebirth in cyclic existence, and not only escape from cyclic existence not merely for themselves but enlightenment for all སེམས་ཅན་ sentient beings. This person is defined in the ལམ་རིམ་ «graded stages» literature as someone whose spiritual journey is driven by the highest possible intention, the intention to practice virtue in order to attain the complete enlightenment of a buddha for the welfare of others. In other words, it refers to ཐེག་ཆེན་ཐར་པ་ཆ་མཐུན་གྱི་དགེ་བ་ a person who practices their virtue at the level of the path of Mahāyāna with the intention of reaching the level of a complete buddha. Such a person follows the path of Mahāyāna, the path of the bodhisatva who aspires to become a perfectly enlightened buddha for the welfare of all sentient beings.
2) «Great being». This is an epithet for those who are spiritually advanced in general. In particular, it is also one of the many epithets of the Buddha Śhākyamuni— «The Great Being».

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་རྣམ་རྟོག་བརྒྱད་ [skyes bu chen po'i rnam rtog brgyad] phrase> «The eight thoughts of a great being». Eight thoughts in relation to working for the benefit of others. These are given in the Great Vehicle teachings.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ [skyes bu chen po'i dpe byad bzang po brgyad cu] «The eighty excellent signs of a great being». This refers to the eighty དཔེ་བྱད་ illustrative marks on the body of a མཆོག་གི་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ supreme nirmāṇakāya buddha. These marks are minor compared to the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ thirty-two excellent marks of a great being. Thus the term is often translated as «the eighty minor...» in contrast to the «thirty-two major marks». Nonetheless, the original terms do not have «minor / major» mentioned in them; the lesser marks are called «illustrative (only)» which in itself carries the connotation of lesser and the greater marks are called «excellent marks» which explicitly states that they are the great marks of a great being.
This listing of the eighty illustrative marks of a supreme nirmāṇakāya buddha comes from [NDS]. The translators of [NDS] observe that there is some variation in the listings in various places of both the thirty-two excellent marks and eighty illustrative marks and in an appendix provide listings from various sources of both these sets of marks. One common source of them is Maitreya's the Abhisamayālaṅkāra, The Ornament of Emergent Realisation.
It should be noted that many translations of the excellent and illustrative marks have odd errors in them. E.g., the term ཟླུམ་པ་ does not merely mean rounded but means «smoothly curved» in the specific sense that there are no projecting lumps (from underlying tissue or bone). E.g., བྱིན་པ་ has been translated as «ankle» and «leg» but it refers specifically to the shanks of the leg.
The listing in [NDS] gives the name for each followed by ཉིད་ meaning «this one itself». For the sake of ease of use of the dictionary, I have elided the ཉིད་ and added དཔེ་བྱད་ to each. Readers can click on the entry to obtain more information.
1) སེན་མོ་ཟངས་མདོག་ལྟ་བུའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «copper-coloured nails»;
2) སེན་མོའི་མདོག་སྣུམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «glossy nails»;
3) སེན་མོ་མཐོ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «elevated nails»;
4) སོར་མོ་རྣམས་ཟླུམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «rounded fingers»;
5) སོར་མོ་རྣམས་རྒྱས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «well-developed fingers»;
6) སོར་མོ་རྣམས་བྱིན་གྱིས་ཕྲ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «gradually tapered fingers»;
7) རྩ་མི་མངོན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «veins not evident»;
8) རྩ་མདུད་པ་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «veins without knots»;
9) ལོང་བུ་མི་མངོན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «ankle bones not evident»;
10) ཞབས་མི་མཉམ་པ་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «feet not uneven (meaning flat feet i.e., no arches)»;
11) སེང་གེའི་སྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «walks in the manner of lion»;
12) གླང་པོ་ཆེའི་སྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «walks in the manner of an elephant»;
13) ངང་པའི་སྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «walks in the manner of a swan»;
14) ཁྱུ་མཆོག་གི་སྟབས་སུ་གཤེགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «walks in the manner of the superior of his peers»;
15) གཡས་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ལྡོག་ཅིང་གཤེགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «walks to the right side while turning»;
16) མཛེས་པར་གཤེགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «walks beautifully»;
17) མ་ཡོ་བར་གཤེགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «walks without imbalance»;
18) སྐུ་འཁྲིལ་བག་ཆགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a full, taut body»;
18) སྐུ་བྱི་དོར་བྱས་པ་ལྟ་བུའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «which seems to be cleaned and polished»;
20) སྐུ་རིམ་པར་འཚམས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a well-proportioned body»;
21) སྐུ་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a clean body»;
22) སྐུ་འཇམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a soft body»;
23) སྐུ་རྣམ་པར་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a completely pure body»;
24) མཚན་ཡོངས་སུ་རྫོགས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «a body with all marks fully present»;
25) སྐུའི་ཁོ་ལག་ཡངས་ཤིང་བཟང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «the body maṇḍala is broad and elegant»;
26) གོམ་པ་སྙོམས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «even pace of walking»;
27) སྤྱན་རྣམ་པར་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «completely pure eyes»;
28) སྐུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གཞོན་ཤ་ཅན་གྱི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «very youthful body»;
29) སྐུ་ཞུམ་པ་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «un-sunken body»;
30) སྐུ་རྒྱས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «developed body»;
31) ལྟེ་བ་ཟབ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «deep navel»;
32) སྐུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གསལ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «very conspicuous body»;
33) ཡན་ལག་དང་ཉིང་ལག་ཤིན་ཏུ་རྣམ་པར་འབྱེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «well distinguished major and minor parts»;
34) གཟིགས་པ་རབ་རིབ་མེད་ཅིང་རྣམ་པར་དག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «sight which has no floaters and which is completely pure»;
35) དཀུ་ཟླུམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «rounded hips»;
36) དཀུ་སྐབས་ཕྱིན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «good waistline»;
37) དཀུ་མ་རྙོངས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «waist not elongated»;
38) དཀུ་ཕྱང་ངེ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «flat abdomen»;
39) ལྟེ་བ་གཡས་ཕྱོགས་སུ་འཁྱིལ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «navel winding to the right»;
40) ཀུན་ནས་མཛེས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «entirely beautiful»;
41) ཀུན་ཏུ་སྤྱོད་པ་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «pure in all manners of conduct»;
42) སྐུ་ལ་སྨེ་བ་དང་གནག་བག་མེད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «body is free of freckles and moles»;
43) ཕྱག་ཤིང་བལ་ལྟར་ཤིན་ཏུ་འཇམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «hands are soft like cotton wool»;
44) ཕྱག་གི་རི་མོ་མདངས་ཡོད་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «glossy lines on the hands»;
45) ཕྱག་གི་རི་མོ་ཟབ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «deep lines on the hands»;
46) ཕྱག་གི་རི་མོ་རིང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «long lines on the hands»;
47) ཞལ་ཧ་ཅང་མི་རིང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «face is not too long»;
48) མཆུ་བིམ་བའི་གཟུགས་བརྙན་འདྲ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «lips are red like the Bimba fruit»;
49) ལྗགས་མཉེན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «pliant tongue»;
50) ལྗགས་སྲབ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «thin tongue»;
51) ལྗགས་དམར་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «red tongue»;
52) གསུང་འབྲུག་གི་སྒྲ་དང་ལྡན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «thundering voice»;
53) གསུང་སྙན་ཅིང་མཉེན་ལ་འཇམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «sweet, melodious and gentle voice»;
54) མཆེ་བ་ཟླུམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «round incisors»;
55) མཆེ་བ་རྣོ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «sharp incisors»;
56) མཆེ་བ་དཀར་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «white incisors»;
57) མཆེ་བ་མཉམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «equal incisors»;
58) མཆེ་བ་བྱིན་གྱིས་ཕྲ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «gradually tapered incisors»;
59) ཤངས་མཐོ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «prominent nose»;
60) ཤངས་གཙང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «clean nose»;
61) སྤྱན་ཡངས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «large eyes»;
62) རྫི་མ་སྟུག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «thick eyelashes»;
63) སྤྱན་དཀར་ནག་འབྱེས་ཤིང་པདྨའི་འདབ་མ་རངས་པ་ལྟ་བུའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «the white and black parts of the eyes are distinct like the full petals of the lotus»;
64) སྨིན་ཚུགས་རིང་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «long eyebrows»;
65) སྨིན་མ་འཇམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «smooth eyebrows»;
66) སྨིན་མ་སྣུམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «glossy eyebrows»;
67) སྨིན་མའི་སྤུ་མཉམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «even hairs of the eyebrows»;
68) ཕྱག་རིང་ཞིང་རྒྱས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «long and well-developed hands»;
69) སྙན་མཉམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «even ears»;
70) སྙན་གྱི་དབང་པོ་མ་ཉམས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «hearing faculty is unimpaired»;
71) དཔྲལ་བ་ལེགས་པར་འབྱེས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «well-defined forehead»;
72) དཔྲལ་བ་འབྱེས་ཆེ་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «broad forehead»;
73) དབུ་ཤིན་ཏུ་རྒྱས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «fully developed head»;
74) དབུ་སྐྲ་བུང་བ་ལྟར་གནག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «hair is as black as a bumblebee»;
75) དབུ་སྐྲ་སྟུག་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «thick hair»;
76) དབུ་སྐྲ་འཇམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «smooth hair»;
77) དབུ་སྐྲ་མ་འཛིངས་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «untangled hair»;
78) དབུ་སྐྲ་མི་གཤོར་བའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «not unruly hair»;
79) དབུ་སྐྲ་དྲི་ཞིམ་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «fragrant hair»;
80) ཕྱག་ཞབས་དཔལ་གྱི་བེའུ་དང་བཀྲ་ཤིས་དང་གཡུང་དྲུང་འཁྱིལ་བས་བརྒྱན་པའི་དཔེ་བྱད་ «hands and feet are adorned with swirling knots of eternity, auspicious signs, and svastika».

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ [skyes bu chen po'i mtshan sum cu so gnyis] «The thirty-two marks of a great being». Same meaning as སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ «the thirty-two excellent marks of a great being» q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་མཚན་བཟང་པོ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གཉིས་ [skyes bu chen po'i mtshan bzang po sum cu so gnyis] «The thirty-two excellent marks of a great being». This refers to the thirty-two མཚན་བཟང་པོ་ excellent marks of a མཆོག་གི་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ supreme nirmāṇakāya buddha. These marks are major compared to the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་དཔེ་བྱད་བཟང་པོ་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty illustrative marks of a great being. Thus the term is often translated as «the thirty-major marks» in contrast to the «eighty minor marks». Nonetheless, the original terms do not have «minor / major» mentioned in them; the lesser marks are called «illustrative (only)» which in itself carries the connotation of lesser and the greater marks are called «excellent marks» which explicitly states that they are the great marks of a great being.
This listing of the thirty-two excellent marks of a supreme nirmāṇakāya buddha comes from [NDS]. The translators of [NDS] observe that there is some variation in the listings in various places of both the thirty-two excellent and eighty illustrative marks and in an appendix provide listings from various sources of both these sets of marks. One common source of them is Maitreya's Abhisamayālaṅkāra, The Ornament of Emergent Realisation.
It should be noted that many translations of the marks have odd errors in them. E.g., the term ཟླུམ་པ་ does not merely mean rounded but means «smoothly curved» in the specific sense that there are no projecting lumps (from underlying tissue or bone). E.g., བྱིན་པ་ has been translated as «ankle» and «leg» but it refers specifically to the shanks of the leg.
The listing in [NDS] gives the name of the mark with ཉིད་ added, which translates the «tā» on the end of each name as written by Nāgārjuna in the original Sanskrit. This simply mean «this one, itself». For the sake of convenience of use of the dictionary, the ཉིད་ has been elided.
1) ཕྱག་དང་ཞབས་ཀྱི་མཐིལ་འཁོར་ལོའི་མཚན་དང་ལྡན་པ་ «the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet are (each) marked with a wheel»;
2) ཕྱག་དང་ཞབས་ཀྱི་མཐིལ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གནས་པ་ «the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet are very well set»;
3) ཕྱག་དང་ཞབས་ཀྱི་སོར་མོ་དྲྭ་བས་འབྲེལ་བ་ «toes and fingers are webbed»;
4) ཕྱག་དང་ཞབས་འཇམ་ཞིང་གཞོན་ཤ་ཆགས་པ་ «hands and feet are soft and smooth»;
5) བདུན་མཐོ་བ་ «seven upper (places)»;
6) སོར་མོ་རིང་བ་ «fingers are long»;
7) རྟིང་པ་ཡངས་པ་ «heels are broad»;
8) སྐུ་དྲང་བ་ «body is straight»;
9) ཞབས་འབུར་མི་མངོན་པ་ «ankle-bones are not evident»;
10) སྤུའི་རྩེ་མོ་གྱེན་དུ་ཕྱོགས་པ་ «hair-tips turn upward»;
11) བྱིན་པ་རི་དྭགས་ཨེཎེཡའི་ལྟ་བུ་ «shanks like those of the antelope Eṇeya»;
12) བཞེངས་བཞིན་དུ་མ་བཏུད་པར་ཕྱག་པུས་མོར་སླེབས་པ་ «standing straight, his arms reach to the knees»;
13) འདོམས་ཀྱི་སྦ་བ་སྦུབས་སུ་ནུབ་པ་ «private organ is hidden in a sheath»;
14) གསེར་མདོག་འདྲ་བ་ «(body skin) like the colour of gold»;
15) པགས་པ་འཇམ་པ་ «smooth skin»;
16) སྤུ་རེ་རེ་ནས་གཡས་ཕྱོགས་སུ་འཁྱིལ་བ་ «each hair coils to the right»;
17) ཞལ་མཛོད་སྤུས་བརྒྱན་པ་ «face is adorned with an ūrṇā»;
18) སྐུ་སྟོད་སེངྒེ་འདྲ་བ་ «torso like a lion»;
19) དཔུང་མགོ་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཟླུམ་པ་ «shoulders very smoothly curved»;
20) ཐལ་གོང་རྒྱས་པ་ «broad shoulders»;
21) རོ་བྲོ་བའི་མཆོག་དང་ལྡན་པ་ «having the finest sense of taste»;
22) ཤིང་ཉྱགྲོདྷ་ལྟར་ཆུ་ཞེང་གབ་པ་ «body well-proportioned like the Nyagrodha tree»;
23) དབུ་གཙུག་ཏོར་དང་ལྡན་པ་ «having a crown protuberance on the head»;
24) ལྗགས་ཤིན་ཏུ་རིང་བ་ «tongue is very long»;
25) འགྲམ་པ་སེངྒེའི་འདྲ་བ་ «jaw like a lion's»;
26) ཚེམས་དཀར་བ་ «white teeth»;
27) ཚེམས་མཉམ་པ་ «teeth uniform in size»;
28) ཚངས་པའི་དབྱངས་ «a Brahma-like melodious voice»;
29) ཚེམས་ཐགས་བཟང་བ་ «well-arranged teeth are evenly set»;
30) ཚེམས་བཞི་བཅུ་མཉམ་པ་ «total of forty teeth»;
31) སྤྱན་མཐོན་མཐིང་ «deep blue eyes»; and
32) རྫི་མ་བའི་ལྟ་བུ་ «eyelashes like those of a heifer».

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་རིམ་པ་བརྒྱད་ [skyes bu chen po'i rim pa brgyad] «The eight grades of great beings». The name for the eight levels of persons who accomplish the ཞུགས་གནས་བརྒྱད་ eight levels; also see སྐྱེས་བུ་ཟུང་བཞི་ the four pairs of beings.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་ལམ་ [skyes bu chen po'i lam] «The path of the great person» or «the path of the person of great scope». This indicates the path followed by the highest one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three beings q.v. It is the path of concerning oneself with attaining buddhahood for the sake of others, i.e., the ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ Mahāyāna path of the bodhisatva.

སྐྱེས་བུ་མཆོག་ [skyes bu mchog] phrase> Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «puruṣha puṅgava» meaning སྐྱེས་བུ་མཆོག་ཏུ་གྱུར་པ་ «the most excellent person / supreme person». Used as an epithet for excellent beings, e.g., the buddha. Commonly abbrev. as སྐྱེས་མཆོག་. 1) An epithet of the buddhas in general. E.g., in [KBC] a quote from the Samādhi rājasūtra: བྱེ་བ་ཁྲག་ཁྲིག་གཏམ་པའི་ཞིང་དག་ན། །མཆོད་པ་རྣམ་མང་དཔག་མེད་ཅི་ཡོད་པ། །སྐྱེས་མཆོག་རྣམས་ལ་ཉིན་རེར་རྟག་མཆོད་པས། «even when offering constantly, every day, all the boundless myriads of offerings that exist in the millions and billions of buddha fields to the supreme beings». 2) Often used as an epithet of the guru by his followers. 3) An epithet of ཁྱབ་འཇུག་ Viṣhṇu.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཐ་མ་ [skyes bu tha ma] phrase> 1) «Least being». One of three categories of the རྗེས་འཇུག་ཕོ་ཡིག་ male suffix letters q.v. 2) Sometimes used to mean སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་དམ་པ་ [skyes bu dam pa] phrase> «Sublime / holy person or being». Translation of the Sanskrit «satpuruṣha». Used as an epithet of the great beings who are able to benefit sentient beings. Like the English «saint» or «saintly being». E.g., [KBC] on the [BCA]: སློབ་དཔོན་ཞི་བ་ལྷས་སྐྱེས་བུ་དམ་པ་ཡ་རབས་ཀྱི་ཚུལ་དང་མཐུན་པར་ «Āchārya Śhāntideva (pays homage) in accordance with the manner of the holy beings of noble descent'.

སྐྱེས་བུ་འདུལ་བའི་ཁ་ལོ་སྒྱུར་བ་ [skyes bu 'dul ba'i kha lo sgyur ba] phrase> «Driver who tames beings». One of many སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མཚན་ epithets of the Buddha.

སྐྱེས་བུ་འདུལ་བའི་ཁ་ལོ་སྒྱུར་བ་བླ་ན་མེད་པ་ [skyes bu 'dul ba'i kha lo sgyur ba bla na med pa] «Unsurpassed guide who tames beings». One of many སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མཚན་ epithets of the buddha.

སྐྱེས་བུ་བྱེད་པའི་འབྲས་བུ་ [skyes bu byed pa'i 'bras bu] «The result of beings' actions». One of the འབྲས་བུ་ལྔ་ five types of result q.v. It means that a result comes in accordance with the particular effort that the being has made just as if crops are planted there will be a harvest.

སྐྱེས་བུ་བྱེད་འབྲས་ [skyes bu byed 'bras] Same as སྐྱེས་བུ་བྱེད་པའི་འབྲས་བུ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་ [skyes bu 'bring] phrase> 1) Grammar term. «Middling being». One of three categories of the རྗེས་འཇུག་ཕོ་ཡིག་ male suffix letters q.v. 2) Same as སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་གི་ལམ་ [skyes bu 'bring gi lam] «The path of the middling person» or «the path of the person of medium scope». This indicates the path followed by the middling of the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three beings q.v. It is the path of concerning oneself with ensuring that one escapes from cyclic existence. It is a path only of medium scope because the concern is for individual emancipation and not emancipation for all sentient beings. This is the path of the Lesser Vehicle.

སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་བ་ [skyes bu 'bring ba] «The middling person» or «person of middling scope». This indicates the middle one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three beings q.v. This indicates the middle one of the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three beings q.v. It shows the person of middling capacity. One translator gives «mediocre» but it is not that the person is mediocre per se, it is that the person is of mediocre ability or scope, i.e., the term means སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་བའི་བློ་ «the person of middling mental capacity». It refers to a person whose mental horizon encompasses not merely a better rebirth in cyclic existence but escape from cyclic existence for themselves. This person is defined in the ལམ་རིམ་ «graded stages» literature as someone whose spiritual journey is limited to an intention to practice virtue that produces personal liberation (only). In other words, it refers to ཐེག་དམན་ཐར་པ་ཆ་མཐུན་གྱི་དགེ་བ་ a person who practices their virtue in order at the level of the path of Hīnayāna with the intention of reaching the level either of a śhrāvaka-arhat or pratyeka-arhat.

སྐྱེས་བུ་རྨོངས་པ་ [skyes bu rmongs pa] phrase> «(An) ignorant person (or being)», «(a) stupid person (or being)».

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཚད་མ་ [skyes bu tshad ma] phrase> «Person who is a valid reference», «pramāṇa being / person». This means someone whose speech can be relied on as correct because their ཚད་མ་ understanding is valid. In Buddhism, the buddha is the ultimate pramāṇa being because, with his total lack of obscuration, he sees all phenomena in both their depth and extent as they are. However, the buddha is not the only valid reference; anyone who has a validly cognizing mind can be such.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཟུང་བཞི་ [skyes bu zung bzhi] «Four pairs of beings». These are the four pairs of འཕགས་པའི་སྐྱེས་བུ་བཞི་ Ārya beings, the beings who have attained any of the འབྲས་བུ་བཞི་ four main levels of attainment of the śhrāvaka vehicle q.v. They are: 1) རྒྱུན་ཞུགས་ཀྱི་འབྲས་བུ་ལ་ཞུགས་གནས་གཉིས་ the pair that enters on and abides in stream entry; 2) ལན་ཅིག་ཕྱིར་འོང་བ་ལ་བ་ལ་ཞུགས་གནས་གཉིས་ the pair that enters on and abides in once-return; 3) ཕྱིར་མི་འོང་བ་ལ་ཞུགས་གནས་གཉིས་ the pair that enters on and abides in non-return; 4) དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ་ལ་ཞུགས་གནས་གཉིས་ the pair that enters on and abides in arhatship.

སྐྱེས་བུ་ཟུང་བཞི་ཡ་བརྒྱད་ [skyes bu zung bzhi ya brgyad] «The eight members of the four pairs of holy beings». These are the eight members of the སྐྱེས་བུ་ཟུང་བཞི་ four pairs of beings, the འཕགས་པའི་སྐྱེས་བུ་བཞི་ Ārya beings who have attained one of the four fruits of the śhrāvaka vehicle.

སྐྱེས་བུ་རབ་ [skyes bu rab] phrase> «Best being». One of three categories of the རྗེས་འཇུག་ཕོ་ཡིག་ male suffix letters q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ [skyes bu gsum] «The three (types of) person)». [DGT] gives as: 1) ཆུང་ངུ་ «lesser»; 2) འབྲིང་པོ་ «middling»; and 3) ཆེན་པོ་ «great» which are short for 1) སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བ་ «lesser person»; 2) སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་བ་ «middling person»; and 3) སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོ་ «great person» q.v.
This is key terminology of the ལམ་རིམ་ stages of the path literature. That literature shows the general Mahāyāna path to enlightenment (the pāramitā path) in terms of three levels of practice. The three levels are equated with humans of lesser capacity, middling capacity, and great capacity. The term here is indicates the three persons of differing capacity. According to the literature, the three kinds of persons are in fact: 1) སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བའི་བློ་ «the person of lesser mental capacity»; 2) སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་བའི་བློ་ «the person of middling mental capacity»; and 3) སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་བློ་ «the person of great mental capacity q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་གྱི་ལམ་ [skyes bu gsum gyi lam] «The paths of the three beings». The three, different levels of paths that are followed by the སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three grades of being set out in the ལམ་རིམ་ stages of the path literature. The three paths are: 1) སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆུང་བའི་ལམ་ «the path of the lesser person»; 2) སྐྱེས་བུ་འབྲིང་གི་ལམ་ «the path of the middling person»; 3) སྐྱེས་བུ་ཆེན་པོའི་ལམ་ «the path of the great person» q.v.

སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་གྱི་ལམ་རིམ་ [skyes bu gsum gyi lam rim] «The stages of the path of the three beings». A general term applied to a particular style of teaching belonging to the ལམ་རིམ་ stages of the path literature of the བཀའ་གདམས་པ་ Kadampa tradition. In this literature, the path to enlightenment according to the general (pāramitā) teachings of the Mahāyāna is set out in a graduated sequence. The sequence has three main levels, according to the three types of beings that are distinguished in the teaching. The སྐྱེས་བུ་གསུམ་ three types of beings differ in their scope and ability of practice.

སྐྱེས་བུའི་མིག་འབྱེད་བཙུམ་ཙམ་མ་གཏོགས་ [skyes bu'i mig 'byed btsum tsam ma gtogs] «Not for more than the blink of an eye».

སྐྱེས་བུའི་སེང་གེ་ [skyes bu'i seng ge] «Lion(s) among men». Similar to མི་ཡི་སེང་གེ་ q.v. for explanation. Here སྐྱེས་བུ་ specifically means a male human, not beings in general.

སྐྱེས་མ་ཐག་པ་ [skyes ma thag pa] Lit. «immediately it has been produced or has happened». The phrase is always placed following something which happens and gives the sense of «right upon that happening». E.g., [KBC] སྐྱེས་མ་ཐག་པའི་སྐད་ཅིག་དེ་ཉིད་ «in the very moment after bodhicitta has been born».

སྐྱེས་མེད་ [skyes med] phrase> «Birthless», «without production». Used in reference to phenomena to indicate that they are, when they arise, empty because of being without production of empty of a solid, real entity.

སྐྱེས་ཙམ་ནས་འདའ་བ་ [skyes tsam nas 'da' ba] «nirvāṇa after just (one) rebirth. One of the དགེ་འདུན་ཉི་ཤུ་ «twenty saṅghas» q.v. who is one of སྐྱེས་ནས་འདའ་བ་གསུམ་ «the three who go to nirvāṇa after rebirth».

སྐྱེས་ཡུལ་ [skyes yul] «Birth place»; meaning not the specific place but the but the general locale, area, district or even country of birth.

སྐྱེས་རབས་ [skyes rabs] 1) «Succession of lives / lifetimes», meaning a «succession of births» at any time past, present, or future. (The past form སྐྱེས་ is an abbrev. of སྐྱེས་པ་ meaning simply «birth». Hence the term does not only mean births that have already happened but any series of births of the past or future, including the present. 2) Hence also, «narratives of former births / lives» i.e., the life-stories of a being through a succession of lives (not necessarily continuous). E.g., as in སྐྱེས་རབས་ཀྱི་སྡེ་ q.v. which is one of the གསུང་རབ་ཀྱི་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve sections of the Buddha's teachings, the section that collects the stories that he told of his various previous lifetimes as he trod the path to enlightenment. The term is used to refer to past life stories of any being, not necessarily the Buddha.

སྐྱེས་རབས་ཀྱི་སྡེ་ [skyes rabs kyi sde] «The Section of Life Stories», «The Section of Jatakas». One of the གསུང་རབ་ཀྱི་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve sections of the Buddha's teachings, the section of collected stories that he told of his various previous lifetimes as he trod the path to enlightenment.

སྐྱེས་རབས་དཔག་བསམ་འཁྲི་ཞིང་ [skyes rabs dpag bsam 'khri zhing] Common version of the name of a Sanskrit text on the previous lives of the Buddha. The short name in Sanskrit is «kalpalatā». The full name is བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་རྟོགས་པ་བརྗོད་པའི་དཔག་བསམ་འཁྲི་ཞིང་ [Skt. «bodhisattvādāna-kalpalata»]. Authored by དགེ་བའི་དབང་པོ་ Kṣhemendra. The text is in one hundred and eight chapters. [Pek] 5655, Vol. 128-129.

སྐྱེས་རབས་གསོལ་འདེབས་ [skyes rabs gsol 'debs] phrase> Supplication to some great being done by supplicating the various embodiments of the being through successive incarnations.

སྐྱེས་ལེན་ [skyes len] Abbrev. of སྐྱེས་པ་ལེན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱེས་ས་ [skyes sa] «Birth-place».

སྐྱོ་ [skyo] I. See སྐྱོ་བ་ q.v.
II. Abbrev. of སྐྱོ་པོ་ q.v.

སྐྱོ་ངལ་ [skyo ngal] Abbrev. of སེམས་སྐྱོ་བ་ and ལུས་ངལ་བ་ meaning «physical and mental fatigue». This can have the connotation of the mind being just tired, like the body, or can mean that the mind is «fed up with» and the body is weary from whatever difficulty one is going through. E.g., [KBC] ཆོས་སྟོན་པ་ལ་སྐྱོ་ངལ་དང་གནོད་འཚེ་བཟོད་པས་བཟོད་པ། «when teaching the dharma, putting up with physical and mental fatigue and harm, is patience.»

སྐྱོ་ངལ་མེད་པ་ [skyo ngal med pa] phrase> Having a lack of physical and mental fatigue in the positive sense i.e., being without fatigue, tireless, happy to go on.

སྐྱོ་སྔོགས་ [skyo sngogs] [Old] Acc. [ULS] and [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, འཁྲུག་པ་ «discord». [TC] clarifies: 1) སྔར་ཁོན་པ་བར་སྐབས་སུ་ཞི་བ་སླར་སློང་བ། «reviving an old grudge after there has been peace for some time», «re-instigating a previous quarrel» and 2) ཁ་མཆུ་དང་རྩོད་གླེང་། «litigation and quarrel».

སྐྱོ་པོ་ [skyo po] Form of སྐྱོ་བ་ with the general meaning «to be lacking in / to be poor in», «to be a low situation»; can apply to mental and physical circumstances. 1) Mentally, for the mind not to be full of happiness. A variety of English words will suit on context e.g., «sad», «unhappy», «discontent», «weary of / disenchanted with». 2) Circumstantially, to be «poor», to be lacking in material circumstances e.g., མི་སྐྱོ་པོ་ «a poor man», someone not well off. It could refer to a beggar but སྤྲང་པོ་ is the specific term for someone who is poor and begs. 3) Physically, to have a body which is weak or emaciated through lack of nutrition, or which is in an unwell condition because of some disease or accident.

སྐྱོ་བ་ [skyo ba] I. v.i. སྐྱོ་བ་/ སྐྱོ་བ་/ སྐྱོ་བ་//. Lit. to have a mind that is down, upset, or pained over something. To have a mind which is not spirited and perky. There are many English verbs used in varying contexts for the two main meanings of this verb. 1) «To be sad», «to be miserable». E.g., [TC] སེམས་སྐྱོ་བ་ «to be unhappy about / disappointed / down in the mind»; ཡིད་སྐྱོ་ནས་མིག་ལྟ་མི་བཟོད་པ། «being disappointed, he couldn't bear to look». 2) Meaning «to be fed up with», «to be weary of», «to be disenchanted with», «to have distaste for», etc. E.g., [MGR] འཁོར་བ་སྐྱོ་ནས། སྡུག་བསྔལ་སྐྱོ་ནས་ཆོས་སྒྲུབ་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་རེད། «through being disenchanted with cyclic existence, fed up with unsatisfactoriness, it is possible to practice dharma». E.g., [TC] བྱས་ཉེས་བྱུང་བ་ལ་སྐྱོ་ནས་འགྱོད་སེམས་སྐྱེས་པ། «disturbed at the bad effects of his (probably criminal) actions, he became regretful.»
II. Usual adjectival form is སྐྱོ་པོ་ q.v.
1) Having a mind which, because it has become disenchanted with the unsatisfactory nature of cyclic existence, has little interest in cyclic existence. In this sense it is equivalent in meaning to ངེས་འབྱུང་གི་སེམས་ or ཡིད་འབྱུང་གི་སེམས་ (which in English are currently translated as «mind of renunciation») but whereas those terms emphasize the fact that one has turned to something that is ultimately reliable, this term emphasizes the first step of that which is loss of interest in འཁོར་བ་ cyclic existence. Thus, «disenchantment», «weariness (with)», «disheartened». E.g., [KBC] when speaking of the correct way to listen to the dharma explains སྐྱོ་བས་ཉན་པ་དྲི་མ་ཡིན། «listening with weariness (an attitude of being down instead of up and not perky) is (one of the six) stains.
It is mostly used with the verb སྐྱེད་པ་ «develop disenchantment» e.g., from [GMM] །རྨི་ལམ་སྒྱུ་མ་དོན་ལ་ཡོད་མ་ཡིན། །དེས་ན་སྐྱོ་བསྐྱེད་འཇིག་རྟེན་བྱ་བ་ཐོངས།
«Dreams and illusions do not exist in fact.
Therefore, develop disenchantment then leave aside worldly activities!»

2) This term literally means to have a circumstance which is «lacking» in goodness or which is «down» or «not full» / «poor» in good qualities. It is thus used to cover a wide range of meanings and thus can be translated by a variety of English words on context. It is used both mentally and physically. E.g., གཟུགས་པོ་སྐྱོ་བ་ «weak body» or a body which because of sickness has become imperfect. E.g., having circumstances which are «sad», «miserable», «unhappy», «gloomy», «suffering», «poor». E.g., [MGR] མིའི་ལུས་ཡིན་ན་སྐྱོ་བ་མང་པོ། སྡུག་བསྔལ་མང་པོ་ཡོད་རེད། «In a human body, there are many sad states, there are many unsatisfactorinesses».

སྐྱོ་མ་ [skyo ma] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs 1) ཕྲ་མ་ and 2) ཕྱེ་བ་ q.v. 3) [TC] gives as མིག་སྐྱག་ q.v.

སྐྱོ་ཤས་ [skyo shas] «Loathing», «utter disenchantment», «complete weariness». The term is a very strong term that indicates that the mind has «no interest any longer in something because of being fed up with it from the core of one's being». It is mostly seen in Buddhist texts in reference to someone who has come to loathe cyclic existence.
This is a case where following the etymology of the term will not necessarily give the correct English meaning. For example, the terms «sadness», «sorrow» have been used but are not right even though སེམས་སྐྱོ་པོ་ means to be down, depressed mind over something. This term means that one has lost all interest and has come to a strong state of mind of aversion because of it. Thus «disenchantment» and «weariness with» are correct but are not strong enough. The term «loathing» is actually the meaning in Tibetan since the Tibetan means that you are unhappy with something to the limit, and actually have come to the positive side of detesting it. The terms «remorse», «regret», «repentance» that have been used are not correct at all. It is also not disgust or revulsion; they accurately translate ཞེན་ལོག་ q.v.

སྐྱོག་ [skyog] See སྐྱོག་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱོག་པ་ [skyog pa] v.t. བསྐྱོགས་པ་/ སྐྱོག་པ་/ བསྐྱོག་པ་/ སྐྱོགས་/. The root sense of the word is to turn or twist off in some direction, very similar to the English «to crook». 1) «To control something by directing it. E.g., [TC] རྟ་ཁ་བསྐྱོགས་པ། lit. «to steer / direct a horse» but also «to ride a horse»; མགོ་བོ་བསྐྱོགས་ནས་མིག་གིས་མི་ལྟ། «having twisted / turned away his head, he couldn't see»; མགྲིན་པ་སྐྱོགས་ཤིག «turn your head! (twist your neck!)». 2) «To turn / twist / bend / crook off to one side». E.g., [TC] སྐུ་ཕར་སྐྱོག་ཙམ་གནང་དང་། «please turn your body that way a little». 3) One translator has given as «to find fault with» but that is not correct.

སྐྱོགས་ [skyogs] I. Imp. of སྐྱོག་པ་ q.v.
II. A word used to indicate a spoon / ladle type of implement. The word is suffixed to many other words to make new words for a wide variety of such implements, from a small spoon, through a cup to a ladle, to a shovel. E.g., མེ་སྐྱོགས་ the equivalent of a European coal shovel for hearth fires; see [SCD] for a good description.

སྐྱོང་ [skyong] See སྐྱོང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱོང་བ་ [skyong ba] I. v.t. བསྐྱངས་པ་/ སྐྱོང་བ་/ བསྐྱང་བ་/ སྐྱོངས་/. This has the basic meaning of looking after something, nurturing it so that it does not degenerate but survives. The verb has many connotations which are represented by a variety of English words. There are three main levels of meaning as follows. 1) «To guard the life or well-being of someone or something», i.e., «to preserve», «to maintain, «to nurture», «to care for», «to look after». E.g., [KBC] དམན་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱང་སྙིང་རྗེས་ལྷག་པར་སྐྱོང་བ་ «and (Śhāntideva) especially cared with compassion for the disadvantaged». E.g., [TC] ཕྲུ་གུ་བྱམས་པས་བསྐྱངས། «cared for / nurtured children with love»; མགོན་མེད་རྒན་རྒོན་རྣམས་ལ་གཟིགས་ཤིང་སྐྱོང་། «looking after and caring for the elderly who have no-one to look after them»; རྩྭ་ཁར་སྒོ་ཕྱུགས་སྐྱོང་བ། «the farm animals are maintained in the pasture»; གཉེན་འཁོར་སྐྱོང་བ། «to care for friends and attendants»; དྲིན་གྱིས་བསྐྱངས་པ། «cared for with kindness». 2) «To protect», in the sense of being a refuge, which could include the sense of «to oversee», «to foster», «to protect», «to guard». E.g., [TC] ཡུལ་འཁོར་སྐྱོང་། «protecting the country»; ཐབས་ཀྱིས་བསྐྱངས། «protected by (some) means». 3) To perform some duty or work usually with the sense of «ruling», «governing», «taking charge of». E.g, [KBC] ཇི་ལྟར་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཆེན་པོའི་སྲས་ཀྱི་ཐུ་བོ་ནི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་གདུང་བརྒྱུད་འཛིན་པ། འཁོར་འབངས་མངའ་རིས་སྐྱོང་བ། «just as the eldest son of a great king upholds the royal lineage, rules the entourage, the subjects, and the kingdom». E.g., [TC] སྲིད་སྐྱོང་བ། «to rule / govern (the secular world)»; ཁྱིམ་ཚང་སྐྱོང་བ། «to run a household»; ལས་དོན་ཚུལ་བཞིན་དུ་བསྐྱངས། «did the work according to how it should be done»; ཚོང་ལས་བསྐྱངས། «did the work of a merchant».
NOTE: This is an important term in the ཁྲེགས་ཆོད་ Thorough Cut path of the Great Completion and also in essence Mahāmudrā. It means to keep and not lose, to maintain, སེམས་ཀྱི་ངོ་བོ་ the essence of mind that has shone forth in the practitioner's mind. In these contexts it specifically means that no rational process or effort is being used to preserve it, rather the special instructions that go with the practice are followed to keep it just as it is. This is also always applied to the ངང་ state, q.v., and the phrase ངང་སྐྱོང་བ་ «to preserve the state» is a key oral instruction of these two practice systems.
II. 1) «Guardian», «protector», «defender of ...». 2) The Sanskrit «pāla» was a very common name in ancient India. At least one of Śhākyamuni Buddha's disciples had the name. One who had the name was well-known for his extremely thick delusion.

སྐྱོངས་ [skyongs] Imp. of v.t. སྐྱོང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱོད་ [skyod] 1) Imp. of v.t. སྐྱོད་པ་ q.v. 2) Part of སྐྱོད་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱོད་པ་ [skyod pa] I. v.t. བསྐྱོད་པ་/ སྐྱོད་པ་/ བསྐྱོད་པ་/ སྐྱོད་/. Meaning «to cause something which is stationary to move», «to cause something to move off or about». E.g., གྲུ་འཛིན་གྲུ་སྐྱས་སྐྱོད། «the boat was put into motion with the oars» or «the oars were used to set the boat in motion». The term usually has the sense of causing to move in a back and forth / to and fro motion». Hence «to agitate», «to shake», «to move (transitive)», «to make tremble / quake / waver / shudder / tremble / flap», and the like are often the meaning intended. E.g., in the case of wind «to stir». E.g., [TC] དར་དམར་རླུང་གིས་སྐྱོད། «the wind stirred the red flag» or «the wind made the red flag flutter».
II. v.i. བསྐྱོད་པ་/ སྐྱོད་པ་/ བསྐྱོད་པ་//. For something which is stationary to move about in place or to move off from the original location to another. Hence «to move (intransitive)», «to shift off from», «to go off». 1) When referring to movement in situ, it is used to refer to things such as a flag or the earth starting move about in place hence «to waver / shudder / tremble / flap / stir». 2) When referring to movement off to another place, it is used to refer to travel by walking, etc. E.g., ཁྲོམ་ནས་སྐྱོད། «went from the market». E.g., [TC] དཔུང་སྡེ་ཐག་རིང་དུ་བསྐྱོད། «the army division moved far off»; གཞུང་ལམ་ནས་སྐྱོད། «to travel / go by the highway»; ཁྱེད་རྣམས་མྱུར་དུ་གནས་གཞན་དུ་སྐྱོད་ཅིག «you must go off to another place quickly!». 3) When referring to movement off to another place, it is also used from things which are carried away on water: «to drift (off from)», «to be carried off / away from».

སྐྱོན་ [skyon] I. 1) Imp. and 2) present part of v.t. སྐྱོན་པ་ q.v.
II. Translation of the Sanskrit «doṣha». 1) The opp. of something being good or without defect. The word has a wide range of meaning and there are many words in the English language which correctly translate the various shades of meaning, e.g., «fault», «defect», «imperfection», «blemish», «flaw», «bad thing about...», «shortcoming», «mistake». E.g., ཁྱོད་ལ་ད་རུང་སྐྱོན་གཅིག་འདུག་པ། «You still have a fault (even though you have practiced a lot of meditation by now), don't you?». i) In logical argument, it is a fault contained in a proposition or thesis put up by someone else. 2) The harm caused or damage done by something, e.g., མེ་སྐྱོན། is the harmful property belonging to, or the damage done, by fire. This would include «the problem with...», «drawback to», «disadvantage of». 3) [Mngon] for degrading action སྡིག་པ་.
III. A general term for that which is bad as opposed to good. It actually conveys the negative sense of «not good», «not all right».

སྐྱོན་བརྒྱད་ [skyon brgyad] «Eight faults»; see བསམ་གཏན་གྱི་སྐྱོན་བརྒྱད་ q.v.

སྐྱོན་ཅན་ [skyon can] 1) «Faulty» or «defective» in the sense of not being correct. E.g., logic which is faulty, defective. 2) «Faulty», «defective» in the sense of being less than perfect, imperfect. 3) «Having faults» meaning someone who has done negative actions and has accumulated negative karma because of it.

སྐྱོན་བཏོན་པ་ [skyon bton pa] phrase> v.t. see འདོན་པ་ for tenses. 1) «To have shown that someone is at fault», «to have revealed someone's mistake or fault». 2) «To have shown that someone is at fault and then corrected them».
NOTE: Both meanings can also carry the sense of «to blame», «to censure», «to correct».

སྐྱོན་སྟོན་པ་ [skyon ston pa] phrase> v.t. see སྟོན་པ་ for tense forms. 1) Similar in meaning to སྐྱོན་བཏོན་པ་ but having a more «clinical» meaning. This simply means that you show the fault in something. 2) Mistaken spelling of སྐྱོན་བཏོན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱོན་དང་ཡོན་ཏན་དག་དབྱེ་བ་ [skyon dang yon tan dag dbye ba] phrase> v.t. see དབྱེ་བ་ for tense forms. «To distinguish between faults and good qualities», «to distinguish between good and bad qualities».

སྐྱོན་དུ་གྱུར་པ་ [skyon du gyur pa] phrase> phrase> «Having become faulty», «turned faulty», «become defective», «gone defective».

སྐྱོན་པ་ [skyon pa] v.t. བསྐྱོན་པ་/ སྐྱོན་པ་/ བསྐྱོན་པ་/ སྐྱོན་/. Meaning «to mount something other than oneself upon something». For the sense «to mount oneself on something» see ཞོན་པ་. 1) «To mount (upon)», «to set upon», «to put astride». E.g., [TC] བྱིས་པ་རྟ་ལ་བསྐྱོན། «he mounted the child on the horse» or «he put the child astride the horse». This includes the meaning of putting / fixing something or someone on top of a place where it is to stay / be carried. E.g., ནོར་བུ་དར་ལྕོག་ལ་སྐྱོན་ «fix the ornament on top of the prayer flag pole!». E.g., [TC] མི་གསལ་ཤིང་ལ་སྐྱོན་པ། «impaled (mounted on) on the impaling stick» (a form of capital punishment). 2) «To place on top of (in general)». E.g., [TC] ཐབ་ལ་ཁོག་མ་སྐྱོན་པ། «put the earthenware pot on top of the stove». 3) [Hon] of རྒྱག་པ་ in some circumstances. E.g., [TC] ཕྱག་མདའ་སྐྱོན་པ་གནང་། [Hon] «shoot the arrow»; གཟིམས་སྒོ་བསྐྱོན་འདུག «the bedroom door is closed».

སྐྱོན་གསུམ་ [skyon gsum] phrase> «Three faults». In reference to ནམ་མཁའ་སྐྱོན་གསུམ་ «three faults (that happen to) the sky». The three are: 1) སྤྲིན་ clouds; 2) རྨུགས་པ་ mist / fog; 3) རྡུལ་ dust / contamination. Here, fault means that which causes the clear sky to become obscured.

སྐྱོན་བསལ་བ་ [skyon bsal ba] «One who has removed defects». Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «dhauta-dosa». 1) One of many སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མཚན་ epithets of the buddha. 2) In general, that defects have been cleared off.

སྐྱོབ་ [skyob] See སྐྱོབ་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱོབ་པ་ [skyob pa] I. v.t. བསྐྱབས་པ་/ སྐྱོབ་པ་/ བསྐྱབ་པ་/ སྐྱོབས་/. «To protect» in the sense of affording protection from any problematic circumstance. Hence «to give refuge to», «to shelter». E.g., [TC] རྒྱལ་སྐྱོབ། «protecting the kingdom»; མུ་གེ་ལས་བསྐྱབས། «protected from the famine»; སྡུག་བསྔལ་ལས་བསྐྱབས། «provided refuge from unsatisfactoriness»; འཇིགས་སྐྱོབ། «protecting from fear».
II. Cognate to the verb. Translation of the Sanskrit [MVP] «trāyin». 1) In general, «protector», «refuge», «shelter». 2) Specifically, one of many སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་མཚན་ epithets of the buddha; «the protector» or «refuge» of beings e.g., འཁོར་བ་ལས་སྐྱོབ་པའི་སྐྱོབ་པ་སྟེ་སངས་རྒྱས། «the refuge who provides shelter from cyclic existence i.e., Buddha».

སྐྱོབ་པ་འཇིག་རྟེན་མགོན་པོ་ [skyob pa 'jig rten mgon po] «Protector, Guardian of the World» or «Kyobpa Jigten Gonpo». One of several epithets for རིན་ཆེན་དཔལ་ Rinchen Pal q.v.

སྐྱོབ་པའི་ལྷ་དགུ་ [skyob pa'i lha dgu] phrase> «The nine protective gods». Mentioned in conjunction with the འགོ་བའི་ལྷ་ལྔ་ five patron gods.

སྐྱོབས་ [skyobs] Imp. of སྐྱོབ་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱོམ་ [skyom] See སྐྱོམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱོམ་པ་ [skyom pa] v.t. བསྐྱམས་པ་/ སྐྱོམ་པ་/ བསྐྱམ་པ་/ སྐྱོམས་/. Intransitive form is འཁྱོམ་པ་ q.v. To cause «to shake», «to agitate» e.g., like shaking up liquid in a bottle. E.g., [TC] སྨན་ཁུ་སྐྱོམ་པ། «shaking the medicine (liquid)»; ཆུ་སྣོད་སྐྱོམ་པར་བྱེད། «to shake (up the contents of) a water vessel»; ས་ཆེན་བསྐྱམས། «the earth was shaken from its foundation»; རི་སྒུལ་མཚོ་སྐྱོམ། «shook the mountains and agitated the lakes».
Note that despite the definition seen in [RYD] it does not mean to drain or pour out; these seem to be mistaken understandings based on a hasty reading of [TC].

སྐྱོམ་བུ་ [skyom bu] «Light skyo ma» a light form of སྐྱོ་མ་ made for feeding to children.

སྐྱོམས་ [skyoms] Imp. of སྐྱོམ་པ་ q.v.

སྐྱོར་ [skyor] 1) Imp. of both forms of སྐྱོར་བ་ q.v. 2) Part of སྐྱོར་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱོར་སྐྱོར་ [skyor skyor] Acc. [LGK] and [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཡང་ཡང་ q.v.

སྐྱོར་བ་ [skyor ba] I. v.t. form I བསྐྱོར་བ་/ སྐྱོར་བ་/ བསྐྱོར་བ་/ སྐྱོར་/. 1) «To support», «to prop» something in the sense of providing assistance it needs e.g., to support someone by getting behind or aiding their endeavours. This meaning is often given in the verb phrase as རྒྱབ་སྐྱོར་བ་ meaning either lit. «to be behind» or «to provide backup» while operating as an assistant who aids a main person e.g., a lecturer at a university will give the main lectures and the teaching assistants will provide tutorials that རྒྱབ་སྐྱོར་བ་ support the main lecturer. This same system was in use in Tibetan Buddhism where a great master would give a main, perhaps difficult to understand talk, and following that, a lesser person would give tutorials to make the main material clear; the latter is called the རྒྱབ་སྐྱོར་ «support» or རྒྱབ་སྐྱོར་རོགས་རམ་ «supportive assistance». 2) «To prop up», «to shore up», «to support», «to hold up» in the sense of physically holding something up so that it does not collapse. E.g., ཁང་གོག་ལ་ཀ་སྐྱོར་གྱིས་སྐྱོར་བ། «the derelict house was shored up with props». E.g., [TC] གཡས་གཡོན་ནས་བསྐྱོར་བ་ཡིན། «he was propped up from both sides»; རྒྱབ་ནས་སྐྱོར་བ། «supported from behind»; ལྕང་མར་ལྕང་སྐྱོར་མ་ཐུབ་རུང་། །ལྕང་རྩ་རྡོ་ཡིས་རྡུང་མི་ཉན། (a saying) «willow cannot hold itself up—so all right, there's no need to beat the willow's root with stones». This meaning includes the sense of «lift up and hold» སྐྱོར་རོ་གནང་། «hold it up, please!» or «hold it there, please!». 3) «To dam» water so that it does not spill out or get away. E.g., [TC] ཆུ་སྐྱོར། «a dam» or «to dam»; ཆུ་ལོག་སྐྱོར་རགས། «a dam for holding flood waters».
II. v.t. form II བསྐྱར་བ་/ སྐྱོར་བ་/ བསྐྱར་བ་/ སྐྱོར་/. «To repeat», «to do over again». 1) In the sense of doing something over and over again as in «recite this mantra repeatedly». E.g., [TC] གཏམ་བསྐྱར་ནས་བཟློས། «retold the story again»; ཚིག་སྐྱོར་བ། «repeated his words»; དཔེ་ཆ་སྐྱོར་བ། «read the texts repeatedly»; ཉིས་སྐྱོར་སུམ་སྐྱོར། «repeating it twice and thrice». 2) In the sense of giving it back, returning it. E.g., [TC] ལྟས་ངན་ལ་ལྟ་སྐྱོར་དང་། དྲི་ངན་ལ་སྣོམ་སྐྱོར་མི་དགོས། «returning bad looks and a nasty inquiries are not necessary». Also used to mean «repeat after me» or «repeating back what has been learned by heart». 3) In the sense of repeating something out loud to learn it by rote; e.g., སྐྱོར་སྦྱང་ «rote learning» which was and still is very important in Tibetan tradition.
III. Form II is often used in conjunction with ཡང་ as in ཡང་བསྐྱར་ «again», «once again».
IV. [TC] gives as [Old] «to be crooked or become crooked».

སྐྱོར་འབྱིན་ [skyor 'byin] Same as དཀྱོར་འབྱིན་ q.v.

སྐྱོར་སྦྱང་ [skyor sbyang] «Rote learning», the repetition over and again of something out loud so that it is thoroughly impressed on the mind. In Tibetan tradition, rote learning of texts was very important.

སྐྱོལ་ [skyol] I. Imp. of སྐྱེལ་བ་ q.v.
II. See སྐྱོལ་བ་ q.v

སྐྱོལ་བ་ [skyol ba] 1) [Old] meaning སྒྲིམ་པ་ q.v. E.g., [TC] སྲད་བུ་སྐྱོལ་བ་ «to tighten the cord». 2) Sometimes see written for སྐྱེལ་བ་ q.v. In this case, the verb is categorized to be of the same regular type as སྐྱེལ་བ་ so the tenses are written accordingly as བསྐྱོལ་བ་/ སྐྱོལ་བ་/ བསྐྱོལ་བ་/ སྐྱོལ་/. E.g., [TYL] རྣམ་པ་བཞིས་ཚད་དུ་བསྐྱོལ་ནས་མྱ་ངད་ལས་འདས་པའི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར་དམ་པར་འཇུག་པ། «When these four show that you have been carried along / taken / transported to full measure, you enter the holy city of nirvāṇa».

སྐྱོས་ [skyos] Imp. of སྐྱ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྱོས་པ་ [skyos pa] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཉམས་པ་ q.v.

སྐྲ་ [skra] «Hair» of the head. The most general term for hair on the body of humans, animals, etc., is སྤུ་. This is only the hair of the head.

སྐྲ་གྲི་ [skra gri] [Modern] «razor».

སྐྲ་ཆིངས་ [skra chings] «Hair-ribbon», «ribbon (for the hair)» or any kind of elastic or other binding used (mainly by females) to tie up the hair.

སྐྲ་བརྙན་ [skra brnyan] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, སྐྲ་ཚབ་ «wig», «false hair».

སྐྲ་སྣུམ་ [skra snum] «Hair oil», which in Asia usually was some kind of oil used especially by women to rub through the hair in order to make it healthy and beautiful.

སྐྲ་ཕྱེད་གྲོལ་ [skra phyed grol] [Hon] «Hair half-loose»; refers to a style of women or female deities wearing their hair. In it, half the hair is bound up into a bun on the head and the other half is allowed to fall loose. E.g., the deity Kālachakra's consort, སྣ་ཚོགས་ཡུམ་ Viśhvamāti, wears her hair like this.

སྐྲ་འཛིང་བ་ [skra 'dzing ba] phrase> v.i. see འཛིང་བ་ for tense forms. «Tangled hair», «hair in a tangle». See also སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛིང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྲ་གཞར་བ་ [skra gzhar ba] phrase> v.t. see གཞར་བ་ for tense forms. 1) «To cut the hair» in general. 2) «To shave the head» (as a Buddhist monk would do).

སྐྲ་བཟེད་ [skra bzed] 1) A container for the shavings that come from shaving off the hair of the head. 2) The name of cloth that can be worn by a fully ordained monk at the times of shaving the head in order to protect his dharma robes. One of the འཚོ་བའི་ཡོ་བྱད་བཅུ་གསུམ་ q.v.

སྐྲ་ཤད་ [skra shad] Strand(s) or tuft(s) of hair, also «combings» in some contexts (see meaning 2 below). Hence also, 1) in reference to the disease རབ་རིབ་ q.v. in which what look like strands of hair are seen falling through one's visual field. 2) A «comb» for combing hair.

སྐྲ་ཤད་ལྟར་ [skra shad ltar] «Like strands (or tufts) of hair». This is a common example used in showing how conventional consciousness is mistaken. The strands of hair are the appearances seen by a person who has the eye disease called རབ་རིབ་ «vitreous floaters» q.v. The person sees what are like small hairs or pieces of fluff in their visual field but these are an aberration due to the disease.
Note that these appearances of tufts of hair usually appear to move vertically, often looking as though they are gently falling through the visual field. For this reason, the analogy is often extended to སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛག་པ་ལྟར་ «like falling tufts of hair» or སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛགས་སྣང་ «appearances of falling strands of hair». (Note that the phrase སྐྲ་ཤད་ལྟར་ does not say «like falling tufts of hair» etc., even though it is freq. translated that way; it simply says «like strands or tufts of hair».)
This is used as an example of the mistaken perceptions of sentient beings. E.g., see ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་གཉིས་ two levels of fictional truth. It is also used as an example of the basic mistake of perception of sentient beings; sentient beings have the disease of grasping at a self and because of it, see appearances that are not there in reality but which appear to be there because of their disease of self-grasping just like a person with floaters sees hairs falling through their visual field when the hairs are not really there.

སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛག་པ་ [skra shad 'dzag pa] I. phrase> v.i. see འཛག་པ་ for tense forms. «For strands of hair to fall».
II. phrase> «Strands of falling hair». See སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛག་པ་ལྟར་ for the usual context.

སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛག་པ་ལྟར་ [skra shad 'dzag pa ltar] «Like falling strands (or tufts) of hair». See སྐྲ་ཤད་ལྟར་ for an explanation of the meaning.

སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛགས་སྣང་ [skra shad 'dzags snang] phrase> «Appearances of falling strands (or tufts) of hair». See སྐྲ་ཤད་ལྟར་ for an explanation of the meaning.

སྐྲ་ཤད་འཛིང་བ་ [skra shad 'dzing ba] phrase> v.i. see འཛིང་བ་ for tense forms. «Tangled strands of hair». This is a description of what is seen by someone with the eye disease རབ་རིབ་ called «floaters». It seems as though there are strands of greyish hairs, sometimes one at a time and sometimes several in a tangle, directly ahead.

སྐྲག་ [skrag] I. See སྐྲག་པ་ q.v.
II. See སྐྲག་པ་ q.v.

སྐྲག་དངངས་ [skrag dngangs] The term སྐྲག་པ་ by itself means to be afraid of something, དངངས་པ་ by itself means to be afraid in the sense that you catch your breath as in being startled or frightened all of a sudden. The two together mean that you are not merely frightened but are very afraid, breath-stoppingly-afraid. Hence «panicked» or «terrified», etc. Some translators have given «bewildered» for this but that is quite incorrect.

སྐྲག་པ་ [skrag pa] I. v.i. སྐྲག་པ་/ སྐྲག་པ་/ སྐྲག་པ་//. The general intransitive verb for mind being afraid of something. Hence «to be afraid / scared / frightened». There are several verbs relating to «fear» in Tibetan and their meanings are usually not well distinguished by translators. This verb has the connotation that one is «scared» or «frightened» i.e., that there is anxiety in the mind because of something perceived and the body is reacting because of it. The similar verb ཞེད་པ་ has a lesser sense of a fear which is mental only: «concerned fear / anxiety». This verb could be translated with «to be anxious» but only in the sense that one is not merely concerned about something but has the more pronounced level of bodily anxiety, too. Note that there are other specific terms for various types of anxiety, e.g., བག་ཚ་བ་ q.v. Furthermore, this verb does not mean «to be alarmed at something»; that connotation is provided by the verb བྲེད་པ་ q.v. It is also not the same as «to panic»; words for panic in Tibetan usually involve the use of དངངས་པ་ «to catch / draw or not be able to breathe a breath» e.g., in the combined term དངངས་སྐྲག་ lit. meaning «panicky fear» i.e., panic. Just as with དངངས་པ་, this verb is often joined with other terms to lend the «scared» connotation of fear to the new term e.g., འཇིགས་སྐྲག་པ་ «deeply afraid» but lit. meaning «to be actually scared of some fearful thing». E.g., [TC] སྐྲག་ནས་སྙིང་རྩ་འདར། «frightened, his heart thumped»; མདུན་དུ་སྤྱང་ཀིར་སྐྲག་པ་དང་། རྒྱབ་ཏུ་སྟག་ལ་སྐྲག་པ། «scared of the wolf in front and afraid of the tiger behind»; དཀའ་ཚེགས་གང་ལའང་མི་སྐྲག «not afraid at all of difficulty».
II. An appearance causes fright, hence «frightful», «scary». Note that these are slightly different from «fearful» which more accurately translates the adj. sense of འཇིགས་པ་ q.v. E.g., [TC] ཐོས་པ་ཙམ་གྱིས་སྐྲག་སྣང་སྐྱེ། «just hearing about it made me scared».

སྐྲང་ [skrang] See སྐྲང་བ་ q.v.

སྐྲང་བ་ [skrang ba] v.i. སྐྲངས་པ་/ སྐྲང་བ་/ སྐྲང་བ་//. «To swell up» or «to puff up» in the specific sense of swelling appearing on the skin of the body due to disease or harm. This means the act of swelling itself; it does not refer to ཚ་བ་ «inflammation» which often accompanies swelling. E.g., [TC] རྐང་པ་སྐྲངས་འདུག «my leg is swollen»; གདོང་ཡང་སྐྲངས་འདུག «my face also is swollen»; རྨ་ཁ་སྐྲང་དོགས་འདུག «I think the wound might be swelling up (i.e. becoming infected)».

སྐྲངས་པ་ [skrangs pa] I. Past of སྐྲང་བ་ q.v.
II. 1) «A swelling» on the skin due to illness. E.g, a boil or tumour comes up as a སྐྲངས་པ་ swelling on the skin. 2) «Swelling», the name of one of the twenty seven སྦྱོར་བ་ཉེར་བདུན་ twenty-seven co-incidences of Tibetan astrology q.v.

སྐྲངས་འབུར་ [skrangs 'bur] Any swollen, pus-filled bulge on the skin. E.g., a swollen abscess, boil, or large pimple.

སྐྲི་ [skri] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཐོང་ཤིག. I.e., it is the imp. form equivalent to ཐོང་ q.v.

སྐྲུ་བ་ [skru ba] v.t. བསྐྲུས་པ་/ སྐྲུ་བ་/ བསྐྲུ་བ་/ སྐྲུས་/.
I. «To beg» for alms, etc. E.g., ཟས་བསྐྲུས་ཏེ་འཚོ་བ། «made his living begging for food».
II. Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, 1) གཞན་ལ་ཐབས་ཀྱིས་འབྲིད་པ་ «to deceive another by some kind of craft or means», «to cheat by some means» and 2) གཅོད་པ་ «to cut into pieces». Note that [LGK] gives the past form as སྐྲུས་པ་.

སྐྲུན་ [skrun] 1) Imp. of v.t. སྐྲུན་པ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐྲུན་པ་ q.v.

སྐྲུན་པ་ [skrun pa] v.t. བསྐྲུན་པ་/ སྐྲུན་པ་/ བསྐྲུན་པ་/ སྐྲུན་/. Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, both སྐྱེད་པ་ and འཛུགས་པ་ q.v. 1) «To make something new / to build / to produce». E.g., སྐུ་འདྲ་སྐྲུན་པ། «to construct statues». E.g., [TC] ཆུ་བེད་སྐྲུན་པ། «to establish / disseminate water use»; མཐུན་རྐྱེན་སྐྲུན་པ། «to build conducive circumstances»; འཛུགས་སྐྲུན། «constructing (buildings, etc.)»; གསར་སྐྲུན། «newly make / construct» also «to start up / establish». 2) It is used to mean «to publish» books and printed materials, i.e., to print and disseminate. E.g., [TC] དཔེ་ཆ་པར་དུ་སྐྲུན། «publishing Tibetan texts».

སྐྲུས་ [skrus] Imp. of སྐྲུ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྲུས་པ་ [skrus pa] Acc. [LGK] this is the past form of སྐྲུ་བ་ q.v.

སྐྲོག་པ་ [skrog pa] v.t. བསྐྲོགས་པ་/ སྐྲོག་པ་/ བསྐྲོག་པ་/ སྐྲོགས་/. 1) «To churn» using a rod. In Tibet, butter was churned from milk and butter tea was churned to homogeneity using a wooden churn. This verb refers to making the back and forth / up and down churning motion. E.g., [TC] ཞོ་བསྐྲོགས་ཏེ་མར་བླངས། «the curd was churned and butter obtained». This meaning is cognate to དཀྲོག་པ་ «to stir up». 2) The back and forth motion of playing a ḍamaru is usually described with དཀྲོལ་བ་ q.v. but this verb is also used. When this verb is used it has the added sense of onomatopoeia because the «trog» of the verb sounds just like the «thwack» of a ḍamaru being played. For that reason, although this usage could be translated as «to twirl / whirl back and forth», it would be better to translated it as «to thwack...», or play with a «trog, trog» which is the onomatopoeia involved. E.g., [TC] ཌ་མ་རུ་སྐྲོག་བཞིན་དུ་འཆམ་བརྒྱབ། «the sacred dance was done with the ḍamaru continuously twirling / sounding «trog trog».

སྐྲོགས་ [skrogs] Imp. of སྐྲོག་པ་ q.v.

སྐྲོད་ [skrod] 1) Imp. of སྐྲོད་པ་ q.v. 2) Present part of སྐྲོད་པ་ q.v.

སྐྲོད་པ་ [skrod pa] v.t. བསྐྲད་པ་/ སྐྲོད་པ་/ བསྐྲད་པ་/ སྐྲོད་/. Meaning «to drive something away / expel it from the current location». E.g., «to expel» foreigners from a country that no longer wants them; «to banish» bad influences from a place; «to drive out» unwanted beings; «to cast out» criminals; «to deport» undesirables. E.g., [TC] རྒྱལ་མཚམས་ནས་ཕྱིར་སྐྲོད། «to deport from the country» or «to banish past the borders» or «to drive out of the country»; ཉེས་ཅན་རྣམས་གནས་ནས་བསྐྲད། «the criminals were driven away / expelled / banished / cast out from the place». E.g., [KBC] འདིས་གང་ཡང་མི་བྱེད་པར་དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་ནང་དུ་དད་ཟས་བྱིན་པ་ལ་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་པར་མི་རུང་བས་བསྐྲད་པར་བྱའོ་ཞེས་བསྒྲོས་ནས་ «They discussed (the matter of Śhāntideva amongst themselves), «This one doesn't do (the three wheels of conduct) at all; it is not proper that he eats the food devotees have offered to the saṅgha. Therefore, he must be expelled!».
This is also used in tantric liturgies where, when setting the boundaries of the practice environment, the various undesirable elements are fed then «expelled» or «banished» to the outside of the boundary of the maṇḍala e.g., བགེགས་བསྐྲད་ནས། «having expelled the obstructors / obstructing spirits».

བརྐམ་ [brkam] See བརྐམ་པ་ q.v.

བརྐམ་ཆགས་ [brkam chags] [Old] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, འདོད་ཆགས་ཆེ་བ་ «strong desire», «craving».

བརྐམ་པ་ [brkam pa] v.i. བརྐམ་པ་/ བརྐམ་པ་/ བརྐམ་པ་//. Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, འདོད་ཞེན་ i.e., འདོད་པ་ «desire» and ཞེན་པ་ «clinging» together, q.v. It means «to have desire / attachment for», «to hanker after». E.g., [TC] རྒྱུ་ནོར་ལ་བརྐམ་པ། «to hanker after goods and wealth»; ཆང་དང་འཁྲིག་པ་སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་བརྐམ་པ། «to want for liquor and sex».

བརྐམ་པ་མེད་པ་ [brkam pa med pa] «Absence of desire».

བརྐུ་བ་ [brku ba] Fut. of རྐུ་བ་ q.v.

བརྐུན་པ་ [brkun pa] [Old] for རྐུ་བ་ q.v.

བརྐུས་ [brkus] I. Part of རྐུ་བ་ q.v.
II. Used in conjunction with other words to indicate something that has been stolen. E.g., བརྐུས་ནོར་ «stolen goods».

བརྐུས་ཁྱེར་ [brkus khyer] The act of «carrying off surreptitiously». The act of thieving while making sure that others do not notice.

བརྐུས་ནོར་ [brkus nor] «Stolen goods», «stolen property». Although the term lit. means «stolen valuables» it actually is equivalent to the English «stolen goods / property».

བརྐུས་པ་ [brkus pa] Past of རྐུ་བ་ q.v.

བརྐོ་ [brko] See བརྐོ་བ་ q.v.

བརྐོ་བ་ [brko ba] Fut. of རྐོ་བ་ q.v.

བརྐོས་ [brkos] See བརྐོས་པ་

བརྐོས་སྡེར་ [brkos sder] «Carving knife / implement / gouge». The name of one of the implements used in carving wood. This instrument does not have a flat blade like a chisel but a scoop-like iron blade used for gouging out the wood.

བརྐོས་པ་ [brkos pa] Past of རྐོ་བ་ q.v.

བརྐོས་ཕོར་ [brkos phor] A «mould» i.e., a mould with relief carving inside used to make a design by pouring terra-cotta, etc. into it and then releasing the terra-cotta etc. E.g., the mould used to make སཱཙྪ་ tsatsa's, etc.

བརྐྱང་ [brkyang] See བརྐྱང་བ་ q.v.

བརྐྱང་བསྐུམ་ [brkyang bskum] Abbrev. of བརྐྱང་བ་ and བསྐུམ་པ་ meaning «stretched out and drawn in» or «outstretched / drawn in or up». 1) Usually seen in the descriptions of semi-wrathful and wrathful deities who are standing / dancing in the particular pose in which one leg is stretched out and the other drawn up. E.g., [LOM] བརྐྱང་བསྐུམ་གར། «(the deity) was dancing with one leg outstretched, the other drawn up». 2) Also seen in descriptions of yogic sitting postures / meditation postures where one leg is drawn in towards the body and the other stretched out.

བརྐྱང་བ་ [brkyang ba] Fut. of རྐྱོང་བ་ q.v.

བརྐྱངས་ཉལ་ [brkyangs nyal] The name given to lying down and resting with the body fully stretched out; the opp. of being curled up or lying down in a cramped place. E.g., «lying down stretched out», etc.

བརྐྱངས་པ་ [brkyangs pa] Past of རྐྱོང་བ་ q.v. E.g., «stretched out / forth».

བརྐྱངས་ཕྱག་ [brkyangs phyag] «Full-length prostration», a prostration in which the body is fully stretched out on the ground or floor.

བསྐ་བ་ [bska ba] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, རོའི་ཁྱད་པར་ a particular taste and གར་བ་ q.v., i.e., the two meanings given below.
1) «Astringent». Translation of the Sanskrit «kaṣhāya». One of the རོ་དྲུག་ six flavours and also one of སྨན་གྱི་རོ་དྲུག་ the six flavours used in describing the quality of a medicinal substance q.v. This is the experience of astringency in the mouth which occurs due to eating certain substances. 2) «Thick / strong / full-bodied» in the sense of food such as soup which is not weak and watery but thick and strong and which produces a mouth-filling sensation.

བསྐང་ [bskang] See བསྐང་བ་ q.v.

བསྐང་གཏོར་ [bskang gtor] «Amending torma». Secret mantra terminology. The name of the torma used in an བསྐང་བཤགས་ «amending-confession» liturgy.

བསྐང་བ་ [bskang ba] I. Past of v.t. form I སྐོང་བ་ q.v.
II. «Restoration» or «appeasement». The name given to a Buddhist practice. This is the practice of repairing the disconnection from one's deities and protectors that has happened because of the practitioner's breach(es) of samaya. These breaches offend and / or result in disconnection from the deities and the protectors in particular. This connection has to be restored so that it is complete, or fully present again. The practice of making that restoration is called just that སྐོང་བ་ «restoration» to fullness. E.g., in བསྐང་བཤགས་ q.v.
The name has been translated as «amending» and also «fulfillment» but these are incorrect. «Amendment» is closer since the practice does involve making amends for one's wrongs and hence mending the disconnection. «Fulfillment» is just wrong English; this is not the «fulfillment of» but the restoration to fullness of the connection. Another translation «appeasement» is closer, since one appeases the protectors. Still the meaning is as given.

བསྐང་བཤགས་ [bskang bshags] «Amendment-confession» or «appeasement-confession». Abbrev. of བསྐང་བ་ and བཤགས་པ་ each of which q.v. Secret mantra terminology; this is the name of a ritual in which one corrects broken connections with deities and protectors by appeasing them through making certain offerings and admitting and laying aside (confessing) one's errors. In the རྙིང་མ་ old school's secret mantra it is the second of three necessary མཆོད་པ་ offerings to the higher beings in a ཚོགས་འཁོར་ feast gathering [AKR].

བསྐངས་པ་ [bskangs pa] Past of v.t. form I སྐོང་བ་ q.v.

བསྐམ་ [bskam] See བསྐམ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐམ་པ་ [bskam pa] Fut. of སྐེམ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐམས་པ་ [bskams pa] I. Past of སྐེམ་པ་ [TC]. E.g., «dried», «dried out», «withered».
II. General name for diseases in which there is significant weight loss caused by རླུང་ནད་ wind disease.

བསྐལ་ [bskal] I. See བསྐལ་བ་ q.v.
II. See བསྐལ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐལ་བརྒྱ་ [bskal brgya] Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པ་བརྒྱ་ཐམ་པ་ «one hundred kalpas».

བསྐལ་ཆུང་ [bskal chung] Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པ་ཆུང་བ་ «small / lesser kalpa» q.v.

བསྐལ་ཆུང་བཞི་ [bskal chung bzhi] phrase> «Four lesser kalpas». In one way of talking, a བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ great kalpa has four བསྐལ་པ་ཆུང་བ་ lesser kalpa in it q.v.

བསྐལ་ཆེན་ [bskal chen] Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ «great kalpa» q.v.

བསྐལ་ཆེན་གྲངས་མེད་ [bskal chen grangs med] Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་གྲངས་མེད་ «incalculable great kalpa» q.v.

བསྐལ་མཆོག་ [bskal mchog] phrase> 1) Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པ་མཆོག་ «excellent / best kalpa». 2) Mistaken for སྐལ་བ་མཆོག་ «supreme / excellent fortune»; see སྐལ་བ་ q.v.

བསྐལ་པ་ [bskal pa] «Kalpa». Translation of the Sanskrit «kalpa».
In the Indian system, «kalpa» generally meant an exceptionally long period of time. With that basic meaning, many types of kalpas were defined in reference to specific periods of time. Some of the specific periods were at the cosmic level, e.g., the lifespan of a universe was divided into four kalpas and each was given a name. Some referred to specific ages in the development of human culture on the earth.
The term has been translated with several English words, mainly «aeon» and «age» or cosmic aeon, cosmic age, etc. These fit in some circumstances but not others and care should be taken to ascertain the measurement of time being referred to before the word is translated with one of these English equivalents. In many cases the English terms do not fit properly and it might be better simply to use the Sanskrit «kalpa».
An aeon in English is defined as an extremely long period of time as might be found at the cosmic level. There are usually two definitions of it, one for the exceptionally long period in general that corresponds to the lifetime of a universe and the other as the definite time of 1,000,000,000 years. (Note also that the American system changed from the classic English numbering system, e.g., a billion actually referring to one million, million and etc., to the French based system of one billion referring to one thousand million, and etc. Unfortunately, the definitions of large numbers in the English language have now come to have multiple meanings. This makes it difficult to produce reliable, universally understandable translations of this term and others that involve large numbers.)
There is another alternative that could be considered for some meanings. The English word «epoch» is a word used by cosmologists these days to convey the sense of particular period of time in the comings and goings of the universe. This sense covers the sense of kalpa very well in several cases e.g., «the four epochs in the life of a universe» for the four major kalpas. However, epoch really means «story of a particular period» and is used for even billionths of a second, not only for very long periods whereas kalpa really only means very long period of time. All in all, aeon seems to be the correct translation. A final point is that all versions of English accept the term «millennium» as being exactly a one thousand year period, which could be useful for translations of Tibetan terms other than བསྐལ་པ་ that refer specifically to that length of time.
The Tibetan system uses the term in the same way as the Indian one. 1) It has the general meaning of a very long time, without referring specifically to one of the defined Indian time periods. In this sense, the general English usage «aeons» works very well but see also see also དུས་རབས་ «centuries». 2) It is used as the exact equivalent of the Sanskrit «kalpa» when required as a translation.
The meaning of Kalpa in Buddhist thought is as follows. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna cosmology both teach that myriads of universes develop over immeasurable time-spans and that they follow periodic cycles of evolution and degeneration. These various periods are all defined as one kind of kalpa or another.
I. The time-span it takes for one universe to develop, abide, be destroyed, and then to remain in a state of emptiness after its destruction, is what is known as a བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ «great kalpa». Its duration is so great that it is also known that it is also called an བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་པ་ «an incalculable great kalpa». The Buddha tied this to the path of the practitioner by stating that, for a practitioner of the Mahāyāna path of characteristics (the conventional Great Vehicle path of a bodhisatva), it takes, from the time of first entering the vehicle, three of these incalculably-long great kalpas to reach the fruition of the path, which is the perfect enlightenment of a buddha; see བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ «three incalculable great kalpas» for complete information on how the time span is connected with the journey to buddhahood.
II. A great kalpa corresponding to the period of one universe is divided into four, successive cosmic periods. These four stages are individually called a བསྐལ་པ་ kalpa. Note however, that they are also called བར་བསྐལ་ intermediate kalpas and བསྐལ་ཆུང་ lesser kalpas because of their relationship to a great kalpa. These usages should not be confused with the other usages mentioned below. The four kalpas of a great kalpa appear in the following order during the coming and going of one universe. 1) First is the ཆགས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «kalpa of formation», the period during which a universe develops out of empty space. 2) Second is the གནས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «kalpa of persistence», the period during which the formed universe stays stably in existence. 3) Third is the འཇིག་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ the «kalpa of destruction», the period during which the universe degrades and dissipates back into space. 4) Fourth is the སྟོང་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ the «kalpa of vacuity», a period during which there is a vacuousness.
The Buddha explained the progression of these four kalpas in conjunction with the course of the appearance of the realms of the universe and the initial appearance of sentient beings in those habitats, followed by the various types of existence of the beings in those habitats, followed by the destruction of the various realms in the universe and the attendant migration of the beings dwelling in them to other destinies.
III. Each of the four parts of a great kalpa is further broken down in various ways. According to the Abhidharmakoṣha, each of the four has twenty བར་བསྐལ་ intermediate length kalpas in it, making a total of eighty such intermediate kalpas in the period of a great kalpa. Of these four sets of twenty intermediate kalpas, the twenty of the kalpa of persistence and kalpa of destruction are very fully described for these are the periods when sentient beings exist in their various unsatisfactory ways and finally are forced to move to existence in another universe (if they have not already done so).
The བར་བསྐལ་ཉི་ཤུ་ «twenty intermediate kalpas» of the kalpa of persistence unfold in three phases: initial, intermediate, and final.
1) The initial phase. In Buddhist cosmology, the arrival of humans in a world like ours comes about through a process of degeneration (devolution rather than evolution). The first beings in the universe are born in the upper realms of long life gods. As their minds become coarser, they take birth in the coarser desire realm, first as gods and then later as humans. The first humans appear as luminous, god-like creatures with what is called དཔག་མེད་ a measureless lifespan. Slowly, due to craving, their bodies become coarser and their life-span decreases from being measureless to eighty thousand years. Then it goes down to a mere ten years. This process of degeneration finally concludes with three periods of famine, plague, and war. Specifically, when the life-span of beings is thirty years, they experience a period of famine lasting for seven years, seven months, and seven days. When the life-span of beings is twenty years, there is a period of plague lasting seven months and seven days. Finally, when the life-span of beings has degenerated to ten years, there is a period of war lasting seven days. These three ages of plague, famine, and war are called the བསྐལ་པ་བར་མ་གསུམ་ «three ages in a kalpa». This entire sequence of the first intermediate kalpa of the period of persistence is termed ཡ་ཐོག་རིང་མོ་ «the long top opening».
2) The intermediate phase. The intermediate phase consists of the next བར་བསྐལ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ «the eighteen intermediate kalpas». These are all characterised by a steady rise in the karmic situation of humans with a concurrent increase in their lifespan from ten to eighty thousand years followed by a steady decrease of the same with a concurrent decrease of lifespan from eighty thousand back to ten years. Each of the cycles sees the same rise and fall of life, wealth, fortune, size and strength of body, and concludes with the above-mentioned periods of famine, plague, and war. Because of the cyclic nature of rise and fall in these eighteen kalpas, they are called བར་ཁུག་པ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ «the eighteen cycles of intermediate (kalpas)» and འཕེལ་འགྲིབ་སྤེལ་མ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ «the eighteen sequential rises and falls». Each of these eighteen cycles has two parts in it of rising and falling which are of equal length; in the Abhidharmakoṣha they are called བསྐལ་ཆུང་ «small kalpas».
3) The final phase. The final phase of the persistence kalpa occurs with the twentieth of the intermediate kalpas. During this time, the life-span of human beings again increases from ten to eighty thousand years and then all the way up to a measureless length. It is the reverse of the initial phase and hence is called མ་ཐོག་རིང་མོ་ «the long bottom close».
The initial and final intermediate kalpas are a fall and rise respectively with no reverse cycle in them. However, because their respective fall and rise last much longer than the quicker falls and rises of the eighteen cycles, they are each counted as one, complete, intermediate cycle.
The destruction kalpa also proceeds in a series of events. First the desire realms are destroyed in sequence from lowest to highest, followed by the form realms in sequence from lowest to highest. The beings living in these realms die and take rebirth either in higher realms if they have the karma for it or in other, equivalent realms in other universes. These levels of the various realms constituting a formed universe are destroyed by a sequence of the four elements.

བསྐལ་པ་གངྒའི་ཀླུང་གི་བྱེ་མ་སྙེད་ [bskal pa gang+ga'i klung gi bye ma snyed] phrase> «Kalpas as many as the sands of the Ganges». A common statement in Buddhist texts. The Ganges is a mighty river in India and the number of grains of sand in it is an extraordinarily large number. Comparison with this number was often used to indicate extraordinarily large numbers. In this case, it is used to indicate time.

བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་པ་ [bskal pa grangs med pa] Translation of the Sanskrit «asaṃkhya kalpa».
I. «Incalculable number of kalpa». In general, meaning an incalculable amount of time as expressed by an uncountable number of kalpas.
II. «An Incalculable Kalpa». Meaning an uncountable བསྐལ་ཆེན་ great kalpa q.v., which is the largest of several, specifically defined kalpas defined in the Indian tradition. It is defined as the length of the time of one universe from beginning to end. The Abhidharmakoṣha gives it as གྲངས་གནས་དྲུག་ཅུ་ 10 to the power 60 human years in length. E.g., བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་པ་བཅུར་ཚང་བར་གྱུར་པ་ «when a full ten uncountable kalpas had transpired»
See also བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ «three incalculable great kalpas» for information on how the time span is connected with the journey to buddhahood.

བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གཉིས་པ་ [bskal pa grangs med gnyis pa] phrase> «The second (of the three) incalculable great kalpa». See explanation under བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ «The three incalculable great aeons».

བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་དང་པོ་ [bskal pa grangs med dang po] phrase> «The first (of the three) incalculable great kalpa». See explanation under བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ «The three incalculable great aeons».

བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ [bskal pa grangs med gsum] phrase> «Three incalculable kalpa». Acc. to the Mahāyāna scriptures, the time taken for a being to traverse the path to Buddhahood from the beginning to the end, is the time taken for three universes to come into being and end. Each of those is reckoned in length as བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་པ་ one incalculable kalpa. Thus, the journey to buddhahood takes three incalculable kalpas and in this context, these three kalpas are referred to as གྲངས་མེད་དང་པོ་ «the first incalculable great kalpa»; གྲངས་མེད་གཉིས་པ་ «the second incalculable great kalpa»; and གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་པ་ «the third incalculable great kalpa». The following is from [KHN] and verified through the [LCJ]:
«The Hīnayāna scriptures tell us that our teacher Buddha Śhākyamuni began his spiritual path under the Buddha known as the «Great Buddha Śhākyamuni» and served seventy-five thousand buddhas up to the time of Buddha Rāṣhṭrapāla. Over this period Buddha Śhākyamuni gathered the accumulations of merit and thus completed the first incalculable kalpa of his journey to enlightenment. Then, beginning with Buddha Sādhukara and continuing to the time of Buddha Indradhvaja, our teacher further served seventy-six thousand buddhas. This period represents the second incalculable kalpa of Śhākyamuni's path as a bodhisatva. Then, beginning with the time of Buddha Dīpaṃkara and continuing on through the time of Buddha Kāśhyapa, our teacher Śhākyamuni served seventy-seven thousand buddhas. In this final period, Śhākyamuni completed the third incalculable kalpa of gathering the accumulations. Then he took rebirth in the Tuṣhita heaven, from where he emanated into our world system as Buddha Śhākyamuni, the fourth buddha of this Fortunate Aeon.»

བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་པ་ [bskal pa grangs med gsum pa] phrase> «The third (of the three) incalculable great kalpa». See explanation under བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ «The three incalculable great kalpa».

བསྐལ་པ་ངན་པ་ [bskal pa ngan pa] phrase> «A bad kalpa». Another name for མུན་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «dark kalpa» q.v.

བསྐལ་པ་ཆུང་བ་ [bskal pa chung ba] phrase> «Small / lesser kalpa». See under བསྐལ་པ་ for an extensive explanation of the various kalpas.
I. «Small kalpa». In the system of the Abhidharmakoṣha, a small kalpa is defined in relation to the eighteen བར་བསྐལ་ «intermediate kalpas». Each of those is a two part cycle: in the first half of the cycle, the life of humans goes from ten years back up to eighty thousand, then in the second half, it goes back down again to ten years. Each half of the cycle is designated as a «small kalpa».
II. «Lesser kalpa». A བསྐལ་ཆེན་ great kalpa is comprised of four kalpas. These are usually referred to as «kalpas» but sometimes they are called བར་བསྐལ་ intermediate kalpas and sometimes lesser kalpas because of their relation to a great kalpa. See under བསྐལ་པ་བཞི་ «four kalpas».

བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ [bskal pa chen po] phrase> «Great Kalpa». Translation of the Sanskrit «mahākalpa». See under བསྐལ་པ་ for an extensive explanation of the various kalpas.
A great kalpa is defined as the period of time of one physical universe from its inception to ending. A great kalpa is also called an བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་གྲངས་མེད་ incalculable great kalpa. A great kalpa is made up of four བསྐལ་པ་ kalpas which are also called བསྐལ་ཆུང་ four lesser kalpas. Each of these four lesser kalpas is then made up of twenty བར་བསྐལ་ intermediate kalpas making a total of eighty intermediate kalpas in a great kalpa. These intermediate kalpas are also divided into two half intermediate kalpas.

བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་གྲངས་མེད་ [bskal pa chen po grangs med] phrase> «Incalculable great kalpa». Another name for a བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ great kalpa. Acc. the Abhidharmakoṣha, a great kalpa is 10 to the 60th power human years or longer. In the Indian counting system, this number is called «uncountable» (see གྲངས་གནས་ «numeric places») hence the name.

བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ [bskal pa chen po grangs med gsum] phrase> «Three incalculable great kalpas». 1) In general, a period of three བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་གྲངས་མེད་ incalculable (great) kalpas q.v. 2) Specifically, the བསྐལ་པ་གྲངས་མེད་གསུམ་ three incalculable (great) kalpas q.v. during which a buddha like Śhākyamuni traverses the bodhisatva path to enlightenment.

བསྐལ་པ་གཉིས་ [bskal pa gnyis] phrase> «The two (kinds of) kalpa». The two types of kalpas, those in which buddhas descend and teach the dharma and those in which buddhas do not descend or do but do not teach the dharma. The are called 1) སྒྲོན་བསྐལ་ «light kalpa»; and 2) མུན་བསྐལ་ «dark kalpa» respectively.

བསྐལ་པ་གཉིས་ལྡན་ [bskal pa gnyis ldan] Same as གཉིས་ལྡན་བསྐལ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐལ་པ་དང་པོ་ [bskal pa dang po] phrase> «The first kalpa» meaning «at the beginning of time of the world, after the universe has formed».

བསྐལ་པ་དྲུག་ [bskal pa drug] phrase> «The six (kinds of) kalpa». This term refers to the བསྐལ་པ་བཞི་ four specific kalpa that make up a great kalpa with the intermediate kalpas and great kalpa added. Their names in that order are: 1) ཆགས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་; 2) གནས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་; 3) འཇིག་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་; 4) སྟོངས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་; 5) བར་གྱི་བསྐལ་པ་; 6) བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ q.v.

བསྐལ་པ་དཔག་མེད་ [bskal pa dpag med] phrase> «Unfathomable kalpas»; for an unfathomable (mentally incomprehensible) number of kalpas.

བསྐལ་པ་བར་མ་ [bskal pa bar ma] phrase> «A middle kalpa». In the system of the Abhidharmakoṣha two བསྐལ་ཆུང་ small kalpas make one middle kalpa. The Abhidharmakoṣha gives this as being 16,798,000 human years.

བསྐལ་པ་བར་མ་གསུམ་ [bskal pa bar ma gsum] «The three middle kalpas / ages». These are the three smaller periods of time that appear towards the end of each of བསྐལ་པ་བར་མ་ the middle kalpas. See under བསྐལ་པ་ kalpa for explanation. The three are: 1) མུ་གེའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «the kalpa of famine»; 2) ནད་ཀྱི་བསྐལ་པ་ «the kalpa of sickness»; and 3) མཚོན་གྱི་བསྐལ་པ་ «the kalpa of weapons / warfare».

བསྐལ་པ་རྩོད་ལྡན་ [bskal pa rtsod ldan] Same as རྩོད་ལྡན་བསྐལ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན་ [bskal pa rdzogs ldan] «Kalpa of (the era of) Completeness. Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན་གྱི་དུས་ q.v.

བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན་གྱི་དུས་ [bskal pa rdzogs ldan gyi dus] «Kalpa of the Complete Era». Same as རྫོགས་ལྡན་གྱི་དུས་ q.v.

བསྐལ་པ་བཞི་ [bskal pa bzhi] «The four kalpas». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «catvaraḥ kalpāḥ». There are many different types of བསྐལ་པ་ kalpa described in Indian literature in general, all of them corresponding to extremely long periods of time.
I. The four periods in the existence of a world system. In Buddhist cosmology, a universe comes and goes in a time period called one བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ great kalpa. That period is divided into four main periods, called the four kalpas. Since these periods are less than a great kalpa, they are also called the four intermediate kalpas or the four lesser kalpas. The four kalpas of a great kalpa correspond to the main events in the coming and going of a universe. They are named: 1) ཆགས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «formation kalpa»; 2) གནས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «persistence kalpa»; 3) འཇིག་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «destruction kalpa»; 4) སྟོང་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ «vacuous kalpa». These are freq. summed up in the term ཆགས་གནས་འཇིག་སྟོང་གི་བསྐལ་པ་བཞི་ «the four kalpas of formation, persistence, destruction, and vacuity».
II. In another formulation, four different kinds of unrelated kalpa are given. Acc. [NDS] they are: 1) བར་གྱི་བསྐལ་པ་ [Skt. antarakalpāḥ] «intermediate kalpa»; 2) བསྐལ་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ [Skt. mahākalpāḥ] «great kalpa»; 3) སྟོངས་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་ [Skt. śhūnyakalpāḥ] «empty kalpa»; 4) སྙིང་པོའི་བསྐལ་པ་ [Skt. sārakalpāḥ] «essence kalpa».

བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོ་ [bskal pa bzang po] phrase> «Good kalpa». Translation of the Sanskrit «bhadrakalpa». 1) i) In the cosmology taught by the Buddha, in world systems there are both long periods of time without a buddhas and periods of time with buddhas. A cosmological era that has buddhas appear in it is called a good kalpa. ii) The cosmological era that this earth exists in is regarded not only as a time when there are buddhas but a particularly fortunate time because not one or two but one thousand and two buddhas will appear during the period. The details of the period and the buddhas in it were given by the Buddha and recorded in བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོ་ཞེས་བྱ་བའི་མདོ་ The Sūtra called «The Good Kalpa». Thus the era during which our earth exists is regard as an བཟང་པོ་ «excellent» or «good» བསྐལ་པ་ «kalpa» or long period of time. 2) Meaning «good» or «fortunate» period in general. E.g., a period when a buddha has or will descend is a fortunate period; the opp. is a མུན་ནག་བསྐལ་པ་ «a dark kalpa» which is a time when a buddha has or will not descend.

བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོ་ཞེས་བྱ་བའི་མདོ་ [bskal pa bzang po zhes bya ba'i mdo] «The Sūtra called «The Good Kalpa». The name of a sūtra spoken by the Buddha which gives details of the cosmology of this world's period, and especially gives details of the one thousand and two buddhas who will descend during this period, which the Buddha called བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོ་ «the Good Kalpa». These buddhas are usually referred to as བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོའི་སངས་རྒྱས་སྟོང་ the thousand buddhas of the good kalpa but there are in fact, one thousand and two predicted. Translated by the Indian preceptor བིདྱཱ་ཀ་ར་སིདྡྷི་ Vidyākarasiddhi and the Tibetan lotsāwa བནྡེ་དཔལ་དབྱངས་ Bande Palyang then later revised and finalized by སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས་ Kawa Paltseg.

བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོའི་སངས་རྒྱས་སྟོང་ [bskal pa bzang po'i sangs rgyas stong] phrase> «The thousand buddhas of the good kalpa». A general phrase used to indicate the one thousand and two buddhas that Śhākyamuni Buddha predicted would appear in this particular བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོ་ good kalpa.

བསྐལ་པ་ཡ་ཐོག་ [bskal pa ya thog] «The opening age» meaning the first period on earth when humans existed, the age when humans first appeared. The term is another name for བསྐལ་པ་རྫོགས་ལྡན་གྱི་དུས་ q.v. the time when men lived harmoniously and all good things were present.

བསྐལ་པ་ལས་ཀྱི་རླུང་ [bskal pa las kyi rlung] phrase> «The kalpa karmic wind». One of the karmic winds of the body that escapes during the death process.

བསྐལ་པ་གསུམ་ལྡན་ [bskal pa gsum ldan] Same as གསུམ་ལྡན་བསྐལ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐལ་པའི་སྙིགས་མ་ [bskal pa'i snyigs ma] phrase> «Dregs of fortune». Translit. + translation of the Sanskrit «kalpakaṣhāyaḥ». One of the སྙིགས་མ་ལྔ་ five dregs q.v. This is usually translated into Tibetan with དུས་ཀྱི་སྙིགས་མ་ «dregs of time» q.v.

བསྐལ་པའི་དུས་བཞི་ [bskal pa'i dus bzhi] Same as གནས་བསྐལ་གྱི་དུས་བཞི་ «the four periods of a persisting kalpa» q.v.

བསྐལ་པའི་མེ་ [bskal pa'i me] phrase> «The kalpa fire» meaning བསྐལ་པ་མཐར་འཇིག་དུས་ཀྱི་མེ་ the fire at the end of the kalpa which destroys the world. Often used as a metaphor for the fiercely destructive capability of other fires or forces. Note that the kalpa fire fits exactly with Western cosmological expectations for this solar system; at the end of the solar system, the sun will swell to a massive size, engulfing all the planets up to Mars in its inner fires and scorching the rest of the planets at the same time.

བསྐལ་པའི་ཡུན་ [bskal pa'i yun] phrase> «Duration of a kalpa». The duration of any given type of བསྐལ་པ་ «kalpa» q.v.

བསྐལ་བ་ [bskal ba] v.i. བསྐལ་བ་/ བསྐལ་བ་/ བསྐལ་བ་//. 1) Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, བར་ཆོད་པ་ and རྒྱང་རིང་བ་ i.e., «to be interrupted / cut off» and «distant». E.g., [TC] དུས་ཡུན་རིང་པོས་བསྐལ་བ། «held up for a long time»; བར་ཐག་རིང་པོས་བསྐལ་བ། «to be cut off by a long distance intervening»; དུས་དང་གནས་ཀྱིས་བསྐལ་བ། «cut off by time and distance»; ལྐོག་ཏུ་གྱུར་པས་བསྐལ་བ། «cut off due to being very hidden». 2) The term is also used to mean to be veiled, to be curtained off from something. For example, see the term ཤ་ཟ་བསྐལ་དོན་ q.v.

CARE! It is not uncommon to see བསྐལ་པ་ q.v. mistakenly written as བསྐལ་བ་ and the two are very different.

བསྐལ་མེ་ [bskal me] Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པའི་མེ་ q.v.

བསྐལ་བཟང་ [bskal bzang] 1) Abbrev. of བསྐལ་པ་བཟང་པོ་ q.v. 2) «Kaysang». Common name in Tibet (for man or woman).

བསྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ [bskal bzang rgya mtsho] «Kalsang Gyatso». [1708-1757]. The name of the seventh Dalai Lama.

བསྐུ་ [bsku] See བསྐུ་བ་ q.v.

བསྐུ་མཉེ་ [bsku mnye] «Massage». Note that this term specifically means «massage»; the general term for rubbing, e.g., in «rub the body» is འཕུར་བ་ q.v. 1) «Massage» of the body in general. 2) «Oil massage» the name of a specific technique of massage where various oils from grain are applied to and massaged/rubbed into the body. The technique is considered to be useful for soothing wind diseases. Any oil in general can be used but there are also specific combinations of oils specified in Tibetan medicine. 3) «Massage». In the Longchen Nyingthig system of yogic exercises, the name of the second of twenty exercises of general body training and of twenty-one exercises of རྩ་རླུང་ channels and winds training.

བསྐུ་བ་ [bsku ba] Fut. of སྐུད་པ་ q.v.

བསྐུག་པ་ [bskug pa] Fut. of སྐུག་པ་ q.v.

བསྐུགས་པ་ [bskugs pa] Past of སྐུག་པ་ q.v.

བསྐུང་བ་ [bskung ba] I. Fut. of སྐུང་བ་ q.v.
II. Acc. [ULS] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, ཆུང་ངུ་ q.v.

བསྐུངས་པ་ [bskungs pa] Past of སྐུང་བ་ q.v.

བསྐུངས་ཡིག་ [bskungs yig] «Shorthand». The name of a shorthand system of writing that exists in the Tibetan language. Also called བསྡུས་ཡིག་ «shorthand». It is not just abbreviation but a whole system of writing abbreviated words. In it, two or more intertshegs are written together in a new, shortened intertsheg. There are about one thousand of these shorthand forms in the language, though not all of them are in regular use. Many forms that were popular in earlier times have become less well known since the Communist Chinese destruction of Tibetan culture in 1959. However, a dictionary of them has been published in Lhasa in 1994, in Western book form.
The shorthand system often defies the normal grammatical rules that dictate which letters can be written together (see the examples below, for instance). The abbreviated form is not made ad hoc, there being a tradition of words which can be condensed in this way. Some examples of shorthand are:
དཔལྡན་
for དཔལ་ལྡན་
སཻཾན་
for སེམས་ཅན་
བྱ ཾབ་
for བྱང་ཆུབ་
སདེཾའ་
for སེམས་དཔའ་
ཐ ཾད་
for ཐམས་ཅད་
This system of abbrev. is most freq. used in either དབུ་མེད་ un-seriffed or མགྱོགས་ཡིག་ rapid (quick handwriting) forms of writing. It is seen in texts written in དབུ་ཅན་ seriffed script but that is very unusual since texts written in this script have the sense of being classics. For these reasons, it is seen mostly in handwritten notes, then in handwritten texts, and almost never in woodblock prints.
In fact, skungs yig is effectively a sub-set of the written language in its own right, just like stenographer's shorthand is a subset of the written English language. When you know it well, you understand that it uses forms that in many cases do not correspond to the writing system of Tibetan longhand.
Tibetans only use this shorthand as a convenience. When copying out a text containing shorthand it is of no consequence—and for Tibetans usually desirable—to expand the shorthand into longhand. They do this expansion without hesitation because there is no semantic difference at all between the shorthand and longhand.

བསྐུམ་ [bskum] See བསྐུམ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐུམ་པ་ [bskum pa] Fut. of སྐུམ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐུམས་ [bskums] See བསྐུམས་པ་ q.v.

བསྐུམས་ཁྲུ་ [bskums khru] «Clenched cubit»; the measure of a ཁྲུ་ cubit when the fingers are clenched. The measure is made from the centre of the row of knuckle joints to the elbow joint. See also a ཁྲུ་གང་ «full cubit».

བསྐུམས་འདོམ་ [bskums 'dom] «Clenched fathom»; the measure of a འདོམ་ when the fingers are clenched. It is the distance between the centre of the rows of knuckle joints of the left and right hands of a human when the hands are clenched into a fist and both arms are stretched out in opposite directions from one another. See also a འདོམ་གང་ full cubit.

བསྐུམས་ཕྱག་ [bskums phyag] «A half-length prostration»; a prostration in which the head, hands, and knees are placed on the floor with the body not fully stretched out.

བསྐུམས་པ་ [bskums pa] Past of སྐུམ་པ་ [TC].

བསྐུར་ [bskur] See བསྐུར་བ་ q.v.

བསྐུར་འདེབས་ [bskur 'debs] Abbrev. of སྐུར་བ་འདེབས་པ་ q.v. The abbrev. usually connotes the noun form.

བསྐུར་བ་ [bskur ba] Past and fut. of v.t. སྐུར་བ་ q.v.

བསྐུར་ཡིག་ [bskur yig] A letter or message which is to be carried or sent to another person.

བསྐུལ་ [bskul] See བསྐུལ་བ་ q.v.

བསྐུལ་བ་ [bskul ba] I. Past and fut. of སྐུལ་བ་ q.v.
II. 1) Abbrev. of བསྐུལ་བ་པོ་, meaning the agent that does the action of the verb སྐུལ་བ་ q.v. Note that the complement (the thing used by the agent to do the action) is the བསྐུལ་མ་ q.v. This term will be translated in different ways according to the action being done. See the verb སྐུལ་བ་ for more. 2) A general term for anything done to make something or someone do something. Tibetan usage corresponds to several English nouns, so it must be translated on context. i) «Urging». Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] «adhyeṣhaṇā». Specifically, the name of the fifth of the ཡན་ལག་བདུན་ seven branches of worship q.v. It means to urge the enlightened beings to turn the wheel of dharma. ii) «Insistence»; e.g., «I wrote this text at the insistence of my disciple». iii) «Exhortation»; e.g., the master's exhortation to the monks was that they should practice. iv) «Incitement», «excitement» when used in the sense of inciting something or exciting something into action. E.g., «the coloured light from the practitioner's heart wound around the dhāraṇī thread, inciting the vase deities to release nectar».

བསྐུལ་བ་ཕྲིན་ལས་ཀྱི་སྔགས་ [bskul ba phrin las kyi sngags] phrase> «The evocation action mantra» of a deity. See སྔགས་བཞི་ «the four mantras».

བསྐུལ་མ་ [bskul ma] The name given to complement of the verb སྐུལ་བ་. Hence, «encouragement», «exhortation», «urging», «instigation», «admonishment». It has sometimes been translated as «request» but that is a little weak and renders other Tibetan terms such as ཞུ་བ་ better. This term has the sense of energy added in order to get someone to do something, such as to carry out a request. E.g., in the ཡན་ལག་བདུན་པ་ «seven-limbed practice» popular in Tibetan Buddhism, the sixth limb is སྐུལ་བ་ «urging». It is the section in which the Buddhas are not merely requested to turn the wheel of dharma but are urged to do so.
Note that, grammatically speaking, this can be and is also written as བསྐུལ་བ་ q.v.

བསྐུས་ [bskus] See བསྐུས་པ་ q.v.

བསྐུས་པ་ [bskus pa] I. Past of སྐུད་པ་ [TC].
II. Something applied by སྐུད་པ་ rubbing etc., hence «ointment», «topical application», «unguent», etc.

བསྐོ་བ་ [bsko ba] Fut. of སྐོ་བ་ [TC].

བསྐོང་བ་ [bskong ba] Fut. of v.t. སྐོང་བ་ q.v.

བསྐོངས་པ་ [bskongs pa] Past of v.t. form II སྐོང་བ་ q.v.

བསྐོན་པ་ [bskon pa] Past and fut. of སྐོན་པ་ q.v.

བསྐོར་ [bskor] See བསྐོར་བ་ q.v.

བསྐོར་བ་ [bskor ba] Past and fut. of སྐོར་བ་ q.v.

བསྐོལ་ [bskol] See བསྐོལ་བ་ q.v.

བསྐོལ་བ་ [bskol ba] I. Past and fut. of སྐོལ་བ་ q.v.
II. Same as བསྐོལ་མ་ q.v. E.g., ཆུ་བསྐོལ་བ་ could be the same as ཆུ་བསྐོལ་མ་ «boiled water».

བསྐོལ་མ་ [bskol ma] The name given to boiled liquids, i.e., liquids that have been boiled to make them what they are. E.g., as in ཆུ་བསྐོལ་མ་ «boiled water», འོ་མ་བསྐོལ་མ་ «boiled milk». This is different from ཁོལ་མ་ which means «boiling hot liquids».

བསྐོས་ [bskos] See བསྐོས་པ་ q.v.

བསྐོས་པ་ [bskos pa] Past of སྐོ་བ་ q.v.

བསྐྱ་བ་ [bskya ba] Fut. of སྐྱ་བ་ q.v.

བསྐྱང་བ་ [bskyang ba] Fut. of v.t. སྐྱོང་བ་ q.v.

བསྐྱངས་པ་ [bskyangs pa] Past of v.t. སྐྱོང་བ་ q.v. E.g., «preserved», «protected», «nurtured», etc.

བསྐྱད་པ་ [bskyad pa] Acc. [LGK] this term was revised during the སྐད་གསར་བཅད་ language revisions and meant, when written in new signs, 1) བསད་པ་ and 2) འགྲན་པ་ q.v.

བསྐྱབ་པ་ [bskyab pa] Fut. of སྐྱོབ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐྱབས་པ་ [bskyabs pa] Past of སྐྱོབ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐྱམ་པ་ [bskyam pa] Fut. of སྐྱོམ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐྱམས་པ་ [bskyams pa] Past of སྐྱོམ་པ་ q.v.

བསྐྱར་ [bskyar] See བསྐྱར་བ་ q.v.

བསྐྱར་བ་ [bskyar ba] Past and fut. of v.t. སྐྱོར་བ་ [TC] meaning to repeat, q.v.

བསྐྱར་བའི་སྒྲ་ [bskyar ba'i sgra] «Term of a repetition». A name given in grammar to the ཕྲད་རང་དབང་ཅན་ independent connector ཡང་ q.v. because of its function of providing the sense of «again» etc.

བསྐྱར་ཟློས་ [bskyar zlos] phrase> «Repetition»; a name for the verbal act of repetition of something said or hear