Modern Literary Tibetan

Essential of Modern Literary Tibetan

Essential of Modern Literary Tibetan
A Reading Course and Reference Grammar
Melvyn C. Goldstein
Geleg Rinpoche
Logsang Phuntshog
University of ca ifornia Press
Berkeley Los Angeles Oxford

Unuversty of California Press
Berkeley and Los Angeles. California
Unuversty of California Press, Ltd.
Oxford, England
Copyright C1991by the Regents of the Unuversity of California
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Coldsten. Melvyn C
Essentials of moden litera y Tibetan: a reading course and
reference grammar /Melvyn CGoldsten with gele k rim poche and
Lobsang Phuntshog
Includes examples of Tibetan texts with English translaton.

Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
List of Abbreviations xxil i
Part One l
Lesson One 3
l.l Introduction to the Tibetan Language
l.2 Tone
l.3 Vowel length
l.4 The thirty written letters
l.4 Steps in writing Tibetan letters
l.4.2 The consonants: ་ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་
l.43 The consonants: ཅ་ཆ་ཇ་ཉ་
l.44 The consonants: ཏ་ཐ་ད་ན་སྒྱུ
l.4.5 The consonants: པ་ཕ་བ་མ་
l.4.6 The consonants: ཌོ་ཙ་ཚ་ཛ་ཝ་
l.5 Vowels
l.6 Pronunciation drtll
l.7 Structure and prononciation of complex syllables
l.7.l complexs syllables
l.7.2 Slot-4 (sufflxed letters)
l.7.2.l The sufflixed letter
l.7.2.2 The sufflixed letter
l.7.2.3 The suffixed letters
l.7.2.4 The suffixed letter
l.7.2.5 The suffixed letter
l.7.2.6 The suffixed letter
l.7.2.7 The suffixed letter

vi Contents
l.7.2.8 The sufflxed letter
l.7.2.9 The sufflxed letter ལ་
l.7.3 Slot-5 consonants
l.8 The syllabic nature of the Tibetan language
l.9 Sentence and verb types: introduction
l.10 Linking verbs and sentences
l.l.l Question formations
l.l.2 Vocabulary
Lesson Two 23
2.l The Alphabet, continued: Slot-l (preflxed letters) ག་ད་བ་མ་འ
2.2 Slot-3 (subflxed letters) ཡ་,ར་,ལ་
2.2.l The subflxed letter: ཡ་
2.2. The subflxed letter: ར་
2.2. The subflxed letter: ལ་
2.3 Slot-2 (supraflxed letters): ར་,ལ་,ས་
2.4 Exercise: Write the pronunciation of the following syllables
2.5 The pronunciation of disyllabic compolmds
2.6 Existential verbs and sentences
2.6.l The dative-locative case
2.6.2 Possessive constructions with the dative-locative case
2.7 Linking and existential verbs used in adjectival constructions
2.8 Negation of linking and existential verbs
2.9 Ouestion formation with interrogative words
2.10 Reference section: Looking up words in the glossary and new
vocabulary sections
2.1.l Reading exercise
2.1.2 Vocabulary
Lesson Three
3.l The subject of active sentences and the instrumental case
3.2 Plurality and singularity
3.2.l Singularity
32.2 Plural words and postpositions
33 Complex subject and object constructions

3.3.l complex subjects
3.3.2 The complex object
3.3.3 The active verb
3.4 Simple past tense
3.5 Present tense
3.6 Usual constructions
3.7 Future tense
3.8 Active verbs in interrogative constructions
3.9 Sentence final marker
3.10 Reading exercise
3.ll Vocabulary
Lesson Four 68
4.l clause construction: inroduction
4.2 The པ་དང་ connective
4.3 The temporal connectives: རྗེས་ and བའི་ / པའི་རྗེས་སུ་
4.4 Marking quotations and naming names
4.5 Review of the declension of pronouns
4.6 Reading exercise
4.6.l Tibetan text
4.6.2 Inerlinear translation pronunciation
4.6.3 Translation
4.6.4 Grammatical notes
4.7 Vocabulary
Lesson Five
5.lInvoluntary verbs and senlences
5.2 Location and indirect objects in involut ary constructions
5.3 བྱུང་  constuctions
5.4 Tense and temporals in existential and linking constructions
5.5 Temporals inactive and involuntary constructions
5.6 Verbalisers: object-verb compounds
5.7 Verbs of motion
5.7.l Active verbs
5.7.2 Involuntary verbs of motion

5.8 Honoriflc language
5.9 The causal connectives. བར་ / པར་བརྟེན་ / སྟབས་ . ཙང་ . རྐྱེན་ (གྱིས་), ཙ་ན་,
པས་ /བས་,གཤིས་,and (པའི་ /བའི་) དབང་གིས་
5.10 Then "when" connectives: (དུས་,སྐབས་,བའི་ /པའིསྐབས་སུ་,བའི་ /པའིདུས་སུ་,
མཚམས་སུ་,ཚེ་,བ་ /པ་ན་,and བའི་ /པའིསྒང་
5.1.l Then "gerundive" connectives: དེ་,ཏེ་,སྟེ་ and ནས་
5.1.1.l The temporal-causal function The adverbial or simultaneous function The def ning function
5.1.2 The "conjunctive" connectives ཅིང་,ཞིང་,and ཤིང་
5.1.3 The "purposive" connectives: ཆེད་,སླད་,པའི་ /བའིཆེད་དུ་,ཆེད་དུ་,ཕྱིར་,
དོན་དུ, and རྒྱུའི་ཆེད་དུ་
5.1.4 The genitive case
5.1.5 Infinitive usage: vb. +བར་ or པར་
5.1.6 Then agentive verbal particles མཁན་,མི་,and པ་ / བ་
5.1.7 Reading exercise: "The Rabbit talk es Revenge"
5.1.7.l Tibetan text Interlinear translation Translation Grammatical notes
5.1.8 Vocabulary
Lesson six 126
6.l The conditional ("if") clause connectives ན་,ཚེ་,གལ་ཏེ་ ... ན་,ཚེ་,
གལ་སྲིད་ ... ན་,  གལ་སྲིད་ ... ཚེ་,and པ་ན་ / བ་ན
6.2 Then "as soon as" clause connectives: འཕྲལ་,པ་ད་ག་,མ་ཐག་
ཉིད་དུ་,པ་དེ་མ་ཐག་ (ཏུ་), པ་ད་ང་,པ་ / བ་ཙམ་ནས་ and པ་ /བ་ཙམ་ན་
6.3 Negation of active and involuntary verbs
6.4 The enumerative particles སོགས་ and བཅས་
6.5 Adverbials
6.5.l The adverbializing particles: [genitive particle] +ངང་ or ངང་ནས་
or སྒོ་ནས་
6.5.2 The instrtmental particles as adverbializers
6.5.3 The dative-locative particles as adverbializers
6.5.4 The particles བཞིན་པར་ and བཞིན་དུ་ as adverbializers

6.5.5 Adverbs
6.6 Nominalization with པ་ / བ་
6.6.lPositive constructions
6.6.2 Negative nomnnalized constructions with པ་ / བ་
6.6.3 Nominalized constructions with the dative-locative
6.6.4 Negative constructions with the dative-locative
6.7 The use of རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ or ཡག་
6.7.l Future constructions
6.7.2 Past constructions
6.7.3 Existential constructions
6.7.4 Other constructions
6.8 The "pretend" particles ཁུལ་,ཁུལ་བྱས་,མདོག་,མདོག་མདོག་,ཟོལ་ and ཚུལ་བྱས་
6.9 The auxiliary verb ཐུབ་ ("to be able")
6.10 read ng exercise: "AWolf Has Arrived)
6.10.l Tibetan text
6.10.2 lnlerlinear translation
6.10.3 Translation
6.10.4 Grammatical notes
6.ll Vocabulary
Lesson Seven 162
7.l The "not only" clause connectives: མ་ཟད་,མ་ཚད་ and མི་ཚད་
7.2 The "even though" clause connectives: ཀྱང་,ཡང་,འང་,རུ་ང་,ནའང་,
ན་ཡང་,མོད་ and དེ་ (དེའི་)
7.3 The "plan/ intend to clause connective: རྩིས་
7.4 Then "before" clause connective: མ་ +vb. (past tense stem)+ གོང་
+dative-locative (ལ་, etc.)
7.5 The verb དགོས་ ("to have to, want")
7.5.l དགོས་ used alone as a main verb
7.5.2 དགོས་ used in conjunction with active verbs
7.5.3 Non-past constructions
7.5.4 The དགོས་ +པ་རེད་ usual complement
7.5.5 དགོས་ constructions in the past conveying completed action
7.56 The use of དགོས་ in two-verb constructions
7.5.7 furth ker examples of དགོས་ with connkectives in dependent clauses

7.6 Constructions using ཐག་ཆོད་
7.7 Constructions with the verb ཞུ་ (ཞུས་)
7.8 Constructions expressing "certainty": ་ངེས་,ལོས་,and ཤག་
7.9 The "together with" clause connectlves: པ་ད་ང་སྤྲགས་,པ་དང་ཆབས་ཅིག་,
བསྟུན་ནས་,འབྲེལ་,and ཆབས་སྦྲགས་
7.10 The "according to" clause connectives པ་དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་,པ་དང་བསྟུན་,
བསྟུན་,བསྟུན་ནས་,དང་འབྲེལ་ and གཞི་བཟུང་
7.ll The "about to" clause connectives གྲབས་,ལ་ཁད་ལ་,ཁ་ལ་ཁར་,
ལ་ཁར་,ཁར་,གྲབས་བྱེད་དུས་,ཉེ་,and ཉེར་
7.12 Polite imperative: vb. + དང་
7.13 "Help" constructions: རིགས་གནང་  and རོགས་བྱེད་
7.14 Reading exercises
7.14.lReading number one "Agu do"nba and a Rich Man"
7.14.1.lTibetan text Interlinear translation Translatlon Grammatical notes
7.14.2 Reading number two: "Coming from Afghanistan to Pakistan"
7.14.2.lTibetan text Interlinear translation Translation Grammnatical notes
7.15 Vocabulary
Lesson Eight 198
8.lcardinal numbers
8.2 Ordinal numbers
8.3 Percentages
8.4 Months
8.5 Tibetan numerals
8.6 "Or" and "whether or not" construct lons
8.7 "With" constructions using དང་
8.8 "Coincidental" consructions: དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་ and ཞོར་

8.9 Constructions using སྒང་ : "on top of", "on",
and "in addition to"
8.10 Reading exercise: "The Golden Axe"
8.10.lTibetan text
8.10.2 Translatlon
8.10.3 Grammatical notes
Part Two 223
Lesson Nine
9.lconstructions with ཐབས་ ("way means")
9.2 The auxllary verb "to dare to": ཕོད་ and ནུས་
9.3 The "let alone/far from" clause connectives: ལྟ་བཞག་,ཕར་བཞག་,
and ལྟ་ཅེ་
9.4 The "excludlng" clause connective" ཕུད་
9.5 The "danger of" clause connective" ཉེན་
9.6 The auxllary verb མྱོང་ : "to experience"
9.7 "Seem" constuction s using བཟོ་
9.8 The "complated/finished" auxiliary verbs: ཟིན་,ཚར་,and གྲུབ་
9.9 Emphatic negative adverbs: གཏན་ནས, ནམ་ཡང་,གང་ཡང་,རྒྱུན་ནས་,
རྩ་བ་ནས་,and ཁྱོན་ནས་
9.10 "Want" constrtuctions using འདོད་,མོས་,བློ་ and སེམས་
9.ll"Hope" constructions using རེ་,འདུན་ and པའི་ /བའིརེ་བ་
9.12 "Manner" constructions: སྟང་ས་,ལུགས་ and ཚུལ་
9.13 Perfect tense
9.14 "Would have" constructions
9.15 The "be fit/ worthy" particles: ཉན་,ལོ་,and རུང་
9.16 The "possible" auxiliary verb སིྲད་
9.17 Reading exercises
9.17.lReading number one: "The Wolf and the Hunter"
9.17.1.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes

9.17.2 Reading number two: "The Brief ais tory of ramo che (Temple)'s Jo (Statue)"
9.17.2.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
9.18 Vocabulary
Lesson Ten 249
10.lThe "while" clause connective ཤུལ་
10.2 Past-present construction
10.3 Adjectives and adjectival constructions
10.3.lBasic adjective form
10.3.2 The comparative form of adjectives
10.3.3 Augmentation of nominalized adjective stems with the
particles: ཆེས་,ཤིན་ཏུ་,ཞེ་དྲ་གས་,ཏོག་ཙམ་,ཕྲན་བུ་,ཇེ་,
and ཇེ་ ... ཇེ་
10.3.4 The superlative degree: ཤོས་
10.3.5 Excessive constructions: དྲགས་ or སྐྱོན་
10.3.6 Derived adjectives
10.3.7 conj uction of adjectives དང་,ཞིང་,ལ་,and ཁར་
10.3.8 Adjectival constructions using ལོས་
10.4 Verbal constructions with ལ་ and ཁར་
10.4.l ལ་ as a verbal clause connective
10.4.2 ཁར་ as a verbal clause connective
10.5 verbal constructions using མ་ +vb. (past stem)+་ན་
10.6 The "unless" clause connective ན་ /ནས་མ་གཏོགས་
10.7 མ་གཏོགས་ as a clause connective expressing "except for"
10.8 "Each" constructions usig རེ་རེ་ ... རེ་ or རེ་རེ་
10.9 Constructions with the verb "to change alter": འགྱུར་
10.10 "Without" clause connective constructions using མ་ + vb.
+པར་ /བར་དུ་
10.11 "Until" clause connective constructions using མ་ +vb.
+པར་ /བར་དུ་
10.12 Constructions with འཕྲོ་,འཕྲོར་,འཕྲོས་ (left over, uncompleted"):
vb.+འཕྲོ་ (འཕྲོར་,འཕྲོས་)+ལུས་ or བཞག་

10.13 The "location" particles: ཡུལ་ and ས་
10.14 "Lake what", "how", and "what kind of constructions:
ཇི་ལྷར་ or ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་
10.15 Reading exercises
10.15.lReading number one: "Agu do"nba Cuts Downa a Walnut Tree"
10.15.1.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
10.15.2 Reading number two: "The Prayer-Festival Hollday"
10.15.2.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
10.16. Vocabulary
Lesson Eleven 273
11.l The "time to do" auxiliary verb: རན་
11.2 Constructions using the phrases ག་ལ་ཡོད་,ག་ལ་རུང་ and ག་ལ་འགྲིགས་ :
"how can it be okay?"
11.3 Constructions usig ག་ལ་ + vb. (non-past)
11.4 Constructions using the phrase དོན་ཅེ་ཡོད་
11.5 Constructions using the pattern vb. + རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད་ : "what is
there to be.. "
11.6 Constructions using ཐ་ན་ : "even"
11.7 Causative constructions
11.7.lconstuctions using འཇུག་ (p. བཅུག)
11.7.2 Constructions using བཟོ་
11.7.3 Constructions using བྱེད་
11.8 "Let" or "alow" constructions using the verb འཇུག་
11.9 "Allow" constructions using the auxiliary verb ཆོག་
11.10 "I'll do" volunteering constructions using the auxiliary verb ཆོག་
11.11 "Ready to do" constructions using ཆོག་ and ཆོག་ཆོག་
11.12 "Approve" or "agree" constructions using འཐུས་
11.13 " No choice" and "no way" constructions usig ཀ་མེད་,ཐབས་མེད་
ཐབས་བྲལ་,ཚད་མེད་ . མཐུ་མེད་,ཚད་བྲལ་ and རང་

11.14 Constructions using the idea of "adbout" and "concerning": སྐོ་ར་
and ཐད་
11.15 Rhetorical negative constructions
11.16 Double negatives
11.17 Double negative constructions with གཏན་ནས་,རྩ་བ་ནས་,ཁྱིན་ནས་,
གྱོན་ནས་,and ནམ་ཡང་
11.18 Double negative constructions with ཐུབ་,དྲན་,མཐོང་,བསམ་ and ཤེས་
11.19 Constructions with ག་ vb. + ག་ +བྱེད་ or བྱས་
11.20 Reading exercises
11.20.1 Reading number one. "The Urine of the precious Gem" Tibetan text
11.20.12 Translation Grammatical notes
11.20.2 Reading number two."The Origin of Shodo"n [The 'Curd' or 'Opera'
11.20.2.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
11.20.3 Reading number three. "Concerning the National Minorities in China"
11.20.3.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
Lesson Twelve 308
12.lconstructions with the particle ཐོག་
12.1.lThe "on" function of ཐོག་
12.1.2 The "via" function of ཐོག་
12.1.3 The "in addition to" function of ཐོག་
12.1.4 The "during", "at the time of", and "when" functions of ཐོག་
12.1.5 The "conserning" function of ཐོག་
12.2 verbal constructions using མདོག་ཁ་པོ་
12.3 "Shouldn't "constructions རྒྱུ་ + negative existentials
12.4 "What kind of" constructions: གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་,ཅི་འདྲ་ཞིག་,
and ཇི་འདྲ་ཞིག་

Contents xv
12.5 "Lots of ways" constructions: གང་ཅེ་,and གང་དནོང་ཅེ་
12.6 "By all means / in all respects" constructions. གང་ཐད་ནས་,
གང་ཅིའི་ཐོག་ནས་,གང་གི་ཆ་ནས་,and གང་ཐད་ལ་
12.7 "To whom"constructions (སུ་ + dative-locative): སུར་
and སུ་ལ་
12.8 "Whose" (སུ་ + genitive: སུ་ཡི་,སུའི་) and "by whom" (སུ་ + instrimental: སུས་,
སྲུ་ཡིས་) constructions
12.9 "Why" constructions: གང་ཡིན་ཅེ་ན་,གང་ཡིན་ཟེར་ན་,གང་གིས་ཤེ་ན་,
ཅིས་ཤེ་ན་,ཅིའི་ཕྱིར་ཞེས་ན་,and ཅི་ལ་ཟེར་ན་
12.10 "Everywhere" construction: ག་ས་ག་ལ་
12.ll"It's a pity" constructions གང་དྲག་,ཅི་དྲག་,གང་ཞིག་དྲག་,
and ཅི་ཞིག་དྲག་
12.12 "However much ... that much" constructions:
interrogative + ཙམ་ + vb. + ཙམ་
12.13 "How could" constructions with ག་ནས་  and ག་པར་
12.14 Constructions with ཚད་  (ལ་)
12.15  "According to" and "based on" constructions with ལ་གཞིགས་ཏེ་
and ལ་དཔག་སྟེ་ (ན་)
12.16 "Go right ahead" constructions with རྐྱང་བྱེད་  or རྐྱང་གནང་
12.17 "Everything" constructions with གང་ན་ཅི་ཡོད་
12.18 "Immediately" constructions with འཕྲལ་ + vb. + བྱེད་,གཏོང་,
and རྒྱག་
12.19 "May it come" constructions: vb. + པ་ /བ་ or པར་ /བར་ཤོག་
12.20 Reading exercises
12.20.lReading number one "TheLove of the vla le and Female Swan"
12.20.1.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
12.70.2 Reading number two "The Wish-Fulfilling Gem Necklace"
12.20.2.lTibetan text Translation Grammatlcal notes

Contents xv
12.5 "Lots of ways" constructions: གང་ཅེ་,and གང་དནོང་ཅེ་
12.6 "By all means/ in all respects" constructions. གང་ཐད་ནས་,
གང་ཅེའི་ཐོག་ནས་,གང་གི་ཆ་ནས་,and གང་ཐད་ལ་
12.7 "To whom" constructions (སུ་ + dative-locative): སུར་
and སུ་ལ་
12.8 "Whose" (སུ་ + genitive: སུ་ཡི་,སུའི་) and "by whom" ( སུ་ + instrumental: སུས་,
སྲུ་ཡིས་) constructions
12.9 "Why" constructions: གང་ཡིན་ཅེ་ན་,གང་ཡིན་ཟེར་ན་,གང་གིས་ཤེ་ན་,
ཅིས་ཤེ་ན་,ཅིའི་ཕྱིར་ཞེས་ན་,and ཅི་ལ་ཟེར་ན་
12.10 "Everywhere" construction: ག་ས་ག་ལ་
12.ll"It's a pity" constructions: གང་དྲག་,ཅི་དྲག་,གང་ཞིག་དྲག་,
and ཅི་ཞིག་དྲག་
12.12 "However much ... that much" constructions:
interrogative+ ཙོམ་ + vb.+་ཙོམ་
12.13 "How could" constructions with ག་ནས་ and ག་པར་
12.14 constuction s with ཚད་ (ལ་)
12.15 "According to"and "based on"constructions with ལ་གཞིགས་ཏེ་
and ལ་ད་པག་སྟེ་ (ན་)
12.16 "Go right ahead" constructions with རྐྱང་བྱེད་  or རྐྱང་གནང་
12.17 "Everything" constructions with གང་ན་ཅི་ཡོད་
12.18 "Immediately" constructions with འཕྲལ་ + vb.+ བྱེད་,གཏོང་,
and རྒྱག་
12.19 "May it come" constuctions: vb.+ པ་ /བ་ or པར་ /བར་ཤོག་
12.20 Reading exercises
12.20.lReading number one."The Love of the Male and fema ie Swan"
12.20.1.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
12.20.2 Reading number two: "The Wish-Fulfilling Gem Necklace"
12.20.2.lTibetan text Translation Grammatical notes

Lesson Thirteen 329
13.lWord formation: introduction
13.1.lNominal compounds
13.1.2 Synonymic compounds
13.1.3 Premodifying compounds
13.1.4 Conjunctive compounds
13.1.5 Polar compounds
13.1.6 Adjectival polar compounds
13.1.7 Adjectival post modifying compounds
13.1.8 verbal compounds
13.1.8.lPremodifying compounds: Adj.- Vb. Synonymic compounds: Vb.- Vb. Verbal summation compounds: Vb.-Vb. Verbal polar compolmds: Vb.- Vb. Verbal premodifying compounds: vb.+N Verbal premodifying compounds: N+ Vb. Verbal sequential compounds: Vb.- Vb.
13.1.9 Quadrisyllabic compounds
13.2 "Time to do" particles: ལོང་ and ཁོམ་
13.3 Vb.+ ཁག་པོ་ constructions
13.4 Vb.+ བདེ་པོ་ constructions
13.5 Reading exercise. "The Wish Fulfilling Gem Necklace, "
continued from Lesson 12
13.5.lTibetan text
13.5.2 Translation
13.5.3 Grammatical notes
13.6 Vocabulary
Lesson Fourteen 347
14.lconstructions usng the verb ཕྱིན་ as an auxiliary
14.2 The "do again" particle: སྐྱོར་
14.3 The auxiliary verb ཐལ་
14.4 Hypothetical constructions: ད་བང་དུ་བཏང་ན་,ཆ་བཞག་ན་,and
14.5 "For example" constructions: ད་པེར་ན་ and ད་པེར་ན་ཆ་བཞག་ན་

14.6 Constructions using ཇུས་
14.7 Constructions with ཆེད་
14.8 Reading exercise."The Wish-Fulfilling Gem Necklace",
continued from Lesson 13
14.8.lTibetan text
14.8.2 Translation
14.8.3 Gramnnatical notes
14.9 Vocabulary
Lesson Fifteen 365
15.l ཤས་ཆེ་ constructions
15.2 Constructions using vb.+ པས་རེད་
15.3 "Manner of" constuction s using ཕྱོགས་
15.4 གསལ་  constructions
15.5 Alternative ན་  construction
15.6 སྐད་  constructions
15.7 བསྐྱར་  constructions
15.8 Reading exercise."Chapter One: Meeting the Jowo"
15.8.lTibetan text
15.8.2 Translation
15.83 Grammatical notes
15.9 VocabuIay
Lesson Sixteen 380
16.1 Introduction
16.1.l Reading number one: "The Sequence of Events Regarding the Problems
Between retin g and Takdra, and the Summoning of the Ex-Regent
Reting from retin g Monastery" by Lhalu, tse wang Dorje
16.1.1.l Tibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
16.1.2. Reading number two. "Recollections of My Father Dorje Tsegye
Lungshar", by Lhalu, tse wang Dorje
16.1.2.l Tibetan text Translation Grammatical notes
16.2 Vocabulary
Part Three 395
Tibetan-English Glossary 397
Appendix A: Verb Declension Table 465
Appendix B: pronunciation n Drill
Appendix C: Supplementary Readings in the Genre of Communist Political Essays
l . Resolution of the Central Committee of the Commlmist Party of Chlna
concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 479
2. Concerning Liu shao qi 402
3. The tung xing Reservoir and Hydroelectric stat lon — a Result of
Sino-Vietnamese Friendship 484
4. The "Goiden Bridge" of Unity and Happiness 484
5. Proclamation of the Chinese People's Liberation Army 491

"Half of the words are read by implication"
Anon. Tibetan
This Tibetan saying pithily summarizes the main difficulty Westerners face in
learning to read Tibet fluently. aknow ledge of the various particles that comprise the
Tibetan grammar is essential for learning how to read tibetan, but this is not sufficient by
itself. In all too many cases, the semantic context, that is to say, the meaning of what
precedes and follows the clause or phrase in question, determines what the grammatical
particles themselves mean.
This book, therefore, was written to assist beginners not only to master the
multipicity of tibetan grammatical particles and markers, but also to develop the skills
to cope with the semantic component of tibetan grammmar.
Lessons One and two present the thirty letters of the tibetan alphabet together
with a descrption of how they are pronounced. Many instructional programs teach the
pronunciation of written tibetan by having students repeat the sounds after the instructor,
and this is a good way to learn. Howevaer, for those readers who are using this book on
teir own, "Essentials of Modern Literary Tibetan" provides an explanation of the main
rules underlying pronunciation and provides spoken tibetan equivalents for the first five
lessons as well as a tape of these lessons (through Case Western rese ve Universitys
Center for Research on Tibet). However, "Essentials of Modern Literary Tibetan" is not
meant to be a textbook of spoken tibetan. Spoken and written tibetan pronunciations
differ, and this book wil not devote a great deal of time to these differences or on
subtleties of spoken pronunciation. The aim of including pronunciation rules here is
simple — to teach users how to pronounce the letters and syllables they will be reading.
Developing reading comprehension of modern written tibetan is the goal of this book.
Students who have studied spoken Tibetan using Goldstein and Nornang's
"Modern Spoken Tibetan" will notice that the system used to transcibe the spoken
language here is slightly different. The curt ent system simplifies the more linguistically
complicated system used ear ier by employing sympbols for the Tibetan sounds which are
closer to English equivalents and thus easier to learn. For example, the system used in

this book no longer employs the letter /q/ for the Tibetan letter ཀ་,but instead uses the
most similar English letter – /g/ – even though /g/ differs from the Tibetan sound by
being voiced. The rationale for representing Tibetan sounds by a neutral letter such as /q/
was to avoid predisposing English speakers to voice the tibetan sound, but Inow believe
that this approach has been counter-productive and has hampered students from readily
learning how to pronounce Tibetan.
"Essentials of Modern Literary Tibetan" will teach reading skills in a range of
genes of written Tibetan. It moves quickly to cover essential grammatical structures so
that stories can be produced. The sentences in the lessons in Part One utilize both the
basic colloquial and literary written styles, but the readings reflect the neoclassical style
which is the basis for both of these. This style is becoming the standard for modern
literay Tibetan. The aim throughout the lessons is to accustom the reader to understand
more and more complex (and, therefore, more realistic) constructions. Part One provides
a solid foundation in Tibetan morphology, syntax, and vocabulay.
Part Two contains both lessons and extended reading examples taken from
novels, folk tales, histories, newspapers and magazines. Throughout the book the
readings are translated as close to the original Tibetan as possible, even if this results in
somewhat awkward English constructions. We hope this will facilitate the rapid
comprehension of the basic principles involved.
Part Three consists of an English-Tibetan Glossary, a verb declension chart listing
the different stems of the verbs used in the book, and an appendix with five selections
illustrating the genre of communist political essays.
Acritical dimension of this book is its ability to be used as a reference grammar.
The large glossary at the end of the book lists each grammatical particle or construction
used in the text together with the lesson and sub-section(s) where it occurs and is
explained. Consequently, whenever the user comes across an unfamiliar particle, whether
one month or five years after the initial encounter in the lessons, it will be easy to find the
section or sections that explain and give examples of this particle.
This text, therefore, provides a step-by-step graded introduction to basic Tibetan
syntax and grammar, a solid working vocabulary, and a pert manent reference grammar
which can be referred to long after these lessons have been completed.

Iwish to thank the many colleagues and students who have played a role in the
writing and testing of this book, especially Dr. Micheal Aris for pre-testing the first part
of the ms. and his student Victoria Sujata for keeping track of the nunnerous
inconsistencies and mistakes they discovered in class. ial so must express my deep
gratitude to my student kae rin Stephens, who painstakingly read through two draft
manuscripts and made very useful suggestions. Iam also in debt to Pierre Robillard for
customizing his excellent Tibetan Macintosh font for use in the book.
And last, but certainly not least, iwan t to acknowledge my gratitude to the
Internationa Research and Studies Program, Center for internation a Education, U. S.
Department of Education (G008640390 -87 ) for funding the research and preparation of
this book.

List of Abbreviations
adj. — a djective
adj. comp. — comparative adjective stem
abbr. — abbreviation
cc. — clause connective
ch. — phonetic render ng of a Chinese term in Tibetan
cf. — compare
dat. loc. — dative-locative case
eng. — phonetic rendering of an English term in Tibetan
f. — future
fut. compl. — future complennents
gen. — genitive case
h. — honorific
id. — idiom
imp. — imperative
inf. — infnitive
inst. — instrtmnental case
lit. — literally
n. — noun
neg. — negative
nh. — non-honorific
nom. — nominalizer
p. — past
perf. — perfect
pl . — plural
pres. — present
pres. compl . — present complement
p.n. proper name
sm. — same as
usu. — usually
usu. compl. — usual complement
va . — active verb
vi. — involuntary verb

Part One

Lesson One
l.l Introduction to the Tibetan language
The written Tibetan language has 30 consonants, 4 written vowels, and l inherent
(unwritten) vowel. Spoken tibetan, however, contains at least 35 consonants and 9
spoken vowels, and the standard pronunciation of written Tibetan uses a1144 of these.
Consequently, there is no simple one to one equivalence. In addition of this, however,
Tibetan is not read phnetically. Combinations of letters in syllables are often
pronounced totally differently from the inherent quality of the individual letters. For
example, the seven letters 'bsgrubs' are actually pronounced 'drub'. This transformation is
partly due to the evolution of Central Tibetan in to a tonal language since many of the
consonant clusters that were once pronounced (and still are in some areas) have become
tonal in Central Tibetan. One of the difficult tasks facing beginners, therefore, is to learn
how combinations of the written vowels and consonants are pronounced. To assist
readers in this task, the first two lessons contain a set of rules, and lessons l-5 include
phonemic equivalents of the written letters (in colloquial Lhasa dialect). acas sette tape
of these lessons is available from Case Western Reserve University's Center for Research
on Tibet (238 Mather MemoriaIBuilding, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 ; ph. 216368 -2264 ; fax
216368 -5334 ). The reader is urged to use this tape regularly.
The Tibetan words used in the first part of this lesson do not have to be
memorized and will not appear in the glossary unless they occur in other lessons. They
are used primarily to illustrate various linguistic features such as tone and length rather
than because they are common terms.
l.2 Tone
Tone is a distinctive feature of the Tibetan phonological system. It refers to the
pitch of vowels. For example, where as it makes no difference in English whether the
word dog is pronolmced in a very high pitch or a very low and deep pitch, in tibetan such
differences are critical and signal differences equivalent to those which would exist in
English if different vowels were used. Aline under a vowel indicates low tone and a line
above, high tone. Thus, gū (high tone) means 'body' while gu̲ (low tone) means 'nine'.
In addition to these two tones, Tibetan also has a released glottal stop which we
call a falling tone. It is marked by an oblique line over a vowel, for example,

dāà ("tiger"). A length set of practice drills that teach how to differentiate tones is
provided in Appendix B.
l.3 Vowel Length
In English, the meaning of the word "dog" does not change if we lengthen the
pronunciation of the "o" vowel so that it sounds lake "doooooog." In Tibetan, however,
the length of the vowel differentia ies words just as different consonants do in English.
There are, fortunately, only two relevant vowel lengths in tibetan. relatively long and
relatively short. Long vowels will be noted by repeating the vowel. For example, in ri̲
("hill") the vowel is short, butn ri̲i̲("to fall") it is long.
I.4 The thirty written letters
The 30 written letters in the Tibetan alphabet are listed below, together with their
approximate pronunciations and the notational sympbols ish all employ for them in this
book. Two of these 30,འ་ and ཨ་,are vowels, and the remaining 28 are consonants. It
should be noted that many letters such as ཀ་ and ག་ differonIy in the tone of the
accompanying vowel – not in the quality of the sound.
Written Form Phonetic Notation English Prononciation Equivalent
l . ཀ་ gā(l) similar to the "g" in gone
2. ཁ་ kā similar to the "k" in kill
3. ག་ gā or kā similar to the "g" in gone or the "k" in kill
4. ང་ ŋa̲ similar to the "ng" in sing-a-long
5. ཅ་ jā similar to the "j" in jar
6. ཆ་ chā similar to the "ch" in champ
7. ཇ་ ja̲ or cha̲ similar to either the "j" in jar or the "ch" in champ
8. ཉ་ ña̲ similar to the "ny" in canyon
9. ཏོ་ dā similar to the "d" in dig
10. ཐ་ tā similar to the "t" in tap
(l) All letters having no written vowel are considered to possess an inherent "a" vowel.

ll. ད་ da̲ or ta̲ similar to the "d" in dig or the "t" in tap
12. ན་ na̲ similar to the "n" in now
13. པ་ bā similar to the "b" in bet
14. ཕ་ pā similar to the "p" in pat
15. བ་ ba̲ or pa̲ similar to the "b" in bet or the "p" in pet
16. མ་ ma̲ similar to the "m" in met
17. ཙོ་ dzā similar to the "dds" in adds
18. ཚ་ tsā similar to the "ts" in Patsy
19. ཛ་ dza̲ similar to the "dds" in adds
20. ཝ་ wa̲ similar to the "w" in war
21. ཞ་ sha̲ similar to the "sh" in ship
22. ཟ་ sa̲ similar to the "s" in sip
23. འ་ a̲ similar to the "a" in ah
24. ཡ་ ya̲ similar to the "y" in yet
25. ར་ ra̲ similar to the "r" in red
26. ལ་ la̲ similar to the "l" in let
27. ཤ་ shā similar to the "sh" in ship
28. ས་ sā similar to the "s" in sit
29. ཧ་ hā similar to the "h" in hit
30. ཨ་ ā similar to the "a" in ah
In addition to the above letters, there are also a number of new consonant
combinations which are used to render foreign sounds such as those found in English. For
example, the English sol md "f" is written as ཕྷ་ Other combinations will be explained as
they occur.

l.4.1 Steps in writing Tibetan letters
Tibetan uses three main scrpts. The one used in printed matier is called 'uchen', or
literay "big head." There is also a related "headless" script known as 'umaya' that is often
used in handwritten manuscripts, and a difficult scr pt known as 'kyu' that is used in
correspondence and notes: The 'uchen' script is the one used throughout this text since it is
what you will encounter in books and newspapers.
In the diagram that follows, the sequence of strokes used in writing tibetan letters
is presented. You will note that they go from left to right.
Tibetan consonants, by and large, are organized in series of four sounds on the
basis of where they are pronounced in the mouth. The first consonant in such series is

typically high tone and unaspirated, the second is high tone but aspirated, the third is low
tone, and the fourth is nasalized. The consonants ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་ represent this type of paradignn.
l.4.2. The consonants: ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་
Each of these four consonants linguistically is called a velar stop because the
middle part of the tongue touches the velar section of the (roof of the) mouth and "stops"
the air flow momentarily. For those unfamiliar with these linguistic terms, use the rough
pronunciation equivalencies provided above and listen carefully to the tape and your
ཀ་ and ཁ་ are high tone consonants made in the same part of the mouth. However,
whereas the latter is pronounced with aspiration, that is, with a puff of air following the
"k" sound, the former is unaspirated. The aspirated "k" sound is equivalent to the initial
English consonant "k" in words such as key or keep. The unaspirated "k" sound is
technically an unvoiced velar stop and occurs in English only following "s" consonants,
for example in the word "skip." It never occurs at the beginning of words. However, its
pronunciation approximates the voiced initial "g" sound in words such as goat or give,
and will be transcribed in this book as "g".
The "ŋ" sound is also difficult for English speakers since it does not occur at the
beginning of English words. The best one can do to approx innate this sound is pronounce
the phrase "sing-nga-long" while emmhasizing the second "nga". Examples of these
consonants and their pronlmciation are:
ཀ་ gā(the letter ཀ་) ག་ ga̲ (what )
ཁ་ kā (mouth) ང་ ŋa̲(I)
l.4.3 The consonants: ཅོ་ཆ་ཇ་ཉ་
These consonants linguistically are known as 'palatal stops' because the upper front
part of the tongue articulates against the palatal area on ther roof of the mouth and stops
the flow of air momentaily. The first of this series of sounds is high tone and
unaspirated, the second is high tone and aspirated, the third is low tone but varies as to
whether it is pronounced "j" or "ch." The fourth consonant is nasal.
ཅ་ jā(the letter ཅ་) ཇ་ cha̲ (tea)
ཆ་ chā(a part) ཉ་ ña̲ (fish)

l.4.4 The consonants: ཏོ་ཐ་ད་ན་
These consonants are linguistically known as 'alveolar stop's' because the tip of the
tongue articulates against the alveolar region (just behind the teeth) and stops the flow of
air momentarily. Again the first of this series is high tone and unaspirated, the second is
high tone and aspirated, the third is low tone but varies as to whether it is pronounced "d"
or "t", The fourth consonant is nasal.
ཏ་ dā (the letter ཏ་) ད་  da̲ (now)
ཐ་ tā (the letter ཐ་) ན་ na̲ (if)
I.4. ད་ The consonants: པ་ཕ་བ་མ་
These consonants are known as 'bilabial stops'. The lower lip articulates agans t the
upper lip and blocks the flow of air momentarily. This series follows the same pattie rn as
those presented above, བ་ being pronounced sometimes "b" and other times "p".
པ་ bā (a past tense verbal particle) བ་ pa̲ (cow)
ཕ་ pā(father) མ་ ma̲ (mother)
l.4.6 The consonants: ཙོ་ཐཚ་ཛ་ཝ་
The first three consonants follow the basic pattern in that ཙ་ is high tone voiceless
unaspirated, ཚ་ is high tone voiceless aspirated, and ཛ་ is low tone voiceless unaspirated.
The last consonant, ཝ་,is not a nasal consonant. It is pronounced with a "w"
ཙ་ dzā (the letter ཙ) ཛ་ dza (the letter ཛ)
ཚ་ tsā (hot) ཝ་ wa̲ (fox)
The remaining ll consonants do not follow the above described pattern. The
consonant chart presented earlier in this lesson should be consulted for their
l.5 Vowels
Literary Tibetan has five vowels, one of which ("a"), as mentioned above, is not
written and inheres in otherwise unmarked syllables. Of the remaining four, three are
written above the letter and one (the vowel "u") is written below:

Writen Form Pronciation Example
inherent a (as in "father") ཀ་ (gā)
   ོ་ o (as in "so") ཀོ་  ( gō)
  ེ  e (as in "met") ཀེ་  (gē)
   ུ  u (as in "sue") ཀུ་  (gū)
   ི  i (as in "see") ཀི་ (gī)
Examples of these simple syllables follow. Remember that when there is no
written vowel above or below the vowel, the sound "a" is pronounced.
མི་ ཚུ་ ལོ་ ཚེ་ མེ་ བུ་   ཐོ་   ན་  ཇ་ སུ་ ཕོ་
mī chū lo̲ tsè me̲ pu̲ tò na̲ cha̲ sù po̲
person; water; year; life; fire; son; list; if; tea who; male
In addition to these, there are also a several spoken vowels which have no writien
form. These include:
ɛ approximately the "a" in the English "mate"
ɔ approximately the "aw" in the English "saw"
ə approximately the "a" in the English "alone"
ö approximately the "eu" in the French "seul"
ü approximately the "ü" in the German "füllen" (or the u in the French "pur")
The two "e" vowels (e and ɛ) are difficult for English speakers to hear and
produce. They differ in that the "e" sound is made higher in the front of the mouth with
the teeth very close together, while the teeth are wider apart for the "ɛ" sound and the
tongue is also lower in the mouth.
l.6 Pronunciation drill
Sequences of words have been compiled to facilitate the development of
oral/aural skills in differentiating difficult sounds and phonological features such as tone
and length. These are available in Appendix B. Listen to them on the tape and try to
reproduce them. Do not wort ry about memorizing the written tibetan. It is included only
to allow a native tibetan speaker to identify and pronounce the words.
l.7 Structure and pronunciation of complex syllables
Tibetan orthography separates syllables by a dot (called a tsèg or tsà)
immediately following each syllable ( ). For example, ག་མ་ (ga̲ ma̲) are two syllables
whereas གམ་ (ga̲m) is only one.

Syllables are either s 'simple or complex'. Simple syl ables consist of a single
consonant and vowel. They are exemplified by the examples cited above. Complex
syllables consist of clusters of consonants and a vowel. All syllables have a "root" or
"head" consonant to which other consonants are joined by being 'prefixed' 'suffixed',
'superfixed', and 'subfixed'. We shall number the possible consonant slots surrounding the
root consonant (labeled Xin the diagram below) as follows:
l X 4 5 (v = vowel)
l.7.l complex syllables
As shown above, there are five slots where consonants can be added to the head
consonant. Since these slots are optional, a variety of combinations occur. However,
while all thirty letters can fill the head slot, the other slots (l-5 ) have restricted
membership. Consequently, it is necessary to learn which letters occur in which slots, as
well as the changes in the form and pronnunciation that these letters can undergo when
added to a head consonant.
List of lete rs which can fill the five syll ble slots
slot-l (prefixed letters) ག་ད་བ་མ་འ་
slot-2 (supertixed letters) ར་ལ་ས་
slot-3 (subfixed letters) ཡ་ར་ལ་ཝ་འ་
slot-4 (suffixed letters) ག་ང་ད་ན་བ་མ་འ་ར་ལ་ས་
slot-5 (post suffixed letters) ས་
In this lesson we will examine the suffixed letters used in slots 4 and 5. The
other three slots will be dealt with in Lesson 2.
l.7.2 Slot-4 (suffixed letters)
As indicated above, ten letters fill this slot: ག་ང་ད་ན་བ་འ་མ་ར་ལ་ས་ . Letters in slot-4
are pronounced after the vowel.
l.7.2.lThe suffixed letter ག་
This letter adds either a final "g" sound to the initial consonant or makes the
vowel falling tone (as illustrated below). Reading pronunciations typically pronounce the

"g" sound whereas spoken pronnunciations use the falling vowel tone, except in disyllabic
compounds where the second syllable begins with a consonant.
When one encounters a complex syllable 'the first step is to identify which of the
letters is the root'. Because vowels are always written above or below the "root" letter,
syllables with vowels are easy to decipher.
In situations without written vowels, identifying the root letter can be difficult at
first and a process of elimination of options is useful. For example, if you encountered
the syllable ནག་ you wo uId see that it consists of the consonant "n" and the consonant "g".
Since there is no written vowel, the inherent "a" vowel would be inferred. But which is
the root letter? The answer is that "n" is the root letter and "g" is a slot-4 (suffixed) letter.
The incorrect hypothetical alternative would have b been that "g"is the root letter and "n"
is a prefixed letier. We know that this hypothetical alternative is impossible because "n"
never occurs as a slot-l letter (see section l.7.l). On the other hand, "g" does occur as a
slot-4 consonant. The syllable is therefore pronounced na̲g.
Similarly, the syllable ངག་ must be read as ŋa̲g since ང་ never occurs in the l-slot,
and ག་ can fill the 4 -slot.
Some combinations using the letter "g" in the 4 -slot are:
ནག་ na̲g or na̲à black
ལག་ la̲g or la̲à hand
ཐག་ tàg or ta̲à rope
དུག་ tu̲g or tu̲ù poison
འོག་ ɔ̲g or ɔ̲ɔ̀ under
Notice that the last example, ɔ̲g, begins with the letter vowel "a" (འ་). When it functions
as the root letter and has a written vowel, the vowel is pronounced low tone.
l.7.2.2 The suffixed letter ང་
This consonant usually adds the sound "ŋ" after the vowel.
རང་ སོང་ ཆང་ རིང་ ལུང་ ཡོང་ ཉུང་ མིང་
ra̲ŋ sòŋ chàŋ ri̲ŋ lu̲ŋ yo̲ŋ ñu̲ŋ mi̲ŋ
self went beer long handle come few name
In colloquial Tibetan, however, the "ŋ" endings are sometimes pronounced as
nasalized vowels, i.e., vowels that contain an "n" sound made simultaneously with the
vowel. For example, སོང་ could also be pronounced sòn and ཡོང་,yo̲n. Reading

pronunciations tend to pronounce the "ŋ" sound whereas spoken pronnunciations usually
use the nasalized vowels. Examples of the nasalized versions of the above words are:
རང་ སོང་ ཆང་ ཡོང་ ཉུང་
ra̲n sòn chàn yo̲n ñu̲n
l.7.2.3 The suffixed letters ད་ and ས་
These consonants are never pronounced as a "d" or "s" sound. Instead, they:
l) make the tone of the vowel falling tone — high tone vowels become high and falling,
and low tone vowels become low falling. For example, རེད་ is pronounced 'not' as re̲d but
rather as re̲è and མེས་ is pronounced me̲è.
2 ) These suffixed consonants also change the quality of the vowel sound for some
vowels: These vowel changes follow a regular pattern:
a becomes ɛ o becomes ö u becomes ü
"e" and "i" do not change their inherent vowel quality although the vowel
beconnes falling tone.
For example:
ནད་ བོད་ ལུད་ མེད་ སུས་ ལས་ གོས་ རིས་
nɛɛ̀ pöö̀ lüǜ me̲è sǖǜ lɛ̲ɛ̀ gö̲ö̀ ri̲ì
sick Tibet manure none by whom work clothes design
l.7.2.4 The suffixed letter ན་
This suffixed letter lengthens and nasalizes the vowel it follows. The tone remains
the same although there are a series of vowel shifts analogous to those we encountered
with the suffixed letter ད་ .
Vowel Shifts: a becomes ɛn u becomes ün
o becomes ön e becon nes en
i becon es in
ལན་ ཀུན་ ཟིན་ རིན་
lɛ̲n gǖn si̲n ri̲n
message all catch price
l.7.2.5 The suffixed letter མ་
This suffixed letter adds an "m" sound. The tone is unchanged.

ཧོམ་ གམ་ ལམ་ དོམ་ ཙམ་
hàm ga̲m la̲m to̲m dzàm
lie near road bear about
l.7.2.6 The suffixed letter བ་
This suffixed letter adds a "b" sound equivalent to the final "p" in the English
word "plop". It also changes the "a" vowel to an "ə" vowel. The "ə" vowel is pronounced
lake the "a" vowel in "alone".
ཁབ་ ནུབ་ ཏོབ་ ཡིབ་
kə̀p nu̲p hòp yi̲p
needle west sudden hide
l.7.2.7 The suffixed letter ར་
This letter either lengthens the vowel or adds a fnal "r" sound. It changes the
quality of the "o" vowel to that of "ɔ" (the "aw" sound in "saw"). Other vowels are
པར་ སེར་ ཟུར་ ནོར་ མར་
bazr sèè(sèr) su̲u̲(su̲r) nɔ̲ɔ̲(nɔ̲r) ma̲a̲ (ma̲r)
photo gold corner wealth butter
I.7.2.8 The suffixed letter ལ་
This letter lengthens the vowel and alters its sound quality as follows:
a becomes ɛɛ
u becomes ǖǖ
o becomes öö
The "e" vowel is lengthened but does not change its quality.
བལ་ ཕུལ་ རིལ་ ཚོལ་ ཟེལ་
pɛɛ pǖǖ ri̲i̲ tsȫȫ se̲e̲
wool give round look for shavings, chips
l.7.2.9 The suffixed letter འ་
When this letter is used in the 4 -slot, it marks the root letter of certain otherwise
ambiguous syllables where both letters can be used in the l-slot and 4 -slot. For example,
in the syllable དགའ་,it indicates that the root letter is the "ག་ and not the "ད་ ", which is a

prefixed letter: Thus it is pronounced "ga". By convention, then, དག་ without the འ་ would
be read as ta̲g or da̲g, the "g" being a 4 -slot letter here.
This letter, however, also alters the main vowel sound if it has a vowel ad bove it.
It is fr frequently used in this capacity to mark changes in grammatical cases (inflections).
The most common instance of this is འི, which changes the main vowel as follows:
a becomes ɛɛ — ང་ (ŋa̲- "I") becomes ངའི་ (ŋɛ̲ɛ̲ - "my")
u becomes üü — སུ་ (sù- "who") becomes སུའི་  (sǖǖ -"whose")
o becomes öö — མོ་ (mo̲ - "she") becomes མོའི་ (mö̲ö̲ - "her")
e becon nes ee - དེ་ (de̲ - "that") becomes དེའི་ (de̲e̲ - "of that")
l.7.3 Slot-5 consonants
Only one consonant ས་ (s) can occur in this slot, (2 ) and when it does, the 4 -slot
must also be filled. It does not change the quality of the vowel:(3 )
སེམས་ ལངས་ ལུགས་ ཕོགས་
sèm la̲ŋ lu̲g or lu̲ù phɔ̅ɔ̀
mind stood up system salary
l.8 The syllabic nature of the Tibetan language
Adifficult dimnension of Tibetan for English speakers is its syllabic nature.
Almost every syllable in Tibetan caries independent semantic meaning. Thus, the reader
must determine whether a syllable is functioning alone with its basic meaning or as a part
of a disyllabic or multisyllabic word. For example, both the English and Tibetan words
for "rifle" are disyllabic (the Tibetan = མེ་མདའ་). However, unlike the English word of
which neither of the two syllabe s (ri-fle) has independent meaning, both of the Tibetan
syllables (me̲n-da) do and can occur independently and in other compounds: མེ་ means
"fire" and མདའ་ means "arrow."
To make matters more difficult, written tibetan does not indicate the breaks
between words. Rather, written Tibetan consists of a series of syllables each separated
from the others by a syllable marking dot called a ཚེག་,regardless of which syllables
(2 ) Ancien Tibetan, however, used other letters there.
(3 ) It actually adds a kind of falling tone component to nasals, which we have decided to
leave unmarked for simplicity's sake.

group together to form words. Consequently, the burden of grouping the syllables into
words falls entirely on the reader, and it is very common for beginners to mis group the
syllables and create horrendous translations, for exampIe, by misdividing the phrase "the
teach-er's beau-ti-ful glass-es" as 'theteach ers beau ti ful glass es' this is one of the most
difficult features of literary tibetan for beginners, and the following chapters are
designed to help you develop the skill of correctly grouping syllables into words by
stressing not only basic recurring vocabulary items but also important grammatical clues.
Ultimately, however, only time and experience will reduce the frequency of such
"grouping" errors.
'From this point on, Tibetan words should be memorized. Note that
colloquial pronunciations will be used throughout this book'.
l.9 Sentence and verb types: introduction
There are four basic types of verbs in Tibetan (active, involuntary, linking,
existential). Each defines a type of sentence and clause. "Active" verbs (and
constructions) express action done by actors, e.g., "He 'hit' the ball". They are, therefore,
roughly equivalent to transitive sentences in English. "Involuntary" verbs (and
constructions) express unintentional, non-purposive action or states, e.g., "Igot 'sick' ". or
"I'saw' it". They are similar to intransitive verb constructions in English. Thus, in the
sentence "I'looked' there and 'saw' Iohn, " "looked" is an active verb since the a actor
purposely did the looking, and "saw" is an involuntary verb since it represents a non-
purposive state, the image appearing in the subject's vision.
Whereas English uses the copula (the verb "be") both for sentences that link the
subject to an object, e.g., "He 'is' a boy, " and for sentences that express existence, e.g.,
"He 'is' here, " Tibetan requires two separate verb classes–-the former requires a linking
verb and the latter an existential verb.
Simple linking constructions will be discussed in this lesson. Existential
constructions will be introduced in Lesson Two, and active and involuntary constructions
in Lessons Three and Five.
l.10 Linking verbs and sentences
As indicated above, Tibetan uses different verbs to express the ideas that we
express in English by means of the verb "to be."

The ln aking sentence typically consists of a subject, an object, and a linking verb.
The verb links the subject to the object so that the object is either a class to which the
subject belongs or a definition of the subject. For example, in the sentence "This is a
book, " a linking verb is required since the verb explains or defines what "this" is.
There are two main linking verbs in tibetan: ཡན་ and རེད་ . a third verb ཡིན་པ་རེད་ is
occasionally used in modern colloquial materials.
Unlike English linking verbs (is, are, were, etc.), these verbs, as discussed below,
'do not' express tense or number, both of which are conveyed in Tibetan by context or
other linguistic markers.
The first of these verbs (ཡིན་) is normally used with first person subjects.
a. ང་པད་མ་ཡིན། (4 )
ŋa̲ bɛ̅ɛ̅ma yi̲n
i pema is/(5 )
I am Pema.
Note that པད་མ་ is not pronounced pɛ̅ɛ̀ma, as you would expect from the preceding rules,
but bɛ̅ɛ̅ma. When a single syllable is part of a disyllabic compound such as Pema, a series
of shifts occur. These are discussed in Lesson Two, section five. For the time being,
simply pronounce the words as they appear in the pronunciation transliteration.
b. ང་ཚོང་པ་ཡིན།
ŋa̲ tso̅ŋba yi̲n
i trader is/
I am a trader.
The linking verbs རེད་ and ཡིན་པ་རེད་ on the otherhand, are usually used with third
person subjects. However, there is no fixed rule and they too occasionally occur with first
person subjects, although ཡིན་ never occurs with third person subjects.
c. ཁོ་པད་མ་རེད།
ko̅ bɛ̅ɛ̅ma re̲è̲
(4 )The vertical line is called a ཤད་ . It is placed after sentences and various kinds of clauses.
It will be noted in the interlinear translation by a slash mark (/ ).
(5 ) Note that all sentences in the first eight lessons contain an "interlinear" translation such
as that presented in this line. These translations identify the words and particles in the
order they were writ ien in Tibetan and are included to assist you to break down the
sentence correctly in to its meaningful parts.

he pema is
He is Pema.
d. ནོར་བུ་དགེ་རྒན་ཡིན་པ་རེད། [རྒན་ (rgan) is a complex syllable that includes a 2 -slot letter ("r")
that is discussed in Lesson Two. For the time being treat it
as if རྒན་ were written གན་ .]
nɔ̲ɔ̲bu ge̲gɛn yi̲mbəreè [ཡིན་ is pronounced yim rather than yin here because it is part
of a disyllabic compound which is followed immediaiely
by the letter པ་ This is discussed in Lesson Two. Note also
that the "a" vowel in པ་ is pronounced bə rather than ba.
This is common after an "i" vowel and is also discussed in
Lesson Two.]
norbu teacher is
Norbu is a teacher.
ཡིན་པ་རེད་ and རེད་ actually have slightly different connotations. When a writer uses
ཡན་པ་རེད་ rather than རེད་ he conveys to the reader that he is less certain about the validity
of what he is writing. Sentence d. conveys the idea that "it is said" or "it seems he is a
teacher." The writer, therefore, throuugh the use of ཡན་པ་རེད་, is expressing some
uncertainty about whether "he" (the subject) is really a teacher. owever, at this stage of
learning Tibetan, both of these will be translaied the same.
Second person statements are constructed the same as the third person
constructions cited above.
e. ཁྱེད་ར་ང་ནོར་བུ་རེད། [ཁྱེད་ is a type of complex syllable (khyed) that will be discussed
in Lesson Two. For the time being simply treat it as ཁེད་ and
pronounce it kè.]
ke̅raŋ nɔ̲ɔ̲bu re̲è
you norbu is
You are Norbu.
Word order in linking sentences, therefore, normally follows the rule: Subject+
The subject of a linking sentence is usually not marked (or identified by another
particle) but it can be, as we see in the following examples where the particle ནི་
(meaning roughly "as for") identifies the subject.
f. ཞིང་པ་ནི་བོད་པ་རེད།
shi̲ŋbəni pö̲ba re̲è

farmer as-for(6) Tibetan is
The famer is a Tibetan.
g. ཞྭ་མོ་ནི་སེར་པོ་རེད།
sha̲moni se̅e̅bo[se̅rbo] re̲è
hat as-for yellow is
The hat is yellow.
The subject in a linking construction can also be modified by the addition of a
demonstrative such as "that" (དེ་).
h. ཚོང་པ་དེ་བོད་པ་ཡིན་པ་རེད།
tso̅ŋba de̲ pö+ba yi̲mbəreè
trader that tibetan is
That (the) trader is tibetan.
i. བོད་པ་དེ་ཞིང་པ་རེད།
pö̲ba de̲ shi̲ŋbə re̲è
tibetan that farmer is
That tibetan is a farmer.
j. དེབ་དེ་ནག་པོ་རེད།
te̲p de̲ na̲go [na̲gbo] re̲è
book that black is
That book is black.
Demonstratives are sometimes used in combination with ནི་
k. བོད་པ་དེ་ནི་ཞིང་པ་རེད།
pö̲ba de̲ni shi̲ŋbə re̲è
tibetan that as-for famer is
That tibetan is a farmer.
Note that there is no change in meaning when both ནི་ and a demonstrative are used
1.11 Question formations
There are two ways to construct questions in Tibetan. The first is by means of
question particles placed after the verb. The second is by placing one of a class of
interrogative words before the verb. The former will be introduced in this lesson and the
latter in Lesson Two.
(6 )The hyphen in the interlinear translation indicates either that the two English words
stand for one Tibetan syllable or that the second word is a suffix of the first.

The more colloquial (spoken) question particle is -པས་ .
a. དེ་ཇ་རེད་པས།
de̲ cha̲ re̲bɛɛ̀ [Note that re̲è becomes re̲ when it joins with -bɛɛ̀.]
that tea is?/
Is that tea?
b. མོ་པད་མ་རེད་པས།
mo̲ bɛ̅ɛ̅ma re̲bɛɛ̀
she pema is?/
Is she Pema?
c. ཁྱེད་རང་ནོར་བུ་ཡིན་པས།
ke̅raŋ nɔ̲ɔ̲bu yi̲mbɛɛz
you norbu is?/
Are you Norbu?
Note that ཡིན་པས་ is usually (but not always) used in place of རེད་པས་ in first and second
person constructions. The answer to c. would normally be:
d. ང་ནོར་བུ་ཡིན།
ŋa̲ nɔ̲ɔ̲bu yi̲n
i nor bu is/
Iam Norbu.
e. དགེ་རྒན་དེ་ནང་པ་རེད་པས།
ge̲gɛn de̲ na̲ŋba re̲bɛɛz
teacher that buddhist is?/
Is that teacher a Buddhist?
f. པད་མ་བུ་མོ་རེད་པས།
bɛ̅ɛ̅ma po̲mo re̲bɛɛ̀ [Note that བུ་ is pronounced 'po' when joined with 'mo'.]
pema girl is?/
Is Pema a girl?
g. པད་མ་བུ་རེད།
bɛ̅ɛ̅ma pu̲ reè
pema boy is?
Pema is a boy.
The standard literary question particle is formed by repeating the final letter of the
verb and then adding the letter མ་ to it.
h. དེ་དེབ་རེད་དམ།

de̲ te̲p re̲dam
that book is?/
Is that a book?
i. ཁྱེད་རང་ཞིང་པ་ཡིན་ནམ།
ke̲raŋ shi̲ŋbə yi̲nnam
you fart mer is?/
Are you a farmer?
j. ཁོང་ཞིང་པ་རེད་དམ།
koŋ shi̲ŋbə re̲dam/
he famer is?/
Ishe a farmer?
k. ཞྭ་ (7 ) མོ་དེ་སེར་པོ་རེད་དམ།
sha̲mo de̲ se̅e̅bo re̲dam
hat that yellow is?/
Is that hat yellow?
If we now add the pronouns "your" (ཁྱེད་རང་གི་), "my" (ངའི་), and "his" (ཁོང་གི), we see that
they precede the nouns they modify:
l. དེ་ཁྱེད་རང་གི་དེབ་རེད་དམ།
de̲ ke̅raŋki te̲p re̲dam
that your book is?/
Is that your book?
m. དེ་ངའི་དེབ་རེད།
de̲ ŋɛ̲ɛ̲ te̲p re̲è
that my book is/
That is my book
It should be noted that the pronouns "my" (ངའི་) and "your" (ཁྱེད་ར་ང་གི་) in the above
examples are really combinations of the pronoun plus a genitive case particle. For
example, "my" is real y "i" (ང་) and the genitive case particle "of" (འི་) – literally "of i" or
"of me." Similarly, "your" consists of "you" (ཁྱེད་རང་) plus the genitive particle "of" (གི་).
(7 ) The small triangle beneath the syllable is called a wazur. It does not change the

Inflection and case declensions will be discussed in later lessons and need not concern
you here.
n. དེབ་དེ་ཁོང་གི་རེད་པས།
te̲p de̲ ko̅ŋki re̲bɛɛ̀
book that his is?/
Is that book his?
o. ཁྱེད་རང་ཁོང་གི་བུ་ཡིན་པས།
ke̅raŋ ko̅ŋki pu̲ yi̲mbɛɛz
you his son is?/
Are you his son?
Word order between the subject and object segments of sentences can be inverted with
change only in emphasis, not in referent meaning. Example o. therefore, could also have
been written:
p. ཁོང་གི་བུ་ཁྱེད་རང་ཡིན་པས།
ko̅ŋki pu̲ ke̅raŋ yi̲mbɛɛ̀
his son you is?/
Are you his son?
l.12 Vocabulary
ཁ་ he (ko̅)
ནག་པོ་ black (na̲go: na̲gbo)
ཁོང་ he (ko̅ŋ) [polite term]
ནང་པ་ Buddhist (na̲ŋba)
ཁོང་གི་  his (ko̅ŋki) [polite term]
ནི་ as for (ni̲)
ཁྱེད་རང་ you (ke̅raŋ) [polite term]
ནོར་བུ་  proper noun (henceforth abbreviated as p.n.), (nɔ̲ɔ̲bu)
ཁྱེད་རང་གི་ your (ke̅raŋki) [polite term]
དགེ་རྒན་ teacher (ge̲gɛn)
པད་མ་ p.n. (bɛ̅ɛ̅ma)
ང་ I(ŋa̲)
པས་ question particle (bɛ̅ɛ̀)
ངའི་ my (ŋɛ̲ɛ̲)
བུ་ boy, son (pu̲)
ཇ་ tea (cha̲)
བུ་མོ་ girl, daughter(po̲mo)
དམ་ question particle (da̲m)
བོད་པ་ tie tan (pö̲ba)
དེ་ that (de̲)
ཚོང་པ་ trader (tso̅ŋba)
དེབ་ book (te̲b)
ཞིང་པ་ famer (shi̲ŋbə)

ཞྭ་མོ་ hat (sha̲mo)
ཡིན་ the linking verb "is" (yi̲n)
རེད་ the linking verb "is" (re̲è)
ཤད་ the vertical line marking the end of clauses (shɛ̅ɛ̀)
སེར་པོ་ yellow (se̅e̅bo; se̅rbo)
ཡིན་པ་རེད་ the linking verb "is" (yi̲mbəreè)

Lesson Two
2.lThe Alphabet, continued: Slot-l (prefixed letters) ག་ད་བ་མ་འ་
In Lesson One, simple syllables consisting of a root letter and a Slot–4 suffixed
letter were introduced: ཁ+ང་ = ཁང་ (ka̅ŋ). In this lesson the remaining combinations and
their pronunciations are presented. The diagram of syllabic structure is repeated below
for your convenience.
l X 4 5 (v = vowel)
When this slot is filled, at least one additional slot (other than the "root") must
also be fied or the root letter must have a vowel. Since you are familiar with 4 -slot
letters, the following examples will be restricted to them.
Each of the five consonants which fill the l-slot occur only before certain root
ག་ occurs before the root consonants ཅ་ཉ་ཏ་ད་ན་ཙ་ཞ་ཟ་ཡ་ཤ་ས་  and combinations of
these with letters in the other slots
ད་  occurs before the root consonants ཀ་ག་ང་པ་བ་མ་ and combinations of these
with letters in the other slots
བ་ occurs before the root consonants ཀ་ག་ང་སྔ་ཅ་རྗ་རྙ་སྙ་ཏ་ད་རྣ་སྣ་ཙོ་རྫ་ཞ་ཟ་  and
combinations of these with letters in other slots
མ་ occurs b before the root consonants ཁ་ག་ང་ཆ་ཇ་ཉ་ཐ་ད་ན་ཚོ་ཛ་ and combinations of
these with letters in other slots
འ་ occurs before the root consonants ཁ་ག་ཆ་ཇ་ཐ་ད་ཕ་བ་ཚོ་ཛ་ and combinations of
these with letters in other slots
The presence of these 5 prefixed consonants does not change the sound of the
syllable's vowel, but can affect its tone. When they are joined with root letters that are
high tone consonants, the resultant syllabe remains high tone regardless of whether the
prefixed consonant is high or low tone by itself. For example the root letters ས་ and ཀ་ are
high tone so in གསུམ་ /su̅m/ "three, " གསར་ /sa̅a̅, sa̅r/ "new", and དཀོན་ /gȫn/ "scarce, rare, "
the vowels remain high tone. They are pronounced the same as if they were སུམ་,སར་,
and ཀོན་ .
However, when prefixed consonants are joined to root letters that are 'low tone'
consonants, the resultant syllable may become high tone, although the pronunciation of

the vowel quality is not changed. The rules for these changes are rather complex.
l. If the prefixed letter is བ་ or འ་,the resultant syladble is always low tone (if the root
consonant is low tone). These letters never transf om a low tone syllable to a high tone
one. Thus, since ད་ is a low tone letter, use of it as the root letter with the འ་ prefixed
consonant does not change the tone: འདོད་ /dö̲ö̲̀/ "want, " is low tone.
2. If the prefixed letter is ག་,ད་,or མ་,then the resultant syllable is low tone if the root
letter is a low tone consonant with the exception of ང་ཉ་ན་བ་མ་ཡ་ With these, the tone
changes to high tone. For example.
ངུས་ (ŋü̲ǜ) is low tone falling, but དངུལ་  (ŋǖǖ) is high tone
ཉིད་  (ñi̲ì) is low tone falling, but གཉིད་ (ñi̅ì) is high tone falling
ནད་ (nɛ̲ɛ̀) is low tone falling, but གནད་ (nɛ̅ɛ̀) is high tone falling
ན་ (na) is low tone short, but མནའ་ (na̅) is high tone short
མར་ (ma̲a̲) is low tone long, but དམར་ (ma̅a̅) is high tone long
ཡུ་ (yu̲) is low tone short, but གཡུ་ (yu̅) is high tone short
བུས་ (pü̲ǜ) is low tone falling but དབུས་  (ǖǜ) is high tone falling
Note that another unusual feature of prefixed letters is that certain combinations
of letters change the consonant sound. One such combination is དབ་ When it occurs
without a written vowel it is pronounced as a "w, " high tone. For example, དབང་ is
prononced wa̅ŋ. When this combination occurs with a written vowel, that vowel
becomes the initial sound. The tone is always high. For example:
དབུ་ དབུས་ དབེན་ དབོར་
u̅ ǖü e̅n ɔ̅ɔ̅
head center deserted transport
Let us now examine some syllables to reiterate how to apply the above rules:
འབར་ is pronounced ba̲a̲. It remains low tone because the prefixed letter is not one
of those that change low tone root letters to high tone.
དམག་ is pronounced ma̅à. Here the root letter, མ་,is one of the low tone letters that
become high tone when used with the prefixed letter ད་ or ག་ .
གདོང་ is pronounced low tone do̲ŋ. Although the prefixed letter ག་ changes some
low tone root letters to high tone, ད་ is not one of the 6 consonants(ང་ཉ་ན་བ་མ་ཡ་) that can
be altered.

2.2.l Slot-3 (subfixed letters): ྱ་ (ཡ),   ྲ་ (ར་), ལ་ (ལ་)
The 3 letters ཡ་,ར་,and ལ་ join beneath certain consonants in attenuated fom (as
indicated above).
2.2.l The subfixed letter ཡ་ ( ྱ་)
This can be placed beneath the following consonants: ཀ་ཁ་ག་པ་ཕ་བ་མ་ . The resulting
combination is a palatalized version of the original consonant. Palatalization refers to the
addition of a "y-lake" sound to the basic consonant.
ཀྱ་ ཁྱ་ གྱ་ པྱ་ ཕྱ་ བྱ་ མྱ་
gya̅ kya̅ gya̅ ja̅ cha̅ ja̲ ña̲
(gyu- would be similar in sound io the "gu" in regulate, kyu- would be similar to
the "cu" in cute)
When a final consonant (slot-4 consonant) is present, the rules for the vowel changes
discussed in Lesson One are operative. For exampIe:
ཀྱང་ ཁྱག་ བྱས་ ཕྱིར་ མྱོང་
gya̅ŋ kya̅à chɛ̲ɛ̀ chi̅r ño̲ŋ
also cold did outside experience
When the prefixed (slot-l) letters are added, the vowels in syllables with a high toner root
letter remain high tone (e.g., དཔྱད་ = jɛ̅ɛ̀- "examine"). Low tone letters such as བ་ and མ,
however, change to high tone according to the rules presented in 2.labove. For example,
དབྱར་ ya̅a̅ (summer) or དམྱལ་ ñɛ̅ɛ̅ (hell).
2.2.2 The subfixed letter ར་   (  ྲ)
The subfixed letter ྲ་ is attached to the following letters: ཀ་ཁ་ག་ད་པ་ཕ་བ་མ་ས་ཧ་ .
It does not change the tone of root letters to which it is joined but produces retroflexed
consonants in the following manner:
ཀྲ་ is pronounced "dr"––this sound is similar to the "dr" in drill. To produce a more
accurate reproduction of the Tibetan sound, the tip of the tongue should be bent slightly
backwards so that a part of its underside articulates with the roof of the mouth.
པྲ is pronounced "dr" in reading style, but often "b" in the spoken pronunciation. Each

case will have to be leamed.
དཔྲང་  (པོ་) དཔྲལ་ པྲ་
pa̅ŋgo [dra̅ŋbo] bɛ̅ɛ̅(go) [drɛ̅ɛ̀] dra̅
beggar forehead type of divination
གྲ་,བྲ་ and དྲ་ are pronounced "dr" when preceded by a consonant of slot l ors lot 2. In
other situations these are pronounced "tr, " i.e., similar to the "tr" in the word triumph.
གྲི་ འབྲས་ དྲིས་ ཕྲུ་ (གུ་) བྲང་ དགྲ་ འདྲ་
tri̲ drɛ̲ɛ̀ tri̲ì tru̅(gu) tra̲ŋ dra̲ dra̲
knife rice asked child chest enemy similar
Note that slot l prefixed consonants can be used with a root letter + slot 3 (+ slot 4 )
combinations. In these situations they do not change either the pronnunciation of the
voweIor the tone of the syllable.
སྲ་ is pronounced "dr" before the letter ན་ (if there is no written vowel), but "s" elsewhere.
སྲན་ སྲིད་
drɛ̅n si̅ì
lentil politics
ཁྲ་ and ཕྲ་ are pronounced "tr."
ཁྲག་ ཕྲེང་ ཁྲི་
tra̅à[tra̅g] tre̅ŋ tr
blood a row 10,000
ཧྲ་ is pronounced "hr."
2.2.3 The subfixed letter ལ
With one exception, compounds with the subfixed ལ་ are pronounced with an "l"
sound. Tone becomes 'high' even with low tone root consonants.
ཀླུ་ གླ་ བླ་ རླག་ སླེ་
lu̅ la̅ la̅ la̅à le̅
a kind of wage superior destroy weave
deity (naga)
The exception to this is ཟླ་,which is pronounced da̲, low tone.

2.3 Slot-2 (suprafixed letters): ར་,ལ་,and ས་
These thee consonants affix on top of the "root" letter and function identically.
When they are joined to high toner root letters, the syllable remains high tone. When they
are joined to the following 4 low tone consonants ང་ཉ་ན་མ་,the low tone root letters
become high tone. For example:
མ་ རྨ་ ནག་ སྣག་ ང་ སྔ་ ཉ་ རྙིང་
ma̲ ma̅ na̲g na̅g ŋa̲ ŋa̅ ña̲ ñi̅ŋ
mother sore black ink I five fish old
These changes take precedence overt he slot l-letters.
When these supra fixed consonants are joined with the other low tone consonants
the tone does not change — it remains low. For example, སྒོ་ is pronounced low tone, go̲,
and རྡོ་  is pronounced do̲.
2.4 Exercise: Write the pronlmciation of the folowing syllables:
l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
བསད་ དགུང་ མཁས་ གནང་ སྙིང་ དགེ་ མི་ རློན་ རྗེ་
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
ཁྱིམ་ རྩམ་ རྟ་ ཞབས་ ཟས་ གྱི་ བྱམས་ དཔོན་ ནང་
2.5 The pronunciation of disyllabic compounds
The pronnunciation of a disyllabic word is not simply the sum of the pronunciation
of the two syllables. One or both of the syllables are usual y altered, and the manner in
which these alie rations occur are complicated. Although there are basic rules for these
alterations, they are rather cumbersome and too complex for a textbook of this type.
Mooreover, there are numerous exceptions. Consequently, only the basic pronunciation
rules will be included in this text. The rest will have to be lead ned on a word-by-word
l . Tone in the first syllable of disyllabic compounds remans the same as when
that syllable is pronounced alone. High tone in the second syllable, however, becomes a
mid-tone – lower than high but higher than low. For example, with དམག་ས་ ma̅gsa (a
battleground), the pronunciation of the second syllable — ས་ is not written as high tone
(sa̅), but left unmarked (sa), indicating that it is neither high tone nor low tone, but rather
somewhere in bet wee — a mid tone. Similarly, syllables following a low tone consonant

are higher than the low tone but not as high as a high tone.
2. With the exception of ཐ, consonants that are aspirated in the initial position of
the second syllable, lose their aspiration in disyllabic compounds. For example:
p changes to b ཚ་ཕོག་ tsha̅ + pɔ̅ɔ̀ = tsha̅bɔɔ̀
ch changes to j ཁ་ཆེ་ ka̅ + che̅ = ka̅je
ky changes to gy སྤྱ་ཁྱབ་ ji̅ + kyə̅b = ji̅gyəb
k changes to g དཔར་ཁང་ ba̅r+ kaŋ̅ = ba̅rgaŋ
tr changes to dr བཟོ་གྲ་ so̲ + tra̲ = so̲dra
ts changes to dz མི་ཆི་ mi̲+ tse̅ = mi̲dze (really between ts and dz)
3. Slot-4 consonants in the first of two syllables are affected differently when part
of disyllabic compounds. For example, while the consonant ག་ normally produces a
falling tone in monosyllables (ལག་ is pronounced la̲à), in disyllabic words the "g" sound is
pronounced, e.g., ལག་པ་ la̲à + ba̅ = la̲gba md སྟག་པ་ da̅à + bà = da̅gba.
The slot–4 consonamt ང་ normally appears in disyllabic words as ŋ, e.g., ཡང་སེ་
(y̲ŋse), or ཡོངསརྫོགས་ is pronounced yo̲ŋdzɔɔ̀.
The slot–4 consonants ད་ and ས་ typically are changed from falling tone when
alone to either long or short tone when part of disyllabic compounds, e.g., རྩེད་མོ་ dze̅è +
mo̲ = dze̅e̅mo.
These rules, however, are not hard and fast and there are many exceptions and
pronunciation differences even within Lhasa dialect. Thus, the best advice for the reader
without an experienced native teacher is to listen to the tape carefully and try to
reproduce its sounds.
4. Another typical feature of disyllabic compounds is what is called regressive
assinnilation. That is to say, when the first syllable of a disyllabic compound ends in a
vowel or an unpronounced final consonant (for example, a final ད་) there is a tendency for
it to pick up the sound of certain slot-l letters of the second syllable (i.e., a "m" or "n" or
"b" sound). The slot l letters that do this are མ་,འ་,and བ་ . For example,
མེ་མདའ་ me̲ + da̲ = menda (gun) དགུ་བཅུ་ gu̲ + ju̲ = gu̲bju(90 )
དགེ་འདུན་ ge̲ + dü̲n = gi̲ndün (monk) མཆོད་མཇལ་ chȫö̀ +jɛ̲ɛ̲ = chȫȫnjɛɛ (religious visit)
Sbimilarly, disyllabic compounds in which the first syllable ends in ན་ or མ་ and
the second syllable begins in a "g" or "k" (ག་ or ཁ་) typically pick up an "ŋ" sound. For

example, ལམ་ཁ་ la̲m + ka̅ = la̲ŋga. And disyllabic co np ounds in which the first
syllable ends in a ན་ and the second begins with a "p" or "b", typically pick up a "m"
sound. For example: ཕྱིན་པ་ chi̅n + ba̅ = chi̅mbə.
You may have noticed that occasionally the vowel in the first or second syllable
of disyllabic compounds is different than when pronounced alone. For example, in the
word དགེ་འདུན་ gi̲ndün (monk), the ge̲ (ད་གེ་) had changed to gi̲. Such changes are a result of
what linguistically is known as vowel hart mony — i.e., a pattern wherein vowels in
successive syllables should be members of the same class of vowels.
In Tibetan there are two classes of vowels: high vowels (ə, i, u, ü) and low vowels
(a, o, e, ɛ, ɔ, and ö).(l)
Complete vowel harmony requires that all syllables in a word have vowels from
the same class. Spoken Tibetan follow this — more or less — in disyllabic words, with the
vowel in the first syllable changing to match that in the second sylladle. Thus, the "ge" in
the word "monak" (དགེ་འདུན་) changes to "gi" because the "u" in "dun" is a high vowel.
vowels harmony shifts generally occur as follows:
a > ə
e or ɛ > i
ö > ü
Vowel harmony, however, has many exceptions and cannot be applied by rote to
all disyllabic words. Nevertheless, knowing that it exists will explain why tibetans,
sometimes pronounce words differently in isolation than when they are joined to other
2.6 Existential verbs and sentences
Existential verbs and sentences express existence and location ("there is, " "there
exists"). Lake linking verbs, they do not indicate tense or number, and indicate person
only somewhat equivocally. The three basic existential verbs are: ཡོད་པ་རེད་,འདུག་,and ཡོད་ .
The latter is generally used for first person constructions as well as for dependent clauses,
but can also be used with third person subjects. The other two are nortmally used only for
third person constructions.
There are also several subtle differences between these verbs that should be
(l) High and low here refer to the relative height of the tongue.

mentioned, even though they will be translated the same.
The འདུག་ verb is general y used when one has first-hand knowledge, 'but', and this
is important, it also conveys "specificity." Specificity refers to that fact that འདུག་ is used
with respect to knowledge deriving from a specific situation or state in contrast to
general, usual, or commonly known situations or states. For these, the ཡོད་པ་རེད་ form is
used. Let us suppose that you are standing in a parking lot and want to say that there are a
lot of cars there. You would have to use the འདུག་ verb since it is a specific statement
based on first-hand knowledge. However, if you wanted to convey that there are lots of
cars in America, you would normally use the ཡོད་པ་རེད་ form since this is a general
statement of a commonly known fact.
Consequently, while ཡོད་པ་རེད་ does not inn ply first-hand knowledge, it is wrong to
think of it as always connoting less certainty than འདུག་ . In fact, in certain contexts, ཡོད་པ་
རེད་ expresses more certainty than འདུག་ e.g, . if someone said "He is good, " using the ཡོད་
པ་རེད་ form when an actor came on the screen, it would imply that the actor probably is
famous and that it is generally said that he is good. Or it could mean that the speaker has
had previous experience with the actor (or person) and therefore can state that he is good.
If འདུག་ was used, it would generally mean that based on seeing the actor, the speaker
feels he is good.
Thus, while འདུག་ implies first-hand knowledge, the more basic differences
between these two existential verbs rests on information about a specific or particular
situation or state versus information or knowledge regarding a commonly accepted or
generally known situation or state. We will see in later sections that when these
existential verbs are used as auxiliary verbs, these basic distinctions will cart ry over.
However, it should be noted that written Tibetan is not a highly standardized language
and exceptions to almost all rules occur, particularly when the authors are not native
Lhasa dialect speakers and are using distinctions and forms typical of their dialect.
The simplest existential constructions consist of a subject and an existential verb.
These sentences express the existence of the subject. For example:
a. དམག་མི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̀mi yɔ̲ɔ̀reè [or yö̲bəreè][yö̲bəreè is the reading pronunciation and yɔ̲ɔ̀reè is the
spoken pronunciation]
soldier exist(2 )/
(2 ) "Exist" will be used in the interlinear translation for all three existential verbs.

There are soldiers.
Note that this sentence has been translated as plural despite the fact that there is
no plural marker. This is typical of Tibetan syntax. When no marker of "singular" is
present, it is assumed that the sentence construction is plural. If one wanted to convey the
meaning "There is a soldier" normally the subject ("soldier") would be modified by the
word "one." The existential verb, however, would not change.
b. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་གཅིག་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
labdra̅à [lo̅bdrawa] chi̅(3 ) yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
student one exist/
There is a (one) student.
Plural numbers are also used to modify the subject.
c. བོད་པ་གསུམ་འདུག།།
pö̲ba su̅m du̲ù
tibetan three exist/
There are three tibetans.
d. གཞོན་ནུ་གཉིས་འདུག།
shönnu ñi̅ì du̲ù
youth two exist/
There are two youths.
As with linking verbs, one way to construct questions is by means of question
particles placed after the verb. After ཡོད་པ་རེད་,either the particle པས་ (more colloquial) or
དམ་ (more literay) is used. And after འདུག་,either གས་ or གམ་ is used.
e. བོད་པ་གསུམ་འདུག་གས།
pö̲ba su̅m du̲gɛ
tibetan three exist?/
Are there three Tibetans?
f. བོད་པ་གསུམ་འདུག་གམ།
pö̲ba su̅m du̲gam
tibetan three exist?/
Are there three Tibetans?
g. དམག་མི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་པས།
mə̅ə̅mi yɔ̲ɔ̀ rebɛ
(3 ) Chi̅ is the colloquial pronunciation of ji̅g. Transcriptions in brackets represent reading

soldier exist?/
Are there soldiers?
h. དམག་མི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་དམ།
mə̅ə̅mi yöbaredam
soldier exist?/
Are there soldiers?
2.6.1 The dative-locative case
Tibetan nouns ane inflected, that is to say, most of them change in form according
to their function in sentences. The different functions in Tibetan are grouped into four
classes or cases, each with its own endings: nominative, dative-locative, genitive,
instrumental. The nominative is the basic, or unaliered, case in that it is the form that
occurs when the noun is used alone as in the glossary of this book. We encountered it as
the subject of linking sentences. Some inflected languages such as Russian also have an
"acusative" case which denotes the direct object, but in Tibetan the direct object is left
unmarked (lake the nominative case).
The dative-locative case is used with nouns (and adjectives) to denote the
recipient of something that is sent or given (the indirect object), or the location of some
action (in, at, or on something). It has a number of different forms which are used in
accordance with the final letter of the syllable it follows.
Dative-locative case particles Usage
ལ་ after any consonant or vowel (all finals)
-ར་ or རུ་ after a vowel -ར་ attaches to the preceding syallable)
དུ་ after ངདནམརལ་
སུ་ after ས་
ཏུ་ after གབ་
The dative locative particles will be glossed as "to" in the interlinear translation.
In the following sentences, the dative locative functions to mark off the place of
existence or the location of something or some one. In this role it answers the question
a. བོད་ལ་ཚོང་པ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
pö̲ö̀lə tso̅ŋba yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
tibet to trader exist/

There are traders 'in' Tibet.
b. དགོན་པར་གྲྭ་པ་གསུམ་འདུག།
go̲mbaa [go̲mbar] tra̲ba su ̅m du̲ù
monastery-to monk three exist/
There are three monks in the monastery.
In spoken Tibetan, final vowels become long in the dative-locative. Thus དགོན་པར་
is pronounced in spoken as go̲mbaa rather than go̲mbar, and ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་ below is
pro noun ced ə̅merigaa.
c. ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ə̅merigaa [ə̅merigar] la̅bdraà [lo̅bdrawa] yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
america-to student exist/
There are students in America.
d. ལོབ་གྲྭར་དགེ་རྒན་གསུམ་འདུག།
la̅bdraa [lo̅bdrar] ge̲ge̲n su̅m du̲ù
school-to teacher three exist/
There are three teachers in the school.
e. ཡུལ་དེར་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
yü̲ü̲ de̲e̲ gyɛbo yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
place that-to king exist/
There are kings in that country.
f. ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་ཞིང་པ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ə̅merigaa [ə̅merigar] shiŋbə yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
america-to farmers exist/
There are farmers in America.
g. བྱང་ཐང་ལ་འབྲོག་པ་འདུག།
cha̲ŋdaŋlə dro̲gba du̲ù
changtang to nomad exist/
There are nomads on the Changtang.
To indicate singularity, the number "one" is usually added:
h. ལྷ་སར་ལྷ་ཁང་ཞིག་འདུག།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa lha̅gan chi̅ di̲uù [ལྷ་ས་ is pronounced lhɛ̅ɛ̅sa rather than lha̅sa in colloquial
Lhasa dialect. With the dative-locative, this becon nes lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa]
lhasa-to temple one exist/
There is a (one) temple in Lhasa.
This could also have been written as:
i. ལྷ་སར་ལྷ་ཁང་གཅིག་འདུག།

lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa lha̅gan ch-i̅du̲ù [In spoken Tibetan "one" is pronounced chi or ji̅ì.
lhasa-to temple one exist/
There is a (one) temple in Lhasa.
The nomber "one, " therefore, has several forms ཞིག་ occurs afr er ངོ་,ན་,འ་,མ་,ར་,
ལ་,and vowels, ཤིག་ occurs afrer final ས་,and ཅིག་ after ག་,ད་,and བ་ . གཅིག་ is used afr er any
final. Thus
j. ལྷ་སར་གཡག་ཅིག་འདུག།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa ya̅à chi̅du̲ù
hasa-to yak one exist/
There is a (one) yak in Lhasa.
k. ལྷ་སར་གཡག་གཅིག་འདུག།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa ya̅à chi̅ du̲ù
lhasa-to yak one exist/
There is a (one) yak in Lhasa.
It should be kept in mind that there is considerable variation with regard to the use of
these particles and sometimes authors do not use these variant forms consistently.

2.6.2 Possessive constructions with the dative-locative case
The dative-locative particle(s) are also commonly used to indicate that the subject
has or possesses something.
a. ཁོང་ལ་དེབ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
kōŋla te̲r yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
he (h.) to book exists/
He has a book. (lit., To him a book exists.)
b. ཕུན་ཚོགས་ལ་ཁྱི་འདུག
pǖntsoòla ki̅du̲ù
phuntsog to dog exist/
Phuntsog has dogs.
Note that because the word dog is not nodi fied by the number one, it is assumed to
convey the plural. If a singular meaning was intended, the object would normally have
been modified as follows
c. ཕུན་ཚོགས་ལ་ཁྱི་ཞིག་འདུག།
pǖntsoòla ki̅ chi̅ du̲ù
phuntsogto dog one exist/
Phuntsog has a dog.

d. དམག་མིར་མེ་མདའ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mee me̲nda yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
soldiers-to gun exist/
Soldiers have gans.
First person constructions usually use ཡོད་ .
e. ངར་ཁྱི་ཞིག་ཡོད།
ŋa̲a̲k ki̅ chi̅ yö̲ö̀
i-to dog exist/
Ihave a dog.
We have seen that the subject in inking sentences can be nodi fied by a
demonstrative such as དེ་ ("that"). When these are used with the subject of an existential
sentence, the dative-locative particle is placed in mediately 'after' the demonstrative.
f. གྲྭ་པ་དེར་དཔེ་ཆ་འདུག།
tra̲ba de e̲ beja du̲ù
monk that-to book exist
That monk has (Tibetan style) books.
Another common demonstrative is འདི་ ("this").
g. གྲྭ་པ་འདིར་དཔེ་ཆ་ཞིག་འདུ་ག
tra̲ba de̲e̲(4 ) bēja chi̅ du̲ù
monk this-to book one exist
This monk has a (Tibetan style) book.
Existential constructions can be further expanded by adding numerals and other
modifiers to the object or subject, e.g.:
མང་པོ་ ཉུང་ཉུང་ ཁ་ཤས་ ཆུང་ཆུང་
məŋgu [ma̲ŋbo] ñu̲nñun [ñu̲ŋñuŋ] ka̅shɛɛ̀ chu̅njun [chu̅ŋjuŋ]
many few several small
h. བོད་ལ་གྲྭ་པ་མང་པོ་འདུག།
pö̲lə tra̲ba mə̲ŋgu du̲ù
tibet to monk many exis /
There are many monks inTibet.
i. སློབ་གྲྭར་དགེ་རྒན་ཁ་ཤས་འདུག།
la̲bdraa ge̲gen ka̅sheè du̲ù
school to teacher several exist/
(4 ) Spoken pronunciation of འདིར་ and དེར་ are both de̲e̲.

There are several teachers in school.
j. ལྷ་སར་ཁང་པ་ཚུང་ཆུང་མང་པོ་འདུག།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa ka̅ŋbə chu̅njun mə̲ŋgu du̲ù
lhasa-to house small many exist
There are many small houses in Lhasa.
As example i. indicates, when two adjectives modify a noun, the second modifies the
noun + first modifier [small houses] [many].
Demonstratives can also be used with adjectives. When this occurs, the
demonstrative follows the adjective. In the following two examples, the demonstrative
also has the dative-locative particle suffixed to it.
k. གྲྭ་པ་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེར་དགེ་རྒན་ཁ་ཤས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
tra̲ba chūnjun te̲e̲ ge̲gɛn kāsɛɛ̀ yɔ̲ɔreè
monk small that-to teacher several exist
That small monk has several teachers. (lit., To that small monk, several teachers
l. གྲྭ་པ་གསར་པ་དེར་དགེ་རྒན་རྒན་ཁོག་ཁ་ཤས་ཡོད་པ་རེད། @@@58
tra̲ba sāāba [sarba] dee̲ ge̲gɛn gɛ̲ngɔɔ̀ kasɛɛ̀ yɔ̲ɔreè
monk new that-to teacher old several exist
That new monk has several old teachers.
Anoun can also be modified by two adjectives linked by the conjunction དང་ ("and").
m. ལྷ་སར་དགོན་པ་ཆེན་པོ་དང་སྐྱིད་པོ་འདུག་
lɛ̅ɛ̅saa go̲mba chēmbo da̲ŋ gyi̅bu du̲ù
lhasa-to monastery big and pleasant exist
Lhasa has big and pleasant monasteries.
Temporal words, i.e., words conveying a time component, are usually placed at
the beginning of a sentence. Three common temporal words are:
ད་ལྷ་ སྔས་མ་ དེ་རིང་
ta̲nda ŋɛ̅ɛ̅ma te̲riŋ
now formerly, in the past today
n. ད་ལྟ་བྱང་ཐང་ལ་འབྲོག་པ་མང་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ta̲nda cha̲ŋdaŋlə dro̲gba mə̲ŋgu yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
now chang tang to nomad many exist/
There are many nomads now on the Changtang.
o. སྔས་མ་བོད་ལ་དགོན་པ་མང་པོ་འདུག།
ŋɛ̅ɛ̅ma pö̲lə go̲mba mə̲ŋgu du̲ù
formerly tibet to monastery many exist/

Formerly there were many monasteries inTibet.
p. དེ་རིང་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་གསྲུམ་འདུག།
te̲riŋ lābdraa lābdraà sūm du̲ù
today school-to student three exist/
Today there are three students in school.
2.7 Linking and existential verbs used in adjectival constructions
The distinction between existential and linking verbs often is blurred in adjectival
constructions in the sense that existential verbs are used in contexts that otherwise appear
to call for linking verbs. For example, in sentence a. འདུག་ is normally used rather than
རེད་,although the latter can be used to convey general or comparative statements.
a. ཁོ་ཆེན་པོ་འདུག
kō chēmbo du̲ù
he big exist
He is big.
Similarly, the adjective "hot" normally takes the existentialverb.
b. ཆུ་འདི་ཚ་པོ་འདུག།
chū di̲ tsābo du̲ù
water this hot exist
The water is hot.
There is no simple rule to predict this, usage generally depending on the specific
adjective. For example, color adjectives such as found in sentence c. 'always' take linking
c. འདི་ནི་དམར་མོ་རེད།
di̲ni māāmo [māmo] re̲è
this as-for red is
This is red.
2.8 Negation of linking and existential verbs
Negation of linking and existential senrences is expressed through the addition of
the negative particles མི་ and མ་,and by negative verbs such as མེད་ and མིན་ . In sentence
a., for example, རེད་ becomes མ་རེད་ and in b., འདུག་ becomes མི་འདུག་ .
a. དགོན་པར་གྲྭ་པ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
go̲mbaa tra̲ba yɔ̲ɔ̀maareè [yö̲bamaareè]
monastery-to monk exist no/
There are no monks in the monastery.

b. ཚུ་འདི་ཚ་པོ་མི་འདུག།
chū di̲ tsā bo mi̲nduù
water this hot no exis /
This water is not hot.
མེད་པ་རེད་ in example (c.) is a variant of མི་འདུག་
c. ལྷ་ཁང་དེར་དགེ་རྒན་མང་པོ་མེད་པ་རེད།
lhāgan de̲e̲ ge̲gen mə̲ŋgu mɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
temple that-to teacher many no exis/
That temple does noth have many teachers.
d. དེབ་འདི་དམར་པོ་མ་རེད། དཀར་པོ་རེད།
te̲pdi māābo ma̲a̲ree, gāābore̲è
book this red no is/ white is
This book is not red, (it) is white.
e. ཁོ་གྲྭ་པ་མ་རེད།
kō tra̲ba ma̲a̲reè
he monk not is
He is not a monk.
f. ཁྱེད་རང་བླ་མ་མ་རེད།
khēraŋ lāma ma̲a̲reè
you lama no is
You are not a lama.
The linking verb ཡན་ is negated by substituting the negative linking verb མིན་ for it.
g. ང་སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་མིན།
ŋa̲ lābdraà mɛ̲n [mi̲n]
i student not
Iam not a student.
Possessive constructions are negated similarly.
h. ངར་དེབ་མེད།
ŋa̲a̲ re̲b mɛ̲ɛ̀
i-to book no-exist
Ido not have books.
2.9 Question formation with interogative words
Some of the main interrogatives you will encounter in literary Tibetan are
presenred below. The interogatives that typically are used in the spoken language are
marked by an asterisk.

གང་ what(ka̲n, ka̲ŋ) གང་ཙམ་ how much (ka̲ŋdzam)
ཅི་ what (ji̅) ག་ཚད་ how much, how
ག་རེ་ what* (ka̲re) many* (kə̲dizɛɛ̀)
ག་ནས་ from where* (kə̲nɛɛ̀) ག་ཚོད་ how much/many (kə̲dzöö̀)
གང་དུ་ where (ka̲ŋtu) ཅི་ཙམ་ how much/many (ji̅dzam)
གང་ན་ where (ka̲ŋna) ཇི་ཙམ་ how much/many (je̲dzam)
གང་ལ་ where (ka̲ŋla) ག་དུས་ when* (kə̲düǜ)
ག་རུ་ where (kə̲ru) ག་གི་ which* (kə̲gi)
གར་ where (ka̲r) ག་འདྲ་ how (kə̲ndrɛ)
ག་པར་ where* (kə̲baa) ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་ what kind* (kə̲ndrɛs)
ག་ལ་ where (ka̲la) སུ་ who* (sū)
ག་ན་ where (ka̲na) སུའི་ whose* (sǖǖ)
གང་ནས་ from where (ka̲ŋnɛ)
a. འདི་ག་རེ་རེད།
di̲ ka̲re re̲è
this what is
What is this?
b. དགོན་པ་འདི་ག་པར་འདུག་
go̲mba di̲ ka̲ba do̲ (5 ) [duù]
monastery this where exist?
Where is the monastery?
c. དགོན་པ་འདི་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ།
go̲mba di̲ ka̲baa du̲gam
monastery this where exist?
Where is the monastery?
Note that in example c. the question parric le (གམ་) is used in conjunction with the
interrogative. This does not change the meaning in any way. Its use is simply a matr er of
d. དེབ་ག་ཚད་འདུག།
te̲p kə̲dzɛɛ̀ do̲ [du̲ù]
book how many exist
How many books are there?
5 With inrerrogatives, འདུག་ is pronounced 'do' (as in dough).

e. གཡག་ག་གི་རེད།
yāà kə̲gi re̲è
yak which is
Which (one) is a yak ?
f. གཡག་འདི་སུའི་རེད།
yāà di̲ sǖǖ re̲è
yak this whose is
Whose yak is this?
g. སྨན་ཁང་ཆེན་པོ་ག་པར་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
mɛ̅ngan chēmbo ka̲baa yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
hospital big where exist
Where is the big hospital?
h. ཁོ་ག་ནས་རེད།
kō kə̲nɛɛ̀ re̲è
he from where is
Where is he from?
2.10 Reference section: Looking up words in the glossary and new vocabulary sections
In order to translate the readings in each lesson you will have to learn to look up
words in the glossary at the end of the book. because Tibetan syllables can have prefixed,
afixed, suffixed and subfixed letters, glossary word order is somewhat confusing. In
general, each syllable is listed et under its root letter. Thus, for a word like ཁང་པ་ the listing
will be under the letter ཁ་ and fora word such as དམག་མི་ the listing would be underits
root letter མ་ The dificulty in looking up words derives primarily from the dificulty of
determining the order of words 'within' a single dictionary letter. The following set of
rules is used in this book and virtually every other modern dictionary. We urge that you
study the discussion below together with either a diction ay or the glossa y at the end of
l. The alphabetical order of the 30 Tibetan letters is. ཀཁགངཅཆཇཉཏོཐད་
ནཔཕབམཙཚཛཝཞཟའཡརལཤསཧོཨ་ . [The alphabetical order of
vowels is. inherent a, i, u, e, o ( ིེུ་     ོ་)]
2. The first entries under any letter are the simple syllables that have no prefixed or
affixed letters and which have the inherent "a" vowel (that is, those with no written
vowels). For example, ག་ .

3. Then the single letterin multi-syllabic compounds, alphabetized according to the
second syllable, e.g., ག་གིར་,ག་དུས་,ག་ནས, ག་ཚོད་,etc.
4. After this, syllables consisting of the root letter plus a vowel (in the above-mentioned
order) are listed. Thus, first all the syllables with the letter "i" are cited. For example, གི་
before གི་གུ་ and གིན་ before གིས་ . This is then repeated for each of the other vowels.
5. Up to now, we have discussed entries consisting of a root letter plus a slot-4 and
possibly a slot-5 letter (for all the vowels). Following such entries are syllables beginning
with the root letter and a slot-3 subfixed letter. The order of the slot-3 letters is first
letrers with "y" ( ྱ་), then "r" (  ྲ), and then "l" ( ལ་).
In other words, first all the "y" syllables are cited in accordance with the above rules,
i.e., first no vowel and only the root let rer + y, then no vowel and the slot-4 and slot-5.
letrers. Forexannple, གྱ་ before གྱ་ནོམ་,and གྱང་ before གྱར་ . Then all the "y" syllables of
this kind with the "i" vowel are listed, and then with the other vowels. After all the "y"
syllables are listed, then all the "r" ones are listed. Following this, all the "l" syllables of
this type are listed.
6. After this, syllables beginning not with the root letter but rather with a slot-l
(prefixed) letter are cited. The order of listing of the slot-l letters is གདབམའ་
Thus, ད་གག་ before དགུ་ and དགུ་ before དགེ་ and དགྱེ་ and དགྲ་ . After all the ད་ prefix
syllables, then the བ་ prefix ones, and so forth.
7. Following this come syllables beginning with one of the slot-2 (affixed) letters. The
affix "r" is listed first, and then the affix "l" and finally the affix "s." As in the above
examples, first the affix + root letter with the inherent "a" vowel occur, e, g., རྒ་ . Then
slot-4 and slot-5 letters are added, and then this is repeated with each of the written
After this, the afix + root letter combination adds the series of slot-3 subjoined letters
beginning with "y." For example, this part would start with རྒྱ་ and then add slot-4 letters
(and when they exist, slot-5.letters), for example, རྒྱབ་ . After this is done for the inherent
"a" vowel, it is repeated for each of the other vowels and then each of the other slot-3
subfixed letters. After the listing of the "r" slot-2 affix, then the list is repeated for ས, the
other slot-2 letrer.
8. Finally, the dictionary lists syllables that begin with a slot-l prefixed letter, but which
also have a slot-2 affixed letter. These are listed in the order of the slot-l, slot-2,and slot-
3 letters. For example, བརྒ་ before བརྒྱ་ and བསྒ་ before བསྒྱ་ .

2.llReading exercise
l . Q. རྡོ་རྗེ་བོད་ལ་དགོན་པ་མང་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད་དམ།
2. A. དགོན་པ་དང་ལྷ་ཁང་མང་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
3. D. ཁྱེད་རང་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་པས།
4. A. ཡིན།ང་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན།
5.. O. དགོན་པ་ག་ནས་རེད།
6. A. ང་འབྲས་སྤུངས་ནས་ཡིན།
7. D. འབྲས་སྤུང་ས་ནི་ག་པར་འདུག།
8 A. འབྲས་སྤུངས་ལྷ་ས་ལ་འདུག།
9. D. འབྲས་སྤུངས་ལ་གྲྭ་པ་དང་བླ་མ་ག་ཚད་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
10. A. འབྲས་སྤུངས་ལ་གྲྭ་པ་ཁྲི་གཅིག་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ll. O. གྲྭ་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ལ་མེ་མདའ་གསར་པ་ཡོད་པ་རེད་པས།
12. A. གྲྭ་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ལ་མེ་མདའ་གསར་པ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
l . O. dɔ̲ɔ̲je pö̲lə go̲mba mə̲ŋgu [ma̲ŋbo] yɔ̲ɔ̀redam
dorje tibet to monastery many exist?/
Dorje, are there many monasteries inTibet?
2. A. go̲mba da̲ŋ lhāgan mə̲ŋgu [ma̲ŋbo] yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
monastery and temple many exis /
There are many monasteries and temples.
3. Q. kēraŋ tra̲ba yi̲mbɛɛ̀
you monk is ?/
Are you a monk?
4. A. yi̲n/ ŋa̲ tra̲ba yi̲n
is / i monk is/
Yes, Iam a monk.
5. Q. go̲mba kə̲nɛɛ̀ re̲è
monastery from-where is/
What monastery(are you) from?
6. A. ŋa̲ drɛ̲ɛ̲bun nɛ yi̲n

+ + +
i drepung from is/
Iam from Drepung (monastery).
[Prepositions like nɛ (or la) are slurred in normal speech and pronounced mid-tone, so are
written without a tone marker. Note too that 'yi̲n' not 're̲è' is used for lst person in 6 A.]
7. Q. drɛ̲ɛ̲bun ni ka̲baa do̲
drepung as-for where exis/
As for Drepung, where is it [located]?
8 A. drɛ̲ɛ̲bun lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa du̲ù
drepung lhasa-to exist/
Drepung is in Lhasa.
9. Q. drɛ̲ɛ̲bunlə tra̲ba da̲ŋ lāma kə̲dzɛɛ̀ yɔ̲ɔ̀rɛɛ
drepung to monk and lama how-many exis /
How many monks and lamas are there in Drepung?
10. A. drɛ̲ɛ̲bunlə tra̲ba tri̅chi̅ yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
drepung to monk ten-thousand one exist/
There are ten thousand monks in Drepung.
ll. Q. tra̲ba kāshɛɛ̀lə me̲nda sāāba yɔ̲ɔ̀rebɛɛ̀
monk several-to gun new exist ?/
Do several monks have new guns?
12. A. tra̲ba kāshɛɛ̀lə me̲nda sāāba yɔ̲ɔ̀maareè
monk several-to gun new no exist /
Several monks do not have new gans.
2.12 Vocabulary
དཀར་པོ་ white (gāābo)
ག་འདྲ་ how (kə̲ndrɛ)
སྐྱད་པོ་ happy glal(gyi̅bu)
ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་ what kind (kə̲ndrɛs)
ཁ་ཤས་ several, a few (kāshɛɛ̀)
ག་ནས་ where (ke̲na)
ཁང་པ་ house (ka̅ŋba)
ག་ནས་ from where (kə̲nɛɛ̀)
ཁང་ he (h.)(kōŋ)
ག་པར་ where (ka̲baa)
ཁྱུ་ dog (ki̅)
ག་ཚོད་ how much (kə̲dzɛɛ̀)
ཁྲི་གཅེག་ ten thōusand (tri̅jiì or tri̅ chi̅)
ག་ཚོད་ how much (kə̲dzöö̀)
ག་རུ་ where (kə̲ru)
ག་གི་ which (kə̲gi) ག་རེ་ what (ka̲re)
ག་དུས་  when (kə̲düǜ)
ག་ལ་ where (ka̲la)

གང་ what (ka̲n;̲ka̲ŋ)
རྡོ་རྗེ་ p.n.; vajra (dɔ̲ɔ̲je)
གང་དུ་ where (kə̲ŋtu)
ནས་ from (nɛ; nɛ̲ɛ̀)
གང་ན་ where (ka̲ŋna)
ད་པེ་ཆ་ Tibetan style book (bēja)
གང་ནས་ from where (ka̲ŋnɛɛ̀)
ཕུན་ཚོགས་ p.n. (pǖndzoò)
གང་ཙམ་ how much (ka̲ŋdzam)
བོད་ Tibet (pö̲ö̀)
གང་ལ་ where (ka̲ŋla)
བྱང་ཐང་ p.n., "Northern Plateau" (cha̲ŋdaŋ)
གམ་ question particle (gam)
གར་ where (ka̲r)
བླམ་ lama (lāma)
གས་ question particle (gɛ)
འབྲས་སྤུངས་ Drepung (monastery) (drɛ̲btm)
གོང་ price (go̲n)
གྲྭ་པ་ monk (tra̲ba)
འབྲོག་པ་ nomad (dro̲gba)
དགེ་རྒན་ teacher (ge̲gɛn)
མ་  negative particle, mother
དགོན་པ་  monastery(go̲mba, gö̲nba)
རྒན་ཁོག་ old (gɛ̲ngɔɔ̀)
མང་པོ་  many (məŋgu,  ma̲ŋbo)
མི་ person, negative particle (mi̲)
རྒྱལ་པོ་ king (gy ɛ̲ɛ̲bo)
སྔས་མ་ formerly, in the past (nɛ̅ɛ̅ma)
མིན་ negative particle (mɛ̲n; mi̲n)
མེ་མདའ་ gan (me̲nda)
ཅི་ཙམ་ how much (ji̅dzam)
མེད་ negative particle (me̲e)
ཅིག་ one, a (chi̅, ji̅ì, ji̅g)
གཅིག་ one, a (chi̅, ji̅g)
དམག་མི་ soldier (mə̅ə̅mi)
དམར་མོ་ red (nāāmo; mārmo)
སྨན་ཁང་ hospital (mɛ̅ngan)
ཚུང་ཚུང་ small (chu̅njun)
ཚ་པོ་ hot ( tsa̅boo)
ཆུ་ water (chu̅)
ཆེན་པོ་ big (chēmbo)
ཞིག་ one, a (chi, shi̲g)
ཇི་ཙམ་ how much(je̲dzam)
གཞོན་ནུ་ youth (shö̲nnu)
ཉུང་ཉུང་ few, small amount (ñu̲nñun)
ཡུལ་ place, area, region, country (yü̲ü̲)
ཏུ་ dative-locative particle (du)
ཡོད་པ་རེད་ exisrential verb (yɔ̲ɔ̀reè; yö̲bareè)
ད་ལྟ་ now(ta̲nda)
གཡག་ yak (yāà)
དུ་ dative-locative particle (tu; du)
ར་ or རུ་ dative-locative particle (ra̲, ru̲)
དེ་རིང་ today (te̲riŋ)
ལ་ dative-locative particle (lə; la̲)
འདི་ this (di̲)
འདུག་ existential verb (du̲ù)
ཤིག་ one, a (chi̅; shi̅g)

སུ་ l . dative-locative particle 2.who (sū )
སུའི་ whose (sǖǖ)
སོ་ tooth (so)
སློབ་གྲྭ་ school (lāpdra)
སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ student (lāpdraà, lōpdrawa)
གསར་པ་ new (sāāba)
གསུམ་ three (sūm)
ལྷ་ཁང་ temple (lhāgan)
ལྷ་ས་ Lhasa (lhɛ̅ɛ̅sa; lhāsa)
ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀ་ America (ə̅merigə)

Lesson Three
3.lThe subject of active sentences and the instrtmental case
In addition to linking and existential verbs, Tibetan has two categories of verbs
we shall call active and involuntary. These verbs convey intentional and unintentional
action. For example, the English sentence "Iwent to sleep" can be constructed with either
an active or involuntary verb meaning "to sleep." With the active verb "to sleep" (ཉལ་),
the sentence "Iwent to sleep" connotes sleep resultant from an intentional act, but with
the involuntary verb "to sleep" (གཉིད་ཁུག་), the same English sentence connotes
unintentional sleep, i.e., falin g asleep wit out wanting or trying to do so. In this lesson
active verbs and sentences will be examined.
The main (and only obligatory) element in Tibetan active sentences (and clauses)
is the 'main active verb', although most active sentences usually also have both a 'subject'
and an 'object'. When these three sentence components are filled, the normal sentence
orderis 'subject' + 'object' + 'main verb'.
Active sentences require that their subjects be placed in what is called the
instrumental case. That is to say, one of the six instrumental case particles presented
below is suffixed to or follows the subject.
I nstrumental case particles indicate the agent or the means by which an action
took or takes place. For example, in the sentence "He killed the yak, " the agent or actoris
"he" (ཁོ་). IIowever, unlike English, Tibetan grammar requires that "he" be placed in the
instrumental case so that the sentence literally means "By him yak killed." Thus, as
explained below, ཁོ་ becomes ཁོས་
Although the instrimental case has several functions, for the present we need only
concern ourselves with its function as marking the subject (actor) in active sentences.
The instrumental case consists of six different particles, all of which perform
identical functions. Five of these particles are used in accordance with the final consonant
(or vowel) of the immediately preceding syllable. One is used with all finals.
Syllable final Instrumental pari cle Example
ག་ or ང་ གིས་ གཡག་གིས་ (by a yak)
ད་ or བ་ or ས་ ཀྱིས་ ཕུན་ཚོགས་ཀྱིས་ (by Phuntsog)
ན་ or མ་ or ར་ or ལ་ གྱིས་ དགེ་རྒན་གྱིས་ (by the teacher)
vowels -ས་ (is sufi xed to ངས་ (by me)
preceding syllable)

ཡིས་ ང་ཡིས་ (by me)
all final l letters ནས་ གཡག་ནོས་,ཕུན་ཚོགས་ནས་,དགེ་རྒན་ནས་

For a short period of time written materials in Tibet simplified this pattern by
using the གིས་ form exclusively with all finals. This, however, has gone out of favor, and
the traditional pattern presented above is again followed nowadays.
Because the instrumental particle occurs after the noun or noun phrase that is the
subject of active verbs, finding the instrumental case particle is the simplest way to
identify the subject. Sentences a., b., and c. below illustrate the basic structure. In
example a., "tiger" is the subject and "yak" is the object. In examples b., and c. "yak" is
the subject and "tiger"is the object.
a. སྟག་གིས་གཡག་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà ki yāà sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
tiger by yak killed past compl./
The tiger killed yaks.
གིས་ here marks the actor, the tiger. The direct object, the yak, is left unmarked. The main
verb, བསད་ (killed), is followed by the standard third person past tense verb complement
པ་རེད་ (l) ("bəreè"). Thus, བསད་པ་རེད་ means. " (An actorhe, she, it, they) killed (it)." In this
sentence, the actor is the tiger.
Senrence b. reverses the subject and object.
b. གཡག་གིས་སྟག་བསད་པ་རེད།
yāà kidāà sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
yak by tiger killed past compl./
The yaks killed tigers.
Senrence c. changes the normal word order shown in b. by placing the object
beore the subject. This causes no ambiguity inti bet because the subject (actor) — the
yak —- is marked by the presence of the instrumental particle གིས་ Therefore, unlike
English where changes in word order in active sentences change the referent meaning
(Jim hit John — John hit Jim), in Tibetan they affect only emphasis.
c. སྟག་གཡག་གིས་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà yāà ki sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
tiger yak by killed past compl./
(l) Although this complement itself can be broken down into the linking verb རེད་ and the
particle པ་,at this stage it is better treated as an indivisable unit convey ng past tense.

The yaks killed tigers. (emphasis on tiger)
The direct object (the person or thing directly affected by the verbal action) is 'not'
marked by any grammnatical particle inTibetan. It can be filled by a noun (or noun
phrase) or an adjective (oradjective phrase) or both. In examples a., b., and c. a single
noun ("yak" or "tiger") served as the object of the verb "killed."
Sentences d.-f. illustrare the above rules using several new active verbs and
nouns ཟས་ ("ate"), ཉོས་ ("bought"), and ཤ་ ("meat")
d. སྟག་གིས་ཤ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
dāà ki shā sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
tiger by meat ate past compl./
(The) tigers ate meat.
e. ཁོས་ཤ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ shā sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
he-by nne at ate past compl./
He ate neat.
f. འབྲོག་པས་མེ་མདའ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
dro̲gbɛɛ̀ me̲nda ñȫö̀bəreè
(The) nomad-by gun bought past compl./
(The) nomads bought guns.

3.2 Plurality and singularity
In English, nouns change their form to indicare plurality. Tibetan nouns do not do
this. They may connote either singularity or plurality depending on the context, although
as indicated earlier, unmarked nouns normally convey the plural. Ultimately, plurality
and singularity are der ermined by 'semantic context' and by one of a variety of
'semantically plural or singular mod fiers and postpositions'.
Singularity is indicated by modifying nouns with a 'determinative' such as འདི་
("this") or དེ་ ("that"), or by the number "one" (གཅིག་ or ཅིག་ or ཞིག་ or ཤིག་).
Nouns modified by the above deterinatives will often be transl ared in English as
articles, but it is important for the reader to remember that Tibetan has no articles per se.
Thus, although གཡག་འདི་ ("this yak") will often be rans lated as "the yak, " technically it
means "this yak." Similarly, the word "one" will typically be translated as "a" or "an"

for example, གཡགཞིག་ as "a yak" rather than "one yak." The use of modifiers such as these
eliminates ambiguity with regard to number. Such modifiers always 'follow' the noun or
noun phrase they modify, but 'precede' the instrumental particle. For example, "by a tiger"
would be སྟག་གཅིག་གིས་,'not' སྟག་གིས་གཅིག་
a. སྟག་གཅིངག་གིས་ཁྱི་འདི་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà chi̅ ki ki̅ di̲ sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
tiger one by dog this killed past compl./
A tiger killed the (this) dog.
b. དམག་མི་ཞིག་གིས་གཡག་ཅིག་བསད་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mi chi̅ ki yāà chi̅ sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
soldier one by yak one killed past compl./
A soldier killed a yak.
3.2.2 Plural words and post positions
As seen in LessonTwo, unmarked nouns generally convey plurality. However,
plural number in Tibetan is explicitly expressed by a number of plural modifiers and
pluralizing post positions, some of the most common of which are
མང་པོ་ mə̲ŋgu* many, much
ཁ་ཤས་ kāshɛɛ̀* several
གཉིས་ ñi̅ì two
ཚང་མ་ tsāŋma all
འགའ་ཤས་ ga̲shɛɛ̀ several
གསུམ་ sūm three
ཐམས་ཅད་ tāmjɛɛ̀ all
འགའ་ཞིག་ ga̲shig several
དུ་མ་ du̲ma many
ཏོག་ཙམ་ dōgdzam a little
ཞེ་དྲ་གས་ she̲draà lots
[The asterisk (*) indicates that the term is currently used in colloquial Tibetan.]
Each of these words 'follws' the noun or noun phrase it modifies, but 'precedes' the
instrumental particle, fore xample, ད་མག་མི་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་ ("by several soldiers'), not ད་མག་མི་ཀྱིས་

In addition to these plural worords, there are two commn on pluralizing postpositions
(རྣམས་ and ཚོ་) that are placed after count nouns (nouns such as "house" that can be
counted) and demonstratives ("this" and "that") to express plurality.(2 ) These
postpositions pluralize the words and phrases they follow. For example, when these are
joined to the demonstratives "this" and "that" (འདི་ཚོ་ and དེ་ཚོ་) the meaning "these" and
"those" is conveyed.
a. གཡག་འདི་ཚོས་སྟག་ཅིག་བསད་པ་རེད།
yāà di̲ndzöö̀ dāà chi̅ sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
yak this pl.-by tiger one killed past compl./
These (the) yaks killed a (one) tiger.
Note again that the instrumental particle follows the pluralizer.
b. སྟག་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་གཡག་གཅིག་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà kāshɛɛ̀ ki yāà chi̅ sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
tiger several by yak one killed past compl./
Several tigers killed a (one) yak.
c. གྲྭ་པ་གཅིག་གིས་དེབ་གཉིས་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
tra̲pa chi̅ ki te̲p ñi̅ì ñö̲ö̀bəreè
monk one by book two bought past compl./
Amonk bought two books.
Other examples are
d. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་མང་པོས་ཤ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
lābdrāà ma̲ŋböö̀ shā sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
student many-by meat ate past compl./
Mlany students ate meat.
e. མོས་སོན་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
mö̲ö̀ sȫn she̲traà ñö̲ö̀bəreè
she-by seed lots bought past compl./
She bought lots of seed.
f. སྔས་མ་ནོར་བུས་ཁྱི་གསུམ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
ŋɛ̅ɛ̅ma nɔ̲ɔ̲büǜ ki̅ sūm ñö̲ö̀bəreè
Formerly norbu-by dog three bought past compl./
Formerly, nor bu bought three dogs.
2. There is also one less common pluralizer that is used after all nouns དག་

Senrence f. illustrates how temporal words such as སྔས་མ་ normally occur at the very
beginning of Tibetan sentences and clauses.
g. ཁ་ས་ཞིང་པ་ཞིག་བིས་ཤ་ཏོག་ཙམ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
kɛ̅ɛ̅sa shi̲ŋbə chi̅ ki shā dōgdizan sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
yesterday farmer one by meat little ate past compl./
A farmer ate a little meat yesterday.
3.3 Complex subject and object constructions
3.3.lcomplex subjects
The subjects of active sentences can be modified by demonstratives, pluralizers
(including numbers), and adjectives. Using the symbols " + " (mandatory presence) and
"> " (optional) we can express the format of the subject of active sentences as a formula:
+ noun > determinative̅ > pluralizer/singularizer + instrtrumental.
This produces the following possibilities
l . + n. + inst.
soldier- by
by (the) soldier(s)
2.+ n. + det. + inst.
mə̅ə̅mi di̲ì
soldier + this-by
by this soldier
3.+ n. + pl. + inst.
mə̅ə̅mi na̲m ki
soldier + pl. + by
by (the) soldiers
4.+ n. + det. + pl. + inst.
mə̅ə̅mi di̲ na̲m ki
soldier + this + pl. + by
by the (these) soldiers

The subject can be expanded further by the addition of an adjective. Adjectives
'follow' the noun or noun phrase they modify but occur 'before' the determinatives,
pluralizers, and instrumentals. In terms of the formula + n > adj. > det. > pl. + inst. For
soldier good this plural-by
by these good soldiers
a. དམག་མི་ཡག་པོ་འདི་ཚོས་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mi ya̲go [ya̲gbo] de̲ndzöö̀ sö̲ö̀bəreè
soldier good this + pl.-by made past compl./
These good soldiers made (it).
b. ཞིང་པ་དབུལ་པོ་ཚོསལུག་ཞིག་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
shŋbə ǖǖbotsöö̀ lu̲ù chi̅ ñö̲ö̀bəreè
farmer poor pl.-by sheep one bought past compl./
The poor farmers bought a sheep.
c. བཟོ་པ་དབུལ་པོ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ལྷ་ཁང་གཅིག་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
so̲ba ǖǖbo nām ki lhāgan chi̅ sö̲ö̀bəreè
worker poor pl.-by temple one made past compl./
The poor workers made (built) a temple.
d. བཟོ་པ་གསར་པ་འདིས་འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་ཚང་མ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
so̲ba sāāba di̲ì trǖǖgɔɔ tsāŋma sö̲ö̀bəree
worker new this-by machine all made past compl./
This new worker made all the machines.
e. ལུག་ཆེན་པོས་རྩྭ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
lu̲ù chēmböö̀ dzā sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
sheep big-by grass ate past compl./
The big sheep ate grass.
f. སྟག་ཆེན་པོ་གཅིག་གིས་ཁྱི་ཞིག་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà chēmbo chi̅ ki ki̅ chi̅ sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
tiger big one by dog one killed past compl./
A (one) big tiger killed a dog.
g. བཟོ་པ་ཞིག་གིས་བཏང་བ་རེད།
so̲ba chi̅ ki da̅mbəreè
worker one by sent past compl./
Aworker sent (it).

3.3.2 The complex object
The object slot of active sentences can be similarly expanded by the addition of
adjectives, pluralizers, and determinatives. For example
a. བཟོ་པ་ཚོས་འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་ཡག་པོ་ཞིག་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
so̲badzöö̀ trǖǖgɔɔ ya̲go chi̅ sö̲ö̀bəreè
worker pl.-by machine good one made past compl./
The workers made a good machine.
b. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་ལག་ཆ་མང་པོ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
shi̲ŋbətsöö̀ la̲gja məŋgu sö̲ö̀bəreè
farmer pl.-by tool many made past compl./
The farmers made many tools.
c. དམག་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ཚ་ལུ་མ་ཆེན་པོ་ཁ་ཤས་ཟས་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mi nāmki tsə̅lumə chēmbo kāshɛɛ̀ sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
soldier pl.-by orange big several ate past compl./
The soldiers ate several big oranges.
The object can also be modified by two adjectives linked by the conjunctive
particle དང་ ("and").
d. དམག་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ལུག་དཀར་པོ་དང་ཆེན་པོ་ཁ་ཤས་ཟས་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mi nāmki lu̲ù gāābo da̲ŋ chēmbo kāshɛɛ̀ sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
soldier pl.-by sheep white and big several ate past compl./
The soldiers ate several big white sheep (sheep that were both big and white).
3.3.3 The active verb
Verbs change their form (or stem) in different tenses and can have up to four
stems. The verb "to kill" is an example of a 4 -stem verb.
present future past imperative
གསོད་ གསད་ བསད་ སོད་
In modern lirerary Tibetan, some 3 -and 4 -stem verbs have been collapsed into 2 -
stem verbs — i.e., verbs with only a past and a non-past stem. In these cases the present
tense stem is used for the future. The verbs introduced in this lesson up to this point have
the following stems

present future past imperative
ཉོ་ ཉོ་ ཉོས་ ཉོས་ buy
བཟོ་ བཟོ་ བཟོས་ བཟོས་ make
འདེབས་ གདབ་ བཏབ་ ཐོབས་ plant, sow
ཟ་ (or བཟའ་) ཟ་ (or བཟའ་) ཟས་ (or བཟས་) ཟས་ (or བཟས་) eat
གསོད་ གསད་ བསད་ སོད་ kill
གཏོང་ གཏོང་ /གཏང་ བཏང་ ཐོང་ send
[Acomplete alphabetical list of all verb stems is presented in Appendix A.]
Tibetan verbs themselves do not indicate gender, number or person. "Ibuy, " "He
buys, ' 'and "They buy" all use the same stem of the verb "to buy." Person, however, can
be expressed through the modern 'verb conplement', although traditionally it was
dertermined solely though context.
There are two kinds of verbal complements: l) 'final complement' and 2 )
'connective complement. The former functions to complete a sentence, while the latter is
used to connect dependent clauses. In this section only the final complement will be
The final verbal complement is the vehicle through which tense and person are
conveyed. For example, the third person narrative past tense complement is པ་རེད་ and the
frst person past complement is པ་ཡིན་ . However, these forms derive from spoken Lhasa
Tibetan and do not appear in classical Tibetan or in the many contemporary works that
use the more literary modern genre. In these only the main verb is used (e.g., ཉོས་ rather
than ཉོས་པ་རེད་). In this more classical style, context conveys person while context and the
verb stem determines tense. This textbook will use a variety of alterrnative verb
complements including the neo-classical style.
3.4 sim le past tense
All of the active verb examples presented in the above sections of this lesson
illustrate the simple or narrative past tense. This tense expresses an action completed in
the past. These constructions consist of the past stem of an active verb and the 'simple
past complement' (the linking verb རེད་ and a particle པ་). Together they expressthe
sinnle past tense, se ༨་ond an0 /th ང་ / person.
a. བསད་པ་རེད། ( He, she, they, you) killed (it).
sɛ̅ɛ̀ bəreè
b. ཉོས་པ་རེད། (He, she, they, you) bought (it).

c. བཟོས་པ་རེད། (He, she, they, you) made (it).
Person is conveyed through the verb complement. For example, by substituting
the linking verb ཡིན་ for རེད་,the verb complement changes from third person to first
d. (ངས་) ཟས་པ་ཡིན་
(ŋɛ̲ɛ̀) sɛ̲ɛ̀bəyin
(i-by) ate past compl.
(I) ate (it).
These rules, however, are not hard and fast, and the reader will sometmes encounrer the
པ་རེད་ complement used with first person subjects, e.g., (ངོས་) ཟས་པ་རེད་
It should be noted that sometimes བ་རེད་ is used in place of པ་རེད་ . This change is
governed by the final letter of the preceding verb and does not affect the meanning:
པ་ is used with final ག་,ད་,ན་,བ་,མ་,and ས་
བ་ is used with fnal ངོ་,ར་,ལ་,and vowels
Thus, གཞས་བཏང་བ་རེད་ ("sang a song") but ཤ་ཟས་པ་རེད་ ("are meat").
Second person past tense constructions, as indicated above, use the same
complements as third person. For example:
ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་གཡག་ཅིག་བསད་པ་རེད་ You killed a yak.
In addition to the པ་རེད་ (third person) past complement, another commonly used
simple past complement consists of the verb སོང་ (which means "went" when used alone)
used directly with the past tense stem of an active verb.
e. སྟག་གིས་ལུག་གཅིག་ཟས་སོང་།
dāà ki lu̲g chi̅ sɛ̲ɛ̀soŋ
tiger by sheep one ate past compl./
A tiger(s) ate a sheep.
Finally, as indicated above, classical Tibetan does not use the པ་རེད་,and པ་ཡིན་
complements at all. The past tense stem of the verb suffices. Thus, sentence e. above
would be written སྟག་བིས་ལུག་གཅིག་ཟས།
3.5 Present tense
Present tense constructions are formed by joining the present (or non-past) form
of active verbs to one of the present tense verbal complements listed below. These

constructions express both action currently going on and action that was currently going
on at some point in the past. For example, in the sentence "Last year, when ica me to
Tibet he was building a house, " the present would be used to convey that the building of
a house was going on when "I" was inTibet.
The present complement consists of several particles and either a linking or
existential verb in the combinations listed below. Second and first person endings
typically do not differ from third person endings (although they do in spoken Tibetan).
Context — for example, pronouns — normally makes it clear which person is intended.
l . vb. + ཀྱི་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད) 7.vb. + བཞིན་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) 13.vb. + མུས་ཡོད་པ་རེད་
2.vb. + ཀྱི་འདུག་ 8.vb. + བཞིན་འདུག་ 14.vb. + མུས་ཡོད་
3.vb. + ཀྱིན་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) 9.vb. + བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) 15.vb. + མུས་ཡིན་
4.vb. + ཀྱིན་འདུག་ 10.vb. + བཞིན་པ་རེད་ 16.vb. + མུས་ཡིན་འདུག་
5..vb. + བགྱི་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) ll. vb. + བཞིན་པ་ཡིན་པ་རེད་ 17.vb. + མུས་རེད་
6.vb. + བགྱི་འདུག་ 12.vb. + བཞིན་པར་
The overall present-time meaning of these complements derives not from the
inherent meaning of the constituent parts (ཀྱི་,for example, is simply the genitive case
particle "of"), but rather from the particular concatenation of them. Thus, while ཀྱི་ + ཡོད་པ་རེད་
expresses present time, the same particle with the linking verb རེད་ (ཀྱི་ + རེད་) expresses
future time.
Before examining some examples of present tense sentences, note should be
made of the different forms that some of the present particles manifest. Like the
instrumental case particles discussed above, these particles change form in accordamce
with the fn all letter of the immediately preceding syllable:
གི་ and གིན་ occur after ག་,ང་ and vowels (e.g., གཏོང་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་)
ཀྱི་ and ཀྱིན་ occurafrer ད་,བ་ and ས་ (e.g., གསོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་)
གྱི་ and གྱིན་ occur after ན་,མ་,ར་ and ལ་ (e.g., གཡར་གྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་)
Now let us examine some examples:
a. སྟག་གཅིག་གིས་ལུག་གཅིག་གསོད་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
" གསོད་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
" གསོད་མས་རེད།
" གསོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
dāà chi̅ ki lu̲g chisȫö̀shi̲n yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
" shi̲ntu yɔ̲ɔ̀reè

" mü̲ǜreè
" giyɔ̲ɔ̀eè
tiger one by sheep one kill pres. compl./
A tiger is killing a sheep.
b. བཟོ་པ་ཚོས་གནམ་གྲུ་གཅིག་བཟོ་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
so̲bətsöö̀ nə̅mdru chi̅ so̲shi̲ntu yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
worker pl.-by airplane one make pres. compl./
The workers are making an airplane.
c. གཞོན་ནུ་གསུམ་གྱིས་ཁང་པ་གཅིག་རྒྱག་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
shö̲nu sūm ki kāŋbə chi̅ gyə̲bshi̲ny ɔ̲ɔ̀reè
youth 3 by house one make pres. compl./
Three youth s are build ing a house.
d. ཞིང་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ཞིང་ཁ་ལ་སོན་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
shi̲ŋbə nām ki shi̲ŋga lə sȫn de̲bgiyɔ̲ɔ̀reè
farmer pl.-by field to seed plant pres. compl./
The farmers are planting (seeds) on the fields.
e. མི་མང་པོས་ལྷད་མོ་བལྟ་མུས་རེད།
mi̲ ma̲ŋböö̀ dɛ̅ɛ̅mo dāmüǜreè
person many-by show look pres. compl./
Many people are watching the show.
f. རྡོ་རྗེས་ཁང་པ་ཉམས་གསོ་བྱེད་བཞིན་ཡོད།
dɔ̲ɔ̲jee kāŋba ña̲mso che̲shinyöö̀
dorje-by house repair do pres. compl./
Dorje is repairing the house.
g. གྲྭ་པ་གཅིག་གིས་དཔེ་ཆ་ཀློག་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
tra̲ba chi̅ ki bēja lɔ̅ɔ̀shinbəreè
monk one by book read pres. compl./
A monk is reading (a) book.
h. དམག་མི་འདིས་སྔོ་ཚལ་སོས་པ་ཟ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mi di̲ì ŋōtsɛɛ sȫȫba sə̲giyɔ̲ɔ̀reè
soldier this-by vegetable fresh eat pres. compl./
The soldier is eating fresh vegetables.
i. ཕུན་ཚོགས་ཀྱིས་ད་གོན་པར་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུ་བཞིན་ཡོད།
pǖndzo ki go̲mbar chȫnjɛɛ shu̲shinyöö̀
phuntso by monastery-to religious visit do pres. compl./

Phuntso is making a religious visit to the monastery.
Present constructions are often used together with a temporal term such as ད་ལྟ་ ( 'now").
j. བླ་མ་འདིས་ད་ལྟ་ཆོས་གསུང་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
lāma di̲ì ta̲ndə chȫö̀ sūŋshinbəreè
lama this-by now religion say pres. compl./
This lama is giving (saying) religious teachings now.
k. ད་ལྟ་ཁོས་སློབ་གྲྭར་གཞས་གཏོང་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
ta̲nda kȫö̀ lāpdraa shɛ̲ɛ̀ dōŋshimbareè
now he-by school-to song sing pres. compl./
He is singing a song at school now.
3.6 Usual constructions
The first six prese n tren se complements listed in section 3.5.above are also used
to express usual orge neral actions. Context indicates which meaning is intended. For
a. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་དཔྱིད་དུས་སོན་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
shi̲ŋbətsöö̀ ji̅düü ̀sȫn de̲bgiyɔ̲ɔ̀reè
farmer pl.- by spring-time seed plant pres. compl./
Farmers plant seeds in the spring t time.
Tibetan also uses a number of words such as ནམ་རྒྱུན་ ("usually") and རྟག་པར་
("always") to clarify meaning.
b. དམག་མི་འདིས་ནམ་རྒྱུན་ཤ་སོས་པ་ཟ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅midi̲ì nə̲mgyün shāsȫba sə̲gyɔ̲ɔ̀ree
soldierth is-by usually meat fresh eat pres. compl./
This soldier usually eats fresh meat.
The usual tense is also conveyed by the pattern present(non-past) stem of a verb + ་པ་རེད་
or བ་རེད་ .
Since the པ་རེད་ part of this ending is naor mally the past con plenent, context or
some modifying word like 'usually"will differentiate between usual and past when the
verb in question doesn ot ave different stems for past and present tense.
c. ཁོས་འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་བཟོ་བ་རེད།
kȫö̀ trǖǖgɔɔ so̲wareè
he-by machine make usual compl./
He makes machines.

Because the verbs "to make" and "to sow" in c. and d. have a present tense stem, the
usual meaning is easy to identify .
d. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཞིང་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་སོན་འདེབས་པ་རེད།
jidüǜ shi̲nbə na̅mki sȫn de̲bəreè
spring time famer pl. by seed plant usual compl./
In spring, farmers plant seeds.
Note again that if past tense were intended the sentence would have been written using
the past tense stem, e.g.,
e. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཞིང་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་སོན་བཏ་བ་པ་རེད།
jidüǜ shi̲ŋbə nām ki sȫn də̅bəreè
sprng time farmer pl. by seed plant past compl./
In spring, farmers planted seeds.
However, with a one stem verb such as the verb "to come" (ཡོང་), only context
differentiates between pasta nd usual tenses.
f. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཁོ་འདིར་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
jidüǜ kō de̲e̲ yo̲mbareè
sprng time he here come past compl./
In spring he came here.
g. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཁོ་འདིར་ནམ་རྒྱུན་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
jidüǜ kō de̲e̲ namgyün yo̲ŋwareè
sprng time he here usually come usual compl./
In spr ng he usually comes here.
3.7 Future tense
The future tense is formed by using the future stem of the verb alone or by joining
the future or non-past stem of active verbs to one of the following complements
Third person Second person First person
vb. + གི་རེད་ vb. + གི་རེད་ vb. + གི་ཡིན་
The future complement consists of the genitive particle (གྱ་,ཀྱི་,etc.) with a
linking verb. As with the past rense, however, note should be taken that the classical style
omits the verbal complement (as in examples c.-e. below).
a. ཁོས་དེབ་ཞིག་ཉོ་བླི་རེད།
kȫö̀ te̲b chi̅ ñu̲gireè
he-by book one buy fut.-compl./

He will buy a book.
b. ངས་དེབ་གཅིག་ཉོ་བི་ཡིན།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ te̲b chi̲ ñu̲giyin
i-by book one buy fut.-compl./
Iwill buy a book.
c. དགུན་དུས་གྲྭ་པ་གསུམ་གྱིས་གཡག་གཅིག་ཉོ།
gü̲ndüǜ tra̲ba sūm ki yāà chi ño̲
winter time monk three by yak one buy
In wintertime, three monks will buy a yak.
d. གྲོགས་པོ་རྒན་ཁོག་དེ་ཚོས་གཡག་གཅིག་གསད།
tro̲go gɛ̲ngɔɔ̀ de̲ndzöö̀ yāà chi sɛ̅ɛ̀
friend old that pl.-by yak one kill
Those elderly friends will kill a yak.
e. ཁོས་ངར་དེབ་གཅིག་གཡར།
kȫö̀ ŋa̲a̲ te̲b chi yāā
he-by i-to book one lend
He will lend me a book.
3.8 Active verbs in interrogative constructions
Questions can be constructed with active verbs by ( l) adding a question particle, (2 )
by adding an ine rogative word, or (3 ) adding both an interrogative word and a question
particle. The same set of inerrogatives listed in Lessons One and Two apply here
a. ཁོས་ག་རེ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ ka̲re chɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
he-by what did past compl./
What did he do?
b. ཁོས་ཅི་བྱས་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ ji̅ chɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
he-by what did pl./
What did he do?
c. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་རེད་པས།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̀ bərebɛɛ̀
he-by work did past compl. ?/
Did he (do) work?

Did he (do) work?
d. ཁོས་ཤ་ཉོས་པ་རེད་དམ།
kȫö̀ shā ñö̲bəredam
he-by meat bought past compl. ?/
Did he buy meat?
e. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་ག་པར་བྱས་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga ka̲baa chɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
he-by work where did past compl./
Where did he work?
f. མོས་དེབ་ག་ཚད་ཉོ་བཞིན་འདུག།
mö̲ö̀ te̲p kə̲dzɛɛ̀ ño̲shinduù
she-by book how-many buy pres. compl./
How many books is she buying?
g. ཆོས་སུས་གསུངས་བ་རེད།
chȫö̀ sǖǜ su̲mbəree
religion who-by say past compl./
Who gave religious teachings?
h. བླ་མས་ཆོས་གསུང་ས་བ་རེད་དམ།
lāmɛɛ̀ chȫö̀ sūmbəredam
lama-by religion say past compl. ?/
Did the lama give religious teachings?
i. བླ་མས་ཆོས་ག་པར་གསུངས་བ་རེད་དམ།
lāmɛɛ̀ chȫö̀ ka̲baa sūmbəredam
lama-by religion where say past compl. ? /
Where did the lama give religious teachings?
j. ཁོ་ཚོས་དགོན་པ་ཆེན་པོ་དེ་ག་དུས་རྒྱབ་སོང་།
kōndzöö̀ go̲mba chēmbo de̲ kə̲düǜ gyə̲bsoŋ
he pl.-by monastery big that when built past compl./
When did they build that big monastery?
k. དགོན་པ་ཆེན་པོ་དེ་གྲྭ་པས་རྒྱབ་པ་རེད་པས།
go̲mba chēmbo de̲ tra̲bɛɛ̀ gyə̲bərebeè
monastery big that monk-by built past compl.?/
Was that big monastery built by monks?
l. གྲྭ་པས་དགོན་པ་ག་གི་རྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
tra̲bɛɛ̀ go̲mba kə̲gi gyə̲bəreè

monks-by monastery which built past compl./
Which monasrery was built by the monks?
First and second person constructions observe the following patterns
m. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ཆོས་གསུངས་བས།
kēraŋki chȫö̀ su̅mbɛɛ̀
you-by religion say (h.) past compl.?/
Did you give religious teachings?
n. ངས་ཆོས་བཤད་པ་ཡིན།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ chȫö̀ shɛ̅ɛ̀bəyin
i-by religion say past compl./
Igave religious teachings.
o. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ཤ་ཉོས་སམ།
kēraŋ ki shā ñö̲ö̀sam
you-by meat bought past compl.?/
Did you buy meat?
p. ངས་ཤ་ཉོས་པ་ཡིན།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ shā ñö̲ö̀bəyin
i-by meat bought past compl./
Ibought meat.
q. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ག་རེ་ཉོས་པ་ཡིན་ནམ།
kēraŋki ka̲re ñö̲ö̀bəyinam [Standard spoken would simply be: ñö̲ö̀baa.]
you-by what bought past compl. ?/
What didy ou buy?
r. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ག་རེ་ཉོས་སམ།
kēraŋki ka̲re ñö̲ö̀sam
you-by what bought? /
What did you buy?
3.9 Sentence final marker
LiteraryTibetan denotes the end of a sentence by reduplicating the final l letter of
the verb and adding the vowel "o." Forexaple, རྒྱབ་བོ་ would be written in place of རྒྱབ་པ་
རེད་ . When verbs end in a vowel, the particle འོ་ is added to the stem, e.g., ཉོའོ་

3.10 Reading exercise
The following exercise is a conversation between an American student and a
Tibetan friend named Pema. When new words are used they should be looked up in the
lesson vocabulary or the glossary.
l. O. པད་མ་ལགས་སྐུ་གཟུགས་བདེ་པོ་ཡིན་པས།
2. A. ང་གཟུགས་པོ་བདེ་པོ་ཡིན།
3. D. པད་མ་ལགས་བོད་ལ་ཞིང་པ་ག་ཚད་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
4. A. བོད་ལ་ཞིང་པ་མང་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
5. O. ཞིང་པས་ལས་ཀ་ག་རེ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
6. A. ཞིང་པས་ཞིང་ཁ་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
7. D. ཁོ་ཚོར་ལུག་དང་ར་ཡོད་པ་རེད་པས།
8. A. ཞིང་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ལ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།ཁ་ཤས་ལ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
9. O. སོན་ག་རེ་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
10. A. དཔྱིད་དུས་འབྲུ་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།དགུན་དུས་གྲོ་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ll. O. འབྲས་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་དམ།
12. A. ཞིང་པ་ཚང་མས་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།འགའ་ཤས་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
13. D. གྲྭ་པས་ཞིང་ཁར་སོན་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་པས།
14. A. ནམ་རྒྱུན་འདེབས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།གྲྭ་པས་དགོན་པར་དེབ་ཀློག་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
15. O. དགོན་པར་དགེ་རྒན་ག་ཚོད་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
16. A. དགེ་རྒན་བཅུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
17. O. ཁྱེད་རང་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་པས།
l. A. ང་གྲྭ་པ་མིན།ང་སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཡིན།
19. D. ཁྱེད་རང་གི་སློབ་གྲྭ་ག་པར་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
20. A. ལྷ་སར་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
l . bɛ̅malaà, (3 ) gūsuù de̲bo yi̲mbɛɛ̀
pema la body (h.) well is ?/
Pemala, how are you?
2.ŋa̲ su̲gu de̲bo yi̲n(4 )
(3 ) The ɛ in bɛ̅malaà is short here (whereas in ies son One it was long) because it is joined
with the polite particle laà
(4 ) Tibetan culture actually has no greeting that is equivalent to "hello."The phrase "How
are you" usually is used for somebody whom you haven't seen fors ome time. In India,

i body well is/
Iam well.
3.bɛ̅malaà, pö̲ö̀la shi̲ŋbə kədzɛɛ̀ yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
pema la tibet to farm how many exist/
Pemala, in Tibet how mmy farmers are there?
4.pö̲ö̀ la shi̲ŋbə mə̲ŋgu yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
tibet to farmer many exis/
In Tibet there are many farmers.
5.shiŋbɛɛ̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga ka̲re chi̲giyɔɔ̀reè
farmer-by work what do pres. /usu. compl./
What work do farmers do?
6.shi̲ŋbɛɛ̀ shi̲ŋgə de̲bgiyɔɔ̀reè
farmer-by farm plant pres. /usu. compl./
The farmers plant fields.
7.kōndzɔɔ lu̲ù daŋ ra ̲yɔ̲ɔ̀rebɛɛ̀
he pl.-to sheep and goat exist?/
Do they have sheep and goats?
8.shi̲ŋbə kāshɛɛ̀la yɔ̲ɔ̀reè kāshɛɛ̀la yɔ̲ɔ̀maareè
farmer several to exist/ several to exist no/
Some farmers have them. Some do not.
9.sȫn k a̲re de̲bgiyɔɔ̀reè
seed what plant pres. usu. compl./
What seeds are (usually) planted?
10.ji̅düǜ dru̲ de̲bgiyɔɔ̀reè gü̲ndüü ̀tro̲ də̲bgiyɔɔ̀reè
sprng barley plant pres. usu. compl./ wintertime wheat plant pres./usu. compl./
In spring (they) plant barley. In winter, (they) plam t wheat.
ll. drɛ̲ɛ̀ de̲bgiyöbaredam
rice plant pres./usu. compl.?/
Is rice (usually) planted?
12.shi̲ŋbə tsāŋmɛɛ̀ de̲bgiyɔɔ̀maareè. ga̲shɛɛ̀ de̲bgiyɔɔ̀reè
the phrase "Tashidele" is commonly used for "hello, ' 'and in some groups such as the
nomads of W. Tibet, "Did you have a good sleep?" is used. Other villagers simply ask,
"Where are you going?" or something similar.

farmer all-by plant pres./usu. compl. no/ several plant pres./usu. compl./
All the farmers do not plant (it). Several plant it.
13.tra̲bɛɛ̀ shi̲ŋgaa sȫn de̲bgiyɔɔ̀rebɛɛ̀
monk-by field to seed plant pres./usu. compl?/
Do monks plant seed in the fields?
14.nə̅mgyün de̲bgiyɔɔ̀maareè. tra̲bɛɛ̀ go̲mbaa te̲b lōgiyɔɔ̀reè
usually plant pres./usu. compl. no/ monk-by monastery-to book read pres./usu. compl./
Usually, (they) do not plant. Monks read books in the monastery.
15.go̲mbaa ge̲gɛn kə̲dzöö̀yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
monastery-to teacher how many exis /
How many teachers are there in the monastery?̲gɛn jū yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
teacher ten exist/
There are ten teachers.
17.kēraŋ tra̲ba yi̲mbɛɛ̀
you monk is ?/
Are you a monk?
18.ŋa̲ tra̲ba nɛ̲n. ŋa̲ lābdraà yi̲n/
i monk no-is/ i student is/
Iam not a monk. Iam a student.
19.kēraŋki lābdra k a̲baa yɔ̲ɔ̀reè
your school where exist?/
Where is your school?
20.lɛ̅ɛ̅saa yɔ̲ɔ̀reez
lhasa-to exist/
( It) is in Lhasa.
ཀྱི་འདུག་ present tense complement (giduù)
ཀྱིན་འདུག་ present tense complement ( ginduù)
ཀྱི་ཡོད་ (པ་)རེད་ present tense complement (giyɔ̲ɔ̀ree)
ཀྱིན་ཡོད་ (པ་) རེད་ presenttense complement (gin yɔ̲ɔ̀reè)
ཀྱིས་ instrumental particle (ki)
ཀློག་ va. to read (lɔ̅ɔ̀)

སྐུ་གཟུགས་ body (h.) (gūsuù)
ཉོས་ va. p. of ཉོ་ (ñö̲ö̀)
སྐུ་གཟུགས་བདེ་པོ་ཡིན་པས་ idiom. How are you? (h.) (gūsuu de̲boyi̲mbɛɛ̀)
གཉིད་ཁུག་ vi. to fall asleep (ñiì kūù)
གཉིས་ two (ñiì)
ཏོག་ཙོམ་ a little (dōgdzam, dɛ̅ɛ̅tsə)
ཁ་ས་ yesterday (kɛ̅ɛ̅sa)
གཏོང་ va. to send (dōŋ)
ཁང་པ་རྒྱག་ va. to build a house (kāŋba gya̲à)
བཏང་ va. p. of གཏོང་ (da̅ŋ)
བཏབ་ va. p. of འདེབས་ (də̅b)
ཁོས་ he + instrumental (kȫö̀)
རྟག་པ་ར་ always (dāgbar)
གི་ཡིན་ future tense complement (giyin)
ལྟད་མོ་ a show (dɛ̅ɛ̅mo)
སྟག་ tiger (dāà)
གི་རེད་ future tense complement (giree)
ཐམས་ཅད་ all (tāmjɛɛ̀)
ཐོབས་ va. imp. of འདེབས་ (tōb)
གིས་ instrumental particle (ki)
ད་ལྟ་ now (ta̲ndə)
གྲོ་ wheat (tro̲)
དག་ plural (da̲à)
གྲོགས་པོ་ friend (tro̲go)
དུ་མ་ many (tu̲mə)
བགྱི་འདུག་ present tense complement (giduù)
དེ་ཚོ་ those (de̲ndzo)
གདབ་ va. f. of འདེབས་ (də̲b)
བགྱི་ཡོད་ (པ) རེད་ present tense complement (giyɔ̲ɔ̀reè)
འདི་ཚོ་ these (di̲ndzo)
འདིས་ by this (di̲ì)
འགའ་ཞིག་ several (ga̲shig)
འདེབས་ va. to plant, sow (de̲b)
འགའ་ཤས་ several (ga̲shɛɛ̀)
ནམ་རྒྱུན་ usually (nə̅mgyu)
རྒྱག་ va. l . verbalizer for nouns build, shoot (gya̲à)
གནོམ་གྲུ་ airplane (nə̅mdru)
རྣམས་ plural (nām)
པ་རེད་ past compl. (bəree)
རྒྱབ་ va. p. of རྒྱག་
པས་ question particle (bɛɛ̀)
སྔོ་ཚལ་ vegetabi̅e (ŋōtsɛɛ)
དཔྱིིད་དུས་ spring, sprngtime (ji̅düǜ)
ཅིག་ a, one (ji̅g, chi̅)
འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་ machine (trǖǖgɔɔ)
ཆོས་ religion, dharma (chȫö̀)
བྱས་ va. p. of བྱེད་ (chɛ̲ɛ̀)
ཆོས་གསུང་ va. to teach religion (h.) (chȫö̀sūŋ)
བྱེད་ va. to do (che̲e)
དབུལ་པོ་ poor (ǖǖbo)
མཆོད་མཇལ་ religious visit (chȫnjɛɛ)
འབྲས་ rice (drɛ̲ɛ̀)
ཉམས་གསོ་ repair, va.– བྱེད་ to repair, restore (ña̲ mso)
འབྲུ་ barley, grain (dru̲)
མས་ present tense particle (mü̲)
ཉལ་ va. to sleep(ñɛ̲ɛ̲)
མུས་ཡིན་ present tense complement (mü̲yin)
ཉོ་ va. to buy (ño̲)

མུས་ཡིན་འདུག་ present tense complement (mü̲yinduù)
བདེ་པོ་ཡིནོ་ idiom. Iam fine. (sūgu de̲boyi̲n)
མུས་ཡོད་ present tense complement (mü̲yöö̀)
བཟོ་ va. to make (so̲)
མུས་ཡོད་ (པ) རེད་ present tense complement (mü̲yɔɔ̀reè)
བཟོས་ va. p of བཟོ་ (sö̲ö̀)
ཡག་པོ་ good (ya̲go)
མུས་རེད་ present tense complement (mü̲ree)
ཡོང་ va. to come
གཡར་ va. to lend, to borrow (yāā)
རྩྭ་ grass (dzā)
ཚ་ལུ་མ་ orange (fruit) (tsə̅lumə)
ར་ l . dative-locative particle, 2. goat(ra̲)
ཚང་མ་ all (tsaŋma)
ཚོ་ plural (tsō)
ལག་ཆ་ tool (la̲gja)
ཞིང་ཁ་ field, farm (shŋga)
ལགས་ particle used after personal names to convey politeness (laà)
ཞུ་ va. tosay, request, ask (h.) (shu̲)
ཞེ་དྲགས་ a lot (she̲draà)
གཞས་ song(shɛ̲ɛ̀)
ལས་ཀ་ work; va. — བྱེད་ to work (lɛ̲ɛ̲ ga)
གཞས་བཏང་ va. p. of གཞས་གཏོང་ sang song (shɛ̲ɛ̀ daa̅ŋ)
ལུག་ sheep (luù)
བཞིན་དུ་ཡོདན་པ་རེད་ presenttense complement (shi̲ntu yɔ̲ɔ̀reè)
ཤ་ meat (shā)
སོང་ past complement (sōŋ)
སོད་ va. imp. of གསོད་ (sȫö̀)
བཞིན་འདུག་ present tense complement (shnduù)
སོན་ seed (sȫn)
སོས་པ་ fresh (sȫȫba)
བཞིན་པ་ཡིན་པ་རེད་ present tense complement (shi̲mbə yi̲mbəreè)
གསད་ va. f. of གསོད་ (sɛ̅ɛ̀)
གསུང་ས་ va. to say (h.) (sūŋ)
གསོད་ va. tok ill (sȫö̀)
བཞིན་པར་ present tense complement (shi̲mbar)
བསད་ va. p. of གསོད་ (sɛ̅ɛ̀)
བཞིནོ་པ་རེད་ present tense complement (shi̲mbəreè)
བཞིནོ་ཡོད་ (པ)རེད་ present tense complement (shi̲n yɔ̲ɔ̀reè)
ཟ་ va. to eat (sa̲)
ཟས་ va. p. of ཟ་ (sɛ̲ɛ̀)
གཟུགས་པོ་ body (sūgu)

Lesson Four
4.lclause construction introduction
Tibetan sentences normally contain two or more clauses serially linked by a class
of verbal postpositions called clause connectives (cc.) These clause connectors link the
various clauses in different ways, e.g., 'because Clause A, Clause B', or 'as soon as Clause
A, Clause B'. This lesson will introduce two of the most com non of these clause
Unfortunately for beginners, many of these clause connectives are
multifunctional, that is to say, single particles often link clauses in more than one way.
Which of the different functions of a single particle is intended in any given instance can
usually only be discerned by the context of the clauses in question (i.e., with respect to
the meaning of the clauses that precede and follow it). The applicability of each of the
alternative uses of a multi-functional clause connective will have to considered when it is
encountered in a sentence to determine which function is intended in that instance. One
of the main goals of this book is to teach readers this skill.
4.2 The པ་དང་ connective
དང་ normally means 'and' and is used to join nouns, e.g. Dorje and tse rng is
written རྡེ་རྗེ་དང་ཆེ་རིང་ . དང་,however, is also used with verbs and verbal phrases to connect
clauses. When used in this manner, it also acts as a simple conjtiction linking two
clauses in the manner of Clause A 'and' Clause B. In example a. the two clauses (in this
case, sentences) are ཁ་ས་མོས་དེབ་བཀླགས་པ་རེད་ ( yesterday she read a book) and དེ་རིང་ཁྲོམ་ལ་ཕྱིན་
པ་རེད་ (Today (she) went to the market).
a. མོས་ཁ་ས་དེབ་བཀགས་པ་དང་དེ་རིང་ཁྲོམ་ལ་ཕྲིན་པ་རེད།
mö̲ö̀ kɛ̅ɛ̅sa te̲p lɔ̅ɔ̀ba daŋ te̲rin trōmlə chi̅mbəreè(l)
she-by yesterday book read and today mr ket went past compl./
yesterday she read a book and today (she) went to the market.
b. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཁོས་དགོན་པར་དངུལ་སྤྲད་པ་དང་དབྱར་དུ་ས་མོས་མཆོད་མཇལ་ལ་ཕྱིན་སོང།
jidüǜ kȫö̀ go̲mbaa ŋǖǖ drɛ̅ɛ̀ba daŋ yə̅rdüǜ mö̲ö̀ chȫnjɛɛlə chi̅nsu (soŋ)
(l) Recall that a final "n" is pronolmced as "m" when immediately followed by a bilabial
consonant such as "p." Thus ཕྱིན་པ་ is pronounced chi̅mbə, not chi̅nbə.

sprng time he-by monastery-to money gave and summer time she-by religious-visit
went past compl./
In spr ng he gave the monastery money, and in summer she went for a religious visit.
c. གཟའ་སྤེན་པར་མོས་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་དང།ཁོས་ནང་ལ་བསྡད་པ་རེད།
sa̲ bēmbaa mö̲ö̀ sa̲ganlə lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ba da̲ŋ kȫö̀ na̲nlə dɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
Saturday-to she-by restaurant to work did and/ he-by home to stayed past compl./
On Saturday, she worked at the restaurant and he stayed home.
The word "Saturday" occupies the normal time slot in Tibetan sentences, i.e., the
beginning of the sentence. Other time words and phrases such as སྔོན་མར་ ([ŋȫnmaa] in the
past, formerly) and གནའ་རབས་སུ་ ( [nārəbsu] in ancient times) could be substituted for
"Saturday" here. Time slot words normally require the dative-locative particle (lə/la),
here conveying "at" or "on".
d. བུ་འདི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོར་དགའ་པོ་ཡོད་པ་དང་རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོས་ཁོ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་ཡོད།
pu̲di gyɛ̲ɛ̲böö sɛ̅ɛ̅mɔɔ ga̲bo yö̲ba da̲ŋ gyɛ̲ɛ̲böö sɛ̅ɛ̅möö̀ kōlə (kɔ̅ɔ̅) ga̲boyö̲ö̀
child-boy this princess-to like love exist and princess-by he to like love exist/
This boy likes loves the princess and the princess likes loves him.
The clause connective པ་དང་ can also convey the meaning of "as soon as" the
verbal action occurred oroccurs, but this aspect will be discussed later in Lesson 6.2.
4.3 The temporal connectives རྗེས་ and པའི་ /བའི་རྗེས་སུ་
These clause connectives have only one function: they link two clauses so that the
latter occurs 'after' the action stated in the former. They require the verb to be in the past
a. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
he-by work did past compl./
He worked.
b. ཁོས་ཟ་ཁལང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་སོང།
kȫö̀ sa̲ganlə kālaà sɛ̲ɛ̀soŋ
he-by restaurant to food ate past compl./
He ate at the restaurant.
If one wanted to express these two actions so that the subject ("He") did the
second action 'after' doing the first, the temporal clause connective could be used.
c. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་རྗེས་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་སོང།

kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̀jee sa̲ganlə kālaà sɛ̲ɛ̀su [su is the spoken form of soŋ]
he-by work did after, restaurant to food ate past compl./
Afrer he worked (he) ate at a restaurant.
The other temporal connective — པའི་ /བའི་རྗེས་སུ་ – can be substituted without any change in
d. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་སོང།
same as c. except for pronunciation
The relationship between the clauses in sentences a. and b. can be reversed.
e. ཁོས་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་རྗེས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he-by restaurant to food are after, work did past compl./
kȫö̀ sa̲ganla kālaà sɛ̲ɛ̀jee lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̀bareè
Afrer he ate at the restaurant, (he) worked.
Whether པའི་ or བའི་ is used with རྗེས་སུ་ depends on the final l letter of the preceding verb:
པའི་ is used with final ག་,ད་,ན་,བ་,མ་ and ས་
བའི་ is used with final ང་,ར་,ལ་,and vowels
4.4 Marking quotations and naming names
Quotations in Tibetan traditionally were not marked by quotation marks, although
a few modern works now employ them. Traditionally, quor es were indicated by a
quotation marking particle placed immediately arre r the quote. This particle has several
ཅེས་ occurs afr er final ག་,ད་ and བ་
ཤེས་ occurs usually after final ས་
ཞེས་ occurs afr er all other finals including vowels
For example, in example a. below, the direct stare ment ང་འགྲོ་གི་ཡན་ ("Iam going") is not
formally identified as a quote until ཞས་
a. ཁོས་ང་འགྲོ་གི་ཡིན་ཞེས་ལབ་པ་རེད།
i kȫö̀ ŋa̲ dru̲giyin she̲è lə̲bəreè
he-by i go fut. compl. quote say past compl./
He said, "Iwill go."
b. བླ་མས་གྭྲ་པར་ངས་ཁ་ས་ཆོས་བཤད་ཅེས་གསུངས།
lāmɛɛ̀ tra̲baa ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ kɛ̅ɛ̅sa chȫö̀ shɛ̅ɛ̀jēè suŋ
lama-by monk-to i-by yesterday religion taught quote say past compl./
The lama said to (told) the monk, "Itaught religion yesterday."

When one wants to specify a name within a sentence, either ཟེར་བ་ or ཞེས་བྱ་བ་
("the one called/named") is nora mally used.
c. བླ་མ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ཟེར་བ་དེས་གྲྭ་པར་ངས་ཁ་ས་ཆོས་བཤདཅེས་གསུངས་པ་རེད་
la̅ma dɔ̲ɔ̲rje se̲wa de̲è tra̲bar ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ kɛ̅ɛ̅sa chȫö̀ shɛ̅ɛ̀ jēè su̅ŋbəreè
lama dorje called that-by monk-to i-by yesterday religion taught quote say
past compl./
The lama named Dorje said to (told) the monk, "Itaught religion yesterday."
Note that the subject is "by that lama called dorje."
d. འབྲས་སྤུང་ས་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་དེ་དགོན་པ་རེད།
drɛ̲buŋ she̲chawa de̲ go̲mba re̲è
drepung called that monastery is/
That which is called dre plmg is a monastery.
4.5 Review of the declension of pronouns
I he she you he/she(honorific)
nominative ང་ (ŋa̲) ཁོ་ (kō) མོ་ (mo̲) ཁྱེདརང་ (kēraŋ) ཁོང་ (kōŋ)
instrumental ངས་ (ŋɛ̲ɛ̀) ཁོས་ (kȫö̀) མོས་ (mōö̀) ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ (kēraŋki) ཁོང་གིས་ (kōŋki)
dative-locative ངར་ (ŋa̲a̲) ཁོར་ (kɔ̅ɔ̅) མོར་ (mɔ̲ɔ̲) ཁྱེདར་ང་ལ་ (kēraŋla) ཁོང་ལ་ (kōŋlə)
4.6 Reading Exercise:
Reading extensively is the best way to learn how to group syllables correctly into
words and how to decode the often complex sentence/clause constructions of literary
Tibetan. From this pont on, therefore, each lesson will present one or more reading
selections which will use the basic grammar covered up to that point (with occasional
new features). The reader should:
(l) first try to translate the reading by looking up new (and forgotten) words in the
glossay and vocabulary sections;
(2 ) use the interlinear translation when problems of word division arise; and
(3 ) only after this, consult the English translation and the grammatical notes.
4.6.lTibetan text

7.2 - ༧ཉ་ ies son Four
དེས་རྔོན་པར་ང་དུད་འགྲོ་མིན་ང་ལྷ་མོ་ཡིན་ཞེས་ལན་བཏབ་པ་རེད།རྔོན་པ་དང་བུ་གཉིས་ཀར་ཆོས་ལ་དད་པ་འདུག། བྱས་ཙང་
4.6.2 Interlinear translation/pronunciation
l . nārəbsu yü̲ü̲ shi̲gtu gyɛ̲ɛ̲bo chi̅ yö̲ö̀/ kōŋ lo̲ shi̲bju re̲è/ kōŋlə po̲mo dze̲bo chi̅ yöö̀/
yü̲ü̲ de̲e̲ ŋȫmba
ancient-time to place one king one exist/ he year 40 is/ he to daughter
beautiful one exist/ country that-to hunter
2.gyōbo chi̅ du̲ù/ kɔ̅ɔ̅ pu̲ sūm yö̲ö̀/ pu̲ gɛ̲mbadi lo̲ ñi̅shu re̲è/pu̲ te̲è gyɛ̲ɛ̲böö sɛ̅ɛ̅mor
ñi̅ŋnɛɛ̀ dzē giyöbə da̲ŋ/
poor one exist/ he-to son three exist/ son older this year 20 is/ child
that-by princess-to heart from love usual compl. and/
3.gyɛ̲ɛ̲böö sɛ̅ɛ̅möö ̀gya̅ŋ kōbar ñi̅ŋnɛɛ̀ dzēgiyöö̀/ gə̅b chi̅lə ŋȫmba da̲ŋ pu̲ ñi̅ìgɛɛ̀ [see ] ri̲lə ri̲daà gyə̲b shi̲mbar
princess-by also he-to heart from love usual compl./ time one to hunter and
son both-by hill to hunt while-doing
4.dü̲ndro gāābo chi̅lə ñi̅ gyə̲bjeè bābeè po̲o̲ [or pu̲r] di̲ dü̲ndro ŋȫnnɛɛ̀ re̲dam she̲è
tri̲ìbɛjesu la̲msan dü̲ndro
[Note that pu̲ becomes po̲o̲ (or pu̲la) in spoken. Also the "n" in dü̲ndro appears
because the 2 nd syllable begins with འ་ ]
animal white one to snared after/ father-by son-to this animal really is?
quote asked after at-once animal
5.teè ŋȫmbar ŋa̲ dü̲ndro mɛ̲n ŋa̲ lhāmo yi̲n she̲e lɛ̲n də̅bəreè/ ŋȫmba da̲ŋ pu̲ ñi̅ìgar
chȫö̀lə tɛ̲ba du̲ù/ chɛ̲ɛ̀dzaŋ

that-by hunter-to i animal no is i goddess is quote answer made past compl./
hunter and son both-to religion belief exis/ therefore
6.kūñi̅ìki [Note kō becomes kū when linked with ñiì] dü̲ndrode lȫö̀ je̲e/ dü̲ndro gāābo
deè ku̅ñiìlə tūjeche she̲e se̲rwɛɛ je̲èsu la̲msan pālam
he two by animal that released after./ animal white that-by he both to thank
you quote say after at-once diamond
7.ö̲ö̀ chēmjem chi̅ drɛ̅ɛ̀bəda̲ŋ/ tə̲duŋ tūjeche she̲è shɛ̅ɛ̀bareè/ te̲nɛɛ̀ dü̲ndro gāābo deè
nāmlə pi̅r/ bābɛɛ̀
glittering one gave and/ once-again thank you quote say past compl./ that
from animal white that-by sky to fly past compl./ father-by̲jeè chi̅mə dōŋ shi̲nbar ta̲ ŋa̲ndzo chūgbo re̲è jēe lə̲bjeè chi̅lɔɔ̀ chɛ̲ɛ̀/ ŋȫmbɛɛ̀ pālamte
tsōŋbaa dzōŋjeè
happy after cry while-doing now we rich are quote say after return did/
hunter-by diamond trader-to sold after
9.shi̲ŋgə mə̲ŋgu ñö̲ö̀bə daŋ/ka̅ŋba sāāba ya̲ŋ gyə̲bsoŋ/te̲nɛɛ̀ pu̲deè gyɛ̲ɛ̲böö sɛ̅ɛ̅mote
nāmaa lēmbəreè/
field many bought and/ house new also built past compl./ then son
that-by princess that bride-to took past compl. //
4.6.3 Translation
In ancient tme, in a country, there lived a king. He was 40 years old. He had
a beautiful daughter. In that country there was a poor hunter. He had three sons. The
eldest son was 20 years old. That son loved the princess with all his heart and the princess
also loved him with all her heart. One time while the hunter and his son both were
hunting in the mountains they snared a whi re animal, after which the father asked his son,
"Is this really an animal?" Immediately the animal replied to the hunter, "Iam not an
animal. Iam a goddess." The hunter and the son both had faith in religion. Therefore,
they released the animal. Afterwards, the whi re animal said, "Thank you, " to the two of
them and after this immediately gave them a glittering diamond and again said "Thank
you, " and then flew off into the sky. The father got happy and after that started to cry and
while crying said, "Now we are rich, " and then returned (home.) After this, the hunter
sold that diamond to a trader and then bought many fields and also built a new house.
After that, the son took the princess as (his) bride.

4.6.4 Grammatical notes
l . The first segment consists of: གནའ་རབས་སུ་ཡུལ་ཞིག་ཏུ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་ .
It begins with a typical time-slot phrase (that is, with a phrase indicating when
the action took place). In this instance, the time-slot phrase is གནའ་རབས་སུ་ . It consists of
the word "ancient time" (གནའ་རབས་) and the dative-locative particle སུ་ (in/at). This is
followed by a clause specifying the location of the action that consists of a noun ( ཡུལ་ —
place, cotmtry), the indef nite article "a" (ཞིག་), and the dative-locative (ཏུ་). Together these
convey the meaning: "in a place country" (ཡུལ་ཞིག་ཏུ་).
After this we fn ally get to the heart of the first clause, namely: "a king exisred"
(རྒྱལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་). This construction is, therefore, basically a simple existential sentence
("There existed a king") with two sets of modifiers explaining when and where the king
2. The next segment consists of: ཁོང་ལོ་བཞི་བཅུ་རེད་
It is a simple linking verb construction: "He is 40 years old". The subject is "he
(honorific)" (ཁོང་), the object is "year/a ge (ལོ་) + 40 (བཞི་བཅུ་), and the linking verb is རེད་ .
3. The next clause consists of: ཁོང་ལ་བུ་མོ་མཛེས་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད།
This is a siple existential construction expressing possession "to the king there
was a daughter." The object in this clause, "daughter" (བུ་མོ་), is modified by the adjective
"beautiful" (མཛེས་པོ་), which follows it. The subject + dative-locative segment, ཁོང་ལ་ ("he-
to"), alternatively could have been expressed as "to the king" (རྒྱལ་པོར་) or "to that king"
4. The next segment consists of: ཡུལ་དེར་རྔོན་པ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞིག་འདུག་
This is still another simple existential construction that begins with a location slot
phrase ཡུལ་དེར་ ("place + that-to" or "in that place"). It is followed by a simple subject
("hunter" — རྔོན་པ་) modified by the adjective "poor" (སྐྱོ་པོ་). Thus, this existential
construction conveys the meaning "there was a poor hunter in that place." The word
order can be reversed with no basic change in meaning: རྔོན་པ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞིག་ཡུལ་དེར་འདུག་
5. The next segment consists of: ཁོར་བུ་གསུམ་ཡོད།
This existential senr ence conveys possession "to him (ཁོར་) there existed (ཡོད་)
three (གསུམ་) sons (བུ་) (i.e., he had three sons)."
6. The next segment consists of: བུ་རྒན་པ་འདི་ལོ་ཉི་ཤུ་རེད་

This inking sentence tells something about the subject, "the eldest son" (བུ་རྒན་པ་).
The linking verb in this sentence, རེད་,links the subject with an attribute "twenty years
old" (ལོ་ཉི་ཤུ་), making the sentence mean "the eldest son was twenty years old." Note that
this use of a linking verb to convey age is arbitrary — a matter dictated by Tibetan
semantics. From our point of view an existential construction would have been just as
7.. The next segment consists of two clauses: བུ་དེས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོར་སྙིང་ནས་བརྩེ་གི་ཡོད་པ་ད་ང། 2.
Clause one begins with a subject in the instrumental ("by that son" — བུ་དེས་), this
indicating that either all or part of this segment is an active verb construction. The subject
(the son) is marked by "that" + the instrumental case ( ད་ + ས་). The object, "the
princess, " is marked by the dative-locative particle which is suffixed to the last syllable in
"princess" ( པོ་ + ར་), becoming "to that princess." The verb phrase in this construction
centers on the 4 -ste verb བརྩེ་ ("love") with thepresent-future srem b eing used here. This
verb is modified by the phrase "from the heart" (སྙིང་ནས་), which acts as an adverb -
conveying the manner in which the verbal action occurred. Thus, the overall active verb
sentence conveys the usal mode — "the son loved the princess deeply."
Although this could be a complete sentence if it had a final verb complement (for
example བུ་དེས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོར་སྙིང་ནས་བརྩེ་གི་ཡོད་), it does not. Instead it ends with the clause
connective པ་དང་ which indicates a simple conjunction of the action in two clauses -"he
loved her deeply and... ."
The second clause conveys that "the princess also loved him deeply." As in the
previous clause, the subject, "the prncess, "is marked by the instrumental case (the - ས་)
in རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོས་ . It is followed by the word ཀྱང་ ("also, even"), and then the object in the
dative-locative (he + to = him [ཁ་པ་ + ར་ ]), conveying that the love is gong from her to
8. The next segment consists of four clauses: l . སྐབས་གཅིག་ལ་རྔོན་པ་དང་བུ་གཉིས་ཀས་རི་ལ་རི་དྭགས་
རྒྱབ་བཞིན་པར་ 2. དུ་ད་འགྲོ་དཀར་པོ་ཞིག་ལ་རྙི་རྒྱབ་རྗེས་ 3 པ་ཕས་བུར་འདི་དུད་འགྲོ་དངོས་གནས་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་པའི་
རྗེས་སུ་ 4. ལམ་སེང་དུད་འགྲོ་དེས་རྔོན་པར་ང་དུད་འགྲོ་མིན་ང་ལྷ་མོ་ཡིན་ཞེས་ལན་བཏབ་པ་རེད།
This clause starts with a time-slot word, "at (ལ་) one (གཅིག་) time (སྐབས་)." It is
followed by a joint subject — the hunter and the son (རྔོན་པ་དང་བུ་). With joint subjects such
as this it is customary to add the phrase "both" or "the two together" (གཉིས་ཀ་). The
instrumental particle is added to this, making it གཉིས་ཀས་ ("by the two together").

The next phrase indicates the location of the verbal action (i.e., in the mountains),
which breaks down into "nountain" (རི་) + "to" (ལ་).
The verbal clause follows this. The verb in this clause is a compound verb
consisting of the noun "herbivorous wild animal" (རི་དྭགས་) + རྒྱབ་,an auxiliary verb that
typically verbalizes nouns (makes nouns into verbs or creates verbal phrases out of
nouns). This combination produces the stanādard Tibetan phrase "to hunt."
It, in turn, is modified by བཞིན་པར་,one of the present tense complements which
conveys the idea that the subjects were in the process of doing the verbal action,
"hunting." However, the sentence is not a complete sentence as would have been the case
if the verb complement had been བཞིན་ཡོད་ or བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད་ . Instead, it conveys the idea
that while in the state of doing the huntng, something else occurred. That something else
is explained in the next clause, which continues until the verb རྒྱབ་ in clause two.
The subject ofcl ause two is not overtly specified, but is the same as that in the
preceding clause, i.e., the hunter and the son. The object of this clause is "the white
animal, "which breaks down into "animal" (དུད་འགྲོ་) modified by the adjective "white"
(དཀར་པོ་). In turn, it is modified by an indefinite article and the dative-locative (ཞིག་ལ་),
conveying "to a (white animal)."
This is followed by a compound verb phrase consisting of the verb རྙི་རྒྱབ་,"to
This clause does not contain a final sentence complement. Instead the temporal
connector རྗེས་ conveys the idea that after snaring the completely white animal,
something happened. Thus, the two clauses preceding the clause connector could be
glossed as "after snar ng the completely white animal wile (being in the state of)
hunting in the mountains. "This stringing together of clauses where English would use
separate sentences is typical of literary Tibetan style. As the reading selections in this
book become more difficult, you will encotmter whole pages which consist of clauses
strung together without any final sentence break. Thus, a goal of this book is to
familiarize you with this style and teach you how to make the appropriate breaks
The third clause (པ་ཕས་བུར་འདི་དུད་འགྲོ་དངོས་གནས་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་) begins with
the subject "father" in the instrumental ( པ་ཕས་), immediately followed by the object, "the
son, "in the dative-locative (བུར་). This literally translates as: "by the father to the son."
It is followed by a direct quote from the father. As was explained earlier, such
quotes are only marked at their conclusion, so that the reader must discern this by the

meaning of the words and by the quotation particle- ཞེས་ . The quote itself is a complete
inking verb sentence, "Is this really an animal?" (འདི་དུད་འགྲོ་དངོས་གནས་རེད་དམ་), followed by
the quote particle (ཞེས་) and then by the verb དྲིས་ ("ask") in the past tense stem. This
active verb goes with the earlier subject, " by the father, " making the overall structure: by
the father t to the son, asked. The quo re conveys what was asked.
Here again, Tibetan syntax does not use a complete senr ence ending (for example,
a sentence such as: "The father asked the son, 'It this really an animal?"). Instead, this
clause is linked to the next one by the temporal clause connective- པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ . Thus, after
asking ..., something happened.
The fourth clause begins with another time word, " immediately" (ལམ་སེང་). It is
followed by the subject, "that animal" (དུད་འགྲོ་དེས་) in the instrumental case, and then the
object, " the hunter" (རྔོན་པ) in the dative-locative case (རྔོན་པར་).
These are followed by another direct speech quotation, made "by the animal, "
which itself consists of two sentences. The first sentence is the simple linking verb
sentence, " Iam not an animal (ང་དུད་འགྲོ་མིན་)." The second sentence is another linking verb
sentence, "Iam a goddess (ང་ལྷ་མོ་ཡིན)." This direct speech is followed by the quotation
marker(ཞེས་) and the noun-active verb combination ལན་བཏབ་,meaning "to answer." This
verbal phrase consists of the noun "answer" (ལན་) plus the past tense stem of the verb
"throw" or "cast" (འདེབས་). This verbal phrase ("answered") goes with the subject "by that
animal (དུད་འགྲོ་དེས་)." Thus, the clause means, "That animal answered (to) the hunrer, 'Iam
not an animal. Iam a goddess.' "
This is followed by the final pastrense complement (པ་རེད་). The entire segment
reads: "After r snaring the animal while (being in the state of) hunting in the mountains,
the father said to his son, 'Is this really an animal?' and afr er saying this, immediately the
animal replied, 'Iam not an animal. Iam a goddess.' "
The structure of this segment is: ... རི་དྭ་གས་རྒྱབ་བཞིན་པར་ [while hunting wild
animals] ... རྙི་རྒྱབ་རྗེས་ [after snarng] ... དྲིས་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ [after asking] ... ལན་བཏབ་པ་རེད་
9. The next segment consists of five clauses: l. རྔོན་པ་དང་བུ་གཉིས་ཀར་ཆོས་ལ་དད་པ་འདུག། 2. བྱས་
ཙང་ཁོ་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་དུད་འགྲོ་དེ་གློད་རྗེས། 3. དུད་འགྲོ་དཀར་པོ་དེས་ཁོ་གཉིས་ལ་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞེས་ཟེར་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ 4. ལམ་སེང་
ཕ་ལམ་འོད་ཆེམ་ཆེམ་ཞིག་སྤྲད་པ་དང་། 5. ད་དུང་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞེས་བཤད་པ་རེད།
The first clause is a simple existential sentence conveying that the subject
possessed something, in th is case "faith in religion." As usual in such constructions, the
compound subject (hunter and son) is placed in the dative-locative case. "to the hunter

and the son both" (རྔོན་པ་དང་བུ་གཉིས་ཀར་). It is followed by the indirect object "religion" (ཆོས་
ལ་). and the direct object "faith" (དད་པ་). Finally, the existential verb འདུག་ occurs.
Together they convey: "to both the hunter and son, there existed faith in religion."
The second clause begins with a clause connector (བྱས་ཙོང་ - "because" or
"consequently.") placed at the start of the second clause rathert h an at the end of the first
clause. Other common clause connectors used in this manner (i.e., that go in this slot) are
ལྷག་པར་ ("moreover" or "in particular"), འོན་ཀྱོང་ ("nevertheless"), དེས་མ་ཚད་ ("not only
that"), དེས་ན་ ("therefore"), དེ་མིན་ ("besides that"), ད་དུང་ ("still, " "furthermore, " "once
again"), དེ་ནས་ (afrer that, then) md དེ་བཞིན་ ("similarly").
This phrase is followed by the subject (ཁོ་གཉིས་) + the instrumental case particle
(ཀྱིས་), conveying "he two + by" or "by those two". Immediately, therefore, one looks for
an active verb, which in this clause is the verb གློད་ ("to release, let go"). The object here is
དུད་འགྲོ་དེ་ ("that animal"), so that the sentence reads, "Consequently, those two released the
animal." This is followed by the temporal clause connective རྗེས་ ("after")
Clause three begins with the subject (དུད་འགྲོ་), but this time it is modified by the
adjective "white" (དཀར་པོ་), the demonstrative "that" (དེ), and the instrumental particle (ས་).
Together these mean "by that white animal."
This is followed by the indirect object "those two" together with the dative-
locative particle, i.e., "to those two" (ཁོ་གཉིས་ལ་). The direct object comes next in the form
of a direct quote: "thank you" (ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་). This is followed by the quote marking particle
(ཞེས་) and the active verb "to say" (ཟེར་). ཟེར་ is a one stem verb with no special past tense
form. Together these compon ments convey: "By that white animal, said "Thank you" to
the two of them." It is followed by the temporal clause connective པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ ("after"), so
that the entire unit means: "after the white animal said, ... "
The fourth clause indicates what happened after the white animal spoke. It has no
overt subject, the subject being implicit, i.e., being carried over from the previous clause
(དུད་འགྲོ་དཀར་པོ་དེས་). There is no simple way to ascertain this other than context.
The main verb in this clause is the past tense stem of the active verb "give" (སྤྲད་),
so one would expect a subject in the instrumental. Since there is none, one immediately
backracks to think which of the previous subjects seem appropriate. Here it obviously is
"the whi re animal."
The fourth clause has no subject. It starts with the time-slot word "at once" (ལམ་
སེང་), followed by the object, "a diamond" (ཕ་ལམ་), modified by the adjective phrase
"glitterng" (འོད་ཆེམ་ཆེམ་). The past tense stem of the active verb "give" (སྤྲད་) follows
these. Thus, an unnamed subject gave a glittering diamond to an unnamed indirect object,

or "At once (he) gave a glitter ng diamond." This clause is then linked to clause five by
the Connective particle "and" (པ་དང་).
Clause five starts with "once again" (ད་དུང་), one of the clause connectives that
occurat the start of the second of two clauses. It is followed by a direct quote and the
quote marker (ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞས) the subject and object are again left implicit. This clause ends
with the past tense stem (བཤད་) of the active verb "say" (ཤོད་),and the པ་རེད་ verbal
complement . The structure of this long segment, therefore, is
... འདུག་ [exists] ... བྱས་ཙོང་ [consequently] ... གློད་རྗེས་ [after releasing] ... ཞེས་ཟེར་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་
[after saying] ... སྤྲད་པ་ད་ང་ [ gave and] ... བཤ5 ད་པ་རེད། [said]
10. The next segment consists of a single active sentence དེ་ནས་དུད་འགྲོ་ད་ཀར་པོ་དེས་གནམ་ལ་འཕུར་ .
It begins with the time-slot phrase "after that" (དེ་ནས་), followed by the subject in
the instrumental, "by that whi re animal" (དུད་འགྲོ་དཀར་པོ་དེས་).
Then the location of the verbal action, " to/in the sky" (གནམ་ལ་), is encountered.
And finally, there is the active verb "fly" (འཕུར་). Thus, "after that, by that white animal,
flew tot he sky."
ll. The next segment consists of four clauses: l. པ་ཕས་ད་གའ་རྗེས་ 2. མཆི་མ་གཏོང་བཞིན་པར་
3. ད་ང་ཚོ་ཕྱུག་པོ་རེད་ཅེས་ལབ་རྗེས་ 4. ཕྱིར་ལོག་བྱས་
The first clause begins with the subject in the instrumental case, " by the father"
(པ་ཕས་) . It is followed by the verb "be happy" or "to like something" (དགའ་) and the
temporal connective རྗེས་ ("afterwards"). It conveys that the father became happy at this,
and after that, something happened.
Clause two explains what he did. He cried, lire rally "shed tears" (མཆི་མ་གཏོང་). The
present complennent བཞིན་པར་ following གཏོང་ indicates that wile being in the state of
"crying, " something else happened.
Clause three is a direct quote in the form of a linking verb construction meaning
"Now we are rich" ( ད་ང་ཚོ་ཕྱུག་པོ་རེད་). This clause begins with a time-slot word "now" (ད་),
followed by the subject, " we/us" (ང་ཚོ་), the object "rich" (ཕྱུག་པོ་), and the linking verb "is"
The quote is followed by the quote marker(ཅེས་) and one of the verbs that means
"to say" (ལབ་), followed by the temporal clause connector རྗེས་ ("after"). Note that the
quote marker here is ཅེས་ rather than ཞེས་,because the last letter of the word it follows is

ད་ The rule for this is given in section 4.4. Thus the construction now means, " ...after he
said, 'Now we are rich.' "
This and the two prior clauses jointly convey that: the father, getting happy,
cried, and while doing this said, "Now we are rich." And after that, ... (པ་ཕས་དགའ་རྗེས་
Clause four consists of the verbal phrase "returned (home)" (ཕྱིར་ལོག་བྱས་), with the
subject, " they" being implicit. Note that although there is no verb complement because
the verb is in the past tense stem, the construction is clearly past tense.
12. The next segment consists of three clauses l . རྔོན་པས་ཕ་ལམ་དེ་ཚོང་པར་བཅོང་རྗེས་ 2. ཞིང་ཁ་མང་
པོ་ཉོས་པ་དང་། 3. ཁང་པ་གསར་པ་ཡང་རྒྱབ་སོང་།
The first clause begins with the subject, "by the hunter" (རྔོན་པས་), followed by the
object,"that diamond" (ཕ་ལམ་དེ་), followed by the indirect object "to a trader" (ཚོང་པར་),
and the active verb "sold" (བཙོང་). Together they mean, " The hunter sold that diamond to a
trader. "This clause (a sentence in English) is linked to the next clause once again by the
temporal clause connector "after."
The subject of the second clause is carried over from the previous clause (i.e., " by
the hunter"). The clause actually starts with the direct object "field" (ཞིང་ཁ་), followed by
the adjective "many" (མང་པོ་) and the past stem of the active verb "buy" (ཉོ་ > ཉོས་). Thus,
"after the hunter sold the diamond to a trader (he) bought many fields." This clause is
linked to the next one by the conjunctive connector "and" (པ་དང་).
The third clause a gain takes the subject ("by the hunter") as given. It begins with
the object, i.e., "house, " modified by the adjective "new" (གསར་པ་). Note also that ཡང་
("also") follows the adjective. This segment therefore means, "After the hunter sold that
diamond to a trader, (he) bought many fields and also built a new house."
13. The next segment consists of a single active sentence: དེ་ནས་བུ་དེས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོ་དེ་མནའ་
The sentence starts with the time-slot term "after that" (དེ་ནས་). Then comes the
subject in the instrumental, "by the son" (བུ་དེས་), followed by the object, "that princess"
(རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོ་དེ་), and finally the active verb, "took as a bride" and the པ་རེད་ verbal
complement (མནའ་མར་བླང་ས་ + པ་རེད་). Note that "bride" is required to to be in the dative-
locative (མནའ་མ་ + ར་). This is really an adverbial construction, but for the time being it
should be simply considered an idiom. Thus the story concludes, " After that, the boy took
that princess as (his) bride."

4.7 Vocabulary
ཀྱང་ even though; also(gyāŋ)
དུད་འགྲོ་ animal (tü̲ndro)
བཀླགས་ va. p. of ཀློག་ read (lɔ̅ɔ̀; lāà)
དེ་ནས་ then (te̲nɛɛ̀)
སྐབས་ཅིག་ one time (gə̅bjig)
དེ་རིང་ today (te̲riŋ)
སྐྱོ་པོ་ poor (gyōbo)
དེས་ by that (te̲è)
ཁ་ལག་ food (kālaà)
དྲིས་ va. p. of འདྲི་ (tri̲ì)
ཁོ་གཉིས་ those two (kūñiì)
འདེབས་ va. to throw, cast out, fling (de̲b)
ཁོར་ he + dat.-loc. (kɔ̅ɔ̅)
ཁྲོམ་ market (trōm)
འདྲི་ va. to ask (tri̲)
གི་ཡིན་ future tense complement (giyin)
སྡོད་ va. tosit, stay, live (dö̲ö̀)
བསྡད་ va. p. of སྡོད་ (dɛ̲ɛ̀)
གློད་ va. to release (lȫö̀)
ནང་ inside, in; home (na̲ŋ)
དགའ་ vi. to like(ga̲)
གནམ་ sky (nām)
དགའ་པོ་ like (ga̲bo)
གནའ་རབས་ in ancient times, long ago (nārəb)
རྒན་པ་ elder (gɛ̲mba)
རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོ་ princess (lit., daughter of king) (gyɛ̲ɛ̲böö sɛ̅ɛ̅mo)
མནའ་མ་ bride (nāma)
མནའ་མར་ལེན་ va. to take a bride (nāmaa le̲n)
ང་ཚོ་ we (ŋa̲ndzo)
དངུལ་ silver; money (ŋǖǖ)
པ་དང་ conjunctive verbal connective (badaŋ)
དངོས་གནས་ really (ŋȫnɛɛ̀)
རྔོན་པ་ hunter (ŋȫmba)
པ་ཕ་ father (bāba)
ཅེས་ quotation marker (jēe)
པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ temporal connective (bɛje̲su)
ཆོས་བཤད་ va. to give religious teaching (chȫö̀shɛ̅ɛ̀)
སྤྲད་ va. p. of སྤྲོད་ (drɛ̅ɛ̀)
མཆི་མ་ tears, va. — གཏོང་ to cry, shed tears (chimə dōŋ)
སྤྲོད་ va. to give (drȫö̀)
ཕ་ལམ་ dian ond (pālan)
རྗེས་ temporal connective (je̲e)
ཕྱུག་པོ་ rich (chū gbu)
ཉི་ཤུ་ twenty (ñi̲shu)
ཕྱིན་ va. p. of འགྲོ་ went (chi̅n)
གཉིས་ཀ་ two together (ñiigə)
ཕྱིར་ལོག་ returning, vai — བྱེད་ to return (ci̅lɔɔ̀ che̲e)
རྙི་རྒྱབ་ va. to trap, snare (ñi̅-gyə̲b)
གཏོང་ va. to send (dōŋ)
འཕུར་ va. to fly (pi̅r; pūr)
བཏང་ va. p. of གཏོང་ (dān)
བུ་ son; young boy (pu̲)
བཏབ་ va. p. of འདེབས་ (də̅p)
བུ་མོ་ daughter, young girl (po̲mo)
ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ thank you (tōjeche)
ད་དུང་ still (tə̲duŋ)
བྱས་ཙོང་ because, therefore (chɛ̲dzaŋ)
དད་པ་ faith (tɛ̲ba)

བླང་ས་ va. p. of ལེན་ took (lāŋ)
ད་བྱར་དུས་ va. summertime (yə̅rdü)
མོས་ she + by (mö̲ö̀)
བཙོང་ va. to sell (dzōn)
བརྩེ་ va. to love (dzē)
ཚང་མ་ all (tsārma)
ཚེ་རིང་ p.n. (tsēriŋ)
མཛེས་པོ་ pretty, beautiful (dze̲e̲bo)
ཞེས་ quotation marker (she̲e)
ཞེས་བྱ་བ་ that called (she̲chawa)
བཞི་བཅུ་ forty (shi̲bju)
ཟ་ཁང་ restaurant (sa̲gan)
ཟེར་བ་ that called (se̲rwa)
གཟའ་སྤེན་པ་ Saturday (sa̲ bēmba)
བཟོ་ va. to make (so̲)
འོད་ཆེམ་ཆེམ་ glittering (ö̲ö̀chēmjem)
ཡང་ also; even (ya̲ŋ)
རི་ hill, mountain (ri̲)
རི་དྭགས་ herbivorous wild animal; va. — རྒྱག་ (p . རྒྱབ) to hunt (ri̲daà gyə̲b)
ལན་ answer, reply; va. — འདེབས་ to answer, reply (lɛ̲n)
ལབ་ va. to say (lə̲b)
ལམ་སེང་ at once, immediately (la̲msan, la̲mseŋ)
ལོ་ year (lo̲)
ཤེས་ question marker (shēe)
སྲས་མོ་ daughter (h) (sɛ̅ɛ̅mo)
ལྷ་མོ་ goddess (lhāmo)

Lesson Five
5.lInvoluntary verbs and sentences
Involuntary verbs and sentences express an action or state which is not the result
of intentional action by a subject. The semantic difference between involuntary verbs and
active verbs can be seen from the following sentences:
a. [ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀས་ ] དམག་འཁྲུག་བསླང་པ་རེད།
[ə̅merikɛɛ̀། mə̅gdruù lāmbəreè
[America-by] war started past compl./
[America ] started a/the war.
b. [ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་ ] དམག་འཁྲུག་ལངས་པ་རེད།
[ə̅merikaa] mə̅gdruù la̲mbəreè
[America-to] war started past compl./
A war started [in Anerica].
The difference between these sentences is the difference between the verbs བླངས་
and ལངས་ . While both could be translated as "started" in English, the first is an active
verb and the second is an involuntary verb. The first sentence therefore conveys the idea
that a subject (he, they, America, etc.) intentionally started or incited a war while the
second merely expresses the idea that a war started. The writer did not want to indicate
an actor in the second. This difference would be more accurately expressed if the above
sentences were translated as "[ America ] caused a war to start" and "A war broke out [in
America]." Note that America, the subject of the first sentence, is in the instrumental
case, whereas in the second sentence America is in the dative-locative case since it is the
recipient or site of the action — the war broke out in America.
Involuntary actions or states, of course, are often caused by something or
someone, for example, "Because the soldiers shot at the crowd, a war broke out." A key
factor in Tibetan semantics, therefore, again is whether the causal elene nt is intentional
or unintentional. In the sentence cited above, the cause of the war is the shooting, but
since the shooting was not intended by the actors to cause a war, the involuntary verb
"broke out" was used. The active verb would have been used if the meaning to be
conveyed was that the soldiers shot at the crowd so as to cause a war. In the first case, the
disturbance was an unintended consequence. In the second, it was the intent of the
c. ཁོས་ཉལ་བ་རེད།

kȫö̀ ñɛ̲ɛ̲bəreè
he-by slept past compl./
He slept (actively went to sleep).
d. ཁོ་གཉིད་ཁུག་པ་རེད།
kō ñiì kūbəreè
he slept past compl./
He slept (fell asleep).
The difference between c. and d. parallel that between a. and b. The subject of c.
intentionally went to sleep whereas the subject of d. unintentionally fell asleep.
The སོང་ past complement is often used with involuntay verbs.
e. ཁོ་གཉིད་ཁུག་སོང་།
kō ñi̅ì kūùsoŋ
he slept past compl./
He slept (fell asleep).
Note that involuntay constructions do not require the subject phrase to be in the
instrumental case. (l)
f. སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚང་མ་ན་བ་རེད།
lāpdra tsāŋma na̲bəreè
student all sick past compl./
All the students got sick.
Example g. illustrates the more classical style (i.e., the style without verbal complements
such as བ་རེད་).
g. ཚུ་འཁོལ།
chū kȫȫ
water boiled/
The ware r boiled.
h. མི་འདི་ཁྱག་རྗེས།
mi̲ di̲ kyāàje
person this cold after/
After the person (man) got cold, ...
i. ཉི་མ་ཚུ་ཚོད་བརྒྱད་པར་ཤར་བ་རེད།
ñi̲mə chūdzöö̀ gyɛ̲ɛ̀bar shāābəreè
(l) A small group of involuntary verbs such as མཐོང་ ("to see") and ཤེས་ ("to know ") are
exceptions to this rule in that they require the subject to have the instrumental particle.

sun o-clock eight-torose past compl./
The sun rose at eight o'clock.
In constructions such as i., the time number requires the dative-locative ( བརྒྱད་པར་ -"at"
eight o'clock).
First person involuntary past tense constructions commonly add the irregular verb
བྱུང་ ("got") after the involuntary verb stem. བྱུང་ will be indicated in the interlinear
translation by "got."
j. ངས་ཟ་ཁལང་དེར་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་རྗེས་ན་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ sa̲gan de̲e̲ kālaà sɛ̲ɛ̀jeè na̲chu
i-by restaurant that-to food ate after sick got/
(I) got sick after eating at that restaurant.
k. ངས་དེབ་བཀླགས་རྗེས་གཉིད་ཁུག་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ te̲p lɔ̅ɔ̀jeè ñi̅ì kūùchu
i-by book read after slept got/
Ifell asleep after reading a book.
l. ངས་དེབ་ཀློག་བཞིན་པར་གཉིད་ཁུག་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ te̲p lɔ̅ɔ̀shinbar ñiì kūùchu
i-by book read while slept got/
Ifell asleep while reading a book.
m. ཁ་སང་ཚོ་ཁྱག་བྱུང་།
kɛ̅ɛ̅sa ŋa̲ndzo kyāàchu
yesterday i pl. cold got/
We got cold yesterday.
The present-usual complement in involuntary constructions can be any of the
present-usual forms such as གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་ or གི་འདུག་ or just the verb itself. The future
complement for both first and third person is either གི་རེད་ or the verb stem alone.
n. གྲྭ་པ་མང་པོ་ན་གི་འདུག།
tra̲ba mə̲ŋgu nə̲giì [Note that in spoken Tibetan the verb complement གི་འདུག་ (du̲ù)
becomes giì.]
monk many sick pres. compl./
o. Many monks are sick.
o. བཟོ་པ་འདི་ཚོ་མཁས་པ་ཆགས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
so̲ba di̲ndzo kɛ̅ɛ̅ba chə̅ə̅giyɔɔ̀reè
worker these expert become pres. compl./
These workers are becoming expert.

p. དགུན་ཁར་གངས་ཞེ་དྲགས་འབབ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
güngaa ka̲n she̲draà pə̲bgiyɔɔ̀reè
winter-to snow lots falls pres. compl./
It snows a lot in winter.
q. ང་ན་གི་འདུག།
ŋa̲ nə̲giì
i sick pres. compl./
Iam sick.
r. ཚོང་ཁང་འདི་ཆེན་པོ་ཆགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
tsōŋgan di̲ chēmbo chə̅ə̅gireè
store this big become fut. compl./
This store will become big.
s. ... ང་ན་གི་རེད།
... ŋa̲ nə̲gireè
... i sick fut. compl./
... iw ill get sick.
5.2 Location and indirect objects in active and involut ary constructions
Location — the place where the action occurs — is expressed through the dative-
locative case particles. The location element is usually placed between the object and the
verb (see example a. below), or between the subject and object (see exam pe b. below),
but sometimes also occurs before the subject.
a. ཁོ་ཚོས་དེབ་འདི་བོད་ལ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
kōndizöö̀ te̲p di̲ pö̲ö̀la ñö̲ö̀bəreè
he pl.-by book this tibet to bought past compl./
They bought the book in Tibet.
b. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་ཟ་ཁང་དུ་ཤ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
shi̲nbədzöö̀ sa̲ gant u shās ɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
farmer pl.-by restaurant to meat are past compl./
The farmers are meat in the restaurant.
c. ཟ་ཁང་དེར་ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་ཤ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
sa̲gandee shi̲ŋbədizöö̀ shā sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
restaurant to farmer pl.-by meat ate past compl./
The farmers are meat in the restaurant.
d. བོད་ལ་གངས་ཞེ་དྲགས་འབབ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།

pö̲ö̀la ka̲ǹ she̲draà pə̲bgiyɔɔ̀reè
tibet to snow lots fall pres. compl./
Lots of snow falls in Tibet (It snows a lot in Tibet).
Like the location of verbal actions, indirect objects are also marked by the dative-
locative particle in active constructions.
e. ཞིང་པས་བླ་མ་ཚོར་དངུལ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
shi̲ŋbɛɛ̀ lāmatsɔr ŋǖǖ drɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
farmer-by lama pl.-to money gave past compl./
The farmers gave money to the lamas.
f. དམག་མི་འདིས་ལས་བྱེད་པར་དེབ་གཅིག་སྐྱེལ་གྱི་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mi di̲ì lɛ̲ɛ̲jebaa te̲p chi̅ gyēēgireè
soldier this-by official-to book one deliver fut. compl./
This soldier will deliver a book to the official.
5.3 བྱུང་ constructions
བྱུང་ is a commonly used involuntary verb that means "got" (past tense). It requires
the recipient of the action (the person or thing that "got" something ) to take the dative-
locative particle.
a. མོར་དངུལ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
mɔ̲ɔ̲ ŋǖǖ chu̲mbəreè
she-to money got past compl./
She got money.
b. ཞིང་པ་རྣམས་སུ་སོན་གསར་པ་བྱུང་སོང་།
shi̲ŋbə nāmsu sȫn sāāba chu̲nsu (chu̲nsoŋ)
farmer pl. to seed new got past compl./
The farmers got new seed.
The subject in the next example is implicit.
c. འདི་ལོ་ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་སོང་།
di̲lo tȫngyeè ya̲go chu̲nsu (chu̲nsoŋ)
this year production good got past-compl./
This year (they) got good production (got a god yield).
The long version of this would be:
d. འདི་ལོ་ཁོ་ཚོར་ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་སོང་།
di̲lo kōndzɔɔ tȫngyeè ya̲go chu̲nsu (chu̲nsoŋ)
this year he pl.-toproduction good got past compl./

This year they got good production (got a good yield).
བྱུང་ is also used as an auxiliary verb in active constructions. Here it indicates that
the action goes from a third person actor to a first person recipient [from he/she to me].
The actor is placed in the instrumental and the recipient in the dative-locative.
e. ཁོས་ང་ལ་དངུལ་བཏང་བྱུང་།
kȫö̀ ŋa̲a̲ ŋǖǖ dānchu (dānchuŋ)
he-by i to money sent got/
He sent money to me.
f. ལས་བྱེད་པ་འདིས་ང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་སྤྲད་བབྱུང་།
lɛ̲ɛ̲jeba di̲ì ŋa̲a ̲kālaà drɛ̅ɛ̀chu (drɛ̅ɛ̀chuŋ)
official this-by i to food gave got/
This official gave me food.
Another function of བྱུང་ is the one we saw in section 5.l (j., k., l. and m.) where it
joined with involuntary verbs to form first person past constructions. Sentence g.
illustrates this use.
g. ངར་ན་བྱུང་།
ŋa̲a̲ na̲chu (na̲chuŋ)
i-to got sick/
I got sick.
Since བྱུང་ is used only for past actions, the verb "to come" (ཡོང་) is required in
equivalent future constructions.
h. མོར་དངུལ་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
mɔ̲ɔ ̲ŋǖǖ yu̲ŋgireè
she-to money come fut.compl./
She will get money.
i. ཞིང་པ་ཚོར་སོན་གསར་པ་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
shi̲ŋbədzɔɔ sȫn sāāba yu̲ŋgireè
farmer pl.-to seed new come fut. compl./
Farmers will get new seed.
5.4 Tense and temporals in existential and linking constructions
As indicated earlier, existential and linking verbs do not inflect to indicate tense.
Just as nn umber is specified through context or modifying particles, so too is tense
delimited through context or one of a class of words expressing time, called temporals.
a. དེང་སང་བོད་ལ་རྒྱ་རིགས་འདུག།

te̲ŋsaŋ pö̲ö̀la gyə̲ri du̲ù
these days tibet to chinese exis/
These days there are Chinese in Tibet.
b. སྔོན་མ་བོད་ལ་རྒྱ་མི་འདུག
ŋȫnma pö̲ö̀la gyə̲mi duù
formerly tibet to chinese exist/
Formerly, there were Chinese inTibet.
Note that only the "temporal" word changed in examples a. and b.
c. དེ་རིང་ཁོ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་འདུག།
te̲rŋ kō sa̲ganla du̲ù
today he restaurant to exists/
Today he is at the restaurant.
Temporal words function the same way in linking constructions.
d. སྔར་ཁོ་དམག་མི་རེད།
ŋār kō mə̅ə̅mi re̲è
formerly he soldier is/
Formerly he was a soldier.
e. དེང་སྐབས་ཁོ་དམག་མི་རེད།
te̲ŋgəb kō mə̅ə̅mi re̲è
nowadays he soldier is/
Nowadays he is a soldier.
5.5 Temporals in active and involuntary constructions
Temporal words are also placed at the beginning of active and involuntary
sentences and clauses.
a. སྔར་ཞིང་པས་སོན་ཡག་པོ་བཏབ་པ་རེད།
ŋār shiŋbɛɛ̀ sȫn ya̲go də̅bbəreè
formerly farmer-by seed good planted past compl./
Formerly, farmers planted good seed.
b. ད་ལ་གྲྭ་པ་ཚོས་དེབ་གསར་པ་བཟོ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ta̲nda tra̲badzöö̀ te̲p sāāba so̲shinyɔ̲ɔ̀reè
now monk pl.-by book new make pres. compl./
Now monks are making new books.
c. ན་ནིང་བཟོ་པ་ཚང་མས་མེ་མདའ་བཟོས་སོང་།
nə̲niŋ so̲ba tsāŋmɛɛ̀ me̲nda sö̲ö̀soŋ

last year worker all-by gun made went compl./
Last year all the workers made guns.
d. གཞེས་ནིང་སྨན་ཁང་འདིར་ནད་པ་མང་པོ་ཤི་བ་རེད།
shi̲ñiŋ mɛ̅ngan de̲e̲ nɛ̲ba mə̲ŋgu shi̅bəree [Note that འདིར་ is pronounced de̲e̲.]
year-before-last hospital this-to patient many die past compl./
The year before last many patients died at this hospital.
e. ལོ་གསུམ་ཀྱི་སྔོན་དུ་ཁོས་ཟ་ཁང་ཆེན་པོ་གཅིག་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
lo̲ sūmgi ŋȫntu kȫö̀ sa̲gan chēmbo chi̅ ñö̲ö̀bəreè
year three of before to he-by restaurant big one bought past compl./
Three years ago he bought a big restaurant.
f. 1967 ལོར་སྐྱེ་དམན་འདི་ཚོས་འཛིན་ཆས་མང་པོ་ཉོས།
1967 lo̲r gyi̅mɛn di̲ndzöö̀ dzi̲njɛɛ̀ mə̲ŋgu ñö̲ö̀
1967 year women this pl.-by furniture many bought/
In 1967,these women bought much furniture.
The present/usual complement expresses usual past action when used with past
g. སྔོན་མ་མི་དེ་ཚོས་ཞྭ་མོ་བཟོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ŋȫnma mi̲ de̲ndzöö̀ sha̲mo su̲giyɔɔ̀reè
formerly people pl.-by hat make pres. compl./
Formerly, those people used to make hats.
5.6 Verbalizers: object-verb compounds
Many concepts that are expressed in English through verbs, e.g., "to shoot, " are
expressed in Tibetan through noun-verb compounds. In these constructions the verb
verbalizes the meaning of the noun, e.g., གནམ་གྲུ་གཏོང་ ("to fly a plane") consists of the noun
གནམ་གྲུ་ ("plane") and the verb གཏོང་ ("to send"). There are three main verbalizers
Present (non-pas) Past Future
རྒྱབ་ /རྒྱག་ (gyə̲b; gya̲à) (བ) རྒྱབ་ (བརྒྱབས་) (gyə̲b) རྒྱག་ (gya̲à) "to do"
གཏོང་ (dōŋ) བཏང་ (da̲ŋ) གཏོང་ /གཏོང་ (dōŋ) "to send"
བྱེད་ (che̲è) བྱས་ (chɛ̲ɛ̀) བྱ་ (cha̲) "to do"
While each of these verbs has independent meaning, in some instances the connection
between the noun and the verb is arbitrary. Let us now examine some commonly used
ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ to work ཁང་པ་རྒྱག་ to build a house
work house

མེ་མདའ་རྒྱག་ to shoot (a gun) དམག་རྒྱག་ to war, to fight
gun war
ཁ་པར་གཏོང་ to phone ཚོན་གཏོང་ to paint
phone paint
The direct object slot can also be filled by derived nouns (nominals) consisting of
N+ Vb. or Vb. + Vb. compounds. This is one of the most common ways that new lexical
items are creared. For example, བཅེང་ས་འགྲོལ་གཏོང་ ("to liberate"), consists of the two verbs
བཅིངང་ས་ ("to bind") and འགྲོལ་ ("to release, untie"), which together express the sum of their
independent meanings "releasing a bond, " or the modern political concept of
"liberation." This compound can be used as a noun, e.g., བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་དམག་མི་ ("liberation
army soldier") or with a verbalizer as a verb, བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་གཏོང་ ("to liberate"). Word
formation is discussed in detail in section ll.7,and for the time being you should treat
these compolmds as verbal units.
Other common examples are:.
བཙན་འཛུལ་བྱེད། to invade, to commit aggression
[བཙན་འཛུལ་ = invasion, aggression]
བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་གཏོང་། to liberate
[བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་ = liberation]
ངོ་ལོག་རྒྱག། to revolt, to rebel
[ངོ་ལོག་ = revolt, rebellion]
རྩ་མེད་གཏོང། to annihilate
[རྩ་མེད་ = annihilation]
སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད། to study
[སློབ་སྦྱོང་ = studying]
དམག་འཁྲུག་བྱེད་ to war, to make war
[དམག་འཁྲུག་ = war, warfare]
ངོ་སྤྲོད་བྱེད། to aquaint, to introduce
[ངོ་སྤྲོད་ = introduction]
ངོ་རྒོལ་བྱེད། to oppose, to struggle against
[ངོ་རྒོལ་ = opposition, struggle]
ཐོན་སྐྱེད་བྱེད། to produce
[ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ = production]
སྦྱོང་བརྡར་བྱེད། to train
[སྦྱོང་བརྡར་ = training]
ངལ་རྩོལ་བྱེད། to labor, to do manual work, to do hard work

[ངལ་རྩོལ་ = hard work]
ལྕ་སྐོར་བྱེད། to tour (sightseeing), to make an inspection visit
[ལྕ་སྐོར་ = tour]
སློབ་གསོ་བྱེད་ to educate
[སློབ་གསོ་ = education]
These are used in sentences as follows
a. 1949 ལོར་མི་དམང་ས་ཀྱིས་ངོ་ལོག་བརྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
1949 lo̲r mi̲maŋki ŋo̲loò gyə̲bəreè
1949 year-to people by revolt acted past compl./
In 1949,the people revolted.
b. ད་ལོ་བཟོ་པ་ཚོས་གནམ་གྲུ་མང་པོ་ཐོན་སྐྱེད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད།
ta̲lo so̲badzöö̀ nə̅mdru məŋgu tȫngyeè chi̲gireè
now year worker pl.-by airplane many produce do fut. compl./
This year the workers will produce many airplanes.
c. ཁོས་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག།
kȫö̀ sa̲ganla lɛ̲ɛ̲ga ch i̲giì
he-by restaurant to work do pres. compl./
He is working in the restaurant.
d. དམག་མི་ཚོས་མི་དམངས་བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་བཏང་།
mə̅ə̅midzöö̀ mi̲maŋ jiŋdröö dāŋ
soldier pl.-by people liberation sent/
The soldiers liberated the people.
e. ལོ་གསུམ་གྱི་སྔོན་དུ་ཁོ་ཚོས་མེ་གོ་ལ་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱས་པ་རེད།
lo̲ sūmgi ŋȫntu kōndzöö̀ me̲gola lōbjoǹ chɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
year three of before to he pl.-by U. S.-to study did went-compl./
Three years ago they studied in America.
f. དེང་སང་ཧྲེ་ཡོན་ཚོས་བཟོ་གྲྭ་གསར་པ་རྣམས་ལ་ལྷ་སྐོར་བྱེད་མུས་རེད།
re̲ŋsaŋ hrēyöndzöö̀ so̲dra sāāba nāmlə dāgɔɔ che̲nnüreè
these days commune member pl.-by factory new pl. to visit do pres. compl./
These days, commune members are visiting the new factories.
g. དེ་རིང་སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚང་མས་ངལ་རྩོལ་བྱེད་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
te̲rin lāpdra tsāŋmɛɛ̀ ŋɛ̲ɛ̲dzöö che̲shinduyɔɔ̀reè
today student all-by manual labor do pres. compl./
All the students are doing manual labor today.
The object of such sentences can be modified by adjectives

h. ཁོས་ཁང་པ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་རྒྱག་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
k ȫö̀kāŋba sāāba chi~ gyə̲giyɔɔ̀ree`
he-by house new actpres. compl./
He is building a new house.
5.7 Verbs ofmotion
5.7.l Active verbs
There are several very common active verbs ofmotion.
Non-past Past
འགྲོ་ ཕྱིིན་ "to go"
བསྐྱོད་ བསྐྱོད་ 'to go"
ཡོང་ ཡོང་ 'to come"
ཕེབས ཕེབས་ 'to go" or "to come"
These verbs are some what irregular in that their subjects often do not take the
instrumental particle as do active verbs. Nevertheless, since Tibetans perceive them as
"intentional," and since grammatically their first person past complement is active (པ་ཡིན),
they are classified as active verbs.
a. ཁོ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
kō mɛ̅nganla chi~mbəree`
he hospital to went past compl./
He went to a (the) hospital.
b. ཁོང་ཚོ་བོད་ལ་བསྐྱོད་སོང་།
kōndzo pö̲ö̀la gyȫö̀soŋ
he pl. tibet to went past compl./
They went toTibet.
c. དེང་སྐབས་ཞིང་པ་ཚོ་གྲོང་འཁྱེར་ལ་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
te̲ŋgəb shi̲ŋbədzo tro̲ŋkyeela dro̲waree`
these days farmer pl. city to go usual compl./
These days, farmers are going to the city.
d. ང་ཟ་ཁང་ནས་ཡོང་བ་ཡིན།
ŋa̲ sa̲gan nɛ yo̲mbəyin
i restaurant from came past connpl./
I came from the restaurant.
e. བླ་མ་ཆེན་པོ་ལྷ་ཁང་གསར་པ་དེར་ཕེབས་ཀྱི་རེད།
lāma chēmbo lhāgan sāāba de̲e̲ pi~giree`

lama big temple new that-to go fut. compl./
The important (lit., big) lama will go to the new temple.
f. རྒྱ་མི་མང་པོ་འདིར་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
gyə̲mi mə_ŋgu de̲e̲ yu̲ŋgiree`
chinese many that-to come fut. compl./
Many Chinese will come here.
5.7.2 involuntary verbs of motion
Three of the most common involumtary verbs of motion are:
Non-past Past
སླེབས་ སླེབས་ "to arrive"
འབྱོར་ འབྱོར་ "to arrive"
ཕེབས་ ཕེབས་ "to arrive" (h.)
Note that the verb ཕེབས་ functions as both an active and involuntay verb and can mean
"come," "go," and "arrive."
The involuntary verbs of motion require that the object (or the location of their
"arrival") takes the dative-locative particle. They also use then voluntary complement
(e. g., བུང་) for first person subjects (see b.).
a. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་འབྱོར་བ་རེད།
kō pö̲ö̀la jɔ̲ɔ̲bəree`
he tibet to arrived past compl./
He arrived in Tibet.
b. ང་ཁ་ས་ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་བྱུང་།
ŋa̲ kɛ̅ɛ̅sa lhɛ̅ɛ̅saa lēe`chu
i yesterday lhasa-to arrive past compl./
I arrived in Lhasa yesterday.
c. འབྲོག་པ་དང་ཞིང་པ་རྣམས་དེ་རིང་ཚོགས་འདུ་ལ་སླེབས་པ་རེད།
dro̲gb a da̲ŋ shi̲ŋbə nām te̲rin tsōndoo lēebəree`
nomad and farmer pl. today meeting to arrived past compl./
The nomads and farmers arrived today at the meeting.
d. སང་ཉིན་ང་ཚོ་གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེར་འབྱོར་གྱི་རེད།
sə̅ñiì ŋa_ndzo shi̲gədzee jɔ̲ɔ̲giree`
tomorrow i pl. shigatse-to arrive fut. compl./
We will arrive in Shigatse tomorow.

5.8 Honorific language
Words are selected in Tibetan with regard not only to their referent meaning, but
also to the relative social status of the person(s) being spoken or written about. Although
spoken Tibetan has several honorific levels, written Tibetan can be conceived of as using
just two levels an honorific (h.) and non-honorific (nh.). Until now only non-honorific
forms have been used, with the exception of ཕབས་ and ཁོང་ .
Honorific language refers to words that are synonyms with respect to their
referent meaning, but which differ with regards to the respect they convey to the subject.
For example, the third person pronoun "he" has two forms, one of which, ཁོ་ (or ཁོ་པ་), is
non-honorific and the other, ཁོང་,is honorific. The latter is used when the referent is a
person of high social status.
Nominals may, as with "he," have two separate forms, or they may use one of a
small number of honorificizing words together with the non-honorific form. Two of the
most common of these honorificizers are ཕྱག་ (the h. of ལག་པ་ "hand") and སྐུ་ (the h. of
གཟུགས་པོ་ "body"). For example, དེབ་ ("book, nh.") becomes ཕྱག་དེབ་ ("book, h."), ལས་ཀ་
("work, nh.") becomes ཕྱག་ལས་ ("work, h.").
Verbs also have honorific forms. Like nominals, some verbs have completely
different honorifics, e.g., བྱེད་ > གནང་ or མཛད་ and རྒྱབ་ > སྐྱོན་ . Others use གནང་ or བ་གནང་
after the nh. form to form honorifics, e.g., གཏོང་ > གཏོང་བ་གནང་.
a. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས།
kȫö̀lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̀
he-by work did/
He worked.
b. ཁོང་གིས་ཕྱག་ལས་གནང་།
kōŋki chāālɛɛ̀ nān
he (h.) by work (h.) did (h.)/
He worked (h.). Or., He will work (h).
c. ཁོས་གནམ་གྲུ་གཅིག་བཏང་སོང་།
kȫö̀ nə̅mdru chi~ dānsu
he-by plane one send past compl./
He flew a plane.
d. ཁོང་གིས་ཁ་ས་གནམ་གྲུ་གཅིག་གཏོང་བ་གནང་།
kōŋgi kɛ̅ɛ̅sa nə̅mdru chi~ dān nān
he (h.) by yesterday plane one send did (h.) past compl./

He flew a plane yesterday.
Note that the word for "airplane" has no honorific form and that the entire phrase is made
honorific by making the verb honorific: "send" becomes གཏོང་བ་གནང་.
Earlier we saw that Tibetan uses different verbs to express "coming" (ཡོང་ .) and
"going" (འགྲོ་). As indicated earlier, the honorific of both of these is ཕེབས་.
e. ཁོང་ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
kōŋ lɛ̅ɛ̅sa nɛ pēebəree`
he (h.) lhasa from come (h.) past compl./
He came from Lhasa. (h.)
f. ཁོང་ལྷ་སར་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
kōŋ lɛ̅ɛ̅sar pēebəree`
he (h.) lhasa-to come (h.) past compl./
He went to Lhasa. (h.)
Note that the use of ནས་ and the dative-locative particle -ར་ indicate clearly which
meaning is intended in sentences e. and f.
Most of the verbs already introduced add གནང་ to make them honorific but some
have separate honorific forms, e.g
nh h.
ཉོ་ གཟིགས་ "to buy"
ཉལ་ གཟིམ་ "to sleep"
གཉིད་ཁུག་ མནལ་ཁུག་ "to fall asleep"
ན་ སྙུང་ "to get sick "
ཟ་ མཆོད་ "to eat"
སྤྲོད་ (སྤྲད་) འབུལ་ (ཕུལ་) "to give"
རྒྱབ་ or རྒྱག་ སྐྱོན་ "to act"
བྱེད་ གནང་ or མཛད་ "to do"
འགྲོ། ཡོང་ ཕེབས་ "to go, to come"
5.9 The "causai" connectives བར་/པར་བརྟེན་, སྟབས་,ཙང་, རྐྱེན་ (གྱིས་), ཙ་ན་,པས་/བས་,གཤིས་,and
(པའི་/བའི་) དབང་གིས་
These clause connectives express the idea of "because" in the sense that because
of the action in clause X,clause Y occurs. They are used not only with active and passive
verbs, but also with linking and existential verbs. They sometimes also convey the
meaning of "by (means of)" or "according to" or "by the force of."
a. ཁང་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་པར་བརྟེན་ཚོགས་འདུ་ལ་ཞུགས་པ་རེད།

kōŋ tra̲ba yi̲mbarden tsōndulə shu̲bəree`
he monk is because, meeting to participared past compl./
Because he is a monk, (he) participated in the meeting.
b. རྐྱང་མང་པོ་ཡོད་སྟབས་གཞུང་གིས་ཁ་ཤས་གསོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
gyāŋ mə_ŋgu yö̲də̅b shu̲ŋki kāshɛɛ̀ sɛ̅ɛ̅giyɔɔ̀ree`
wild-ass many exist because, goverment by some kill pres. compl./
Because there are many wild asses, the goverrment is killing some.
c. སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚོས་བོད་ལ་ཕྱིན་ཙང་། དགོན་པ་མང་པོ་མཐོང་པ་རེད།
lāpdradzöö̀ pö̲ö̀lə chindzaŋ/ go̲mba mə̲ŋgu tōmbaree`
student pl.-by tibet to went because/ monasteries many saw past compl./
Because the students went to Tibet, (they) saw many monasteries.
d. ངས་གྲོད་ཁོག་ལྟོགས་ཙ་ན་ལུག་གཅིག་བསད་པ་ཡིན།
ŋɛ̲e` tro̲gɔɔ̀ dɔ~ɔ̀dzāna lu̲u` chi~ sɛ̅ɛ̀bəyin
i-by hungry because, sheep one killed past compl./
Because I was hungry, I killed a sheep.
e. ངས་གྲོད་ཁོག་ལྟོགས་པའི་རྐྱེན་གྱིས་ལུག་གཅིག་བསད་པ་ཡིན།
ŋɛ̲e` tro̲gɔɔ̀ dɔ~ɔ̀bɛgye̲nki lu̲u` chi~ sɛ̅ɛ̀bəyin
i-by hungry because, sheep one killed past compl./
Because I was hungry, I killed a sheep.
f. འདི་ནི་སློབ་ཕྲུག་གིས་བྱས་པའི་ཀྱེན་གྱིས་རེད།
di_ni lāpdraà ki chɛ̲ɛ̀bɛgyēnki re̲e`
this as-for student older-of did because is/
As for this, it is because the students did it.
g. ང་ལ་དད་པ་ཡོད་པས་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུས་པ་ཡིན།
ŋa̲a̲ tɛ̲ɛ̀ba yö̲ö̀bɛɛ chȫnjɛɛ shü̲bəyin
i to faith exist-by religious visit did past compl./
Because I have faith, (I) made a religious visit to a temple, etc.
h. ད་ལོ་ཆར་པ་མང་པོ་འབབས་པའི་དབང་གིས་ལོ་ཏོག་ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
ta̲lo chāāba mə̲ŋgu bə̲bbɛwaŋki lo̲doo` ya̲go chu̲mbəree`
this-year rain much fell by crop good got past compl./
Because there was a lot of rain this year, (they, he, etc.) got a good crop.
Sometimes, however, as seen in sentence i., དབང་གིས་ is best translared as "according to."
i. གཞིས་ཀ་ཡག་ཉེས་ཡོད་པའི་དབང་གིས་ཁྲལ་སྣ་ཚོགས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
shi̲gə ya̲ñee` yö̲bɛwaŋki trɛ̅ɛ̅ nātsoò chu̲mbəree`
estate quality exist by tax various got past compl./

They got various taxes according to the quality of the estate.
5.10 The "when"connectives དུས་,སྐབས་,བའི་/པའི་སྐབས་སུ་ (ལ་), བའི་/པའི་དུས་སུ་,རིང་,
མཚམས་སུ་,ཚི་,མཚམས་,བ་/པ་ན་,and བའི་/པའི་སྒང་ལ་
These clause connectives translate as "when" or "at the time of, " and link two
clauses so that the latter occurs at the time of the former. The verb in the first clause is
put in the non-past (present or future).
a. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་འགྲོ་སྐབས་དེབ་མང་པོ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
kō pö̲ö̀lə dro̲gəb te̲p mə_ŋgu ñö̲ö̀bəree`
he tibet to go when, book many bought past compl./
When he went toTibet, (he) bought many books.
The reader should take note that although this connective requires the first clause
verb to be in the non-past srem (འགྲོ་), the overall tense of the sentence is controlled by the
verb and verb complement of the latter clause.
b. ཁོང་བོད་ལ་ཕེབས་དུས་ཕྱག་དེབ་སྙིང་པ་གཟིགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
kōŋ pö̲ö̀lə pēedü chāādep ñiŋbə si̲ìgiree`
he (h.) tibet to go(h.) when, book (h.) old buy (h.) fut. compl./
When he goes toTibet, (he) will buy old books.
c. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་པེ་ཅིང་ལ་སྡོད་སྐབས་རྒྱ་མི་མང་པོ་མཐོང་བ་རེད།
shi̲ŋbədzöö̀ bējiŋlə dö̲ö̀gəb gya_mi mə_ŋgu tōmbaree`
farmer this pl.-by Beijing to stay when, Chinese many saw past compl./
When the farmers stayed (lived) in Beijing, (they) saw many Chinese.
d. ངས་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་ཚེ་ང་ར་བསོད་ནམས་ཕྲད་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ lāpdraa lōbjoŋ che̲tse ŋa̲a̲ sȫnam trɛ̅ɛ̀chu
i-by school-to study do when, i-to sonam met past connpl./
When I was studying at school, I met Sonam.
Note that the verb ཕྲད་ ("meet") requires the subject (ང་) to be in the dative-locative(ང་ར་)
e. མོ་སླེབས་པ་ན་ཁོ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
mo̲ lēebana kō chinsu
she arrive when he went past compl./
When she arrived, he went.
f. རི་བོང་དེ་སླེབས་པ་ན་འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་གིས་བསད་པ་རེད།
re̲gon de̲ lēbana da̲mseŋ chiki sɛ̅ɛ̀bəree`
rabbit that arrive when lion one by killed past compl./
When that rabbit arrived, a lion killed (him).

Sometimes སྒང་ or པའི་སྒང་ལ་ conveys a similar meaning: "at the point or time of." For
g. ངས་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་པའི་སྒང་ལ་ངར་བསོད་ནམས་ཕྲད་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ lāpdraa lōpjon che̲bɛganlə ŋa̲a̲ sȫnam trɛ̅ɛ̀chu
i-by school-tostudy do when, i-to sonam met past compl./
When (I) was studying, Imet Sonam.
This would differ from ངས་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་པའི་དུས་ལ་ངར་བསོད་ནམས་ཕྲད་པ་རེད་ in the sense that
སྒང་ implies that a specific instance is indicated whereas when དུས་ and རིང་ are used, a
longer period is conveyed. It should be noted that སྒང་ can also be used at the end of a
h. ཁོ་འགྲོ་དུས་ཁོང་ཚོ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་པའི་སྒང་རེད།
kō dru̲düǜ kōndzo sa̲ganlə kālaà sa̲beganre`e
he go when he pl. restaurant to food eat when be/
When he went, they were (in the act of) eating at the restaurant.
i. ཁོས་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་པའི་རིང་ལ་དེབ་གསུམ་བཀླགས་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lāpdraa lōpjoŋ che̲bɛrŋlə te̲p su~m lɔ~ɔ̀bəree`
he-by school-to study when book three read past compl./
He read three books when he studied in school.
This use of རིང་ here conveys that the action (the "reading") took place "durng" the period
from when hebe gan school to when he finished it.
5.11 The "gerundive"connectives དེ་,ཏེ་,སྟེ་,and ནས་
These clause connectives have multiple functions. They are used according to the
following rules
དེ་ occurs afrer words ending in ད་
ཏེ་ occurs after words ending in ན་ར་ལ་ས་
སྟེ་ occurs after words ending in ག་ང་བ་མ་ (and vowels)
ནས་ occurs after all finals
They relate or link clauses in three basic ways.
5.11.1 The temporal-causal function
This function has a range of meaning that encompasses both རྗེས་ and སྟབས་ . That is
to say, it conveys the idea that "a verbal action having been done, something else
occurred," or "as a result of" or "because of" one action, another occurred. Unfortunately,

there is no simple way to know whether the first or second of these meanings is intended.
Only context and experience provide the answer.
a. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་ཏེ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̲de sa̲ganla chimbəree`
he-by work did having restaurant to went past compl./
Having work ed, (he) went to a restaurant.
After he worked (he) went to a restaurant.
b. ཁོས་ལྟོ་ཆས་ཟས་ནས་བུ་བཅོལ་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ dōpjɛɛ̀ sɛ̲ɛ̀nɛ pu̲jöganlə dro̲shimbəree`
he-by food ate havng, nursery to go pres. compl./
Having eaten, he is going (now) to the nursery.
c. མི་དེ་ཚོས་དགོན་པར་ཕྱིན་ནས་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
mi̲ de̲ndzöö̀ go̲mbaa chinnɛ chȫnjɛɛ shü̲bəree
person that-by monastery-to went having, religious-visit did past compl./
After going (having gone) to the monastery, they made a religious visit (e.g., gave
d. བཟོ་པ་གཅིག་ལས་ཀ་ཤོར་ཏེ་ད་པྲང་པོ་ཆགས་པ་རེད།
so̲ba chi~ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga shɔ~ɔ~de bāŋgo chāàbəree`
worker one work lost having, beggar became past compl./
A worker became a beggar after [as a result of] losing (his) job.
e. ཁོས་ཞིང་ཁ་བཏབ་སྟེ་རྒྱ་མ་ ༡༠༠༠ [ཆིག་སྟོང་] ཐོན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ shi̲ŋgə də̅bde gya̲ma ch-gdoŋ tȫmbəree`
he-by field planted having, jin(2) 1000 produced past compl./
He planted the field and (as a result of this) got l,000 jin (in yield).
f. ཁོས་སོན་གསར་པ་བཏ་བ་སྟེ་སྟོན་ཐོག་ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
kȫö̀ sȫn sāāba də̅bde dȫndoo` ya̲go chu̲mbəree`
he-by seed new sow having crop good got past compl./
Because he planted a new seed, (he) got a good crop.
5.11.2 The adverbial or simultaneous function
These same clause connectives can also link two clauses so that the former
explains the manner in which (or how or by doing what) the latter occurs. For example,
(2) A jin is a Chinese weight measure equalling 0.5 kilograms.

a. ཁོས་སྔོ་ཚལ་འཁྱེར་ཏེ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ ŋōtsɛɛ kērde chi~mbəree`
he-by vegetable carry having went past compl.
He went carrying vegetables. (How did he go? Carrying vegetables, he went.)
b. ཁོས་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་ལན་བསྐྱལ་བ་རེད།
kȫö̀ gɛ̅ɛ̀ gyə̲bde lɛ̲n gyɛ̅ɛ̅bəree`
he-by shout having message delivered past compl./
He delivered the message (in a) shouting or yelling (manner).
c. ཁོས་རྟ་བཞོན་ཏེ་ནང་ལ་ལོག་སོང་།
kȫö̀ dā shö̲nde na̲nlə lɔ̲ɔ̀soŋ
he-by horse rode having home to returned past compl./
He returned home on horse back (How did he return? Riding a horse, he returned.)
d. རྔོན་པས་མེ་མདའ་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་བསྡད་པ་རེད།
ŋȫmbɛɛ̀ me̲nda gyə_bde dɛ̲ɛ̀bəree`
hunter-by gun shoot having stayed past compl./
The hunter stayed (there) shooting a gun.
e. ཁོས་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་མེ་མདའ་རྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ gɛ̅ɛ̀ gyə_bde me̲nda gya̲bəree`
he-by shout having gun shot past compl./
Shouting, he shot the gun.
Example e. represents a type of construction that is somewhat ambiguous in that it could
convey the idea that he shouted and then immedately shot the gun. In other words, the
two actions would be almost, but not completely, simultaneous. Only context will
determine which is the appropriate inrerpretation.
5.11.3 The defining function
In this role these connectives link two clauses so that the latter clause defines or
tells something specific about the former. It can also give the reason for the former clause
(see example c. below). These connectives are used with both linking and existential
verbs and in place of them (as in example a.).
a. སྟག་འཚེར་ནི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཞིག་སྟེ། ཟ་ཆས་གཙོ་བོ་འབྲུ་རིགས་རེད།
dāgdizeni tro̲ŋse chi~gde/ sa_pjɛɛ̀ dzōwo dru̲rig re̲e`
taktser as-for village one having/ foodstuff main grains is/
Taktser is a village (whose) main foodstuff is grain.
b. སྟག་འཚེར་ནི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཞིག་ཡིན་ཏེ། ཟ་ཆས་གཙོ་བོ་འབྲུ་རིགས་རེད།

dāgdzeni tro̲ŋse chi~ yi̲nde/ sa̲bjɛɛ̀ dzōwo dru̲rigre̲e`
taktser as-for village one is having/ foodstuff main grains is/
Taktser is a village (whose) main fodstuff is (various kinds of) grain.
c. ལྷ་ས་ནི་གྲང་སྟེ་ས་མཐོ་པོ་རེད།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅sani tra̲ŋde sā tōbo re̲e`
lhasa as-for cold having/ area high is/
(The reason why) Lhasa is cold, is because it is high.
5.12 The "conjunctive" connectives ཅིང་,ཞིང་,and ཤིང་
These connectives function in a manner equivalent to the དང་ connective
encountered in LessonThree, and can be translated as "and." They link clauses with
different subjects and different tenses.
These are used according to the following rule:
ཅིང་ occurs after words ending in ག་བ་ད་
ཞིང་ occurs after words ending in ང་ན་མ་འ་ར་ལ་ and vowels
ཤིང་ occurs afterwords ending in ས་
a. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་ཤིང་། མོ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་བྱིན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̀shiŋ/ mo̲ mɛ̅nganlə chimbəree`
he-by work did and/ she hospital to went past compl./
He worked and she went to the hospital.
Different tenses are expressed by changing the verb stems and the verb complements.
b. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་ཤིང་། མོ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chɛ̲ɛ̀shiŋ/ mo̲ mɛ̅nganlə dro̲waree`
he-by work did and/ she hospital to go usual compl./
He worked and she goes to the hospital.
c. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཅིང་། མོས་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga che̲ejiŋ/ mö̲ö̀ mɛ̅nganlə dru̲giyɔɔ̀ree`
he-by work do and/ she hospital to go pres. compl./
He is working and she is going to the hospital.
d. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་ཅིང་། མོ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ɛ̲ga chi̲giyöö̀shiŋ/ mo̲ mɛ̅nganlə dru̲giyɔɔ̀ree`
he-by work do pres. compl. and/ she hospital to go pres. compl./
He is working and she is going to the hospital.
e. རྡོ་རྗེ་སློབ་གྲྭ་འབྲིང་བར་འགྲོ་ཞིང་། བཀྲ་ཤིས་སློབ་གྲྭ་ཆུང་བར་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
dɔ̲ɔ̲je lāpdra drŋwaa dro̲shiŋ/ trə̅shiì lāpdra chu~ŋwaa dro̲waree`

dorje school middle-to go and/tashi school lower-to go usual compl./
Dorje goes to secondary school and Tashi goes to primary school.
5.13 The "purposive" connectives: ཆེད་,སླད་,པའི་ /བའི་ཆེད་དུ་,རྒྱུའི་ཆེད་དུ་,ཆེད་དུ་,
དོན་དུ་,and ཕྱིར་
These clause comectives follow the non-past (present or future) stem of verbs
and link two clauses so that the latter occurs (or will occur) "for the purpose of" or "in
order to" or "on behalf of" the former.
a. ངས་ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་ཆེད་ཤ་དང་ཚལ་ཉོས་པ་ཡིན།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ kālaà so̲chee` shā da̲ŋ tsɛ̅ɛ̅ ñö̲ö̀bəyin
i-by food make for meat and vegetable bought past compl./
I bought meat and vegetables for the purpose of making a meal.
b. གཞུང་ལ་ངོ་ལོག་རྒྱག་སླད་ཚོགས་པ་གཅིག་འཛུགས་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
shu̲ŋlə ŋo̲loo` gya̲lɛɛ̀ tsɔ~gba chi~ dzu̲u` shi̲mbəree`
goverment to rebel for party one establish do pres. compl./
(They) are establishing an orgamization for the purpose of rebelling against the
c. ཁང་པ་གསར་པ་གཅིག་ཉོ་བའི་དོན་དུ་ཁོས་དངུལ་ཁང་ནས་དངུལ་གཡར་གྱི་རེད།
kāŋba sāāba chi~ ño̲wɛɛtö̲ntu kȫö̀ ŋǖǖgannɛ ŋǖǖyə̅ə̅giree`
house new one buy for he-by bank from money borrow fut. compl./
He will borrow money from the bank in order to buy a new house.
d. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁང་པ་གསར་པ་རྒྱག་རྒྱུའི་ཆེད་དུ་ལག་ཆ་གསར་པ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
kōndzöö̀ kāŋba sāāba gyə_ gyü̲chetu la̲gja sāāba ñö̲ö̀bəree`
he pl.-by house new build for tool new bought past compl.
They bought new tools for the purpose of building a new house.
e. ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཆེན་པོ་ཡོང་ཕྱིར་འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་མང་པོ་གཡར་པ་རེད།
tȫngyee` chēmbo yo̲nchi~r trǖǖgoo mə_ŋgu yāābaree`
production big come for machine many borrowed/
In order to obtain large production, (they) borowed many machines.
f. སློབ་སྦྱོང་ཆེད་ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་ཕྱིན།
lōpjon chēe ə̅merigar chi~n
study for america-to went/
(He) went to America to study (for studies).
g. ཁྱོད་ཀྱི་དོན་དུ་ངས་ཁྱི་འདི་ཉོ་གི་ཡིན།
kyȫö̀ki do̲ntu ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ ki~ di̲ ñu̲giyin

you of for i-by dog this buy fut. compl./
I will buy this dog for you.
The infinitive particle also sometimes conveys this meaning. It is discussed below
in section 5.15.
5.14 The genitive case
We have already encountered the genitive particles through some of the clause
connectives and verb complements, e.g., the འི་ in པའི་སྐེབས་ and the གི་ in གི་རེད་ Like the
instrumental (3.l) and dative-locative (2.6.1) cases, the genitive case has a number of
particles whose use is goverred by the final letter of the preceding word.
གི་ after final ག་ and ང་
ཀྱི་ after final ད་,བ་,and ས་
གྱི་ after final ན་,མ་,ར་,and ལ་
-འི་ or ཡི་ after vowel finals
The genitive corresponds in a number of ways to the English preposition "of" and
is used, as in English, to express ownership and possession, for example, " the book of he
= his book."
a. ཁོའི་དེབ་འདིར་འདུག།
kȫȫ te̲p de̲e̲ du_u`
he-of book this-to exist/
His book is here.
b. དེབ་འདི་ཁོའི་རེད།
te̲p di̲ kȫȫ re̲e`
book this he-of is/
This book is his.
The genitive is also used for descriptive modification. In this role it joins a noun
or noun phrase with another noun or noun phrase so that the former modifies the latter. In
many instances the modifier is translated in English simply as an adjective. For example:
c. བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་
pö̲ö̀bɛ kālaà
tibetan-of food
Tibetan food (What kind of food? — Tibetan food.)
d. རྒྱ་གར་གྱི་ས་མཚམས་
gya̲garki sāndzam
india of border

Indian border
e. བྱང་ཐང་གི་རི་དྭགས་
cha̲ŋdaŋki ri̲daà
changtang of animals
Changtang animals
f. གསར་བརྗེའི་དམག་འཁྲུག་
sārjee mə̅gdruu`
revolution-of war
revolutionary war
Genitive particles also often join a series of three or more nouns and noun
phrases. Derermination of the relationship between the elements in such a series is often
problematic since it is not unusual for two or more sets of nouns linked by a genitive to
modify a common third noun. Let us examine some examples of this:
g. གསར་བརྗེའི་དམག་འཁྲུག་གི་ལྷ་ཚུལ་
sārjee mə̅gdruu`ki də̅dzüü
revolution-of war of view point
revolutionary war viewpoint (the viewpoint of revoluntary war)
In example g. we see that just as "revolution" modifies "war" (What kind of war —
revolutionary war), the unit "revolutionary war" in turn modifies "viewpoint" (What kind
of viewpoint — revolutionary war viewpoint).
h. རྒྱ་གར་གྱི་རང་བཙན་གྱི་ལས་འགུལ་
gya̲garki ra̲ŋdzɛnki lɛ̲ngüü
india of independence of movement
India's independence rnovernent (the independence movement of India)
i. གསར་བརྗེའི་དམག་འཁྲུག་གི་ཁྱོན་ཡོངས་ཀྱི་ལྷ་ཚུལ་
sārjee mə̅gdruu`ki kyȫnyoŋki də̅dzüü
revolution-of war of overall of view point
revolutionary war overall view point (the overall view point of revoluntary war)
In example i., the unit "revolutionary war" is not linked with the next unit, " overall, " but
rather with "viewpoint," the head noun of the entire phrase. The phrase breaks down into
two units "revolutionary war" and "overall viewpoint," with the former modifying the
latter (Whatk kind of "overall viewpoint"? – "revolutionary war"). Unfortunately, it is not
possible to determine by grammar whether a given phrase is of the sequential type
illustrated by g. or of that illustrated by i. Semantic considerations will determine which
is intended and this will be one of the more difficult tasks facing the reader.

As the following sentence illustrates, the genitive case can be used in both the subject
(by a lama of Drepung) and object (to the people of Lhasa) slots
j. འབྲས་སྤུངས་ཀྱི་བླ་མ་ཞིག་གིས་ལྷ་སའི་མི་དམངས་ལ་ཆོས་གསུང་བ་རེད།
drɛ̲buŋki lāma chikiì lɛ̅ɛ̅sɛɛ mi_naŋlə chȫö̀ su~m`bəree`
drepung of lama one by lhasa-of people to religion said past compl./
A lama of Drepung monastery gave religious teachings to the people of Lhasa.
5.15 Infinitive usage: vb. + བར་ ་or པར་
Infinitive constructions convey the idea that one action occurs "in order to" do a
second one. They attach to the non-past stem of verbs.
a. ཁོས་ཚོང་ཁང་ལ་དེབ་ཉོ་བར་ཕྱིན།
kȫö̀ tsōŋganlə te̲p ñ o̲war chi~n
he store to book buy inf. went/
He went tot he store to buy a book.
b. ཁོ་གཉིས་དགེ་ལུགས་པའི་བླ་མ་ཞིག་སང་ཉིན་མཇལ་བར་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
ku~ñiì ge̲lugbɛɛ lāma chi~ sə̅ñii jɛ̲ɛ̲war dru̲giree`
he two gelugpa-of lama one tomorow meet inf. go fut. compl./
(The two of them) will go to meet a Gelugpa lama tomorrow.
These particles cam also convey the "purposive" connective meanings discussed in
section 5.13.
c. ཁོས་ཡིག་ཚད་ཡག་པོ་ཡོང་བར་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ yi̲gdzɛɛ̀ ya̲go yo̲ŋwar lōpjon che̲shimbəree`
he-by exa good come inf. study do pres.compl./
He is studyingin order to do well on the exam.
d. ཁོས་གནམ་གྲུ་གཏོང་བར་སྦྱོང་བརྡར་བྱེད་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ nə̅mdru dōŋwar jo̲ŋdar che̲shinduyɔɔ̀ree`
he-by plane send inf. practice do pres. compl./
He is practicing in order to fly a plane.
Note that the infinitive is actually comprised of the dative-locative case suffixed to
nominalized verb stems. Nominalization of verbs is discussed below. These two
functions of the infinitive particle can be joined in one sentence.
e. ཁོ་ཡིག་ཚད་ཡག་པོ་ཡོང་བར་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་པར་ད་པེ་མཛོད་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
kō yi̲gdzɛɛ̀ ya̲go yo̲ŋwar lōpjon che̲bar bēndzökaŋ la dro̲waree`
he exam good come inf. study do inf. library to go usual compl./
He goes to he library to study in order to do well on the exam.

Or alternatively
f. ཁོ་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་ལ་ཡིག་ཚད་ཡག་པོ་ཡོང་ཆེད་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་པར་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
kō bēndzöganlə yi̲gdzɛɛ̀ ya̲go yo̲ŋche lōpjon che̲bar dro̲waree`
he library to exam good come for study do inf. go usual compl./
He goes to the library to study in order to do well on the exam
In colloqual Tibetan the infinitive is pronounced "ga." This is sometimes written as ཀ་ or
ག་. For example:
g. ཁོས་དངུལ་ཁང་ལ་དངུལ་ལེན་ཀ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
kō ŋǖǖganlə ŋǖǖ le̲nga chimbəree`
he bank to money take inf. went past compl./
He went to the bank to get money.
h. ཁོ་ཚོ་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་ག་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
kōndzo pö̲ö̀bɛ kālaà sa̲ga dru̲giree`
he pl. tibet-of food eat inf. go fut. compl./
They will go to eat Tibetan food.
5.16 The "agentive" verbal particles མཁན་,མི་, and པ་/བ་
The agentive verbal particles are used with the non-past stern of verbs to express
the idea of "the one who does" the verbal action. Note that it converts the verb into a
verbal noun phrase which can then stand as the subject of linking, existential and active
constructions. It is something like the "-er" in the English "baker" or "skater."
a. འདིར་སྡོད་མཁན་སུ་རེད་དམ།
de̲e̲ dö̲ñɛn sū re̲dam
here stay doer who is ?/
Who is the person staying here? (lit., The one who is staying here — who is it?)
b. འདིར་སྡོད་མཁན་དེ་ང་ཚོའི་ད་གེ་རྒན་རེད།
de̲e̲ dö̲ñɛn de̲ ŋa̲ndzöö ge̲gɛn re̲e`
here stay doer that i pl.-of teacher is
That person staying here is our teacher.
c. ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་མི་ཁ་ཤས་འདུག།
lɛ̲ɛ̲ga che̲mikāshɛɛ̀ du̲u`
work do doer several exist/
There are several workers (people doing work).
In the next example, the agentive verbal noun phrase ("the one who came from
Lhasa") modifies a noun (via the genitive particle) so that it functions as a relative clause

in Englisht: the father of the one who came from Lhasa.
d. ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཡོང་མིའི་པ་ཕ་དེས་ཅ་ལག་མང་པོ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅sanɛ yo̲ŋmii bāba de̲e jālaà mə̲ŋgu ñö̲ö̀baree`
lhasa from come person-of father that-by things many bought past compl./
The father of the person who came from Lhasa bought many things.
The agentive idea is also conveyed by the nominalizing particles པ་ and བ་. We
have already encountered this in words such as ཞིང་པ་ ("farmer"). Thus, whereas ངོ་ལོག་རྒྱག་
/རྒྱབ་ means "to rebel," ངོ་ལོག་པ་ (ŋo_logba) means a person who rebels. And while སློབ་གྲྭ་
means "school," སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ (lāpdraà or lāpdrawa) means "student."
In example e. the agentive verbal noun phrase ("that one who came from Lhasa")
is linked to the instrumental particle and acts as the subject of an active sentence.
e. ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཡོང་མཁན་དེས་ཅ་ལག་མང་པོ་ཉོས།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅sanɛ yo̲ŋɛn de̲e jālaà mə̲ŋgu ñö̲ö̀
lhasa from come doer that-by things many bought/
The person who came fom Lhasa bought many things.
Sentences such as d. can be constructed also with མཁན་.
f. ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཡོང་མཁན་གྱི་པ་ཕ་དེས་ཅ་ལག་མང་པོ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅sanɛ yo̲ŋɛnki bāba de̲e jālaà mə_ŋgu ñö̲ö̀bəree`
lhasa from come doer -of father that-by things many bought past compl./
The father of the person who came from Lhasa bought many things.
When མཁན་ is imediately followed by a linking verb, it expresses future time:
g. ཁོ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་འགྲོ་མཁན་རེད།
kō gya̲naàla dro̲ŋɛn re̲e`
he china to go doer is/
He is going to China. (lit., "He is someone who is going to China.")
5.17 Reading exercise: "The rabbitt Takes Revenge"
5.17. Tibetan text
༄༅། །གནའ་རབས་སུ་རི་བོང་དང་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་ཞིག་ནགས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་གནས་ཏེ་འཚོ་བ་སྐྱེལ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་
རེད། རི་བོང་དང་འདམ་སེང་གཉིས་ཁྱིམ་མཚེས་རེད། ཡིན་ན་ཡང་འདམ་སེང་གིས་རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཤེད་ཤུགས་ངོམས་ནས་
རྟག་ཏུ་རི་བོང་ལ་འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། རི་བོང་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོའི་བརྙས་བཅོས་ལ་དགའ་པོ་མེད་སྟབས་ཉིན་
ལྟར་ཁོས་བྲག་ཕུག་གི་མདུན་དུ་བསྡད་ནས་དགྲ་ཤ་ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལེན་གྱི་རེད་བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་བཞིན་ཡོད། ཉིན་ཞིག་རི་བོང་གིས་

འདམ་སེང་ལ་ཁ་སང་ང་ལ་ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་ཞིག་ཐུག་བྱུང་། འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེས་ཁྱེད་དང་མཐུ་
རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཟེར་གྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་བཤད། འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོས་ངར་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་རི་བོང་ལ་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེ་ལམ་
སེང་ངའི་རྩ་ལ་སྐད་གཏོང་ཞེས་བཤད་པ་རེད། རི་བོང་གིས་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོས་འདམ་སེང་ཁྱེད་ལ་འཇོན་ཐང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་
ཅེས་འུད་ཤོབ་ཤོད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་བཤད། འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེ་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་ནས་ཁོ་ད་ལྟ་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ། ང་ལམ་སེང་
ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་ཁྲིད་ཞེས་རི་བོང་ལ་ལབ་པ་རེད། རི་བོང་གིས་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེ་རི་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་གི་རྒྱབ་ཏུ་ཁྲིད་རྗེས་ཁྲོན་པ་ཞིག་
ལ་མཛུབ་མོ་བཙུགས་ཏེ་སེམས་ཅན་དེ་ཕ་གིའི་ནང་ལ་འདུག་ཅེས་ལན་བཏབ་ཅིང་། འདམ་སེང་དེས་ངར་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ་ནས་
ཁྲོན་པའི་ཁ་ལ་ཕྱིན་ནས་ལྟ་སྐབས་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ནས་འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་མཐོང་། འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེས་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་ང་རོ་
དྲག་པོ་ལན་འགའ་ཞིག་བསྒྲགས་པས་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་གི་འདམ་སེང་དེས་ཀྱང་ཚུར་ང་རོ་བསྒྲགས། སྐབས་དེར་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་
པོ་དེས་མཆེ་གཙིགས་སྡེར་བགྲད་བྱས་ཏེ་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ལ་མཆོང་ས་པ་རེད། རི་བོང་གིས་ཕུའུ་དུང་ཟེར་བའི་སྒྲ་དེ་ཐོས་སྐབས་ཨ་
ཁ་ལྟ་མཐོ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ལ་ལྷུང་ནས་ཤི་སོང་ཞེས་བཤད་པ་རེད། དེ་ནས་རི་བོང་གིས་ཁོའི་ཁྱིམ་ལ་ལོག་སོང་།།
5.17.2 Interlinear translation
l . rabbit by revenge get
2. ancient-time to rabbit and lion white one forest thick one of in live having livlihood
get pres. compl./
3. rabbit and lion two neighbor is/ nevertheless lion by self of strength show-offish
4. always rabbit to intimidation do usual compl./ rabbit lion white-of bullying to like
without since day
5. every he-by cave of front to sat having/ revenge how one get fut. compl. think send
pres. compl./ day one rabbit by
6. lion to yesterday i to you and similar-of lion blue one met past compl./ lion blue that-
by you and strength
7. contest fut. compl. say pres. compl. quote said/ lion white by roar did having rabbit to
lion blue that im-
8. mediately i-of presence to call send quote said past compl./ rabbit by lion blue-by you
to capable exist neg.
9. quote brag say usual compl. quote said/ lion white that angry ate having he now where
exist? / i quick
10. he-of presence take quote rabbit to say past compl./ rabbit by lion white that
mountain big one of behind to took after well one
11. to finger point having animal that there-of in to exist quote answer gave and/ lion

that-by roar big did having
12. well-of edge to went having look when well-of in from lion one saw/ lion white that-
by well-of in to roar
13. powerful time several did-since well-of in of lion that-by also hither roar made/
time that-to lion white
14. that-by bare-fangs claw scratch did having well-of in to jump past compl./ rabbit by
splash call-of sound that hear when oh
15. pride high-of lion well-of in to fall having die went compl. quote said past compl./
that after rabbit by he-of house to returned went compl. /
5.17.3 Translation
The rabbit Takes Revenge
A long time ago a rabbit and a white lion lived (lit., subsisted living) in a thick
forest. The lion and the rabbit were neighbors. Nevertheless, the lion always threatened
the rabbit, showing off his strength. Because the rabbit did not like the bullying of the
lion, he sat in front of a cave every day thinking about what kind of revenge he could
One day the rabbit said to the lion, "Yesterday I met a blue lion that was just like
you. That blue lion says he will compete with you." The white lion roared in anger and
said to the rabbit, "Bring that blue lion to me immediately!" The rabbit said, "The blue
lion is sayning braggingly that you are not capable." The white lion got angry and said to
the rabbit, "Where is he now? Quickly take me to him (his presence)."
The rabbit took the white lion behind a large hill and (after that) pointed with his
finger to a well, answering, " that animal is in that [well ] over there." The lion roared
and went to the edge of the well and looked in. At that time from within the well he saw a
lion. The white lion roared several times inside the well and because of this the lion
inside the well also roared back. At that time, the white lion, baring his fangs and claws,
jumped into the well. When the rabbit heard the sound "phu-dung" (he) said, " Oh my,
that conceited lion has fallen into the well and died." After that the rabbit returned to his
5.17..4 Grammatical notes
l . The first segment consists of: རི་བོང་གིས་ད་གྲ་ཤ་ལེན་པ་.
Titles in Tibetan publications typically utilize an incomplere verbal complement,
i.e., rather than ལེན་པ་རེད་ only ལེན་པ་ is used. This title consists of a subject in the

instrumental case (རི་བོང་གིས་) and an active verb, "took revenge" (དགྲ་ཤ་ལེན་). It should be
noted th at the rabbit is one of Tibetan folklores famous tricksters.
2. The second segment consists of two clauses l. གནའ་རབས་སུ་རི་བོང་དང་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་ཞིག་
ནགས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་གནས་ཏེ་ 2. འཚོ་བ་སྐྱེལ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The first clause begins with a time slot word — "in the past" (གནའ་རབས་སུ་). It is
followed by the subject of the two clauses, a rabbit and a white lion (རི་བོང་དང་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་
པོ་ཞིག་). Note that there is no instrumental particle following the subject. Normally this
would convey that this was not an active construction. However, in this case it is because
the verbs "to live" (གནས་) and "to subsist" (འཚོ་བ་སྐྱེལ་) do not require the subject ("the
rabbit and the lion") to be in the instrumental case.
Followng the subject is the object phrase "in a dense forest" (ནགས་ཚོལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་
ནང་). It consists of "forest" (ནགས་ཚལ་) modified by the adjective "dense" (སྟུག་པོ་) and the
indefinite article (ཞིག་). Together these mean "a dense forest."
They are linked to the word "inside" (ནང་) by the genitive particle (གི་) so that
together they convey "inside of a dense forest." It should be noted that the term "inside"
almost always is linked to the phrase or word it modifies by the genitive. Thus, "inside
the restaurant" would be: ཟ་ཁང་གི་ནང་ལ་.
The dative-locative particle (e.g., ལ་ in the previous example) is also often used
together with ནང་ conveying "at" or "to" the inside of. The clause in the reading exercise
could just as easily have been written as ནགས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་ལ་གནས་. However, whether
or not the dative-locative is present, the translation remains the same.
Following this comes the verb གནས་ which means "dwell" or "live." Together they
convey, "A long time ago, a rabbit and a white lion, lived in a dense forest."
This clause is linked to the second clause by the gerundive clause connective ཏེ་,
which here functions to convey to the reader that two simultaneous actions occurred:
" (along with) living in a dense forest" (ནགས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་གནས་) something else follows.
Clause two explains what follows. It consists of a verbal phrase that conveys
"being in the process of deriving their livelihood or subsisting" (འཚོ་བ་སྐྱེལ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད་). In
other words, " (the rabbit and lion) were subsisting, living in a dense forest." Note also
that the final verb complement (བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད་) conveys that they were in the act of doing
something, albeit in this case the action is in the past. This tense dimension is indicated
not by the verbs which normally imply present-usual tense, but rather by གནའ་རབས་སུ་,the
temporal word at the start of the story.
3. The third segment consists of a linking sentence རི་བོང་དང་འདམ་སེང་གཉིས་ཁྱིམ་མཚེས་རེད།
This is a simple linking sentence stating that the subject, "the two of them — lion

and rabbit " (རི་བོང་དང་འདམ་སེང་གཉིས་) - are or were neighbors. Again, tense is determined
not by the verb (རེད་), but rather by context and the temporal word (གནའ་རབས་སུ་) occurring
in the previous clause.
4. The fourth segment consists of two clausesl. ཡིན་ན་ཡང་འདམ་སེང་གིས་རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཤེད་ཤུགས་
ངོམས་ནས་ 2. རྟག་ཏུ་རི་བོང་ལ་འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The first clause begins with ཡིན་ན་ཡང་ ("nevertheless"), one of those clause
connectives that are placed at the start of the second of two clauses rather than the end of
the first clause.
Following this is the subject placed in the instrumental case - "by the lion" (འདམ་
སེང་གིས). The presence of the instrumental particle indicates that somewhere down the line
some action done by the lion will be stated through an active verb. It is common to scan a
segment to find this verb, which here, is not ངོམས་ ("be showoffish/conceited"), the first
verb encountered, but rather འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ ("threatened/intimidated"), the second verb (in
clause two). Thus, what the lion did was "frighten" somebody.
Going back to the first part of the clause, the subject is followed by རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཤེད་
ཤུགས་ངོམས་ནས་ . This breaks down into the phrase རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཤེད་ཤུགས་,which consists of "his
own" (རང་ཉིད་) and "strength" (ཤེད་ཤུགས་), linked by the genitive particle (ཀྱི་) to create the
meaning "his own strength." Then the verb "show off" (ངོམས་) comes, making the clause
convey "he showed off of his own strength."
Clause one is linked to clause two by the clause connector ནས་,which here conveys
the adverbial or simultaneous meaning – that the action in clause two occurs in the
manner of clause one. In other words, "how did the lion frighten the rabbit (རི་བོང་ལ་འཇིགས་
བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་) — he frightened him by showing off his strength. "Note that the
recipient of the action, "the rabbit," is placed in the dative-locative (རི་བོང་ལ་) because the
the action went to him.
This clause also contains the commonly used adverb རྟག་ཏུ་ ("always"). It modifies
the verb བྱེད་ answering the question, " How or when did he do it? – he did it always."
This adverb could have been placed inmediately before the verb with no change in
meaning –– རི་བོང་ལ་རྟག་ཏུ་འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། Similarly, རི་བོང་ལ་འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་རྟག་ཏུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་
པ་རེད་ would be correct.
5. The fifth segment consists of three clauses l . རི་བོང་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོའི་བརྙས་བཅོས་ལ་དགའ་པོ་
མེད་སྟབས་ 2. ཉིན་ལྷར་ཁོས་བྲག་ཕུག་གི་མདུན་དུ་བསྡད་ནས་ 3. དགྲ་ཤ་ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལེན་གྱི་རེད་བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་བཞིན་ཡོད་.
The first clause is an existential sentence conveying at its core the meaning that
"the rabbit did not like the bullying" (རི་བོང་བརྙས་བཅོས་ལ་དགའ་པོ་མེད་). This is a standard
existential construction and is structurally identical with ང་ཤ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་མེད་ ("I do not like

meat" – or literally, "I am without liking to/for meat.") The sentence has been expanded
by phrases such as "the white lion" (འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ), which is linked to "abuse" by the
genitive particle (འི་) so that the larger phrase means "the abuse of the white lion."
This clause is linked to clause two by the "because" clause connective (སྟབས་),
thus: "because the rabbit did not like the abuse — he did something." That "something" is
expressed in clause two. It begins with the time-slot phrase "every day" (ཉིན་ལྟར་). This is
followed by the subject n the instrumental case (ཁོས་). This is not realy necessary since
the subject ("the rabbit") is the same as in the previous clause, but we added it to
emphasize the carryover of subjects in multiple clauses.
Next comes the verbal phrase verb བྲག་ཕུག་གི་མདུན་དུ་བསྡད། It consists of the active
verb "sat/lived/stayed" (བསྡད་) preceeded by a phrase indicating the location of the verbal
action – "in front of a cave" (བྲག་ཕུག་གི་མདུན་དུ་). Note that, like ནང་,the word མདུན་དུ་ ("in
front") usually has the genitive case particle (གི་) linking it to the noun it modifies.
After the verb བསྡད་,the clause connective ནས་ occurs, linking clause two with
clause three. In this instance it conveys simultaneous action: "in the manner of sitting in
front of a cave, something else happened."
Clause three indicates what that "something else" is — namely, " think" (བསམ་བློ་
གཏོང་). Thus, the skeletal sentence means: "sitting in front of a cave ... he thought." The
phrase immediately preceeding "thought" (དགྲ་ཤ་ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལེན་གྱི་རེད་) indicates what he
thought. It is an interrogative active sentence asking, "How will he get revenge?" This
phrase breaks down into the compound verb "revenge get" ( དགྲ་ཤ་ལེན་), modified by the
interrogative word "how" or "whatkind of" (ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་). The verb (ལེན་) is also modified by
the future tense complement (གྱི་རེད་). together these mean "How will (I, one) get
revenge?" Actually, since the actor is thinking about himself, grammatically this would
have been more correct if it had been written usng the first person verb ཡིན་: ད་གྲ་ཤ་ག་འདྲ་
ཞིག་ལེན་གྱི་ཡིན་ . Nevertheless, both linking verbs occur and should be expected.
This is immediately followed by the main verb compound of the two clauses,
"think" (བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་). It consists of the noun "thought" (བསམ་བློ་) and the verbalizer གཏོང་.
The three clauses should be read as follows: l . Becatse the rabb it did not like the
bullyng of the white lion, 2. every day he sat in front of a cave, and while doing that, 3.
he tought of how to get revenge or – སྟབས་ – ནས་ – བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་བཞིན་ཡོད།
Note that the final verb complement following "think" (བཞིན་ཡོད་) conveys usual or
cusomary action, and governs both clauses. Thus, "he used to sit....
6. The sixth segment consists of two clauses (sentences) l . ཉིན་ཞིག་རི་བོང་གིས་འདམ་སེང་ལ་ཁ་སང་
ང་ལ་ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་ཞིག་ཐུག་བྱུང་། 2. འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེས་ཁྱེད་དང་མཐུ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཟེར་གྱི་

The first sentence is long and complex. It starts with the time slot word ("one day"
- ཉིན་ཞིག་). This is followed by the subject, " the rabbit" (རེ་བོང་), in the instrumental case
(གིས་). As indicated above, this tells us immediately that further on there will be an active
verb that will convey what he did. That verb is actually བཤད་ ("said"), which occurs only
toward the end of the second clause.
Following the subject phrase "by the rabbit" (རི་བོང་གིས་) is the phrase "to the lion"
(འདམ་སེང་ལ་), which is the object of this sentence.
The heart of the construction, therefore, is: རི་བོང་གིས་འདམ་སེང་ལ་ ... བཤད་ "The rabbit
said ... to the lion." The remainder consists of the direct speech quote, which indicates
what he said to the lion. Reiterating an earlier comment, quotes and direct speech are
difficult to identify in Tibetan since they are only marked at their conclusions by the
particle ཅེས་ or one of its variants. Thus, in this case, the direct speech quotation is ཁ་སང་ང་
ལ་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་ཞིག་ཐུག་བུང་། འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེས་ཁྱེད་དང་མཐུ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཟེར་གྱི་འདུག་ — ཅེས་
This quote starts with the temporal-slot word ཁ་སང་ ("yesterday"), which is
followed by the subject ("I") in the dative-locative case (ང་ལ་). This could just as easily
have been written ང་ར་ . The presence of a subject in the dative-locative immediately
suggests that this is not an active construction and that something happened to the
speaker rather than was done by the speaker. Looking ahead for the verb, we see ཐུག་
("meet") which fits this assumption because it is an involuntary verb which, in fact,
requires the dative-locative. Thus, the essence of this sub-unit is: ང་ལ་ ... ཐུག་ ("I
met... ") .
The rest of the construction tells when he met — "yesterday" (ཁ་སང་), and who he
met — "a blue lion similar to you" (ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་).
This phrase ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་ ("a blue lion similar to you") is an
example of a noun modified by the adjective following it ("blue"- སྔོན་པོ་) and by a phrase
before it linked by the genitive particle (ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་). The latter consists of the term
འདྲ་བ་ ("like," "similar") and the conjunction དང་ ("and"), which must be placed between
འདྲ་བ་ and the word it modifies, in this case "you" (ཁྱེད་རང་). In this usage, དང་ conveys the
meaning "with." Thus the phrase ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བ་ means "similar with (to) you." This is
then joined to "lion" by the genitive particle to create a relative clause ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲེ་བའི་
འདམ་སེང་,which means "a lion who is similar to you."
Then comes the verbal phrase ཐག་བྱུང་ ("met"). We already know from the subject
havng the dative-locative instead of the instrumental particle ("to me" instead of "by
me"), that this clause would be either an existential or in voluntary construction. Now we

see that it is an involuntary construction since the verb ཐུག་ means "to meet involuntarily."
Thus, the first person past tense vebal complement (as discussed in LessonThree) བྱུང་ is
used. This ends the first clause of the rabbits direct speech: "Yesterday, I met a lion who
was similar to you."
But the rabbits direct discourse is not yet fininshed. The next segment (འདམ་སེང་
སྔོན་པོ་དེས་ཁྱེད་དང་མཐུ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཟེར་གྱི་འདུག་) presents the second part of the rabbits
comment. It begins with the subject in the instrumental case -"by that blue lion" (འདམ་
སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེས་). This is followed by the object ("you") modified by the conjunctive དང་
("and with"), and then the verbal phrase མཐུ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ ("will compete in strength").
This is followed by the verbal phrase "says" (ཟེར་གྱི་འདུག་) ending the discourse of
the blue lion. This also ends the speech of the rabbit to the white lion. This finish is
marked by the quote marker particle (ཅེས་) and the verb བཤད་ ("said"). These two, of
course, refer back to the subject of the whole construction, the rabbit (རེ་བོང་གིས་).
Consequently, the Tibetan is really a sentence within a sentence"By the rabbit ... said,"
with his comment being another sentence with its own subject and verb "I met a lion
similar to you and he said that he will compete with you." The best strategy for
deciphering such constructions is first to read through the entire construction and then to
reread it paying careful attention to the first subject and its verb. After this, the second
subject and its verb can be located and the overall structure of the construction will
become clear. This is a very common Tibetan stylistic mode and we will present many
other examples of it to facilitare identification and comprehension.
7. The seventh segment consists of two clauses l . འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོས་ངར་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་ 2. རི་བོང་ལ་
The first clause (འདམ་སེང་ད་ཀར་པོས་ངར་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་) consists of the subject (in the
instrunental case — [འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོས་] "by the white lion") followed by the verbal phrase
"roared in anger" (ངར་སྐད་རྒྱབ་).
This clause is linked to clause two by the simultaneous clause connector སྟེ་ .
However, the clause connector སྟེ་ is some what unclear in this context. It can be taken to
convey sinultaneous action — "The white lion said in a yelling or roaring manner... " Or
it couldbe take to convey two related sequential acts such that the second act is done
after the first: "Having roared in anger, he said... ."Since the time gap of the second
alterative would be so slight, the difference is moot here.
The subject of the second clause is the same as in the first clause and is not
specified. Thus, the second clause starts with the object linked to the dative-locative ("to
the rabbit" - རི་བོང་ལ་), followed by an active sentence that is a segment of direct discourse

spoken by the white lion འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེ་ལམ་སེང་ངའི་རྩ་ལ་སྐད་གཏོང་ ("Summon that blue lion
to my presence at once"). The object of this sentence within a sentence is "that blue lion"
(འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེ་), and the verb is "call/summon" (སྐད་གཏོང་). A location phrase indicating
where the lion should be called to – "to my presence" (ངའི་རྩ་ལ་) – and the time-slot word
"immediately" (ལམ་སེང་) follow the object phrase. It should be noted that the term "to
(into) the presence" (རྩ་ལ་) requires its object to be in the genitive: ངའི་རྩ་ལ་ ("to the
presence of i").
This segment concludes with the quotation marker (ཞེས་) and the verb "said" with
the past complement (བཤད་པ་རེད་). བཤད་ is the verb that goes with the original subject (འདམ་
སེང་དཀར་པོས་). The entire section, therefore, conveys the idea that "The white lion, in a
roaring manner, said to the rabbit, " Bring that blue lion to me at once!"
8. The eighth segment consists of a single sentence རི་བོང་གིས་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོས་འདམ་སེང་ཁྱེད་ལ་
འཇོན་ཐང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་ཅེས་འུད་ཤོབ་ཤོད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་བཤད་ .
This sentence is a continuation of the rabbits comments to the lion. It, like others,
begins with the subject in the instrumental case རི་བོང་གིས་ ("by the rabbit"). This is
followed immediately by another quote, which begins with a noun (the subject of the
quote) in the instrumental case འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོས་ ("by the blue lion"). This is followed by a
simple existential construction (noun + existential verb): "you have no ability" or more
literally, "to you there is no ability" (འདམ་སེང་ཁྱེད་ལ་འཇོན་ཐང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་).
This, in turn, is followed by the quote marker (ཅེས་) indicating the end of the direct
discourse of the blue lion. It is followed by the verbal phrase འུད་ཤོབ་ཤོད་ཀྱི་འདུག་,which
means "says it in a bragging manner," this being the rabbits embellishment.
Since this section is an indirect quote within a direct quote ("the rabbit said the
blue lion said), the next two words (ཅེས་བཤད་) end the discourse of the original subject, the
rabbit (རེ་བོང་གིས་). The first of these two words is the quote marker, and the second is the
verb "say." Thus, the entire construction means: "The rabbit said, That other lion is
saying braggingly, that you [the original lion] are not capable."
9. The ninth segment consists of three clauses l . འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེ་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་ནས་ 2. ཁོ་ད་ལྟ་ག་
པར་འདུག་གམ། 3. ང་ལམ་སེང་ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་ཁྲིད་ཞེས་རི་བོང་ལ་ལབ་པ་རེད།
This segment gives the lion's response. Normally it would start with the subject in
the instrumental case འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དས་ ("by that white lion"), but because the first clause
ends in the involuntary verb ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་ ("got angry"), the subject does not require the
instrumental. This clause འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེ་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་ ("the white lion got angry") is
followed by the simultaneous clause connective ནས་ so that it means, "The lion, being or
becoming angry, ..."

After this, the lion's direct discourse segment follows. It consists of two sentences.
The first is an existential construction, and the second an active verb construction l . ཁོ་ད་
ལྷ་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ། 2. ང་ལམ་སེང་ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་ཁྲིད་ཞེས་ ( l ."Where is he now? – 2. Take me at once to
him [his presence]").
Note that the adverb "at once" (ལམ་སེང་) precedes the location of the verbal action,
ཁའི་རྩ་ལ་ (to the presence of him). However, this clause could just as easily have been
written. ང་ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་ལམ་སེང་ཁྲིད་ .
The end of the direct speech is marked by ཞེས་,followed by the object of the
speech ("to the rabbit"- རི་བོང་ལ་) and then the verb "say" (ལབ་པ་རེད་) with its past
complement. Thus, the construction really breaks down into འདམ་སེང་གིས་ (implicit
subject) ... རི་བོང་ལ་ལབ་པ་རེད་ ("[The lion] said ... to the rabbit"). Note that the object, "the
rabbit, "could have been put at the beginning of the construction, e.g., འདམ་སེང་གིས་རི་བོང་ལ་
... ལབ་པ་རེད་ . Such alterative positionings cause no problem when careful attention is
given to the markers accompanying the subject and object, such as གིས་ and ལ་ .
10. The tenth segment consists of seven clausesl. རི་བོང་གིས་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེ་རི་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་གི་
རྒྱབ་ཏུ་ཁྲིད་རྗེས་ 2. ཁྲོན་པ་ཞིག་ལ་མཛུབ་མོ་བཙུགས་ཏེ་ 3. སེམས་ཅན་དེ་ཕ་གིའི་ནང་ལ་འདུག་ཅེས་ལན་བཏ་བ་ཅིང་། 4.
འདམ་སེང་དེས་ངར་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ་ནས་ 5. ཁྲོན་པའི་ཁ་ལ་ཕྱིན་ནས་ 6. ལྟ་སྐབས་ 7. ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ནས་འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་
The first of these clauses starts with the subject in the instrumental case ("by the
rabbit" — རི་བོང་གིས་). This subjects action is conveyed by the active verb "take" (ཁྲིད་).
Between these is the object of the taking, "the white lion," and the location of the taking,
"behind a big hill" (འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་རི་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་གི་རྒྱབ་ཏུ་). Note that the word "behind" (རྒྱབ་ཏུ་),
like ནང་ and མདུན་,must be joined to its object — the big mountain — by the genitive
particle. Thus, the first clause means, "The rabbit took the lion behind a big mountain."
This construction is linked to the next one by རྗེས་,the "after" clause connective,
so that the translation becomes" Afrer the rabbit took the lion behind a big mountain."
The next clause consists of the verbal phrase "pointed with a finger" (མཛུབ་མོ་
བཙོགས་) preceded by the location of the verbal action (with the dative-locative), "to a well"
(ཁྲོན་པ་ཞིག་ལ་). This clause does not contain a subject (in the instrumental) instead it
assumes the same subject as the previous clause, i.e., "by the rabbit."
It is linked to the next one by the simultaneous clause connector ཏེ་ . Thus the two
clauses now mean: "Afrer the rabbit took the lion behind a big mountain, [he] pointed to a
well and simultaneously ... "
The next clause (སེམས་ཅན་དེ་ཕ་གིའི་ནང་ལ་འདུག་) is an existential sentence which is said
by the rabbit — "That animal exists inside that overt here [referring of course to the well]."

This is followed by the mandatory quote marker, and then an active verb meaning
"answered" (ལན་བཏབ་). Thus, this sub-section means, " (He) answered, 'That animal is
(inside that) over there.' " The three clauses would now read: "Afrer the rabbit took the
lion behind a big mountain, (he) pointed to a well and simultaneosly answered, 'That
animal is inside that overthere.' "
This clause, in turn, is linked to the next one by the connective clause connective
ཅིང་,which is commonly translated as "and."
Clause four (འདམ་སེང་དེས་ངར་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ་) starts with a subject in the instrumental
(འད་མ་སེང་དེས་), so one knows that down the line an active verb will be encountered. That
subject ("by the lion") is followed by the verbal phrase "roared in anger loudly" (ངར་སྐད་
ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ་). Thus the clause translates as: "The lion roared loudly."
It is linked to the following clause by the clause connector ནས་ . Here context
indicates that ནས་ means "having done the verbal act." Thus the previous clause really
conveys: "The lion, having roared loudly, ..."
The string of four clauses now means: "Afrer the rabbit took the lion behind a big
mountain, [he] pointed to a well and simultaneosly answered, 'That animal is inside that
over there', and the lion, having roared loudly, ..."
The fifth clause starts with ཁྲོན་པའི་ཁ་ལ་ ("to the edge of the well"), the location of
the verb ཕྱིན་ ("went"). The subject of this clause is unstated, but context makes it
obvious that it is still "the lion." The location phrase parallels the structure encountered
above in that the word "edge" is linked to "well" by the genitive (ཁྲོན་པའི་ཁ་ལ་). Thus, this
clause means" (The lion) went to the edge of the well."
This is linked tot he sixth clause also by the ནས་ connective which here conveys
that "Having gone to the edge of the well, ..." something happened. All five clauses
now mean: "Afrer the rabbit took the lion behind a big mountan, (he) pointed to a well
and simultaneously answered, 'That animal is inside that over there', and the lion, having
roared loudly, went to the edge of the well and (having done that) ... ."
The sixth clause consists of only two words: the verb "look" (ལྟ་) and the clause
connective "at that time" (སྐབས་). It means "when he looked" and links with the previous
clauses as follows: "Afrer the rabbit took the lion behind a big mountain, (he) pointed to a
well and ssimultaneously answered, That animal is inside that over there,' and the lion,
having roared loudly, went to the edge of the well and (having done that) looked, and
wen he looked, ..."
The final clause (ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ནས་འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་མཐོང་) in this section begins with the
phrase ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ནས་," from inside the well." Note that ནས་ here does not function as a

verbal connective but rather means "from." This is followed by the phrase འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་,"a
lion." This clause ends with the involuntary verb མཐོང་," saw." Thus, this final clause
means "(from) inside (of) the well (he) saw a lion." We know that འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་ is the
object of the verb མཐོང་ rather than the subject because it does not contain the
instrunental case particle which is required for the verb མཐོང་,even though it is
The structure of this segment is རི་བོང་གིས་ ... ཁྲིད་རྗེས་,... བཙུགས་ཏེ་,... ལན་བཏབ་ཅིང་,
འདམ་སེང་དེས་ ... རྒྱབ་ནས་,... ཕྱིན་ནས་,... ལྟ་སྐབས་,... མཐོང་།
"Afrer the rabbit took the lion behind a big mountain, (he) pointed to a well and
simultaneously answered, 'That animal is inside that over there, and the lion, having once
again roared loudly, went to the edge of the well and (having done that) looked, and
when he looked, saw a lion."
11. The eleventh section consists of two clauses l . འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེས་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་ང་རོ་དྲག་པོ་
ལན་འགའ་ཞིག་བསྒྲགས་པས་ 2. ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་གི་འདམ་སེང་དེས་ཀྱང་ཚུར་ང་རོ་བསྒྲགས།
The first clause starts with the subject in the instrumental, "that white lion" (འདམ་
སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེས་), indicating an active verb construction. It is followed by a phrase
specifying the location of the verbal act, " inside the well" (ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་). After this comes
the verbal phrase "roared" (ང་རོ་ ... བསྒྲགས་). It, however, is modified by two words.
"loud/powerful" and "several times" ( དྲག་པོ་ and ལན་འགའ་ཞིག་). Thus, this clause means
"That lion made a powerful roar several times." This clause could have been written so
that the adverbial phrase did not split the verbal phrase འདམ་སེང་དེས་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་ལན་འགའ་ཞིག་
ང་རོ་དྲག་པོ་བསྒྲགས་ .
This clause is linked to t e next clause by the "because" connective (པས་), so that
it means: "Because that lion roared loudly several times into the well, ..."
The subsequent clause begins with a complex subject phrase in the instrumental
case ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་གི་འདམ་སེང་དེས་,which consists of the actor, "by that lion" (འདམ་སེང་དེས་),
linked to a preceeding phrase by the genitive so as to create a relative clause: "who was
inside of the well" (ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་གི་). The subject, therefore, means: "by that lion who was
inside of the well." This is followed by the word "also" (ཀྱང་) and then the verbal phrase ང་
རོ་བསྒྲགས་ ("roared"), modified by the adverbial ཚུར་ ("hither") that is to say, the "roar"
come toward the direction of the lion outside the well. Thus the clause means: "The
enemy who was in the well, also roared back (hither)." Both clauses together mean
"Because that lion roared loudly several times into the well, the lion who was in the well
also roared back (hither)."
12. The twelfth segment consists of two clauses l . སྐབས་དེར་འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེས་མཆེ་གཙིགས་སྡེར་

བགྲད་བྱས་ཏེ་ 2. ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ལ་མཆོང་ས་པ་རེད་.
The first clause begins with the time-slot word "at that time" (སྐབས་དེར་). It is
followed by the subject in the instrimnental, "by that white lion" (འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེས་), and
then what the lion did: "bared his fangs and clawed with his claws" (མཆེ་གཙིགས་སྡེར་བགྲད་བྱས་).
It is linked to the next clause by the clause connective ཏེ་,which here conveys primarily
the simultaneously meaning: "Baring his fangs and claws," he did something.
The next clause tells what was done. It starts with the location of the verbal
action, "to the inside of the well" (ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ལ་), followed by the verb "jump" (མཆོང་ས་)
and the past complement (པ་རེད་). Thus the two clauses together mean: "At that time, the
lion, baring his fangs and claws, jumped into the well"
13. The thirteenth segment consists of three clauses l . རི་བོང་གིས་ཕུའུ་དུང་ཟེར་བའི་སྒྲ་དེ་ཐོས་སྐབས་
2. ཨ་ཁ་ལྟ་བ་མཐོ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ལ་ལྷུང་ནས་ 3. ཤི་སོང་ཞེས་བཤད་པ་རེད།
The first clause begins again with the subject in the instrumental case, "by the
rabbit," followed by an onomatopoetic word (ཕུའུ་དུང་) which in Tibetan conveys the sound
"splash." Note that it is followed with the phrase ཟེར་བའི་སྒྲ་དེ་,which breaks down into སྒྲ་དེ་
("that sound") and ཟེར་བའི་ ("which says" or "which is called") and means "that sound
which is called" puduŋ. Following this comes the verb "heard" ( ཐོས་). Thus, this clause
means: "The rabbit heard the sound splash." This clause is joined to the next one by the
"when" (སྐབས་) clause connective, so that the clause means" when the rabbit heard the
sound splash', ..."
The next clause is a direct stare ment made by the subject (implicitly "by the
rabbit"). It starts with an exclamation meaning "Oh my'' (ཨ་ཁ་) and is followed by the
subject of the clause, "the lion" (འདམ་སེང་), modified by a relative clause (in the genitive),
which means "who has great conceit/arogance" (ལྟ་བ་མཐོ་བའི་), both together meaning "the
lion who was conceited." The verb that goes with this is ལྷུང་ ("fall"). Thus, "that
conceited lion fell." Note that this verb has only one stem so context determines that we
translate it as past tense. Preceding the verb is a phrase indicating the location where he
fell, namely "into the well" (ཁྲོན་པའི་ནང་ལ་). Thus, this clause means "Oh my, that arrogant
lion has fallen into the well."
This is linked to the next clause by the clause connective ནས་,which conveys the
idea "that having done X, Y occurred. "What occurred is conveyed by the verb "died"
(ཤེ་) and its past complement (སོང་). Thus, this clause means: "Oh my, that arrogant lion,
having fallen into the well, has died."
14. The final segment consists of one sentence དེ་ནས་རི་བོང་གིས་ཁོའི་ཁྱིམ་ལ་ལོག་སོང་།།
It begins with the time-slot phrase དེ་ནས་ ("after that"), and then the subject in the

instrumental "by the rabbit." This is followed by the location of the verbal action, ཁོའིཁྱིམ་
ལ་ ("to his house"), and the verb "returnied" (ལོག་). Thus, it means: "After that, the rabbit
returned home."
5.18 Vocabulary
བཀྲ་ཤིས་ p.n. (drə̅shi)
ཁྲོན་པ་ a well (trōmba)
རྐྱང་ wild ass (gyāŋ)
མཁན་ "agentive" verbal particle (ŋɛ̅n, gɛ̅n)
རྐྱེན་ causal connective (gyēn)
སྐད་ noise, a shout. va.–རྒྱག་ to shout,call, cry out, yell (gɛ̅ɛ̀ gya̲à)
མཁས་པ་ experts (kɛ̅ba)
འཁོལ་ vi. to be/get boiled (kȫȫ)
འཁྱེར་ va. to carry, take (an inanimate object) (ki~i~, kēē)
སྐད་གཏོང་ va. to summon, to call to come (gɛ̅ɛ̀ dōŋ)
སྐབས་ "when" clause connective; a time (gə̅p)
གངས་ snow, vi. – འབབ་ to snow (ka̲n bə_b)
སྐུ་ body (h.) (gū)
གི་ genitive case particle (gi)
སྐྱེ་དམན་ woman (gyi~mɛn)
གི་འདུག་ present tense complement
སྐྱེལ་ va. to deliver (gyēē)
གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་ present tense complement
སྐྱོན་ va. h. of རྒྱག་/རྒྱབ་
གྲང་ cold (tra̲ŋ)
བསྐྱལ་ va. p. of སྐྱེལ་ (gyɛ̅ɛ̅)
གྲོང་འཁྱེར་ city, town (tro̲ŋgyee)
བསྐྱོད་ va. to go(gyȫö̀)
གྲོང་གསེབ་ village (tro̲ŋsee)
ཁ་པར་ telephone, va. —- གཏོང་ to phone (kābaa dōŋ)
གྲོད་ཁོག་ stomach; vi.–– ལྟོགས་ to be hungry (tro̲ gɔɔ dɔ~ɔ̀)
ཁ་ལ་ (on/at ) edge (kāla)
དགུན་ཁ་ winter (gu̲ŋga)
ཁ་སང་ yesterday (kɛ̅ɛ̅sa. kāsaŋ)
དགེ་ལུགས་པ་ Gelugpa (sect) (ge̲ lugba)
ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ anger, vi.–– ཟ་ to get angry (kōndrosa̲)
དགྲ་ཤ་ revenge, va. –- ལེན་ to take revenge(dra̲sha le̲n)
ཁྱག་ vi. to be/get cold (kyāà)
འགྲན་ va. to compete (drɛ̲n)
ཁྱིམ་ home (ki~m)
འགྲོ་ va. to go (dro̲)
ཁྱིམ་མཚེས་ neighbor (ki~mdzee`)
རྒྱ་གར་ India (gya_gaa)
ཁྱོན་ overall (kyȫn)
རྒྱ་ནག་ China (gya̲naà)
ཁྱོན་ཡོངས་ overall (kyȫnyoŋ)
རྒྱ་མ་ 1/2 of a kilogram (gya̲ma)
ཁྲལ་ tax (trɛ̅ɛ̅) .
རྒྱ་མི་ Chinese (person) [the traditional term] (gyə_mi)
ཁྲིད་ va. to bring (an animate thing) (tri~ì)

རྒྱ་རིགས་ Chinese (person) [the term currently used in Tibet] (gyə_riì)
ངོ་ལོག་ rebellion, revolt, va. — རྒྱག་ to rebel (ŋo̲loo` gya̲à)
ངོ་ལོག་པ་ rebel (ŋo̲logba)
རྒྱབ་ཏུ་ behind (gyə_bdu).
ངོམས་ showoff-ish, va. to show off (ŋo̲m)
རྒྱུན་རིང་ long time, "when" connective (gy inriŋ)
དངུལ་ཁང་ bank (ŋǖǖgan)
རྒྱུའི་ཆེད་དུ་ "purposive" connective (gyü̲ü̲ chēdu)
སྔར་ formerly, in the past (ŋār)
སྔོན་དུ་ sm. སྔར་ (ŋȫndu)
སྒང་ "when" connective (ga_n)
སྔོན་པོ་ blue (ŋȫmbo)
སྒྲ་ sound (dra̲)
ཅ་ལག་ thing(s) (jālaà)
སྒྲོག་ see ང་རོ་
ཅིང་ conjunctive connective (ji~ŋ)
བརྒྱད་པ(ར་) (at) eight o'clock (gyɛ̲ɛ̲bar)
བཅིང་ས་འགྲོལ་ liberation va.i – གཏོང་ to liberate (jiŋdrüü dōŋ)
བརྒྱབ་ va. p. of རྒྱག་ (gyə_b)
བསྒྲགས་ va. p. of སྒོག་ shouted/called out (dra̲g)
ཆགས་ vi. to become, change into (chāà)
ཆར་པ་ rain va. - - གཏོང་ to rain (chāāba dōŋ)
ང་རོ་ a roar, va. — སྒྲོག་ to roar (ŋa̲ro drɔ̲ɔ̀)
ཆིག་སྟོང་ one thousand (chigdoŋ)
ངར་ to me (i + dative-locative) (ŋa̲a̲)
ཆུ་འཁོལ་ vi. to get boiled (water) (chūkȫȫ)
ངར་སྐད་ a shout (roar); va.– -རྒྱག་ to roar, shout (ŋa̲rgɛɛ gyə_b)
ཆུ་ཚོད་ watch, clock (chōdzöö̀)
ཆེད་ purposive connective (chēe)
མཆེ་གཙིགས་སྡེར་བགྲད་ id., baring fangs and claws (chē dzi~ì de̲r drɛ̲ɛ̀)
ངལ་རྩོལ་ manual labor, va. — བྱེད་ to do manual labor (ŋɛ̲ɛ̲dzöö che̲e)
མཆོང་ས་ va. to jump (chōm, chōŋ)
ངས་ by me (i + instrumental) (ŋɛ̲ɛ̀)
མཆོད་ va. to eat (h.) (chȫö̀)
མཇལ་ va. to meet (h.) (jɛ̲ɛ̲)
ངོ་རྒོལ་ opposition, struggling against; va. – བེད་ to oppose, struggle against (ŋo̲göö̀ che̲e`)
འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་ intimidation, threats; va. — བྱེད་ to intimidate, threaten (ji̲güü che̲e`)
འཇོན་ཐང་ capability (jö̲ndaŋ)
ངོ་སྤྲོད་ introduction va. — བྱེད་ to introduce someone (ŋo_dröö̀ che̲e)
ཉལ་ va. to lie down to sleep (ñɛ̲ɛ̲)
ཉི་མ་ the sun, a day (ñi̲mə)

ཉིན་ day (ñi̲n) མཐོ་པོ་ high (tōbo)
ཉིན་ལྟར་ every day (ñindaa)
མཐོང་ vi. to see (tōn)
གཉིད་ཁུག་ vi. to fall asleep (ñi~ì kūll)
ད་ལོ་ this year (ta̲lo)
རྙིང་པ་ old (ñiŋbə)
དུས་ "when" connective (dü̲ǜ)
སྙུང་ vi. to get sick (h.) (ñu~n)
དེང་སྐབས་ these days, nowadays (te̲ŋgəb)
བརྙས་བཅོས་ bullying, va. — གཏོང་ to bully (ñābjöö̀ dōŋ)
དེང་སང་ these days, nowadays (te̲nsan, te̲ŋsaŋ)
ཏེ་ gerundive connective (de)
རྟ་ horse (dā)
དོན་དུ་ purposive connective (tö̲ndu)
རྟག་ཏུ་ always (dāgdu)
ལྟ་ va. to look (dā)
དྲག་པོ་ fierce, harsh (tra̲gbo)
ལྟ་སྐོར་ (sightseeing) tour, visit, va. — བྱེད་ to tour, visit (dā gɔɔche̲e)
མདུན་དུ་ in front (of) (dündu)
འདམ་སེང་ lion (da̲mseŋ)
འདེ་ལོ་ this year (di̲lo)
ལྟ་བ་ conceited (dāwa)
འདྲ་བ་ like, similar (dra̲wa)
ལྟ་ཚུལ་ viewpoint (də̅dzüü)
སྡོད་ va. to stay, live (dö̲ö̀)
ལྟོ་ཆས་ food (dōbjɛɛ̀)
བསྡད་ va. p. of སྡོད་ (dɛ̲ɛ̀)
ལྟོགས་ va. to be hungry (dɔ~ɔ̀) see གྲོད་ཁོག་
ན་ vi. to get sick (na̲)
ན་ནིང་ last year (na̲niŋ)
སྟག་འཚེར་ p.n. of a place in Amdo (dāgdze)
ནགས་ཚལ་ forest (na̲gdzɛɛ)
ནད་པ་ sick person (nɛ̲ɛ̲ ba)
སྟབས་ causal connective (də̅b)
གནང་ va. to do (h.) (nāŋ)
སྟུག་པོ་ thick (dūgbu)
གནས་ va. to live, stay (nɛ̅ɛ̀)
སྟེ་ gerundive comective
མནལ་ཁུག་ vi. to fall asleep (h.) (ñɛ̅ɛ̅ kūu`)
སྟོན་ཐོག་ crop (dȫndoo`)
ཐུག་ vi. to meet (tūu`)
སྣ་ཚོགས་ various (na̲dzoo`)
ཐོན་ l . vi. to be produced, get (as in a yield) 2. va. to depart (tȫn)
པའི་སྐབས་སུ་ "when" connective (bɛgəbsu)
པའི་དུས་སུ་ "when" connective (bɛtüsu)
ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ production, va. — བྱེད་ to produce (tȫngyee che̲e)
པར་བརྟེན་ causal connective (bardēn),
པས་ causal connective (bɛɛ̀)
ཐོས་ vi. to hear (tȫö̀)
པེ་ཅིང་ Beijing (bējiŋ)
མཐུ་རྩལ་ competiton of strength; va. — འགྲན་ to compete (tūdzɛɛ drɛ̲n)
དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་ library (bēndzögan)
སྤྲང་པོ་ beggar (bāŋgo; drāŋbo)
སྤྲད་ va. p. of སྤྲོད་ (drɛ̅ɛ̀)

ཕ་གི་ overt here (pə̅gi)
མེ་གོ་ ch. America (me̲gɔɔ)
ཕུའུ་དུང་ the noise of a sound (pūduŋ)
དམག་འཁྲུག་ war (mə̅gdruu)
ཙ་ན་ causal connective (dzāna)
ཕུལ་ va. p. of འབུལ་ (pǖǖ)
ཙང་ causal connective (dzāŋ)
ཕེབས་ va. to go, come (h.)(pēe, pēb)
གཙོ་བོ་ main (dzōwo)
བཙོན་འཛུལ་ invasion, va. – བྱེད་ to invade (dzɛ̅ndzüü che̲e`)
ཕྱག་ hand (h.) (chāà)
ཕྱག་དེབ་ book (h.) (chāādeb)
བཙུགས་ va. p. of འཛུགས་ (dzūd)
ཕྱག་ལས་ work (h.), va. – གནང་ to work (h.) (chāālɛɛ̀ nāŋ)
རྩ་མེད་ annihilation, va. – གཏོང་ to annihilate (dzāmee dōŋ)
ཕྱིན་ va. p. of འགྲོ་ (chi~n)
རྩ་ལ་ to the presence (of) (dzā la)
ཕྱིར་ purposive connective (chi~r)
ཚལ་ vegetable (tsɛ̅ɛ̅)
ཕྲད་ va. p. of འཕྲད་ (trɛ̅ɛ̀)
ཚུར་ hither, toward this side (tsūū)
བབས་ va. p. of འབབ་ (pə_b)
བའི་ཆེད་དུ་ purposive connective (bɛ chētu)
ཚེ་ life "when" connective (tsē)
བར་ infnitive usage particle (pa̲r)
ཚོགས་འདུ་ meetng, va.–– ཚོགས་ to hold a meeting (tsōndu tsɔ~ɔ̀)
བས་ causal connective (bɛ)
བུ་བཅོལ་ཁང་ nursery (pu̲jögan)
ཚོགས་ va. ro assennble, convene (tsɔ~ɔ̀)
བྱ་ va. f. of བྱེད་ (cha̲)
ཚོང་ཁང་ store (tsōngan)
བྱུང་ vi. got (chu̲n, chu̲ŋ)
ཚོན་ paint, va. – གཏོང་ to paint (tsȫn dōŋ)
བྲག་ཕུག་ cave (trə_buu`)
དབང་གིས་ causal connective (wa_ŋki)
མཚོམས་ (སུ་) when connective (tsām)
འབབ་ va. o fall ( rain, snow), to land, to come down; to disrount (pə̲b)
འཚོ་བ་ livelihood, subsistence; va. – སྐྱེལ་ to earn livelihood, subsistence (tsōwa gyēē)
འབུལ་ va. to give (h.) (bü̲ü̲)
འབྱོར་ vi. to arrive(jɔ̲ɔ̲)
མཛད་ va. to do (h.) (dzɛ̲ɛ̀)
འབྲིང་བ་ middle, secondary(drŋə)
འཛིན་ཆས་ furniture (dzi̲njɛɛ̀)
འབྲུ་རིགས་ grain (dru̲riì)
འཛུགས་ va. to start, found, establish (dzu̲u)
སྦྱོང་བརྡར་ training va. – བྱེད་ to train (jo̲ŋdaa che̲e`)
ཞིང་ conjunctive connective (shi̲ŋ)
མི་ agentive particle (mi̲)
མི་དམངས་ the people (mi̲maŋ)
ཞུགས་ va. to participate in, attend (shu̲u`)

ལོག་ va. to return (lɔ̲ɔ̀)
གཞིས་ཀ་ estate (shi̲i̲gə)
ཤར་ vi. to arise (shāā)
གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་ p.n. Shigatse (shi̲gədze)
ཤི་ vi. to die (shi~)
གཞུང་ goverment (shu̲ŋ)
ཤིང་ conjunctive connective (shiŋ)
གཞེས་ནིང་ the year before last (she̲ñin)
བཞོན་ va. to ride (animal) to mount (an animal) (shö̲n)
ཤེད་ཤུགས་ strength (shi~shuu`)
ཤོད་ va. imp. of (བཤད་) (shȫö̀)
ཤོར་ va. to lose (shɔ̲ɔ_)
ཟ་ཆས་ foodstuffs (sa_pjɛɛ̀)
གཤིས་ causal connective (shi~ì)
ཟེར་ l .va. to say, 2. vi. to be called (se̲)
ས་མཚམས་ border, frontier (sāndzam)
སང་ཉིན་ tomorrow (sə̅ñiì)
གཟིགས་ va. look (h.) (si̲ì)
སེམས་ཅན་ sentient being, animal (sēmjɛn)
གཟིམ་ va. to sleep (h.) (si̲m)
བཟོ་གྲྭ་ factory (so̲dra)
སླད་ purposive connective (lɛ̅ɛ̀)
འུད་ཤོབ་ bragging (ü̲shüb)
སླེབས་ vi. to arrive (le~e`)
ཡག་ཉེས་ quality (ya_ñee`)
སློང་ l . va. to cause to start, incite; 2. to beg; 3. to cause or make stand up (lōŋ)
ཡི་ genitive particle (yi̲)
ཡིག་ཚད་ exan (yi̲gdzɛɛ̀)
ཡིན་ན་ཡང་ nevertheless (yi̲nayaŋ)
ཡོངས་ all overall (yo̲ŋ)
སློབ་སྦྱོང་ studying, va.– -བྱེད་ to study (lōpjon che̲e)
གཡར་ va. to loan, lend, borrow (yāā)
སློབ་ཕྲུག་ student (lāpdraà; lōpdruu`)
རང་ཉིད་ oneself, itself (rə_ŋñiì)
སློབ་གསོ་ education (lōbso)
རང་བཙན་ independence (ra̲ŋdzɛn)
གསར་བརྗེ་ revolution (sārje)
རི་བོང་ rabbit (re̲gon)
བསམ་བློ་ thinking, va.–– གཏོང་ to think (sāmlo dōŋ)
རིང་ "when" connective (riŋ)
ལངས་ vi. to get up, rise/stand up;
བསོད་ནམས་ p.n. (sōnam)
to start (la_n)
བསླངས་ p. of སློང་ : made start
ལན་ l. times (lɛ̲n) 2.reply, answer, 3.message
ཧྲི་ཡོན་ commune member (hri~yün)
ལྷུང་ vi. to fall (lhūŋ)
ལས་འགུལ་ campaign, movement (lɛ̲ngüü)
ཨ་ཁ་ "oh my," "too bad" (akaa)
ལས་བྱེད་པ་ official, cadre (lɛ̲ɛ̲jeba)
ལེན་ va. to take (le̲n)
ལོ་ཏོག་ crop (lo̲doo`)

Lesson Six
6.1 The conditional ("if") clause connectives ན་,ཚེ་,གལ་ཏེ་ ... ན་,གལ་ཏེ་ ... ཚེ་,གལ་སྲིད་ ... ན་,
གལ་སྲིད་ .... ཚེ་,and པ་ན་/བ་ན་
These clause connectives link clauses so that the latter clause occurs if the former
clause does. They require the verb they modify (follow) to be in the past tense stem.
a. ངོ་ལོག་བརྒྱབ་ན་མི་མང་པོ་ཤི་གི་རེད།
rebel acted if people many die fut. compl./
If (he, she, you, they) rebel, many people will die.
b. ཤ་རྙིང་པ་ཟས་ཚེ་ན་གི་རེད།
meat old are if sick fut. compl./
If (he, she, you, they) eat old meat, (he, she, you, they) will get sick.
Note that ན་ in example b. is the involuntay verb "to be ill, " not the conditional particle
"if." Note also that ཚེ་ in other contexts can function as a noun meaning "life, " e.g., ཚེ་
རིང་པོ་ means "long life."
c. གལ་ཏེ་སོན་ཡག་པོ་ཉོས་ན་སྟོན་ཐོག་ཡག་པོ་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
if seed good bought if havest good come fut. compl./
If (one) buys good seed, (one) will get a good havest.
d. གལ་ཏེ་བོད་ལ་སླེབས་ཚེ་ཁྱེད་རང་མཇལ་གྱི་ཡིན།
if tibet to arrive if you meet fut. compl./
If (I) arive in Tibet (get toTibet), (I) will meet you.
In example d., the presence of ཡིན་ in the verbal complement indicates clearly that the
subject is first person.
e. བླ་མ་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཕེབས་པ་ན་ཁོ་ཚོས་མཇལ་གྱི་རེད།
lama quick/soon come if he pl.-by meet fut.comp./
If the lama comes soon, they will meet (hm).
f. གལ་སྲིད་ངས་ཟ་ཁང་དེར་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་ས་ན་[ང་]ན་གི་རེད།
if་i-by restaurant that-to food ate if (i) sick fut. compl/
If I eat at that restaurant, (I) will get sick.
g. གལ་སྲིད་ངས་ཟ་ཁང་དེར་སྔོ་ཚལ་ཟས་ཚེ་[ང་] ན་གི་རེད།
if i-by restaurant that-to vegetables ate if (i) sick fut. compl/
If Ieat vegetables at that restaurant, (I) will get sick.
6.2 The "as soon as" clause connectives: འཕྲལ་,པ་ད་ག་,མ་ཐག་,ཉིད་དུ་,པ་དེ་མ་ཐག་ (ཏུ་), པ་དང་,
པ/བ་ཙམ་ན་,and པ་/བ་ཙམ་ནས་
These clause connectives are used with the past tense stem of verbs to convey that

the action in the second clause occurs "as soon as"the action in the first clause does.
a. ལྷ་སར་ལེབས་པ་ད་ག་དོན་གཅོད་ཁང་ལ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
lhasa-to arrive soon-as office to went went compl./
As soon as (he, she, etc.) arrived in Lhasa, (he, she, etc.) went to the bureau office.
b. ཁོས་འབྲོག་པའི་ལྟོ་ཆས་ཟས་མ་ཐག་ན་སོང་།
he-by nomad-of food ate soon-as sick went compl./
As soon as he ate the nomad food, (he) got sick.
c. སྟོན་ཐོག་བསྡུས་འཕྲལ་གཞུང་ལ་ཁྲལ་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་རེད།
harvest collected soon-as goverrment to tax give fut. compl./
As soon as (he, she, etc.) collect(s) the havest, (he, she, etc.) will pay taxes to the
d. རྒྱལ་རྩེར་སླེབས་པ་དེ་མ་ཐག་ཏུ་མགྲོན་ཁང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
gyantse-to arrive soon-as hotel to went compl./
As soon as (he, she, etc.) arrived in Gyantse, (he, she, etc.) went to the hotel.
e. ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་བ་དེས་རྒྱལ་རྩེར་སླེབས་ཉིད་དུ་ལྷ་སར་ལན་བཏང་སོང་།
foreigner that-by gyantse-to arrive soon-as lhasa-to message sent past compl./
As soon as (he, she, etc.) arrived in Gyantse, (he, she, etc.) sent a message to Lhasa.
It should be remembered that པ་དང་ functions to convey both "and" (see 4.2 ) and
"as soon as." Only context and experience will allow one to ascertain which meaning is
f. ཁོས་མིག་བལྟས་པ་དང་ཡལ་སོང་།
he-by looked-soon-as vanished went compl./
As soon as he looked, (it) vanished.
g. ཁོས་ལྷ་ཁང་ནང་ལ་འཛུལ་བ་ཙམ་ནས་བླ་མ་ཞིག་མཐོང་སོང་།
he-by temple in to entered soon-as lama one saw went compl./
As soon as he entered (into) the temple, (he) sawa lama.
h. མོས་ལབ་པ་དང་ངས་ཧ་གོ་བྱུང་།
she-by speak and i-by understood got./
As soon as she spoke, I understood.
Note that ཧ་གོ་ is one of the involuntary verbs that require their subjects to be in the
instrumental case.
6.3 Negation of active and invollmtary verbs
Active verbs are negated by the same particles and negatives verbs that are used
in linking and existential constructions, i.e མ་,མི་,མིན་,ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་,and མེད་ .

Present, usual, and future tenses
Usual, present, and future actions are expressed in the negative by the present/
non-past stem of the verb plus the negativized verbal complement. For example, the
negation of དེ་རིང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག། ("Today he is working.") is illustrated in a. below.
a. དེ་རིང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་ངེད་ཀྱི་མི་འདུག།
today he-by work do pres. compl. no/
Today he is not working.
b. ད་ལྟ་མོས་ལྟོ་ཆས་བཟོ་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
now she-by food make pres. compl. no/
She is not making food now.
c. མོ་ལ་དངུལ་མེད་སྟབས་གློག་བརྙན་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་མ་རེད།
she to money without since movie to go fut. compl. no./
Because she has no money, (she) will not go to the movie.
More literary genre generally dispense with the verb complement and simply put
the negative མི་ before the future or non-past stem of verbs. For example,
d. ཁོའི་དངུལ་རྫོགས་ཙང་རྟ་དེ་མི་ཉོ།
he-of money exhausted since horse that no buy/
Because his money is exhausted, (he) will not buy that horse.
The difference between usual and presen trense constructions is generally a result
of context and auxilliary words such as those used in sentences e. and f. ("now" and
e. འབྲོག་པས་ལྷ་སར་ཡང་སེ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
nomad-by lhasa-to often go usual compl. no
Nomads do not often go to Lhasa.
f. འབྲོག་པས་ལྷ་སར་ད་ལྷ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
nomad-by lhasa-to now go usual pres. compl. no/
Nomads are not going to Lhasa now.
Other typical constructions are:
g. ཁོས་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཟ་གི་མི་འདུག།
he-by tibet-of food a-lot eat usual compl. no/
He doesn't eat Tibetan food a lot.
h. ཁོས་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་ད་ལྟ་ཟ་གི་མི་འདུག།
he-by tibet-of food now eat usual pres. compl. no/
He isn't eating Tibetan food now.
i. མོས་ཞིང་ལས་ཡག་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མེད་པ་རེད།
she-by farm-work good do usual compl. no/
She does not do farm work well.

i The vb. + པ་རེད་ form of the "usual" becomes: vb. + པ་མ་རེད་
j. ཆོས་ལྡན་ལགས་ཨ་རིར་སྡོད་དུས་སློབ་གྲྭར་ཕེབས་པ་མ་རེད།
chunden-la america-to stay when school-to go (h.) usual compl. no/
When Chöndenla stayed in America, (she) didn't (usually) go to school.
Past tense
Although one would have expected that the negation of the པ་རེད་ past
complement would be པ་མ་རེད་,this is not the case. Instead, as example k. illustrates, the
negative particle མ་ is placed before the past tense stem of the verb (མ་ + vb. + པ་རེད་).
k. ཁ་སང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
yesterday he-by work no did past compl./
He did not work yesterday.
As was the case for the future tense, in the more literary genre the པ་རེད་ past
complement is simply dropped and just a negative particle (མ་) + verb suffices. For
l. ཁ་སང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱས།
yesterday he-by work no did/
He did not work yesterday.
When the སོང་ past complement is used, the negative particle follows the main verb and
precedes སོང་ . For example,
m. ཁ་སང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་མ་སོང་།
yesterday he-by work did no went compl./
He did not work yesterday.
Negation of dependent clauses follows the same patterns that were described
above. For example,
n. སང་ཉིན་ཁོ་ནང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་མི་ཟ་ན་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་བར་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
tomorrow he home to food no eat if/ restaurant to food eat inf. go fut. compl./
If he does not eat at home tomorrow, (he) will go to eat at the restaurant.
o. ཁ་སང་ཁོས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་རྩ་ལ་མ་ཕྱིན་ན་དེ་རིང་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
yesterday he-by king-of presence to no went if/ today go fut. compl./
If he did not go to the presence of the king yesrerday, (he) will go today.
p. ཁ་ས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱས་སྟབས་ཟ་ཁང་གི་བདག་པོས་ཁོར་གླ་ཆ་མ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
yesterday child that-by work no did since restaurant of owner-by he-to wage no gave
past compl./
Since that child did not work yesterday, the owner of the restaurant did not pay him
q. སང་ཉིན་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་ལས་ཀ་མི་བྱ་སྟབས་ཟ་ཁང་གི་བདག་པོས་ཁོར་གླ་ཆ་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།

tomorrow child that-by work no do since restaurant of owner-by he-to wa ge give
past compl. neg./
Because that child will not work tomorrow, the owner of the restaurant will not pay
him wages.
r. ཁོས་ཆང་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་མེད་ཅིང་། ཐ་མག་ཀྱང་འཐེན་གྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
he-by bar to go usual neg. and/ cigarette also smoke usual compl. neg/
He does not go to the bar and also does not smoke cigarettes.
s ཁོ་འདིར་ཡོང་གི་མིན་པར་བརྟེན། ང་ཚོ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡིན།
he-by here come fut. compl. neg. since/ i pl. restaurant to go fut. compl./
Because he will not come here, we will go to the restaurant.
The negation of involuntary verbs follows the same pattern as active verbs.
t. ངའི་གྲོགས་པོའི་ན་ཚ་མ་དྲག་ཙང་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་ཨེམ་ཆི་ཐུག་པར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
i-of friend-of illness no recover since hospital doctor meet inf. went compl./
Because my friend's illness did not get better, (he) went to the hospital to meet (see)
a doctor.
u. ཆུ་མི་འཁོལ་ཚེ་ཇ་ཞིམ་པོ་མི་འདུག།
water no boil if tea taste-good no exist /
If the water does not boil, the tea is not tasty.
v. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་དེ་ཚོ་མཁས་པར་མི་འགྱུར་ན་ལས་ཀ་ཡག་པོ་རག་གི་མ་རེད།
student that pl. expert no become if work good obtain fut. compl. neg/
If those students do not become experts, (they) will not obtain a good jobs.
w. ཉིས་པ་དེ་ཡང་པོར་མི་འགྱུར་ན་ཁོ་ཤི་གི་རེད།
punishment that light-to no become if he die fut. compl./
If the punishment does not become lessened, he will die.
Note that འགྱུར་ typically requires the dative-locative (པར་,པོར་) to indicate change into
6.4 The enumerative particles སོགས་ and བཅས་
While two items can be listed or enumerated by means of the connective particle
དང་ ("and"), three or more items require one of the above particles. The standard practice
is for དང་ to be placed afrer the first item mentioned followed by a "།" and a space. All
subsequent items are separated by "།" until the final item, after which one of the
entmerative particles is placed. The first of these, སོགས་,indicares that the list is
incomplere and is generally translated as "such as" or "so forth," or "etc."
a. ཡུལ་དེར་སྟག་དང་། འདམ་སེང་། རེ་བོང་སོགས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
contry that-to tiger and/ lion/ rabbit etc. exis/
There are tigers, lions, rabbits, and so forth in that county.

When བཅས་ is used afrer the final item in a list, it indicates that the preceding
items form a complete set and are not merely illustrative of a larger set. For example, if
we replace the སོགས་ in example a. with བཅས་,the meaning changes
b. ཡུལ་དེར་སྟག་དང་། འདམ་སེང་། རེ་བོང་བཅས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
county that-to tiger and/ lion/ rabbit i.e. exist/
There are tigers, lions, and rabbits in that country.
These particles have other related, but slightly different, uses. For example, སོགས་
can be used without a list of items to convey the meaning "and so forth" or "such as."
c. ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀ་སོགས་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་མང་པོས་ཀྲུང་གོར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
america etc. nation many-by china-to help do present compl./
Many nations such as America are helping (assisting) China.
If བཅས་པའི་ is substituted for སོགས་,it conveys the meaning of "including." For example,
d. ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀ་བཅས་པའི་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་མང་པོས་ཀྲུང་གོར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
america i.e. nation many-by china-to help do present compl./
Many nations, including Anerica, are helping (assisting) China.
བཅོས་ is also used in the pattern པ་/བ་དང་བཅོས་ (ཏེ་), where it has a completely
different meaning. Here it functions to create an adverbial phrase explaining how the
action in the second clause occurred. In the first example below (e.), it explains how the
lion answered — in the manner of roaring. In the second (f.), it explains how he arrived
– in the manner of jumping/hopping. This is also sometimes translated as "together with"
or "along with."
e. འདམ་སེང་གིས་ང་རོ་སྒྲོག་པ་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་རེ་བོང་ལ་ལན་བཏབས་པ་རེད།
lion by roar and i.e. ra bbit to answered past compl./
Roarng, the lion answered the rabbit.
f. རེ་བོང་ཞིག་གློ་བུར་དུ་མཆོངས་པ་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་འདམ་སེང་གི་མདུན་དུ་སླེབས་བྱུང་།
rabbit one suddenly jump and i.e. lion of front to arrived got/
Jumming suddenly, the rabbit arrived in front of the lion.
This usage also occurs without the ཏེ་,that is to say as དང་བཅོས་ . For example,
g. དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་དང་བཅས་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བསུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
joy boundless i.e. he to welcomed past compl./
(They) welcomed him with boundless joy.
The next example illustrates how ད་ང་བཅས་ཏེ་ can be used with nominals. It conveys the
adverbial function (I0 w ཛཛ་ e g7 ?—-She went with the ronks) and would normal l be
transla ted as "a long with."
h. བླ་མ་དེ་གྲྭ་པ་དང་བཅས་ལྷ་སར་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
lama that monk i.e. lhasa-to came past compl./

That lama went to Lhasa along with the monks.
6.5 Adverbials
Adverbial constructions are generally expressed in Tibetan by means of: l) a class
of adverbializng particles which transform substantives into adverbs (see 6.5.l-4 ), and 2)
a small class of words we can categorize as adverbs (see 6.5.5.).
6.5.1 The adverbializing particles: [genitive particle] + ངང་ or ངང་ནས་ or སྒོ་ནས་
These two particles express "how" or "in what manner" or "by what means" a
verbal action occurs. The are linked to substantives by the genitive particles.
a. ཁོས་དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་ཀྱི་ངང་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བསུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
he-by joy boundless of manner he to welcomed past compl./
(He) welcomed him with
b. ཁོས་དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་ཀྱི་སྒོ་ནས་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བསུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
he-by joy boundless of manner he to welcomed past compl./
(He) welcomed him with boundless joy.
6.5.2 The instrumental particles as adverbializers
The instrumental particles encountered earlier with the subject of active sentences
can also function to adverbialize nominals. They are usually translated by "with," "by, " or
simply the "-ly" ending of English adverbs.
a. ཁོས་དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་ཀྱིས་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བསུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
he joy boundless by he to welcomed past compl./
(He) welcomed him with boundless joy.
b. ལོ་མ་འདི་རླུང་གིས་འཁྱེར་སོང་།
leaf this wind by carry past compl./
This leaf was carried by the wind.
c. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པ་རེད།
he-by diligence by work do past compl./
He worked diligently.
6.5.3 The dative-locative particles as adverbializers
The dative-locative particles can also be used to adverbialize adjectives.
a. ཁོས་དར་ཆ་ཞིག་བརྟན་པོར་བཙུགས་པ་རེད།
he by flag one firm to planted past compl./

He planted (put up) a flag firmly.
b. མོས་ལྟད་མོ་གསལ་པོར་མཐོང་སོང་།
she-by show clear-to see past compl./
She saw the show clearly.
The dative-locative is also used to link nominals to the various verbs meaning "to
go" and to the verb "become change" (འགྱུར་) creating constructions which are adverbials
in Tibetan. For example, "improve" (ཡར་རྒྱས་) + dative-locative (སུ་) + "went" (ཕྱིན་) =
"went in the manner of improving. "These constructions, however, are normally
translated as verbs in English, for example, this example would be translated simply as
c. ད་ལོ་བོད་ཀྱི་དཔལ་འབོར་ཡར་རྒྱས་སུ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
this year tibet of economy improve to went compl./
This year Tibet's economy improved. [How did it go? It went in the manner of
d. ཕྱི་ལོ་བོད་ཀྱི་ད་པལ་འབྱོར་ཡར་རྒྱས་སུ་འགྱུར་གྱི་རེད།
next year tibet of economy improve to become fut. compl./
Next year Tibet's economy will improve. [How will it become/change? It will
become/change in the manner of improving.
6.5.4 The particles བཞིན་པར་ and བཞིན་དུ་ as adverbializers
When used with verbs, བཞིན་པར་ and བཞིན་དུ་ typically convey the idea that "in the
manner of" or "while" the first action is in the process of going on, a second verbal action
a. ཁོ་སེམས་སྐྱོ་བཞིན་དུ་ནང་ལ་ལོག་པ་རེད།
he mind sad manner in to return past compl./
He returned home sadly. (While in the state of being sad, he returned home.)
b. ཁོས་སྐད་བརྒྱབ་བཞིན་དུ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
he-by yell manner went compl./
He went yelling. (While yelling, he went.)
c. ལྷ་སར་སྡོད་བཞིན་པར་འབྲས་སྤུངས་ལ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
lhasa-to stay manner drepung to go went compl./
While staying in Lhasa, (he, she, they) went to Drepung (monastery).
d. ང་ན་བཞིན་དུ་དེབ་མང་པོ་བཀླགས།
i sick manner book many read/
While I was ill, (I) read many books.
བཞིན་དུ་ can also be translated by the English meaning "like wise" or "just as." In

this role it functions like ནང་བཞིན་ "like."
e. མེ་ཏོག་དཀར་པོ་དེ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་ཡོད་པ་བཞིན་དུ་དམར་པོ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་ཡོད།
flower white that to like exist an manner red to like exist/
Just as (I) like that white flower, (I) like red ones. (lit., in the manner of liking white
flowers, I like red ones.)
f. མེ་ཏོག་དམར་པོ་དེ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་ཡོད་པ་ནང་བཞིན་སེར་པོ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་ཡོད།
flower red that to like exist manner yellow like exist/
Just as (I) like that red flower, (I) like yellow ones.
6.5.5 Adverbs
There is a small class of adverbial words that modify verbs. The most common of
these are
ནན་ཏན་ རྦད་དེ་ ཧུར་ཐག་ ཚད་མེད་
emphatically completely energetically limitlessly
མུ་མཐུད་ (ནས་) ལྷག་པར་དུ་ ལམ་སེང་ གློ་བུར་དུ་
continuously particularly immediately suddenly
a. ཁོས་ནན་ཏན་བཤད་པ་རེད།
he-by emphatic spoke past compl./
He spoke emphatically.
b. ཁོའི་གྲོགས་པོའི་པ་ཕས་ཁ་ལག་རྦད་དེ་ཟས་སོང་།
he-of friend-of father-by food completely ate went compl./
His friend is father (lit., by the father of his friend) ate the food completely.
c. བོད་པའི་གྲྭ་པ་ཚོས་སློབ་སྦྱོང་ཧུར་ཐག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
tibet-of monk pl.-by study energetically do usual compl./
The Tibetan monks are studing energetically.
d. ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཡོང་མཁན་དེ་རྒྱ་མིའི་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་ནས་གློ་བུར་དུ་ན།
lhasa from come doer that chinese-of restaurant to food eat having suddenly sick/
That person who came from Lhasa suddenly got sick after eating food in a Chinese
e. བོད་པའི་གྲྭ་པ་ཚོས་སློབ་སྦྱོང་མུ་མཐུད་བྱས་པ་རེད།
tibet-of monk pl.-by study continuously did past compl./
The Tibetan monks studied continuously.
f. མོ་ལམ་སེང་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
she immediately went compl./
She went immediately.
g. ཁོ་པ་གློ་བུར་དུ་ནང་ལ་ལོག་སོང་།
he suddenly home to returned went compl./

He suddenly returned home.
6.6 Nominalization with པ་/བ་
6.6.1 Positive constructions
Nominalization is another difficult feature of Tibetan. It refers to the
transformation of verbs and verbal phrases into nouns or noun phrases which are then
treated as nouns in larger constructions.
One of the most common of the nominalizing particles is པ་ (བ་). This has already
been encountered as an untranslated component of a number of final verb complements
(པ་རེད་) as well as in clause connectives (པ་དང་,པ་མ་ཟད་). However, do not worry about
tryng to break these into their constituent parts at this tine. Continue to view them as
a. ཁོས་གནོད་སྐྱོན་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he-by harm did past compl./
He harmed (it). (or, He caused harm.)
This is a simple active sentence in the past rense. If we now nominalize it, we get
b. ཁོས་གནོད་སྐྱོན་བྱས་པ་
he-by harm did nom.
This can be translated roughly as "his doing harm in the past," or "the harm done by him."
In any event, this nominalized clause can now enter nto larger constructions as a noun or
noum phrase. In example c., it is the object of the verb "to correct."
c. ཁོས་གནོད་སྐྱོན་བྱས་པ་འདི་ཁོ་ཚོས་བཟོ་བཅོས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by ham did nom. this he pl.-by repair do pres. compl./
They are correcting the harm done by him. (As forth is harm done by him, they are
correcting/repairng it.)
This could also be written with the subject ཁོ་ཚོས་ at the beginning of the sentence.
d. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁོས་གནོད་སྐྱོན་བྱས་པ་འདི་བཟོ་བཅོས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he pl.-by he-by harm did nom. this he pl.-by repair do pres. connpl./
They are correcting the harm done by him. (They, as for the harm done by him, are
correcting/repairng it.)
Any semantically appropriate noun (whether nominalized or not) can be
substituted for a nominalized clause. For example, in sentence e., the noun phrase ཟ་ཁང་
འདི་ ("this restaurant") is substitured for གནོད་སྐྱོནོ་བྱས་པ་འདི་ ("this harm done by hin").
e. ཟ་ཁང་འདི་ཁོ་ཚོས་བཟོ་བཅོས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
restaurant this he pl.-by repair do pres. compl./

They are repairing this restaurant. (as for this restaurant, they are repairng it.)
When the verb in a nominalized phrase is in the present (non-past) tense stem, the
meaning of the nominalized phrase is also present (non-past).
f. ཁོས་གནོད་སྐྱོན་བྱེད་པ་འདི་ཁོ་ཚོས་བཟོ་བཅོས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by harm do nom. this he pl.-by repair do pres. compl./
They are correcting the harm he is doing. (As for the harm he is doing, they are
correcting it.)
g. རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་བཏང་ཡིག་གཏོང་བ་ཁག་པོ་རེད།
china to letter send nom. dificult is/
Sending letters (the sending of letters) to China is dificult.
However, in some contexts, e.g., the presence of a temporal word, the tense of the
verb is overriden. Thus the presence of the temporal word "formerly" ( སྔོན་མ་) in
examples h. and i. dictates a past tense meaning for both, despire the different tense of the
verb stem (བཏང་བ་ and གཏོང་བ་).
h. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་བཏང་ཡིག་བཏང་བ་ཁག་པོ་རེད།
formerly china to letters end nom. difficult is/
Formerly, sending letters to China was difficult.
i. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་བཏང་ཡིག་གཏོང་བ་ཁག་པོ་རེད།
formerly china to letter send nom. difficult is/
Forterly, sending letters to China was difficult.
Sometimes the addition of a determinative will produce something similar to a
relative constuction in English (e.g., a clause introduced by "which").
j. བཏང་ཡིག་བཏང་བ་འདི་ནི་འབྱོར་བྱུང་།
letter sent nom. this as-for arrived got/
As for this letter which was sent, (it) arrived. (or: (I) received the letter which was
Nominalized phrases not only take determinatives but also take many of the
pluralizers encolmtered earlier. For example, ཚོང་མ་ ("all") in sentence k., ཚོ་ in 1. and
རྣམས་ in m.:
k. ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་ཚང་མ་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
work did nom. all good exist./
All the work that was done was good.
The genitive is commonly used before a nominalized phrase or noun phrase so
that the former (the nominalized phrase) modifies the latter. These constructions will
often be translated as relative constructions in English.
l. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་བའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོ་ ... .

Beijing to go nom.-ofofficial pl.
(the) officials (who are) going to Beijing ... .
In the above example, the entire phrase "the going to Beijing" (པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་བའི་)
modifies "oficials" (ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོ) explaining what kind of oficials they were. A simple
adjective such as "new" (ལས་བྱེད་པ་གསར་པ་) functions identically. The next example
illustrates the importance of the tense of the verb (འགྲོ་བའི་ versus ཕྱིནོ་པའི་):
m. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་རྣམས་
Beijing to went nom.-of official
(the) officials who went (or have gone) to Beijing
These nominalized relative constructions can be used in sentences in either the
subject oro bject slots. In the next three examples the nominalized construction པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་
བའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོ་ acts as the subject of an active verb and so is placed in the instrumental
n. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་བའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་ཀྲའོ་ཙི་དབྱང་མཇལ་གྱི་རེད།
beijing to go nom. of official pl.-by chao-jiyang meet (h.) fut. compl./
The oficials who are going to Beijing will meet Zhao Ziyang.
o. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་བའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་ཀྲའོ་ཙི་དབྱང་མཇལ་བ་རེད།
Beijing to go nom.-of officials pl.-by chao-jiyangr meet (h.) past compl./
The officials who went to Beijing met Zhao Ziyang.
Note that although the verb "go" is in the present tense stem, it is translated as a
past tense verb because of the final verb complement (མཇལ་བ་རེད་).
In the next example, the location of the verbal action is also a nominalized phrase.
p. པེ་ཅིང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་མགྲོན་ཁང་ལ་བཞུགས་པ་རེད།
Beijing to went nom.-of officials pl.-by foreign by made nom.-of hotel to stayed (h.)
past compl./
The officials who went to Beijing stayed in a hotel which was built by foreigners.
q. དམག་མིས་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་པའི་སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་དེ་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་སྨན་ཁང་དེར་ཤི་པ་རེད།
soldier-by shot-of student that foreign by made hospital that-to die past compl./
The student who was shot by the soldiers died in the hospital that was built by the
The core of this construction ( inq.) is:
student that hospital that-to dies past compl./
That student died in that hospital.
The addition of the nominalizing phrase དམག་མིས་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་པ་ linked by the genitive
explains what kind of a stdent? – one shot by soldiers. Similarly, the nominalized

phrase modifyng "hospital" (ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་) conveys what kind of a hospital? –
r. རང་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་གནམ་གྲུ་མང་པོ་ཤར་གླིང་དབུས་མར་དམག་བརྒྱབ་པའི་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་གྱིས་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
ra̲ŋgyɛɛkiì sö̲ö̀bɛɛ nə̅mdru mə_ŋgu shārliŋ ǖǖmar māà gyə̲bɛɛ gyɛ̲ɛ̲gəbki ñö̲ö̀bəree`
our country by made nom.-of airplanes many middle east-to war fight-of country by
bought past compl./
Many airplanes which were made by our country were bought by countries fighting a
war in the Middle East.
The core of example r. is རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ཀྱིས་གནམ་གྲུ་ཉོས་པ་རེད་," countries bought airplanes."
It is elaborated by means of a complex nominalized verb construction. In the above
example, the first segment — རང་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་གནམ་གྲུ་མང་པོ་ — is the object (what did they
buy?). The second segment — ཤར་གླིང་དབུས་མར་དམག་བརྒྱབ་པའི་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་གྱིས་ — is the subject. It
breaks down into the main subject, " by countries" (རྒྱལ་ཁབ་གྱིས) modified by a long
nominalized verbal phrase "who are fighting a war in the Middle East" (ཤར་གླིང་དབུས་མར་
དམག་བརྒྱབ་པའི་). The order of the subject and object phrases could be reversed:
s. ཤར་གླིང་དབུས་མར་དམག་བརྒྱབ་པའི་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ཀྱིས་རང་རྒྱལ་གྱིས་བཟོས་པའི་གནམ་གྲུ་མང་པོ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
shārliŋ ǖǖmar māà gyə_bɛɛ gyɛ̲ɛ̲gəbki ra_ŋgyɛɛkiì sö̲ö̀bɛɛ nə̅mdru mə_ŋgu ñö̲ö̀bəree`
middle east-to war fight-of country by our country by made no.-of airplanes many
bought past compl./
Many airplanes which were made by our country were bought by countries fighting a
war in the Middle East.
6.6.2 Negative nominalized constructions with པ་/བ་
Negative nominalized constructions parallel earlier forms, མ་ being used with past
verbs and མི་ with non-past verbs.
a. ཡུལ་དེར་ཡར་རྒྱས་མི་གཏོང་བ་ནི་ནོར་འཁྲུལ་ཆེན་པོ་རེད།
place that-to improve no send nom. as-for mistake big is/
Not improving that place (in the future or present) is a big mistake. Or,
Not making improvements to that place is a big mistake.
b. ཡུལ་དེར་ཡར་རྒྱས་མ་བཏང་བ་ནི་ནོར་འཁྲུལ་ཆེན་པོ་རེད།
place that-to improve no sent nom. as-for mistake big is/
Not improving the area (in the past) was a big mistake. Or,
Not having made improvements to that place was a big mistake.
c. སོན་གསར་པ་མ་བཏབ་པའི་གྲོང་གསེབ་དེ་ཚོ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་འདུག།
seed new no plant nom.-of village that pl. poor very exis /
Those villages which did not plant the new seeds are very poor.

Note that changing the tense of the verb བཏབ་ to present tense (འདེབས་) in sentence d.
changes the tense of that part of the sentence
d. སོན་གསར་པ་མི་འདེབས་པའི་གྲོང་གསེབ་དེ་ཚོ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་འདུག།
seed new no plant nom.-of village that pl. poor very exis/
Those villages that are not planting the new seeds are very poor.
Nominalized verb phrases are frequently used with other verbs such as "know" and "see"
to convey the idea that the nominal action was "known" or "seen." For example
e. ཁོས་མོ་སོ་པ་ཡིན་པ་ཤེས་པ་རེད།
he-by she spy is nom.know past compl./
He knew that she was a spy. (lit., He — her being a spy — knew.)
f. ངས་ཆོས་རར་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ཞལ་འདོན་གནང་བཞིན་པ་མཐོང་བྱུང་།
i-by religious class monk pl. by pray (h.) do (h.) pres. compl. saw got/
I saw the monks praying in the study area.
Note that both these verbs (མཐོང་ and ཤེས་) require their subjects to be in the instrumental
6.6.3 Nominalized constructions with the dative-locative
When the dative-locatie is used in conjunction with a nominalized verb a variety
of functions are expressed. We have already seen how this is used to express the
a. ཁོས་ཚོང་ཁང་ནས་དེབ་ཅིག་ཉོ་བར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
he-by store from book one buy nom.-to went compl./
He went to buy a book from the (a) store.
A second very important use of the dative-locative is to express the idea of "to" or
"concerning" the verbal action. It typically becomes the object of the verbal action.
b. ཁོས་མེ་མདའ་ཉོ་བར་ཁོ་ཚོས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he-by gun bought nom.-to he pl.-by criticism did past compl./
They criticized his buying guns.
This phrase literally translates as: "To concerning his buying gans, they criticized."
c. ཁོས་བྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་ཉོས་པའི་སོན་དེ་བཏབ་པར་མི་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་ངོ་རྒོལ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he-by foreign country fom bought nom.-of seed that people several by opposition
did past compl./
Several people opposed his planting seeds that had been bought from abroad.
(concerning planting that seed that was bought from abroad, ...)
In b., the dative-locative marks "what was criticized" and in c., "what was opposed."
d. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་བྱ་དགའ་ཞིག་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།

he-by diligence by work do nom.-to prize gain fut. compl./
He will get a prize for working diligently.
The entire first clause (ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་) literally would be translated as
"to concerring his doing work diligently, ..."
The dative-locative particle may be preceded by a determinative.
e. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པ་དེར་བྱ་དགའ་ཞིག་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
he-by diligence by work do nom. that-to prize one win fut. compl./
He will get a prize for working diligently. (The work is being done in the present.)
This could also be written:
f. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པ་དེ་ལ་བྱ་དགའ་ཞིག་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
he-by diligence by work do nom. that to prize one gain fut. compl./
He will get a prize for working diligently.
If the present tense stem of the verb "do" (བྱེད་) is replaced by its past tense stem
(བྱས་), the tense of the nominalized phrase becomes past
g. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་དེ་ལ་བྱ་དགའ་ཞིག་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
he-by diligence by work do nom. that to prize one gain fut. compl./
He will get a prize for having worked diligently.
6.6.4 Negative constructions with the dative-locative
a. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱས་པ་དེ་ལ་གཞུང་གྱིས་ཉིས་པ་བཏང་བ་རེད།
he-by diligence by work no did nom. that to goverment by punishment gave past
The govermment punished his not having worked diligently. (... punished him for not
having worked diligently.)
If the present tense stem of the verb "do" (བྱེད་) is used (as in example b.), it conveys that
the work was done in the present or recent past, rather than in the more distant past.
b. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱེད་པ་དེ་ལ་གཞུང་གྱིས་ཉིས་པ་བཏང་བ་རེད།
he-by diligence by work no do nom. that to govern rent by punishment gave past
The goverment punished his not working diligently.
If the main verb is placed in the future tense, for example གཏོང་བེ་རེད་ in example c.,
then the overall meaning of the sentence changes to future tense.
c. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱེད་པ་དེ་ལ་གཞུང་གྱིས་ཉིས་པ་གཏོང་གི་རེད།
he-by diligence by work no do nom. that to government by ptmishment gave fut.
The goverment will punish him for not working diligently.
For the entire meaning to be future tense, the subordinate clause must have a conditional

clause connective such as ན་ . This is seen in example d.
d. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱེད་ན་གཞུང་གྱིས་ཉིས་པ་གཏོང་གི་རེད།
he-by diligence by work no do if goverment by punishment give fut. compl./
The govermnent will punish him if (he) does not work diligently.
This type of sentence can be further complicated by nesting two nominalized phrases one
within the other, for example, compare e. and f.
e. ཁོས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱི་སོན་མི་འདེབས་པ་དེར་ཞིང་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by foreign country of seed no plant nom. that-to that farmer several by criticize
do present compl./
Several farmers are criticizing his not planting the foreign seeds.
f. ཁོས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་ཉོས་པའི་སོན་མི་འདེབས་པ་དེར་ཞིང་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོ་ད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by foreign country from bought nom.-of of seed no plant nom. that-to that people
several by criticize do present compl./
Several farmers are criticizing his not planting the seeds bought from aboad.
In example f. the core phrase is ཁོས་སོན་མི་འདེབས་པ་དེར་ . Within that, another nominalized
phrase has been inserted to modify "seed" ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་ཉོས་པའི་ . We could further expand on
this by inserting a time slot word or phrase such as "this year" (ད་ལོ་), altering the meaning
considerably depending where it is inserted. In sentence g. below, the criticism is
occurrng this year. In sentence h. they are criticizing his not planting the seed bought this
year from abroard, and in sentence i. they are criticizing his not planting this year the seed
bought from abroad.
g. ཁོས་ཕྱའི་རྒྱལ་ནས་ཉོས་པའི་སོན་མི་འདེབས་པ་དེར་ཞིང་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་ད་ལོ་སྐྱོན་བཛོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by foreign fom bought nom.-gen. seed no plant nom. that-to farmer
several by this-year criticize pres. compl./
This year several farmers are criticizing his not planting the seeds bought abroad.
h. ཁོས་ད་ལོ་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་ཉོས་པའི་སོན་མི་འདེབས་པ་དེར་ཞིང་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by this-year foreign from bought nom.- gen. seed no plant nom. that-to famer
several by criticize pres. compl./
Several farmers are criticizing his not planting the seed bought fron abroad this year.
i. ཁོས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་ཉོས་པའི་སོན་ད་ལོ་མི་འདེབས་པ་དེར་ཞིང་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by foreign from bought nom.-gen. seed this-year no plant that-to famer several by
criticize pres. compl./
Several farmers are criticizing his not planting this year the seed bought from abroad.
Note that མི་འདེབས་པ་དེར་ could also be written མི་འདེབས་པར་ .
j. ཁོས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་ཉོས་པའི་སོན་ད་ལོ་མི་འདེབས་པར་ཞིང་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by foreign from bought nom.-gen. seed this-year no plant nom.-to farmer
several by criticize pres. compl./

Several farmers are criticizing him for not planting the seed bought from
abroad this year.
Sometimes, however, it is more appropriate to use the English "without" for negative
nominalized constructions with the dative-locative.
k. རྒྱུ་མཚན་མེད་པར་ཁོ་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟ་བ་རེད།
reason not-exist nom.-to he angry past compl./
He got angry without reason (for no reason).
Note that the subject of the above example (ཁོ་) does not have to be accompanied by the
instrumental case since the verb ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟ་ is involuntary.
l. བོད་ནས་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་མ་ཕྱིན་པར་འདིར་ཡོང་བ་རེད་།
tibet from india to no went nom.-to this-to come past compl./
(He, she, they) cane here from Tibet without going to India.
The above sentence could be translated literally as: "In the manner of not having gone to
India, (he, she, they) came here from Tibet"
6.7 The use of རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ or ཡག་
རྒྱུ་,ཡས་ and ཡག་ are important multi-functional particles.
6.7.1 Future constructions
In future contexts (indicated by a future temporal word such as སང་ཉིན་ or ཕྱི་ལོ་ or
དོ་དགོང་) the particles ཡས་ or རྒྱུ་,when followed by a linking verb, express simple future
a. ཁོ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་རེད།
he tomorrow go gyu-fut./
He will go(be going) tomorrow.
b. ཁོ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་ཡས་རེད།
he tomorrow go ya-fut./
He will go (be going) tomorrow.
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཕྱི་ལོ་དགོན་པ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་རྒྱག་བརྒྱུ་མ་རེད།
he pl.-by next year monastery new build gyu-fut. neg./
They will not build a new monastery next year.
d. དོ་དགོང་ཁོང་རྣམས་གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེར་ཕེབས་ཡས་མ་རེད།
tonight he (h.) pl. shigatse to go ya-fut. neg./
They (h.) will not go to Shigatse tonight.
e. ཁོས་དོ་དགོང་འདིར་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་རྒྱུ་རེད།
he-by tonight here food eat gyu fut./

He is going to eat here tonight.
རྒྱུ་ can also convey the substantially different meaning of "has not been done yet"
or "has yet to be done," regarding the verbal action. Generally it functions this way
following a question that asks whether the verbal action has been done. For example,
f. (ཁོས་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་པས?) ཁོས་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་རྒྱུ་རེད།
he-by food eat gyu-fut./
(Did he eat?) He has yet to eat.
g. ཁོས་དོ་དགོང་གི་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་རྒྱུ་རེད།
he-by tonight of food eat gyu-fut./
He has yet to eat dinner.
h. ཁོས་རྡོ་རྗེ་ལགས་ལ་ཡི་གེ་ཞིག་གཏོང་རྒྱུ་རེད།
he-by dorje to letters end gyu is/
He has yet to write Dorje (send Dorje a letter).
In the above types of sentence, ཡས་ cannot be substituted for རྒྱུ་ to convey the "has
yet to do" meaning. It always conveys the simple future tense.
i. ཁོས་རྡོ་རྗེ་ལགས་ལ་ཡི་གེ་ཞིག་གཏོང་ཡས་རེད།
he-by dorje to letters end ya-fut./
He will write Dorje (send Dorje a letter).
6.7.2 Past constructions
རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ are also used togetherwith the verb བྱུང་ ("got") to express the idea that
"someone got or did not get a chance or opportunity or possibility" to do the verbal
action. For example,
a. ཁོ་ཁྲོམ་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་བྱུང་སོང་།
he market to go gyu got went compl./
He got a chance to go to the market.
b. ཁོས་ཁང་པ་རྒྱག་ཡས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
he-by house build ya got past compl./
He got an opportunity to build a house.
c. མོས་ཁང་པ་རྒྱག་ཡས་མ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
she-by house build ya neg. got past compl./
She did not get a chance to build a house.
d. ང་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་མ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
i school-to go gyu no got/
I did not get a chance to go to school.

6.7.3 Existential constructions
རྒྱུ་ conveys the idea of "shouldn't do the verbal action" when used in the following
pattern: vb. + རྒྱུ་ + negative existential verb.
a. ཐེངས་གཅིག་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཟ་རྒྱུ་མི་འདུག།
time one to food a lot eat gyu no-exist/
(One) should not eata lot of food at one time.
b. དེབ་འདི་ཀློག་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
book this read gyu no-exis/
(One) should not read this book.
c. ཁྱོད་ན་གྱི་ཡོད་ཚེ་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་མི་འདུག།
you sick pres. if/ work do gyu no-exist/
If you are sick, (you) should not work.
ཡས་ is also used in this type of construction but conveys the totally different
meaning of "there is not."
d. ཁ་ལག་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཟ་ཡས་མི་འདུག།
food a lot eat ya no-exis/
There is not a lot of food to eat (for eating).
e. ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཡས་མེད་ཙང་། ཁོ་ཚོ་ཟ་ཁང་གསར་པ་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་བར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
work do ya no-exist because/ restaurant new to food eat inf. went compl./
Because there was no work, (they) went to the new restaurant to eat.
Unfortunately, the complexity of these two particles does not end here because རྒྱུ་
can also convey the above meaning of ཡས་ . For example,
f. མི་དམངས་ཀྱི་ཡོང་འབབ་ཞེ་དྲགས་འཕར་ཙང་། ཁྲོམ་ལ་ད་པྲང་པོ་མཐོང་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
people of income a lot increase because/ market-to beggar see gyu no-exist/
Because the income of the people increased a lot, (one) does not see any beggars in
the market.
g. དེང་སང་ཁོ་པ་ཚོར་འབྲས་དང་གྲོ་ཞིབ་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
these days he pl.-to rice and flour eat gyu no exist/
These days they do not have rice and flour to eat (for eating).
Semantic context will ultimately determine which of these རྒྱུ་ meanings is intended in any
particular case.
6.7.4 Other constructions
རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ also nominalize verbs in the manner of པ་/བ་,but only for present or
future time. For example, ཚོང་ཁང་འཛུགས་རྒྱུ་ can mean "the future establishing of a store."
In the first two examples below, the nominalized constructions (with རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་)

occur with existential constructions.
a. མོར་ཡི་གེ་གཏོང་རྒྱུ་ཁ་ཤས་འདུག།
he-to letters end gyu several exist/
She has several letters to mail. (To her there exist several letters for mailing in the
b. མོར་ཡི་གེ་གཏོང་ཡས་ཁ་ཤས་འདུག།
she-to letters end ya several exist/
She has several letters to mail.
In the next series of examples, རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ occur with active and involuntary
verbs, functioning as the object.
c. ཁང་པ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་རྒྱག་རྒྱུ་གཏན་འཁེལ་བ་རེད།
house new one build gu decide past compl./
(He, she, etc.) decided to build a new house. ( What was decided? — the building of a
new house was decided.)
d. ཁོས་དེབ་ཉོ་ཡས་ཀྱི་དངུལ་བརླགས་པ་རེད་།
he-by book buy ya of money lost past compl./
He lost the money (which was) for buying books. (What did he lose? — the money
for buying books.
e. ཁང་པ་རྒྱག་རྒྱུའི་གྲ་སྒྲིག་བྱས་པ་རེད།
house build gu-of preparation did past compl./
(He, she, etc.) made preparations for building a house. (What did they make
preparation for? — the building of a house.)
f. ཁོ་པ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུའི་འཆར་གཞི་དེ་གཏན་འཁེལ་མ་སོང་།
he china to go gyu-of plan that decided no went compl./
The plan for his going to China was not decided. (What was not
decided? — the plan for him to go to China.)
g. ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ལ་གཏོང་ཡས་ཀྱི་སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚོས་དབྱིན་ཇི་སྐད་ཡིག་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
abroad to send ya-of student pl.-by english language study do pres. compl./
The students who are going to be sent abroad are studing (spoken and written)
English. (What students are studying English? — those ho are beng sent
h. རྒྱ་གར་ནས་འབྱོར་རྒྱུའི་བླ་མ་རྣམས་འབྲས་སྤུངས་ལ་བཞུགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
india from arirve gyu-of lama pl. drepung to stay fut. compl./
The lamas who are arriving from India will stay in Drepung (monastery).
(What lamas will stay in Drepung? — those who will arrive from India.)
A somewhat idiomatic pattern consists of verb. (non-past) + རྒྱུ་ + བྱེད་ . Together they
convey the meaning that someone has "settled or decided" to do the verbal action.

i. ཁོ་ཚོས་བོད་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he pl.-by tibet to go gyu did past compl./
They decided to go to Tibet.
An important distinction between genitive (ཡས་ཀྱི་) and dative-locative (ཡས་ལ་)
constructions emerges in constructions ending in exisrential verbs. For example, in j., the
nominalized phrase plus the genitive modifies the subject, the "book," describing what
kind of a book it is (it is a book for studing Tibetan). In example k., the same
nominalized phrase, this time with the dative-locative, conveys what the "book" is good
for (it is good for studing Tibetan).
j. བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྤྱོང་བྱེད་ཡས་ཀྱི་དེབ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག
tibetan study do ya of book this good exist/
This book for studing Tibetan is good.
k. བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་ཡས་ལ་དེབ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག
tibetan language study do ya to book this good exist/
This book is good for studing Tibetan.
This sentence could also have been written
l. དེབ་འདི་བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་ཡས་ལ་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
book this tibetan study do ya to good exist
This book is good for studing Tibetan.
m. ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་རྒྱུའི་ཚལ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
food make gyu-of vegetable this good exist/
This vegetable for making food is good. (This vegetable, which is for making
food, is good.)
n. ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་རྒྱུ་ལ་ཚལ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
food make gu-to vegetable this good exist/
This vegetable is good for making food (cooking). (For making food — this vegetablle
is good.)
The dative-locative is also used with རྒྱུ་ and ཡས་ + active verbs (as in example o.),
creating indirect objects that convey the notion of "to" or "concerning" or "for."
o. གཞུང་གིས་གོ་ཚོར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་རྒྱུར་དངུལ་གཡར་གྱི་རེད།
goverment by he pl.-to help do gu-to money lend fut. compl./
The goverment will lend money to help them.
p. ཁོ་ཚོས་མེ་མདའ་རྙིང་པ་ཉོ་རྒྱུར་ལས་བྱེད་པ་ཚོས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he pl.-by gum old buy gyu-to official pl.-by criticism did past compl./
The officials criticized their buying old guns.

6.8 The "pretend" particles ཁུལ་,མདོག་,མདོག་བདོག་,ཟོལ་,and ཚུལ་
The "pretend to" connectives are used with verbs to convey the idea that the
subject is pretending to do the verbal action. They are commonly followed by the verb
"to do."
In the first three examples the genitive particle links ཁུལ་ with the verb. This is a
very common pattern.
a. ཁོས་གྲོགས་པོ་ཡིན་པའི་ཁུལ་བྱས་ནས་མགོ་སྐོར་བཏང་བ་རེད།
he-by friend is nom.-gen. pretend did having trick send past compl.
Pretending he was a friend, (he) tricked (him/ her/ them).
b. སྟག་དེས་ཉིད་ཁུག་པའི་ཚུལ་བྱས་ཏེ་ཉལ་བཞིན་ཡོད།
tiger that-by fall asleep nom.-gen. pretend did having lied down pres. compl./
That tiger is lying there pretending to have fallen asleep.
c. ཚོང་པས་འཛིན་ཆས་རྙིང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་ཟོལ་བྱས་ནས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱི་མི་ཞིག་ལ་བཙོང་པ་རེད།
trader-by furniture antique is nom.- gen. pretend did having foreign of person one to
sold past compl./
The trader, pretending the furniture was antique, sold it to a foreigner.
d. ཁོས་གྲོགས་པོ་ཡིན་མཁོག་མདོག་བྱས་ནས་མགོ་སྐོར་བཏང་བ་རེད།
he-by friend is nom.- gen. pretend did haing trick send past compl./
Pretending he was a friend, (he/ she) tricked (him/ her/ them).
e. ཧ་མ་གོ་ན་ཧ་གོ་མ་དོག་མ་བྱེད།
understand if understand pretend no do/
If (you) don't understand, don't pretend to understand.
f. ཁོས་གྲོགས་པོ་ཡིན་ཁུལ་གྱིས་མགོ་སྐོར་བཏང་བ་རེད།
he-by friend is pretend by trick send past compl./
Rretending he was a friend, (he) tricked (him/ them).
g. ཚོང་པས་ཆུ་ཚོད་རྙིང་མ་ཡིན་ཟོལ་གྱིས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱི་མི་ཞིག་ལ་བཙོང་པ་རེད།
trader-by clock old is by foreigner one to sold past compl./
The trader, pretending the clock was old (antique), sold it to the foreigner.
A related but not identical usage conveys a negative connotation but not quile
h. ཁོ་སློབ་གྲྭ་ཐོན་པའི་ཁུལ་རེད།
he school graduated nom.-gen. pretend is/
He has graduated (from) school (but (I) don't think he knows much).
i. པད་མ་ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀ་ནས་ཚུར་ལོག་ཕེབས་ནས་ཨིན་སྐད་ཤེས་པའི་ཁུལ་རེད།
pema america from hither retur come (h.) having engish know pretend is
Pema has returned (hither) from America, but (I) don't think she knows English well.

In still other conexts this clause connective conveys not the pejorative meaning
of "pretend to," or "doubt," but rather Tibetan politeness. If someone offers a
compliment, Tibetan custom holds that one should deny it, even if it is obviously true.
Thus, if someone says you know Tibetan well, even if you are completely fluent, you are
expected to disagree and say you know only a little. The particle ཁུལ་ is sometimes used
for this function when, for example, someone says, "Dorje is now a great scholar and you
were his teacher," and the person does not want to say "Yes, I was." Tibetans sometimes
use ཁུལ་ in this context to convey politely something less than a straight affirmatvie, for
example, "I am sort of his teacher" or "I suppose I am his teacher." Basically, it means I
am his teacher, but it is a modest and polite mode of expressing this.
j. ང་ཁོའི་དགེ་རྒན་ཡིན་པའི་ཁུལ་རེད།
i he-of teacheris nom.-of pretend is/
I am supposed to be his teacher.
This "distancing" can also be used when the "student" is a bad person, in which case it
dissociates him from the student. It can also be used to modestly aoid taking credit for
k. (ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ཕྱག་ལས་གནང་ཚར་སོང་ངམ་) ངའི་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་ཚར་བའི་ཁུལ་ཡིན།
(you by work (h.) finish do past compl. ?) i-of work finish nom. gen. pretend is/
(Is your work finished?) My work is supposed to be fnished [Actual he doesn't
want to take credit for it, but it is finished]
6.9 The auxiliary verb ཐུབ་ ("to be able")
This verb has only only one stem and occurs immediately after the verb it
modifies. It conveys the idea of "to be able" to do the action of the verb it modifies. ཐུབ་
takes the various verb complements (both positive and negative) the same as an other
a. རྒྱ་གར་ལ་བཞུགས་པའི་གྲྭ་པ་ཚོ་བོད་ལ་གཟིགས་སྐོར་ལ་ཕེབས་ཐུབ་པ་རེད།
india to live (h.) no.-of monk pl. tibet to tour to go (h.) able past compl./
The monks who live in India were able to go to Tibet on a ("sightseeing") tour.
b. རྒྱ་གར་ལ་བཞུགས་པའི་གྲྭ་པ་ཚོ་བོད་ལ་གནས་སྐོར་ལ་ཕེབས་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
india to live (h.) nom.-of monk pl. tibet to pilgrimage to go (h.) able fut. compl./
The monks who live in India will be able to go to Tibet on a pilgrimage.
c. སློབ་ཕྲུག་དེ་ལ་དངུལ་མང་པོ་མེད་སྟབས་འཛིན་ཆས་ཉོ་ཐུབ་མ་སོང་།
student that to money much no exist because furniture buy able not went compl./
Because that student hasn't got much money, (he) was unable to buy furniture.
d. ད་ལོ་ཞིང་ཁ་མང་པོ་བཏབ་ཐུབ་ཙང་ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་ཅ་ལག་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཉོ་ཐུབ་པ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།

this year field many planted able because farmer pl.-by thing very much buy able
past compl./
Because they were able to plant many fields this year, famers were able to buy
many things.
e. མོ་དོ་དགོང་ཁྲོམ་ལ་འགྲོ་ཐུབ་ན་ཤ་དང་ཚལ་ཉོ་གི་རེད།
she tonight market to go able if meat and vegetable buy fut. compl./
If she is able to go to the market tonight, (she) will buy meat and vegetables.
f. འདམ་སེང་དེས་མཆོངས་མ་ཐུབ་ཙང་རི་བོང་ཐར་བ་རེད།
lion that by jump no able because rabbit escape past compl./
Because the lion was unable to jump, the rabbit escaped.
6.10 Reading exercise: "AWolf Has Arrived"
6.10.1 Tibetan text
གཙང་རྒྱལ་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁོང་ས་སུ་ཕྲུ་གུ་ཞིག་གིས་ཉིན་ལྟར་ལུག་ཁྱུ་གཅིག་དེད་ནས་རི་སྟེང་དུ་འཚོ་བར་འགྲོ་ཡི་ཡོད། ཉིན་ཞིག་ཕྲུ་གུ་
དེས་གློ་བུར་དུ་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་ཞེས་སྐད་ཐེང་ས་ཁ་ཤས་བརྒྱབ། རི་ལྡེབས་སུ་ཞིང་ཁ་འདེབས་མཁན་དང་། མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་
སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་། མི་རྣམས་ཕྲུ་གུའི་འགྲམ་དུ་སླེབས་སྐབས་ལུག་རྣམས་རྩ་ཟ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་ནས་ཚང་མས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་སྤྱང་ཀི་
ག་པར་འདུག་གམ་ཞེས་སྐད་ཆ་འདྲི་སྐབས་ཁོ་པས་ཧ་ཧ་ཞེས་གད་མོ་དགོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད། དེ་ནི་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་རྩེད་མོ་རྩེ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་ཤེས་
སྟབས་ཚང་མ་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་ན་ས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་རྗེས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་ལོག་ཕྱིན། ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་
ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པའི་སྐབས་སུ་སླར་ཡང་ལུག་རྫི་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེས་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། ཞེས་སྐད་བརྒྱབ་པ་ཐོས་
ཏེ་ཚང་མས་སྔར་བཞིན་ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་ཟོར་ར་དང་། རྐོ་མ་འཁྱེར་ནས་ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་། ཡིན་ན་ཡང་མི་རྣམས་ལུག་
བ་དང་ནང་ལ་ལོག་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད། དེ་ནས་སླར་ཡང་ཉིན་ཁ་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་།
མགྱོགས་པོ་སྤྱང་ཀི་གསོད་པར་ཤོག་ཅེས་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱབ། ཡིན་ནའང་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་མཁན་མ་སླེབས། འོན་ཀྱང་ད་རེས་
ནི་སྤྱང་ཀི་ད་ངོས་འབྲེལ་སླེབས་ཤིང་། སྤྱང་གིས་ཁ་ཆེན་པོ་གདང་བཞིན་པར་ལུག་ལ་སོ་བརྒྱབ་པ་དང་། ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེར་
ཡང་སོ་རྒྱག་པར་ཡོང་། ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། མགྱོགས་པོ་སྤྱང་ཀི་གསོད་པར་ཤོག་ཞེས་
སྐད་རྒྱག་བཞིན་དུ་བྲོས་ཕྱིན། འོན་ཀྱང་ཁོ་པར་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་མཁན་གཅིག་ཀྱང་མ་བྱུང་། སྟབས་ལེགས་པ་ཞིག་ལ་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་རི་
ལྡེབས་ནས་མར་རིལ་སྟབས་ཁོ་པའི་སྲོག་ཐར་ཐུབ་པ་རེད། འོན་ཀྱང་ཁོ་པའི་ལུག་ཁྱུ་རྣམས་སྤྱང་ཀིས་ཚང་མ་བཟོས་སོ།།

6.10.2 Interlinear translation
wolf arrive past
1. tsang gyantse district belong to child one by day every sheep herd one herd having
hill on to look-after inf. go usu. compl./ one day child
2. that-by suddenly wolf arrive past quote voice times several did/ hill side to fileld plant
agentive and/ firewood collect
3. agentive pl.-by wolf arrive past quote-gen. cry heard as-soon all-by work leave
having sickle and axe etc. carry having sheep
4. save-inf. come/ person plural child-of side to arrive time sheep plural grass eat pres.
compl. see having all-by child that-to wolf
5. where exist?/ quote ask when he-by ha ha quote laugh pres. compl./ that as-for child
that-by play pres. compl. nom.
6. know because all angry having child that-to criticize did after work do infnitive
return went/ day few went after people plural by
7. work do when to again shepherd small that-by wolf arrive past/ wolf arrive past/
quote yelled nom. heard
8. having all-by before like work leave having sickle and/axe car having sheep save
infinitive come/ nevertheless person plural shepherd
9. that-of presence to arrive when wolf no-exist because again child that-by trick
nom. people plural by know having child that-to scold did
10. and home to return went compl./ that afrer (from) again day several went afer child
that-by wolf arrive past/ wolf arrive past/
11. quick wolf kill infnitivecome quote say loud did/ however help do agentive no
arive/ however this-time
12. as-for wolf reall arrive having/ wolf-by mouth big open manner-to sheep to bite and/
child small that-to[ ]
13. even bite infnitive come/ child that-by wolf arive past/ wolf arrive past/ quick wolf
kill infnitive come quote
14. yell manner fled went/ however, he-to save infnitive come agentive one even no got/
fortunately child that-to hill
15. side fom downward fall because he-of life escape able past compl./ however he-of
sheep herd plural wolf-by all ate sentence-final
6.10.3 Translation
AWolf Has Arrived
In Tsang's Gyantse district, evey day a child would herd a flock of sheep, going
to look afier them in the mountains. One day, that child suddenly shouted several times,
"A wolf has arrived." As soon as those who were collecting firewood and farming on the
side of the mountain heard the shout "A wolf has arrived," everyone left their work and

came carrying sickles and pickaxes to protect the sheep. When they arrived in the
presence of the child, (they) saw the sheep grazing on grass and when all asked the boy,
"Where is the wolf?" he laughed, "ha ha." As for that, they knew then the boy was
playing a trick on them and got angry and criticized the boy. Then they retured to work.
A few days afrer that when the people were working, once again (they) heard that small
shepherd yell out, "A wolf has arrived. A wolf has arrived." As before, (when) they
heard (this), all left their work carrying sickles and pickaxes and came to protect the
sheep. However, when the people arrived in the presence of the shepherd, because there
was no wolf, the people again knew that the child had tricked them. (They) scolded the
child and (then) retured home. Afer that, after a few days had passed, once again the
child cried out loudly, " A wolf has arrived. A wolf has arrived. Come quickly to kill the
wolf." Nevertheless, no helpers came. However, that day a wolf really arived. The wolf
opening his mouth wide, bit (the) sheep and came to bite that child. The child fled
shouting, "A wolf has arrived. A wolf has arrived. Come quickly to kill the wolf."
Nevertheless, not even one person came to save him. Fortunately, because that child fell
down the side of the mountain, he escaped (death). However, the wolf ate his entire herd
of sheep.
6.10.4 Grammatical notes
l . The first segment consists of the title སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་ .
The title is a quotation from the story. It is a simple invollmtary verb construction
so the subject, wolf (སྤྱང་ཀི་), is not placed in the instrumental case. The verb སླེབས་ is a one
stem verb whose tense is determined by the verbal complement བྱུང་ .
One might expect that the སོང་ third person past complement would have been
used with སླེབས་ instead of the བྱུང་ first person past compiement. However, བྱུང་ is used
here to convey that the wolf arrived at the location where the speaker is. This is a
common rule. For example, while སོང་ is used in ཁོ་བོད་ལ་སླེབས་སོང་ ("He arrived in Tibet"),
བྱུང་ is used in ཁོ་འདིར་སླེབས་བྱུང་ ("He arrived here"). Similarly, the sentence ཁོ་ཁ་སང་སླེབས་བྱུང་
("He arrived yesterday") conveys that "he" came to the place where the speaker is.
2. The second segment consists of two clauses 1 . གཙང་རྒྱལ་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁོང་ས་སུ་ཕྲུ་གུ་ཞིག་གིས་ཉིན་ལྟར་ལུག་
ཁྱུ་གཅིག་དེད་ནས་ 2. རི་སྟེང་དུ་འཚོ་བར་འགྲོ་ཡི་ཡོད་ .
The first clause states where the action occurred — in an unnamed place that
belongs to or is a part of (ཁོངས་སུ་)Tsang (province)'s Gyantse district (རྫོང་). It is followed
by the subject marked by the instrumental case particle (ཕྲུ་གུ་ཞིག་གོས་ - "by a child").
Because of the instrumental particle, we know that an actvie verb will appear somewere
down the line. But first a time-slot phrase is used: ཉིན་ལྟར་ ("every day"). This is followed
by the object (ལུག་ཁྱུ་གཅིག་ - "a flock of sheep") and then the active verb (དེད་ - "herded").

Together they convey the meaning: "In (a place) belonging to Tsang's Gyantse district, a
child herded a flock of sheep every day."
This is linked to the second clause by the ནས་ clause connective which here
conveys: 1) that the second clause occurred simultaneously with the first clause, and 2)
clarifies how the first clause occurred: he herded them in the manner of going to look
after them in the mountains.
The second clause implicitly continues the subject ("the child") fom the frst
clause, elaborating on what he did and where. It begins with a location phrase telling
where the main verb ( འགྲོ་ - "go") occurred, i.e., "on (or in) the mountan" (རི་སྟེང་དུ་). This
is followed by the infnitive phrase "goes to look after/ take care of" (འཚོ་བར་འགྲོ་ཡི་ཡོད་),
which breaks down into the main verb འགྲོ་ ("to go") and the infntivized verb འཚོ་བར་ ("to
take care of/ look after"). The object, the sheep flock, is implicit.
The second clause ends with the usual verb complement ཡི་ཡོད་,the clause thus
meaning," goes to look after in the mountains." Both clauses together mean, "A child
was herding a flock of sheep ever day by going to look after (them) in the mountains."
3. The third segment consists of one sentence that contains a quotation ཉིན་ཞིག་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་གློ་བུར་
It begins with the time-slot term ཉིན་ཞིག་ ("one day"), followed by the subject
modified by a demonstrative in the instrumental case ( ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་ - "by that child"). This is
followed by the adverbial phrase གློ་བུར་དུ་ ("suddenly"), which modifies the main active
verb སྐད་བརྒྱབ་ ("shouted"). Thus, the subject "suddenly shouted."
What he shouted follows in the form of a simple involuntary sentence meaning "A
wolf has arrived" (སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་). It is immediately followed by the quotation marking
particle and the main active verb. However, the main verb phrase is split by another
adverbial phrase meaning "several times" (ཐེང་ས་ཁ་ཤས་). Thus, "That child suddenly
shouted several times."
4. The fourth segment consists of 4 clauses l . རི་ལྡེབས་སུ་ཞིང་ཁ་འདེབས་མཁན་དང་། མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མཁན་
ཚོས་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་ཞེས་པའི་འབོད་སྒྲ་ཐོས་མ་ཐག་ 2. ཚང་མས་ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་ 3. ཟོར་ར་དང་རྐོ་མ་བཅས་འཁྱེར་ཏེ་
4. ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་ .
The long first clause has as its core a simple involuntary verb construction:
subject ("the planters and firewood collectors") + verb ("heard"- ཐོས་) + object ("a
cry/shout"- འབོད་སྒྲ་). The rest of the clause elaborates this event.
The clause begins with a phrase telling the location of the action: "on the face/side
of the mountain" (རི་ལྡེབས་སུ་). It is followed by a compound subject (x + y), each half of
which is a nominalized phrase. The first half of the subject is ཞིང་ཁ་འདེབཁས་མཁན་ ("persons

who were planting fields"). This phrase has been nominalized by the agentive particle
མཁན་,which was discussed in 5.16.
This is linked to the other half of the subject by the conjunctive particle དང་
("and"). It is also a verbal phrase that has been nominalized by the agentive particle མཁན་
("persons who were collecting firewood"). It is followed by ཚོས་, which consists of a
pluralizing particle (ཚོ་) and the instrumental particle ས་ . This conveys that there were a
number of "firewood collectors" and "sowers," and that they did something, i.e., that they
are the subject of an active sentence.
This is followed by a quotation of what the child said ("A wolf has arrived" — སྤྱང་
ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་), followed in turn by the quotation particle ཞེས་ . However, the quotation particle
is parto of a nominalized construction ཞེས་པའི་འབོད་སྒྲ་ ("a cry which said ..."). Finally we
get the involuntary verb ཐོས་,which means "to hear." Thus the subject heard the boy
crying out, "A wolf has arived." Note that we know this is a subordinate verb since it is
involuntary — it cannot convey the action of the subject in the instrumental case.
This clause is linked to the next by the "immediate" clause connective མ་ཐག་ ("as
soon as"- -see 6.2). Thus the clause finally says, "As soon as the sowers and collectors
heard the cry which said ... ."
The second clause ( ཚང་མས་ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་) starts to explain what action the took
when they heard this. It begins with a subject in the instrumental case ("by everyone" —
ཚང་མས་) followed by the verbal phrase ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ . This breaks down into the noun "work"
(ལས་ཀ་) and the verb "to leave" (བཞག་), so that the clause means "everone left (his)
work." This is linked to the next clause by the ནས་ clause connective which here conves
a temporal relationship: having done A, B took place.
Clause three (ཟོར་ར་དང་རྐོ་མ་བཅས་འ་ཁྱེར་ཏེ་) explains what took place. It has an implicit
subject from clause two (i.e., ཚང་མས་). It begins with a compound object phrase, "sickle
and pickaxe" (ཟོར་ར་དང་རྐོ་མ་), followed by the inclusive particle བཅས་,which indicates that
this listing of the two items is exhaustive (see 6.4 ). This is followed by the verb "carry"
(འཁྱེར་) and the clause connective ཏེ་,which indicates simultaneous action with the next
clause. Thus this clause means that while someone was "carrying pickaxes and sickles, "
simultaneously something happened.
Clause four (ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་) indicates what was done simultaneous with carring
the implements. It consists of a noum ("sheep") serving as the object of the infinitivized
verb phrase "came to protect" (སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་). Thus, clauses three and four conve, "carring
sickles and pickaxes, (everyone) came to protect (or save) the sheep."
The stucture of the entire segment is: — ཚོས་ — ཐོས་མ་ཐག་ — བཞག་ནས་ — འཁྱེ་ར་ཏེ་

— ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་ .
5. The fifth segment consists of four clauses: l. མི་རྣམས་ཕྲུ་གུའི་འགྲམ་དུ་སླེབས་སྐབས་ 2. ལུག་རྣམས་
རྩ་ཟ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་ནས་ 3. ཚང་མས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་སྤྱང་ཀི་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ་ཞེས་སྐད་ཆ་འདྲི་སྐབས་ 4. ཁོ་པས་ཧ་ཧ་
The first clause is an involluntary sentence, so the subject, "people" (མི་རྣམས་), is
not in the instruental case. Note that རྣམས་ is a pluralizing particle that is equivalent to
ཚོ་ encountered above. This is followed by the object phrase ཕྲུ་གུའི་འགྲམ་དུ་,which means "to
the side of the child," and explains where the people "arived" (སླེབས་). The སྐབས་ clause
connective links this clause to clause two, indicating that "when" the first clause took
place, the second occurred.
The second clause (ལུག་རྣམས་རྩ་ཟ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་ནས་) is an involuntary construction
conveying that an unspecified subject ("the people" from the previous clause) saw (མཐོང་)
something. What they saw was རྩ་ཟ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་ ("sheep eating grass"). Note that the use of
པ་ converts the present tense phrase "eating grass" (རྩ་ཟ་བཞིན་ཡོད་) into a nominalized
phrase that we can translate as "the eating of grass." This then functions as the object of
the verb "saw." What did they see? — the saw "the eating of grass by the sheep." The
clause connective ནས་ conves that the first clause having occurred, the next clause took
The third clause (ཚང་མས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་སྤྱང་ཀི་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ་ཞེས་སྐད་ཆ་འདྲི་སྐབས་) begins with a
subject in the instruental case (ཚང་མས་ - "by everone") followed by the object ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་
("to that child"). Next comes the direct quote, "Where is the wolf?" (སྤྱང་ཀི་ག་པར་འདུག་གམ་),
followed by the quotation marker ཞེས་ . The clause ends with the active verb "asked" (སྐད་
ཆ་འདྲི་). Thus the clause says, "Everyone one asked the child, Where is the wolf?" The
"when" clause conmectie (སྐབས་) links this clause with the next one.
The fourth clause (ཁོ་པས་ཧ་ཧ་ཞེས་གད་མོ་དགོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་) starts with a pronoun ("he") in the
instrumental case (ཁོ་པས་). Tis is followed by a quote "ha ha" (ཧ་ཧ་) and the quotation
particle. Next comes the active verb phrase "laughing" (གད་མོ་དགོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་). Together these
mean, "He was laughing ha ha ."
6. The sixth segment consists of four clauses: l. དེ་ནི་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་རྩེད་མོ་རྩེ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་ཤེས་སྟབས་ 2. ཚང་
མ་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་ནས་ 3. ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་རྗེས་ 4. ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་ལོག་ཕྱིན་ .
The first clause parallels the structure of the second clause discussed immediately
above in that it contains a direct object construction that is a nominalized verb phrase
created by པ་ . The subject of this clause is implicit, i.e., it continues to be "everone" (ཚང་
མས་). The verb is "knew" (ཤེས་). What everyone knew, the direct object, is a nominalized
verb phrase "the joking around by that child" (ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་རྩེད་མོ་རྩེ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་). In other words, the

simple active sentence, "The child was joking aound" (ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་རྩེད་མོ་རྩེ་ཀྱི་ཡོད་), was
nominalized by པ་ to become "the joking around by that child." The "because" clause
connective (སྟབས་) links this to the next clause.
Clause two is an involuntary sentence whose subject is everyone (ཚང་མ་) witout
the instrumental particle. It is followed by the involuntary verb "got angry" (ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་).
The clause connective ནས་ again conveys X having happened, Y occurred.
The subject in clause three is again implicit (i.e., " by everone"). In this clause we
first encounter the object phrase "to that child" (ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་), followed by the verb phrase
"scolded" (སྐྱོན་རྗོད་བྱས་). The clause ends with the "after"་clause connective (རྗེས་).
The final clause is an infinitive construction. The verbal phrase "work" is
infnitivized by the dative-locative particle (ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་), and is followed by a compound
verb of motion (ལོག་ཕྱིན་), which means "returned." Thus the subject (again "everone")
"retured to do work."
Note that ལོག་ཕྱིན་ consists of two verbs, " return" and "went," which together
convey, "returning went." This is a common pattern used to convey two simultaneous
actions, one of which (the second verb) is "going" or "coming." For example, ཁོས་དེབ་གཅིག་
འཁྱེར་ཡོང་བ་རེད་ means, "He came carrying a book."
Thus the core structure of this segment is — ཤེས་སྟབས་,— ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟས་ནས་,— སྐྱོན་
བརྗོད་བྱས་རྗེས་,— ལོག་ཕིན་ .
7. The seventh segment consists of five clauses l . ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་མ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེདཔའི་
སྐབས་སུ་ 2. སླར་ཡང་ལུག་རྫི་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེས་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། ཞེས་སྐད་བརྒྱབ་པ་ཐོས་ཏེ་ 3. ཚང་
མས་སྔར་བཞིན་ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་ 4. ཟོར་ར་དང་། རྐོ་མ་འཁྱེར་ནས་ 5. ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་།
The first clause begins with the short phrase ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་ . It is a standard
construction meaning "after several days" and can be treated simply as another time-slot
phrase. It is followed by a subject in the instrumental case (མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ - "by people") and
then an active verb "working" (ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་). The clause ends with the "when" clause
connective (པའི་སྐབས་སུ་). Thus together they mean, " After several days, when the people
were working."
The second clause begins with an adverbial term meaning "once again" (སླར་ཡང་),
followed by an active sentence whose core is ལུག་རྫི་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེས་ ... སྐད་བརྒྱབ་ ("by that small
herder ... cried out"). Between these is what the small herder called out — སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་།
སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་ ("a wolf has arrived, a wolf has arrived") plus the quotation particle (ཞེས་).
This active sentence is then nominalized b པ་,becoming "the shouting a wolf has come,
a wolf has come, by the small herder"). This acts as the object of the verb "heard" (ཐོས་).
He heard what? --"He heard the shouting 'a wolf has come, a wolf has come' by the small

herder." The clause ends with the ཏེ་ clause connective which here conveys "after."
Clause three begins with a subject in the instrumental case ("by everone"- ཚང་
མས་) followed by the term "like before" (སྔར་བཞིན་). Then comes the active verb phrase and
clause connective "having left (their) work" (ལས་ཀ་བཞག་ནས་).
Clause four uses "by everyone" as its implicit subject, and begins with the object
phrase "sickles and pickaxes" (ཟོར་ར་དང། རྐོ་མ་). Then the active verb "take/ carry" (འཁྱེར་
ནས་) appears with the ནས་ clause connective, conveying, "having taken (their) sickles and
Clause five is the infnitivized verb phrase encountered earlier, meaning "came to
prorect the sheep" (ལུག་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་).
8. The eighth segment consists of five clauses l . ཡིན་ན་ཡང་མི་རྣམས་ལུག་རྫི་དེའི་རྩ་ལ་སླེབས་དུས་ 2.
སྤྱང་ཀི་མེད་ཙང་ 3. སླར་ཡང་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་མགོ་སྐོར་བཏང་བ་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ཤེས་ནས་ 4. ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་གཤེ་གཤེ་བཏང་བ་དང་ 5.
The first clause is a simple involuntary construction: "The people arived" (མི་རྣམས་
སེབས). Between the subject and the verb is a phrase telling where the arrived: "in the
presence of that herder" (ལུག་རྫི་དེའི་རྩ་ལ་). The "when" connective (དུས་) links this to the next
Clause two is a simple negative existential sentence with the "because" clause
connective: "because there was no wolf" (སྤྱང་ཀི་མེདཙང་).
Clause three begins with "once again" (སླར་ཡང་), followed by a nominalized phrase
that acts as the object "the tricking [in past tense] by that child" (ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་མགོ་སྐོར་བཏང་བ་).
This is followed by the subject in the instrimental (མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་) and the verb "knew"
(ཤེས་). Thus clauses two and three convey, "Because there was no wolf, the people once
again knew that the child had tricked (them)."
Clause four begins with the object ( ཕྲུ་གུ་དེར་ - "to that child") followed by the
active verb "scolded" (གཤེ་གཤེ་བཏང་). The subject is implicit ("by the people"). This clause
is connected to the next clause of the segment by the conjunctive clause connective "and"
Clause five is the same verbal phrase we encountered earlier "returned home"
(ནང་ལ་ལོག་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད་). Thus clauses four and five convey, "The people scolded the child and
returned home."
9. The ninth segment consists of two clauses l . དེ་ནས་སླར་ཡང་ཉིན་ཁ་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་ 2. ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་སྤྱང་
ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། མགྱོགས་པོ་སྤྱང་ཀི་གསོད་པར་ཤོག་ཅེས་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱབ།
The first clause functions primarily to set the time, conveing "after that" (དེ་ནས་),
"once again" (སླར་ཡང་), and "afrer several days passed" (ཉིན་ཁ་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་).

The second clause is the same as encountered earlier except that an added
infnitivized phrase occurs that means "come to kill the wolf quickly" (མགྱོགས་པོ་སྤྱང་ཀི་གསོད་
པར་ཤོག་). This is followed by a quotation marker (ཅེས་) and the verbal phrase "cried/ called
out loudly" (སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་བརྒྱབ). Note that the adjective "big" (ཆེན་པོ་) here functions as an
adverb and is translated as "loudly."
10. The tenth segment consists of a single sentence: ཡིན་ནའང་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་མཁན་མ་སླེབས་ .
It begins with "nevertheless" (ཡིན་ནའང་), followed by a phrase nominalized by the
"agentive particle" (རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་མཁན་ - "ones who help"). It ends with the negative verb
"not arrived" (མ་སླེབས་). Thus, "Nevertheless, helpers did not arrive."
11. The eleventh segment consists of three clauses l . འོན་ཀྱང་ད་རེས་ནི་སྤྱང་ཀི་དངོས་འབྲེལ་སླེབས་ཤིང་།
2. སྤྱང་ཀིས་ཁ་ཆེན་པོ་གདང་བཞིན་པར་ལུག་ལ་སོ་བརྒྱབ་པ་དང་། 3. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེར་ཡང་སོ་རྒྱག་པར་ཡོང་།
This clause begins with another word that conveys "nevertheless" (འོན་ཀྱང་),
followed by the time-slot word "as forth is time" (ད་རེས་ནི་). This is followed by the subject
of an involuntary sentence, "the wolf, " and then an adverb meaning "really" (དངོས་འབྲེལ་)
and the verb "arrived." Together these convey, " Nevertheless, this time a wolf really
12. The twelfth segment consists of a single sentence ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་བྱུང་། སྤྱང་ཀི་སླེབས་
བྱུང་། མགྱོགས་པོ་སྤྱང་ཀི་གསོད་པར་ཤོག་ཞེས་སྐད་རྒྱག་བཞིན་དུ་བྲོས་ཕྱིན།
This segment is the same as earier ones with the exception of the verb phrase སྐད་
རྒྱག་བཞིན་དུ་བྲོས་ཕྱིན་. In this phrase བཞིན་དུ་ adverbializes "to shout" so that it modifies the
compound verb construction "fled went" (བྲོས་ཕྱིན་), conveying how he "fled," i.e., he "fled
13. The thirteenth segment consists of a single sentence འོན་ཀྱང་ཁོ་པར་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་མཁན་གཅིག་
This involuntary sentence again begins with "nevertheless." Then comes the
subject in the dative-locative ("to him" — ཁོ་པར་), followed by a nominalized infnitive verb
phrase ("ones who come to protect"- སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་མཁན་). The negativized verb that goes
with this means "not got" (མ་བྱུང་). Thus, literally, "he (to hin) did not get anyone coming
to help."The term གཅིག་ཀྱང་ ("even one") modifies the verb, conveing that he got "not
even one person coming to help."
14. The fourteenth segment consists of two clauses l . སྟབས་ལེགས་པ་ཞིག་ལ་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་རི་ལྡེབས་ནས་མར་
རིལ་སྟབས་ 2. ཁོ་པའི་སྲོབ་ཐར་ཐུབ་པ་རེད།
The first clause is an invollmtary sentence whose core is ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་ . . རིལ་ ("that child
... fell"). It starts with a standard term meaning "fortunately" or "luckily" (སྟབས་ལེགཁས་པ་ཞིག་
ལ་). This is followed by the subject, and then a phrase telling the location of the verbal

action, i.e., where he fell — "from the side of the mountain" (རི་ལྡེབས་ནས་). The word མར་
means downward and modifies the verb "to fall." This clause is linked to the next by a
"because" clause connective (སྟབས་).
The second clause is also an involluntary sentence. It begins with a subject
consisting of the possessive phrase "his life" (ཁོ་པའི་སྲོག་) and then the involuntary verb
"escaped" (ཐར་), followed b the verb "to be able" (ཐུབ་). Together these conve, "His life
was able to escape, "or in better English, "He escaped with his life."
15. The last segment consists of a single sentence འོན་ཀྱང་ཁོ་པའི་ལུག་ཁྱུ་རྣམས་སྤྱང་ཀིས་ཚང་མ་བཟོས་
It starts with "nevertheless, " and then the object phrase "his sheep flock" (ཁོ་པའིལུག་
ཁྱུ་རྣམས་). This is followed by the subject marked b the instrumental case particle ("by the
wolf"- སྤྱང་ཀིས་). Then comes the adverbial "all" or "completely" (ཚོང་མ་) and the final verb
"ate" (བཟོས་) with the sentence final particle སོ་. Thus, "Nevertheless, the wolf ate his sheep
flock completely."
6.11 Vocabulary
ཀྲུང་གོ་ ch. Chna (du~ŋgo)
ཀྲའོ་ཙི་དབྱང་ p.n. Zhao Ziang (drāo dziaŋ)
ཁོ་པ་ he (kōba)
ཁོང་ས་ (སུ་) part of, belonging to (ko~ŋsu)
རྐོ་མ་ pick axe (gōma)
ཁོས་ he (by) (kȫö`)
སྐད་ཆ་ conversation, speech, va . — འདྲི་ to ask (gɛ̅ja tri̲)
ཁྱུ་ herd, flock (kyū)
ཁྱོད་ you (nh.) (kyȫö`)
སྐད་ཡིག་ spoken and written language, speech and writing (gɛ̅yii`)
གད་མོ་ laugh, laughter, vi. —- དགོད་ to laugh (gɛ̲ɛ̲mo gɛ̲ɛ̀)
སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་ criticism, criticizing, va. — བྱེད་ to criticize (gȫnjöö che̲e`)
གལ་ཏེ་ "if" clause connective (kɛ̲ɛ̲de)
གལ་སྲིད་ "if" clause connective (kɛ̲ɛ̲sil)
སྐྱོ་པོ་ with སེམས་ = sad (sēm gōbo)
གྲ་སྒྲིག་ preparation, va. — བྱེད་ to prepare (trə_dri che̲e`)
སྐྱོབ་ va. to save, to protect (gyōb)
ཁ་ mouth; va. — གདང་ to open ones mouth (kā da_ŋ)
གྲོ་ཞིབ་ flour (tru_shi)
གླ་ཆ་ wages (la_ja)
ཁག་པོ་ dificult (kāgo)
གློ་བུར་ (དུ་) sudden(ly) (lōburtu)
ཁུལ་ "pretend" clause connective, (kǖǖ)
གློགབརྙན་ movie (lɔ~ɔ~ñɛn)
དགའ་སྤྲོ་ happiness, joy (ga̲dro)
ཁུལ་བྱས་ "pretend" clause connective,
དགའ་བསུ་ welcoming va. — ཞུ་ to welcome (gə_su shu̲)

གཏན་འཁེལ་ va. to decide (dɛ̅n kēē)
དགོད་ va. laugh (gö̲ö̀)
བཏང་ཡིག་ letter (correspondence) (də̅ŋyig)
མགོ་བསྐོར་ trick, trickery, va. —- གཏོང་ to
trick (go̲ gɔ~ɔ~ or go_gɔɔ dōŋ)
བརྟན་པོ་ firm (dɛ̅mbo)
བརྟེན་ because (dēn)
མགྱོགས་པོ་ quick, quickly (gyo̲go)
བལྟས་ va. p. of ལྟ་ (dɛ̅ɛ̀)
འགྱུར་ vi. to become, to change into (gyu_r)
སྟབས་ལེགས་པ་ཞིག་ལ་ id. fortunately (də̅b le̲gbəshiglə)
མགྲོན་ཁང་ hotel, guest house (drö̲ngan)
འགྲམ་དུ་ to/at the side, near to (dra̲mdu)
སྟེང་ on, on top of, the upper part (dēŋ)
རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ nation (gyɛ̲ɛ̲gəb)
ཐ་མག་ cigarette, va. — འཐེན་ to smoke (ta~maà tēn)
རྒྱལརྩེ་ name of a town in Tsang area (gya_ndze)
ཐར་ vi. to escape, to get free (ta~r)
རྒྱུ་ see 6.7 (gyu̲)
ཐུབ་ vi. to be able (tūb)
རྒྱུ་མཚན་ reason (gyu_mdzɛn)
ཐེངས་གཅིག་ one time (tēŋ ji~g)
སྒོ་ནས་ adverbializer (in the manner
ཐོན་ va. to leave, to depart (tȫn)
ཐོབ་ vi. to win (tōb)
ངང་ནས་ aderbializer (in the manner
འཐུ་ va. to collect (tu~)
འཐེན་ see ཐ་མག་
དངོས་འབྲེལ་ really (ŋȫnɛɛ̀)
དང་བཅས་ see 6.4.e-g
སྔོན་མ་ formerly, in the past (ŋȫnma)
དར་ཆ་ flag (ta_rja)
བཅས་ enumerative particle (jɛ̅ɛ̀)
ད་རེས་ this time (ta_rɛɛ`)
བཅས་པའི་ including (jɛ̅bee)
དེད་ va. to drive a flock, herd (te̲e̲)
ཆང་ཁང་ bar, tavern (chāŋgan)
ཆོས་ལྡན་ p.n. Chunden (chȫnden)
དོ་དགོང་ tonight (to_gon)
ཆོས་ར་ the study and debating area in a monastery (chȫra)
དོ་དགོང་གེ་ཁ་ལག་ dinner (to_gon ki kalaà)
དོནགཅོད་ཁང་ bureau office (tö_njögan)
འཆར་གཞི་ plan (chə̅ə̅shi)
ཇ་ te̲a̲ (cha̲)
དྲག་ vi. to recover (from an ilness) (tra̲à)
ཉིད་དུ་ "as soon as" clause connective (ñi̲i`tu)
གདང་ see ཁ
ཉིན་ཤས་ several days (ñi_nshɛɛ̀)
བདག་པོ་ owner (da̲ggo)
མདོག་མདོག་ "pretend" clause connective
ཉེས་པ་ plmishment, va. — གཏོང་ to punish (ñēba dōŋ)
འདིར་ here (de̲e̲)
རྙིང་མ་ old (antique) (ñiŋmə)
འདྲི་ va. to ask (tri̲)

ལྡེབས་ side of (de̲b)
བྱ་དགའ་ prize (cha_ga)
བསྡུས་ va. to collect (dü̲ǜ)
དབྱིན་ཇི་ English (i~nji)
ན་ཚ་ illness. vi. – དྲ་ག་ to recover from an illness (na̲dza tra̲à)
བྲོས་ va. p. of འབྲོས་ fled, ran away (trö̲ö̀)
དབུས་མ་ middle, see ཤར་གླིང་
ནན་ཏན་ emphatically (nɛ̅ndɛn)
འབོད་ va. to call out (bö̲ö̀)
ནོར་འཁྲུལ་ mistake, va. — བྱེད་ to make a mistake (no̲ndru che̲e`)
འབྲས་ rice (drɛ̲ɛ̀)
རྦད་དེ་ completely (bɛ̅t)
གནས་སྐོར་ pilgrimage (nɛ̅ɛ̅gɔɔ)
མ་ཐག་ "as soon as" clause connective (ma̲taà)
གནོད་སྐྱོན་ harm, damage, va. — གཏོང་ to harm, damage (nȫȫgyön dōŋ)
མར་ down, downwards (ma̲a̲)
མུ་མཐུད་ continuously, without a break or interruption (mu̲tüǜ)
པ་མ་ཟད་ "not only" clause connective (bəེma̲sɛɛ̀)
མེ་ཏོག་ flower (me̲doo`)
པ་ད་ག་ "as soon as" clause connective (bə da̲ga)
མེ་ཤིང་ firewood (me̲shiŋ)
དམག་ war, va. — རྒྱག་ to make war (māà gyəb)
པ་དེ་མ་ཐག་ (ཏུ) "as soon as" clause connective
ཙམ་ན་ "as soon as" clause (dza_mna)
ཚོ་ conmective
གཙང་ region in southwest Tibet (dza~ŋ)
པ་ཙོམ་ན་ "as soon as" clause connective (bə dzāmnɛ)
རྩྭ་ grass (dza~)
པ་ཙམ་ནས་ "as soon as" clause connective (bə dza~mnɛ)
རྩེད་མོ་ playing, a game, va. — རྩེ་ to play (tsēēmo tsē)
དཔལ་འབྱོར་ economy (bɛ̅njɔɔ)
རྩེས་ va. p. of རྩེ་ (see རྩེ་དམོ་)(dze~e`)
འཕར་ vi. to increase (pa~r)
ཚོད་མེད་ boundless (tsɛ̅mɛɛ̀)
ཚུལ་བྱས་ "pretend" clause connective (tsü̲ü̲ chɛ̲ɛ̀)
ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ foreign, foreigner (chi~gyɛɛ̀)
ཕྱེ་ལོ་ next year (chi~lo)
འཚོ་ va. to look after, to take care of (tsō)
ཕྲུ་གུ་ child (trūgu, būgu)
འཕྲལ་ "as soon as" clause cormective (trɛ̅ɛ̅)
རྫོགས་ vi. to be/get exhausted, to be out of (dzɔ̲ɔ̀)
བ་ཙམ་ན་ "as soon as" clause connective (bə dza_mna)
རྫོང་ district (dzo̲ŋ)
ཞལ་འདོན་ praying. va. – བྱེད་ or བནང་ to pray (shɛ̲ndön che̲e or naŋ)
བ་ཙམ་ནས་ "as soon as" clause connective (bə dzāmmɛ)

ཞིང་ལས་ farm work (sh i̲ŋlɛɛ̀)
ལུག་ཁྱུ་ herd/ flock of sheep (lu̲gkyu)
ཞིམ་པོ་ delicious (shi̲mbu)
ལུག་རྫི་ shepherd (lu̲gdzi)
བཞག་ va. p. of འཛོག་ : left (something) (sha̲à)
ལོ་མ་ leaf (lo̲ma)
ཤར་གླིང་དབུས་མ་ Middle East (shārliŋ ǖǖmə)
བཞུགས་ va. to sit (h.) (shu̲u`)
ཤས་ several (abbr. of ཁ་ཤས་) (shɛ̅ɛ̀)
ཟ་ va. toea t (sa̲)
ཤེས་ vi. to know (shēe)
ཟོར་ར་ sickle (so̲ra)
ཤོག་ vi. imp., come! (shōo`)
ཟོལ་ "pretend" clause connective (sö̲ö̲)
གཤེ་གཤེ་ scolding va. – གཏོང་ . to scold (shēshe dōŋ)
གཟིགས་བསྐོར་ tour(h.) (siigɔɔ)
སེམས་ mind (sēm)
བཟོ་བཅོས་ correcting, repairing va. – རྒྱག་ or བྱེད་ to repair (so̲bjöö̀ gyə̲b or che̲e`)
སོ་ teeth, va. – -རྒྱག་ (བརྒྱབ་) to bite (sō gyə_b)
སོ་པ་ spy (sōba)
ཡག་ nominalizing particle (ya̲)
སོགས་ enumerative particle (sɔ~ɔ̀)
ཡག་པོ་ good (ya̲go)
གསལ་པོ་ clear (sɛ̅ɛ̅bo)
ཡང་པོ་ light (not heavy) (ya_ŋbo, ya̲ŋgo)
སླར་ཡང་ again (lāryaŋ)
སྲོག་ life (sɔ~ɔ̀)
ཡང་སེ་ often (frequent)(ya̲ŋse)
ཧ་གོ་ vi. to understand (hāko_)
ཡར་རྒྱས་ development, progress va. – གཏོང་ to develop, to improve (ya̲rgyɛɛ̀ dōŋ)
ཧ་ཧ་ he he, ha ha (hāha)
ཧུར་ཐག་ diligent, energetically (hūrdaà)
ཡལ་ vi. to vanish (yɛ̲ɛ)
ཧུར་བརྩོན་ diligent, energetically (hūrdzö̀n)
ཡས་ nominalizing particle (ya̲)
ཡི་གེ་ a letter in the alphabet (yi̲gi)
ཨ་རི་ abbr. America (ə̅ri)
ཡིན་ནའང་ but, nevertheless (yi̲nayaŋ)
ཨེམ་ཆི་ doctor (ə̅mji)
ཡོང་འབབ་ income (yo̲ŋbəb)
རག་ vi. to obtain, to get (ra̲à)
རང་རྒྱལ་ our country, one's own country(ra_ŋgyɛɛ̀)
རིལ་ vi. to fall (ri̲i̲)
རོགས་རམ་ help, assistance, va. — བྱེད་ to help (rɔ̲ɔ̲ram che̲e`)
རླུང་ wind (lu~ŋ)
བརླགས་ vi. p. of རླག་ : lost (lāà)
ལགས་ honorific word used after names and titles(la̲à)

Lesson Seven
7.l The "not-only" clause connectives མ་ཟད་,མ་ཚད་ and མི་ཚད་
These two clause connectives express the idea that "not only" did the action of the
first clause occur, but also something else happened (as explained in the next clause).
They are used with both past and non-past verb stems that have been nominalized by པ་/བ་
and རྒྱུ་ . These nominalized verb stems sometimes occur with the dative-locative particles,
e.g., པར་/བར་,or with the instrtmental particles, e.g., པས་/བས་.
a. ཁོ་ཚོ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་མ་ཟད། རི་པིན་ལ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
they china to went not-only/ japan to went compl./
Not only did they go to China, (they) went to Japan.
b. ཁོ་ཚོ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་མ་ཟད། རི་པིན་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
they india to went not-only/ japan to go fut. compl./
Not only did they go to India, (they) will go to Japan.
c. ཁོ་ཚོ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་མི་ཚད། རི་པིན་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་རེད།
they china to go gyu not-only/ japan to go gyu fut. compl./
Not only will they go to China, (they) will go to Japan.
Very often one of the "also/even" words such as ཡང་ and ཀྱང་ will be used in the second
d. གྲྭ་པ་དང་བླ་མ་རྣམས་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཕེབས་པ་མ་ཟད། འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ལ་ཡང་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
monk and lama pl. india to go not-only/ bhutan to also go past compl./
The monks and lamas not only went to India, (they) also went to Bhutan.
These clause connectives are also used in negative constructions.
e. ཞིང་པ་དང་འབྲོག་པར་རོགས་རམ་མ་བྱས་པ་མ་ཟད། བཟོ་པ་ལའང་བྱས་མ་སོང་།
farmer and nomad-to help neg. did not-only/ workers to-even did neg. went compl./
Not only did (he, she, etc.) not help the farmers and nomads, (he, she, etc.) didn't
even help the workers.
f. ཁོ་ཚོས་དགོན་པ་དང་ལྷ་ཁང་གསར་པ་རྒྱག་གི་མེད་པ་མ་ཚད། དགོན་པ་རྙིང་པ་ལ་ཡང་ཉམས་གསོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
he pl.-by monastery and temple new build neg. pres. compl. not-only/ monastery old
to even repair do neg. pres. compl./
Not only are they not building new monasteries and temples, (they) are not even
repairng the old monasteries.
The "not-only" connectives are also used with the subjects of sentences to convey
the idea of "not-only the subject, but ..." Subjects in such constructions are required to

be in the instrumental case.
g. ཞིང་པས་མ་ཚད་འཁྲོག་པ་ཡང་འདུག།
farmer-by not-only nomad also exist/
Not only are there farmers, (there are) also nomads.
7.2 The "even though" clause connectives ཀྱང་,ཡང་,འང་,རུང་,ནའང་,ན་ཡང་,མོད་,
and དེ་ (དེའི་)
These clause connectives link clauses to convey the idea that "even though" the
former happened or exists, the latter occurs or exists. "But" can also be used here. The
various particles are used in accordance with the final letter of the verb as shown below.
Recall also that ཀྱོང་,ཡང་,and འང་ are used in other contexts to convey "also" and "even."
ཀྱང་ after final ག་,ད་,བ་,and ས་ (and other words that in ancient Tibetan
had a final (5.-slot ད་)
ཡང་ after final ང་,ན་,མ་,ར་,and ལ་
འང་ after final འ་ and vowel finals
རུང་,ནའང་,མོད་,དེ་ (དེའི་), and ན་ཡང་ after vowel finals
a. ས་ཆ་འདི་མཐོ་པོ་ཡིན་ཡང་། དགུན་ཁ་གྲང་མོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་མི་འདུག།
place this high is though/ winter cold very neg. exist/
Even though this place is high [in altitude], it is not very cold in winter.
b. མོར་ཕྲུ་གུ་བཞི་ཡོད་ཀྱང་། ཉིན་ལྟར་དངུལ་ཁང་ལ་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་འགྲོ་བཞིན་ཡོད།
she-to child four exist though/ day every bank to work do inf. go usual compl./
Even though she has four children, (she) goes to work at the bank every day.
c. བོད་པའི་བཙན་བྱོལ་པ་དེས་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ལོ་ཤས་བསྡད་རུང་། རྒྱ་གར་གྱི་སྐད་ཡིག་སློབ་སྦྱོང་མ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
tibet-of refugee that-by india year severall ived though/ india of language study neg.
did past compl./
Even though that Tibetan refugee lived in India for several years, (he) did not study
Hindi (lit., Indian language).
d. ཕྱི་ལོ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་སྡོད་ན་ཡང་། རྒྱ་གར་གྱི་སྐད་ཡིག་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
next year india to live though/ india of language study do neg. fut. compl./
Even though (he, she, etc.) will live in India next year, (he, she, etc.) will not study
Hindi (lit., Indian language).
The particle མོད་ conveys the idea of "even though" but normally occurs with འོན་
ཀྱང་ ("nevertheless") at the beginning of the next clause.
e. ཕྱི་ལོ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་སྡོད་མོད། འོན་ཀྱང་རྒྱ་གར་གྱི་སྐད་ཡིག་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།

next year india to live though / nevertheless india of language study do neg. fut.
Even though (he) will live in India next year, nevertheless (he) will not study Hindi
(lit., Indian language).
These particles are also used with negative verbal constructions.
f. ཁོ་ཚོར་མེ་མདའ་མང་པོ་མེད་ཀྱང་། གཞུང་ལ་ངོ་ལོག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད།
he pl.-to gun many no-exist though/ goverment to rebel do fut. compl./
Even though they do not have many guns, (they) will rebel against the goverment.
g. མོས་ཁ་འདོན་ཞེ་དྲགས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་དེའི། ནང་པ་མ་རེད།
she-by prayer lots do pres. compl. though/ buddhist no is/
Even though she prays a lot, (she) is not a Buddhist.
7.3 The "plan/intend to "clause connective: རྩིས་
This clause connective usually takes the non-past stem of verbs and conveys that
an actor plans or intends doing the verbal action.
a. ཕྱི་ལོ་མོ་བལ་ཡུལ་ལ་འགྲོ་རྩིས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
next-year she nepal to go plan exist/
She plans to go to Nepal next year.
b. ངས་སྔ་ལོ་ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཡོང་བའི་རྒན་གོག་དེ་གཉིས་ལ་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་རྩིས་ཡོད།
i-by last-year lhasa from come nom.-of old-people that two to help do plan exis/
I plan to help those two old people who came from Lhasa last year.
Past tense is commonly conveyed by adding the past tense stem of the verb "to
do" to རྩིས་ (as in example c.).
c. གྲྭ་པ་ཚང་མས་ཁང་པ་རྒྱག་རྩིས་བྱས་མ་སོང་།
monk all-by house build plan did neg. past compl./
All the monks did not plan to build a house.
7.4 The "before" clause connective མ་ + vb. (past stem) + གོང་ + dative-locative (ལ་,etc.)
This clause connective conveys the idea that "before" the man verbal action,
another took place or will take place.
a. རྡོ་རྗེས་དོ་ནུབ་ནང་ལ་མ་ལོག་གོང་ལ་ཏང་གི་ཚོགས་འདུར་འགྲོ་རྩིས་འདུག།
dorje-by tonight home to before return party of meeting-to go plan exist/
Before (he) returns home tonight, Dorje plans to go to the party meetng.
b. མོས་མ་ཉལ་གོང་དུ་ཁ་འདོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
she-by before sleep pray do pres. compl./
She prays before (she) goes to sleep.

c. སློབ་གྲྭ་ཚོས་བོད་ལ་མ་ཕྱིན་གོང་ལ་བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱས་པ་རེད།
student pl.-by tibet to before went tibetan language study did past compl.
The students studied (spoken) Tibetan before (they) went to Tibet.
7.5 The verb དགོས་ ("to have to, to want")
This verb has only one stem but occurs both separately and together with other
active verbs. When used as the main verb, it conveys the meaning of "want" or "need."
When it accompanies an active verb, it immediately follows this verb (which is placed in
the non-past) and conveys the meaning of "have to do" or "must do" the verbal action.
7.5.1 དགོས་ used alone as a main verb
In these constructions དགོས་ conveys the meaning of "wanting" or "needing"
something. The subject of this verb normally requires the dative-locative case particle.
a. ཁྱེད་རང་ལ་ག་རེ་དགོས་སམ།
you to what want ?
What do you want?
b. ང་ལ་ཇ་མང་ར་མོ་དགོས།
i to tea sweet want
I want sweet tea.
c. ཁོ་ལ་ཇ་མངར་མོ་དགོས་པ་རེད།
he to tea sweet want
He wants sweet tea.
d. མོར་ཇ་མངར་མོ་དངོས་གནས་དགོས་ཀྱི་འདུག་གས།
she-to tea sweet really want pres. compl.?
Does she really want sweet tea?
e. མོར་ཇ་མང་ར་མོ་དངོས་གནས་མི་དགོས། ཇ་བསྲུས་མ་དགོས། (l)
she-to tea sweet really neg. want/ tea tibetan want/
She really does not want sweet tea. (She) wants Tibetan style tea.
The following two sentences convey the "need" meaning of དགོས་ . Context indicates
which meaning is intended.
f. ཁོ་ཚོ་ཟླ་ཉིན་རྟ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་དགོས་པ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
he pl. last-year horse new one have got past compl./
Last year they needed a new horse.
(l) Note that མ་ in the second clause does not convey the negative but rather is a part of the
word བསྲུས་མ་ ("Tibetan style tea").

g. གནམ་གྲུ་གཏོང་སྐབས་ལག་ཁྱེར་དགོས་པ་རེད།
airplane fly when permit have/
When (one) pilots an airplane, a permit (license) is needed.
7.5.2 དགོས་ used in conjunction with active verbs
In this role དགོས་ occurs with the full range of verbal complements.
Past constructions
Each of the following complements expresses completed past action.
Vb. (non-past) + དགོས་ + བྱུང་བ་རེད།
" + " + བྱུང་སོང་།
" + " + བྱུང་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
" + " + བྱུང་འདུག
" + " + བྱུང་ (for 1 st person subjects)
" + " + པ་ བྱུང་བ་རེད།
" + " + པ་ བྱུང་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
" + " + པ་ བྱུང་འདུག།
a. བུ་བཅོལ་ཁང་ལ་ཕྲུ་གུ་མང་པོ་ན་ཙང་ཨེམ་ཆི་སྐད་གཏོང་བར་འགྲོ་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
nursery to children many sick because, doctor call inf. go have got past compl./
Because many children in the nursery were sick, (they) had to go to call the doctor.
b. ཁོ་ཚོས་ངོ་ལོག་རྒྱག་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
he pl.-by rebel act have got past compl./
They had to rebel.
Negative past constructions take one of the following forms
Vb. (non-past) + ད་གོས་ + མ་བུང་བ་རེད།
" + " + བྱུང་མ་སོང་།
" + " + བྱུང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
" + " + བྱུང་མེད།
" + " + མ་བྱུང་།
" + " + པ་བྱུང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
" + " + པ་མ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
" + " + པ་བྱུང་མི་འདུག།
" + " + པ་བྱུང་བ་མ་རེད།
" + " + པ་བྱུང་མི་འདུག
" + " + པ་བྱུང་མེད་པ་རེད་

c. ན་ནིང་ཆར་པ་ཞེ་དྲགས་བབས་ཙང་ཞིང་ཁར་ཆུ་གཏོང་དགོས་མ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
last year rain lots fell because field-to water send have no got past compl./
Because it rained a lot last year, (they) didn't have to irrigate the fields.
d. ཟླ་ཉིན་དམག་རྒྱག-སྐབས་ཕྲུ་གུ་ཚོ་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་དགོས་བྱུང་མ་སོང་།
last year war do when, child pl. school-to go have got perf. neg./
Last year, when (they were) at war, the children didn't have to go to school.
ད་གོས་ occurs in dependent clauses with the following forms:
Vb. (non-past) + དགོས་ + བྱུང་ + clause connective (cc)
" + " + ཡོད་ + cc
" + " + བྱུང་ཡོད་ + cc
" + " + པ་ + བྱུང་ + cc
" + " + པ་ + བྱུང་ཡོད་ + cc
" + " + པ་ + མ་ + བྱུང་ + cc
" + " + མེད་ + cc
" + " + བྱུང་མེད་ + cc
" + " + པ་ + མ་ + བྱུང་ + cc
" + " + པ་ + བྱུང་མེད་ + cc
" + " + cc
e. ཁོ་ཚོས་གཞུང་ལ་དངུལ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་མ་ཟད་འབྲུ་རིགས་ཀྱང་སྤྲོད་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
he pl.-by goverment to money give have got perf. not only/ grain also give have got
past compl./
They not only had to give money to the goverment, (they) also had to give grain.
f. ཁོ་ཚོས་གཞུང་ལ་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་མ་བྱུང་ཡང་། ཡུལ་ལ་ཡར་རྒྱས་ཆེན་པོ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
he pl.-by goverment to tax big give have no got though/ country to improve big went
past compl./
Even though they didn't have to give large taxes to the government, the cotmtry has
improved a great deal.
g. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཆེ་རུ་གཏོང་དགོས་སྟབས། ལག་ཆ་གསར་པ་བེད་སྤྱོད་བྱེད་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
he pl.-by production big to send have because/tools new use did have got past compl./
Because they had to increase (make bigger) production, (they) had to use new tools.
Note that the tense of the dependent clause ( ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཆེ་རུ་གཏོང་དགོས་སྟབ་སུ་) is govered by the
tense of the final verb (... བྱུང་བ་རེད་).
7.5.3 Non-past constructions
The following forms are commonly used to express present, usual-general, and

future actions.
Vb.(non-past) + དགོས་ + རེད། (lst and 3rd person)
" + " + ཡོད་པ་རེད། (3rd person)
" + " + ཡོད། (lst person)
" + " + ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། (3rd person)
" + " + ཀྱི་འདུག། (3rd person)
" + " + ཀྱི་ཡོད། (lst person)
" + " + ཀྱི་རེད། (3rd person)
The negative forms of the above follow the same pattern as presented earlier.
ཡོད་པ་རེད། becomes ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
འདུག། becomes མི་འདུག།
རེད། becomes མ་རེད།
ཡོད། becomes མེད།
a. ད་ལྷ་ཁོ་ཚོ་སློབ་གྲྭ་ལ་འགྲོ་དགོས་རེད།
now he pl. school to go have is/
They have to go to school now.
b. ཞིང་ལས་ཡར་རྒྱས་གཏོང་དགོས།
agriculture work improve do have/
(We, you, etc.) have to improve agricultural work .
c. ད་ལྟ་ང་དངུལ་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་དགོས་ཡོད།
now i bank to go have exist/
I have to go to the bank now.
d. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཞིང་པས་རྨོན་པ་རྒྱག་དགོས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
springtime farmer-by plow have usu. compl./
Famers have to plow in the springtime.
e. དགུན་དུས་ཞིང་པས་རྨོན་པ་རྒྱག་དགོས་ཀྱི་མེད་པ་རེད།
wintertime farmer-by plowing do have neg. usu.-compl./
Farmers do not have to plow in the wintertime.
This could also have been written:
f. དགུན་དུས་ཞིང་པས་རྨོན་པ་རྒྱག་དགོས་མ་རེད།
wintertime farmer-by plowing do have no.-is/
Farmers do not have to plow in the wintertime.
g. ང་ཚོ་སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཡིན་སྟབས་ང་ཚོས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་དགོས་མེད།
i pl. student is since i-by agricultural work do have no-exist/
Because we are students, (we) do not have to do agricultural work.

h. ཁོས་ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་ལོ་ཤས་སྡོད་དགོས་ཀྱི་རེད།
he-by america-to year several live have fut. compl./
He will have to live in America for several years.
i. ཁོ་ཁམས་ལ་འགྲོ་དགོས་ཀྱང་། ལོ་མང་པོ་སྡོད་དགོས་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
he kham to go have though/ year many live have neg. fut. compl./
Even though he has to go to Kham, (he) will not have to live (there for) many years.
7.5.4 The དགོས་ + པ་རེད་ usual complement
This construction usually conveys usual or general statements. Note how the time-
context words སྔོན་མ་,དེང་སང་,and ནམ་རྒྱུན་ affect the meaning of examples a., b., and c.
a. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་ཞིང་འབྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་རེད།
formerly china to farmers-nomads pl.-by tax big give have usual compl./
In the past, famers and nomads in China had to pay (give) big taxes.
b. དེང་སང་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་ཞིང་འབྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་རེད།
these days china to farmers nonads pl.-by tax big give have usual compl./
These days, farmers and nomads in China have to pay (give) big taxes.
c. ནམ་རྒྱུན་གྲོང་གསེབ་གྱི་གཞོན་པ་ཚོ་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་དགོས་པ་མ་རེད།
usually village of youths pl. school to go have usual compl. neg./
Usuall village youths do not have to go to school.
7.5.5 དགོས་ constructions in the past conveying completed action
Tibetan distinguishes between past obligatory action that has been completed or
carried out and general obligations or duties in the past. In English when we say, " He had
to pay taxes," it could mean either that he actually paid them, or that he should have or
was supposed to pay them (e.g., "He had to pay taxes but didn't"). Tibetan uses the བྱུང་
forms to convey the idea that not only did they "have to" do something– - they did it!
a. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འབྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་རེད།
formerly india to farmers nomads pl.-by tax big give have usual compl./
In the past, farmers and nomads in India had to pay (give) big taxes.
If the writer wanted to convey that not only was there an obligation, but that the
obligation had been completed, he would have used one of the བྱུང་ forms.
b. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འབྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
formerly india to famers nomads pl.-by tax big give have usual compl./
In the past, farmers and nomads in India had to pay (give) big taxes.
The negative forms parallel those encountered earlier.
c. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འབྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་མ་རེད།

formerly india to famers nomads pl.-by tax big give have neg. usual compl./
In the past, farmers and nomads in India did not have to pay (give) big taxes.
d. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འབྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་མ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
formerly india to farmers nomads pl.-by tax big give have neg. usual compl./
In the past, farmers and nomads in India did not have to pay (give) big taxes.
7.5.6 The use of དགོས་ in two-verb constructions
The following examples of དགོས་ function to convey the need either: l. to make
someone or something do a verbal action, or 2. to do something so as to make a verbal
action come about.
a. ང་ཚོས་ཁོ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་ཐུབ་པ་བྱེད་དགོས།
i pl.-by he tomorrow go able do have
We have to do something so that he will be able to go tomorrow.
b. ང་ཚོས་ཁོ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་ཐབས་བྱེད་དགོས།(2)
i pl.-by he tomorrow go means do have
We have to do something so that he will (have the means to) go tomorrow.
c. ང་ཚོས་ཁོ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་བྱེད་དགོས།
i pl.-by he tomorrow go means do have
We have to do something so that he will go tomorrow.
These three constructions are similiar in the sense that they convey that the actor
has to do something so that something else will occur, but differ in terms of the degree of
strength associated with what will be done. The first example normally conveys the
strongest action, meaning you will go all out to create a situation so that he will be able to
go. The second example is less strong, and the third is the weakest, conveying more that
the actors will go to try to persuade him to go. These differences are not hard and fast,
and the third pattern can also convey taking actions as well as just speech.
7.5.7 Further examples of དགོས་ with connectives in dependent clauses
In this position there are a number of very common patterns:
Vb. + དགོས་ + cc
" + དགོས་ + ཀྱི་ཡོད་ + cc
" + དགོས་ + ཀྱི་འདུག་ + cc
" + དགོས་ + ཡོད་ + cc
(2) Note that ཐབས་ conveys "means" or "methods."

" + དགོས་ + མེད་ + cc
" + མི་ + དགོས་ + cc
" + དགོས་ + ཀྱི་མེད་ + cc
" + དགོས་ + བྱུང་ + cc
a. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འབྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་བྱུང་སྟབས། ཁོ་ཚོར་འཚོ་བ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་འདུག།
formerly india to famers nomads pl.-by tax big give have usual compl./he pl.-to
livelihood nom. poor very exist/
In the past, because farmers and nomads in India had to pay (give) big taxes, the
were very poor.
b. མོ་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་དགོས་པ་མ་ཟད། ཟ་ཁང་ལའང་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་དགོས་བྱུང་སོང་།
she school-to go have not-only/ restaurant to-also work did have got past compl./
Not only did she have to go to school, (she) also had to work in a restaurant.
c. མོ་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་མི་དགོས་པ་མ་ཟད། ལས་ཀ་ཡང་བྱས་དགོས་བྱུང་མ་སོང་།
she school-to go no have not-only/ work also did have got neg. past compl./
Not only did she not have to go to school, (she) also did not have to work.
7.6 Constructions using ཐག་ཆོད་
ཐག་ཆོད་ is used with the stem of adjectives to convey the meaning of "very" or
"extremely." Thus ཡག་པོ་ becomes ཡག་ཐག་ཆོད་ ("extremely good"), and ཆེན་པོ་ becomes
ཆེ་ཐག་ཆོད་ ("very big").
a. སྙན་ཞུ་འདི་གསལ་ཐག་ཆོད་རེད།
report this clear very is/
This report is very clear.
b. གསར་འགྱུར་འདི་ནི་གསལ་ཐག་ཆོད་རེད།
news this as for clear very is/
This news is very clear.
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ལས་ཀ་ཡག་ཐག་ཆོད་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he pl.-by work good very did past compl./
They did the work very well.
ཐག་ཆོད་ is also used with existential verbs. The pattern is: existential verb + ཐག་ཆོད་
+ a linking verb. In these constructions it conveys the meaning of "certain."
d. མོ་དེང་སང་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་ཡོད་ཐག་ཆོད་རེད།
she these days china to exist certain is/
It is certain (that) she is in China these days.
e. ཤིང་ནགས་འདིའི་ནང་འདམ་སེང་མེད་ཐག་ཆོད་རེད།

forest this-of in lion neg.-exist certain is/
It is certain that there are no lions in this forest.
f. ང་ཚོའི་གོ་ཁྲིད་སོ་པ་མིན་ཐག་ཆོད་རེད།
i pl.-of leader spy neg.-is certain is/
It is certain that our leader is not a spy.
ཐག་ཆོད་ can also be used with active and involuntaryverbs
g. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་མ་ཕྱིན་ཐག་ཆོད་རེད།
he tibet to no went certain is/
It is certain that he did not go to Tibet.
h. ཁོ་པ་དེ་རིང་འབྱོར་གྱི་ཡོད་ཐག་ཆོད་རེད།
he today arrive pres. compl. certain is/
It is certan that he is arriving today.
ཐག་ཆོད་ can also be used as a noun where it means "settlement" (of a dispure). For
i. ཁ་མཆུ་དེ་ཐག་ཆོད་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
dispute that settlement got past compl./
A settlement was reached for that dispute.
7.7. Constructions with the verb ཞུ་ (ཞུས་)
When ཞུ་ is used as a verb it conveys the meaning "to say" or "to tell" or "to
ask/request" something to or from a superior.
a. ངས་རྡོ་རྗེ་ལགས་ལ་གནས་ཚུལ་ཚང་མ་ཞུས་པ་ཡིན།
i-by dorje la to situation all told past compl./
I told Dorje all about the situation.
b. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་རྫོང་གི་འགོ་ཁྲིད་རྣམས་ལ་བཀའ་མོལ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
famer pl.-by district of leader pl. to discuss (h.) past compl./
The farmers discussed (it) [or held a discussion] with the leaders of the district.
The honorific noun-verb compound (བཀའ་མོལ་ཞུས་) here conveys that the actors were lower
in status and shows respect for the leader. If one wanted to convey respect to both the
subject and object, གནང་ would be substituted for ཞུས་.
c. ཁོང་ཚོས་རྫོང་གི་འགོ་ཁྲིད་རྣམས་ལ་བཀའ་མོལ་གནང་བ་རེད།
he (h.) pl.-by district of leader pl. to talk (h.) did (h.) past compl./
They talked with the leaders of the district.
Some common compounds that use ཞུ་ are:
།བཀའ་དྲི་ཞུ་ དགའ་བསྲུ་ཞུ་ ཞབས་འདེགས་ཞུ་
to ask to welcome to serve

7.8 Constructions expressing "certainty": ངེས་,ལོས་,and ཤག་
Like ཐག་ཆོད་,ངེས་ is used with active and involuntary verbs (the non-past stem) and
linking/ existential verbs to express the idea that it is "certain" that the verbal action will
occur or that something certainly exists.
a. ལས་ཀ་འདི་ཁོས་བྱེད་ཐུབ་ངེས་རེད།
work this he-by do able certain is/
It is certain that he will be able to do this work.
b. གཞུང་གིས་ཕྲུ་གུ་མེད་པའི་རྒན་ཁོག་རྣམས་ལ་སྐྱོབ་གསོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་ངེས་རེད།
government by child without nom.-of elderly pl. to welfare give need certain is/
It is certaint that the government will have to give welfare to the elderly without
ལོས་ also conveys certainty.
c. ལས་ཀ་འདི་ཁོས་ལོས་བྱེད་ཐུབ།
work this he-by do able certain is/
It is certain that he will be able to do this work.
d. འདི་འདྲ་བྱས་ན་ཕན་ཐོགས་ལོས་ཡོད།
this like did if benefit certain exist/
If (one) does like this, there will certainly be a benefit.
ཤག་ conveys certainty but with the connotation of I "presume" or I "trust" or I
"take it that"
e. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་གནས་ཚུལ་དེ་ཤེས་ཡོད་ཤག་རེད།
you by news that know exist certain is/
(I) presume that you defnitely know that news.
f. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་དེབ་རྙིང་པ་དེ་ཀློག་ཡོད་ཤག་རེད།
you by book old that read certain is/
(I) trust that you certainly have read that old book.
g. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་དེབ་སང་སློབ་སྦྱོང་ཡག་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་ཤག་རེད།
you by these days study good do pres. compl. definitely is
(I) take it that you are studying well these days.
Note should be taken that when ཤག་ is used directly after past verb stems, it conveys the
perfect tense. This will be examined fully in a later lesson.
h. ཁོ་པས་དེབ་རྙིང་པ་དེ་བཀླགས་ཤག།
he-by book old that read perf./
He has read that old book.

7.9 The "together with" clause connectives: པ་དང་སྤྲགས་,པ་དང་ཆབས་ཅིག་,པ་དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་,
པ་དང་བསྟུན་,དང་ཆབས་ཅིག་,དང་མཉམ་དུ་,བསྟུན་,བསྟུན་ནས་,དང་འབྲེལ་,and ཆབས་སྤྲགས་
These constructions convey several different meanings depending on context.
First they convey the idea of a secondary act occurring together with or at the same time
as a primary act. The latter action is somewhat incidental to the former – i.e., together
with but secondary to A, B was done or took place.
a. པད་མ་ལགས་གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེར་ཕེབས་པ་དང་སྤྲགས་ཇ་གཟིགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
pema la shigatse-to go together tea buy (h.) fut. compl./
Pema will buy tea together with going to Shigatse. [Together with or incidental to
going to Shigatse, ... — the buying of tea is the secondary action.
b. རྒྱ་གར་ལ་མོ་གྲོགས་པོ་ཐུག་པ་དང་འབྲེལ་གནས་སྐོར་འགྲོ་བི་རེད།
india to she friend meet together pilgrimage go fut. compl./
Together with meeting a friend in India, she will go on pilgrimage. [Here the
secondary action is the going on pilgrmage.]
c. ཁོ་གྲོགས་པོ་ཐུག་པ་དང་ཆབས་ཅིག་ཉོ་ཆ་རྒྱག་གི་རེད།
he friend meet togethers shop fut. compl./
Together with meeting a friend, (he) will go shopping.
d. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཚོས་དགོན་པར་སླེབས་པ་དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུས་སོང་།
child pl.-by monastery-to arrive together religious-visit did went compl./
Together with arriving at the monastery, the children did a religious visit.
e. ང་རྒྱལ་རྩེ་སླེབས་བསྟུན་འབྲོག་པ་ཁ་ཤས་ཕྲད་བྱུང་།
i gantse arrive together nomad several met got/
Together with arriving in Gantse, I met several nomads.
f. ཁོས་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུ་བ་དང་བསྟུན་ལླད་མོ་བལྟས་སོང་།
he-by religious visit do together with show watch went compl./
Together with doing a religious visit, he watched a show.
g. ཁོས་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུ་བ་དང་མཉམ་དུ་ལྟད་མོ་བལྟས་སོང་།
he-by religious visit do together with show watch went compl./
Together with doing a religious visit, he watched a show.
The use of དང་མཉམ་དུ་ in example g. conveys greater equality in the importance of the two
h. ང་ཚོས་ཤ་ཉོས་པ་དང་ཆབས་ཅིག་སྔོ་ཚལ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
i pl.-by mean bought together with vegetables bough /
Together with buying meat, we bought vegetables.
Many of these same particles are used adverbially to convey the meaning "together" or
"together with"

j. ཁོ་ཚོ་ཚང་མ་ཆབས་ཅིག་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
he pl. all together came past compl./
All of them came together. (Or, They all came together.)
The following substitution produces no change in meaning:
k. ཁོ་ཚོ་ཚང་མ་མཉམ་དུ་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
he pl. all together came past compl./
All of them came together.
7.10 The "according to" clause connectives: (པ)་དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་,(པ)་དང་བསྟུན་,བསྟུན་,བསྟུན་ནས་,
དང་འབྲེལ་,and གཞི་བཟུང་
Many of the clause connectives discussed in 7.9 convey a second major meaning
— "according to" or "in keeping with" or "based on." Context determines which
meaning is intended.
a. འཆར་གཞི་དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་དགོས་རེད།
plan accordance work do have/
(He, we, one, etc.) has to work in accordance with the plan.
b. རྩ་ཁྲིམས་གཞི་བཟུང་འཆར་གཞི་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
constitution accordance plan made past compl./
(He, she, etc.) made a plan in accordance with the constitution.
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཏང་གི་རྩ་ཁྲིམས་དང་འབྲེལ་འཆར་གཞི་གསར་པ་བཟོ་ཀྱི་རེད།
he pl.-by party of constitution accordance plan new make fut. compl./
They will make a new plan in accordance with the party's constitution
7.11 The "about to" clause connectives གྲབས་,ལ་ཁད་ལ་,ཁ་ལ་ཁར་,ལ་ཁར་,ཁར་,གྲབས་
བྱེད་,ཉི་,and ཉེར་
These clause conectives convey the idea that when the action in the first clause
was "about to" occur, or "just before" it occurred, something else happened. They are
used in two types of constructions l. in dependent clauses following a verb (non-past)
and 2. following a verb and immediately followed by an existential, active or invollmtary
a. གནམ་གྲུ་འཕུར་ལ་ཁར་སྐྱོན་ཤོར་སོང་།
airplane fly just before damage went compl./
Just before the airplane took off, (it) got damaged.
b. ཁོ་མགྲོན་ཁང་ནས་ཐོན་ལ་ཁད་ལ་ཁ་པར་འབྱོར་སོང་།
he hotel from depart about phone arrive went compl./

When he was about to depart from the hotel, (he) received a phone call.
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ལྟོ་ཟ་གྲབས་འདུག།
he pl.-by food eat about exist/
They are about to eat food.
d. ཁོ་གཉིས་ནང་ལ་ལོག་གྲབས་ཡོད་པ་རེད་
he two home to return about exist/
Those two are about to return home.
When the verb "to do" follows གྲབས་, the meaning conveyed is that the actor is
getting ready to do the verbal action. For example,
e. ཁོ་ནང་ལ་ལོག་གྲབས་བྱེད་དུས་ཆར་པ་བཏང་སོང་།
he home to return about do when rain fell went compl./
When he was getting ready to return home, it rained.
f. ཁོ་པ་ཚོས་ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་གྲབས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he pl.-by food make about do pres. compl./
They are getting ready to make food (a meal).
If the verb in such constructions is in the past tense, the overall meaning changes to
"amost did" the verbal action. For example,
g. ཁོས་ཁ་ས་གློག་བརྙན་ལ་འགྲོ་གྲབས་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he-by movie to go about did past compl./
He amost went to the movie yesterday.
h. ཁོ་ན་ནས་ཤི་གྲབས་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he sick having die about did past compl./
Having gotten sick, he amost died.
ཉེ་ and ཉེར་ are used with verb stems to convey the meaning of "about to" or "close
to" the verbal action.
i. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་འགྲོ་ཉེར་རེད།
he tibet to go about is/
He is about to go to Tibet.
j. ནང་པ་དེ་ཚོ་ལྷ་སར་ཐོན་ཉེར་སླེབས་པ་རེད།
buddhist that pl. lhasa-to depart about arrive past compl./
Those Buddhists are about to depart for lhasa (lit., "it has arrived near to departure").
7.12 The polite imperative: vb. + དང་
དང་ is added to verbs when one wants to ask someone to do something in a polite
a. ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོ་ལངས་ནས་དེབ་ཀློག་དང་།

morning early get up having book read please/
(Please) get up early and read books.
b. མོར་རོགས་གནང་དང་།
she-to help please/
Please help her.
c. བོད་ལ་འགྲོ་དུས་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུས་དང་།
tibet to go when religious visit do please/
When you go to Tibet please make a religious visit.
d. ལྷ་སར་ཕེབས་དང་། ཇོ་བོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་མཇལ་གྱི་རེད།
lhasa-to go(h.) please/jo rimpoche meet (h.) fut. compl.
Go to Lhasa. (You) will meet (encounter) the Jo Rimpoche (statue).
The negative of these would be:
e. ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོར་དེབ་མ་ཀློག་དང་།
morning early-to book no read please/
(Please) do not read books in the early moning.
f. མོར་རོགས་མ་གནང་དང་།
she-to help please/
Please do not help her.
7.13 "Help" constructions རོགས་གནང་ and རོགས་བྱེད་
རོགས་གནང་ and རོགས་བྱེད་ ("help") are used with the non-past stems of verbs to
convey "please do" the verbal action.
a. རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཕེབས་པ་དང་ཕྱག་བྲིས་གཏོང་རོགས་གནང་།
india to arrived (h.) letter (h.) send please/
Please send a letter as soon as (you) arrive in India.
b. བོད་ཀྱི་གནས་ཚུལ་གསལ་པོ་གཅིག་ཤོད་རོགས་བྱེད།
tibet of condition clear one tell please/
Please tell clearly (about) conditions in Tibet.
c. དོ་དགོང་ཆུ་ཚོད་བརྒྱད་པར་ངའི་ནང་ལ་ཡོང་རོགས་བྱེད།
tonight o'clock eight-to i-of home at come/
Please come to my home at eight o'clock tonight.
d. སྨན་ཁང་འདི་ལ་ཉམས་གསོ་གནང་རོགས་གནང་།
hospital this repair do (h.)/
Please repair this hospital.
e. ཡི་གེ་འདི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ལགས་སུ་ཕུལ་རོགས་གནང་།
letrer this dorje la (h.) to give (h.) please/

Please give this letter to Dorje.
7.14. Reading exercises
7.14.1 Reading number one "Agu dönba and a Rich Man"
7.14.1.l Tibetan text
ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པའི་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་རྩམ་པ་རྫོགས་རྐྱེན་ཁོས་ཡུལ་དེར་དུད་ཚང་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་དེའི་སར་རྩམ་པ་གཡར་དུ་སོང་། འོན་
ཀྱང་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེ་སེར་སྣ་ཆེན་པོ་ཡིན་ཙང་དེས་ཨ་ཁུར་རྩམ་པ་སྦར་མོ་གང་ཙམ་ཡང་གཡར་པོ་མ་བྱས། དེ་ནས་ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་
ང་སང་ཉིན་རྩམ་པ་བཙོང་བར་འགྲོ་རྩིས་ཡོད་ཅེས་བཤད། སྐད་ཆ་དེ་ཕྱུག་པོས་ཐོས་མ་ཐག་ཞུམ་བུས་ཙི་ཙི་མཐོང་བ་ལྷར་དགའ་
འགྲོ་ཡི་ཡིན་ཞེས་བཤད། ཕྱི་ཉིན་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོ་ནས་ལངས་ཏེ་ཁལ་གཡག་ལ་རྩམ་པ་ཁལ་རྒྱབ་གཅིག་བཀལ་ནས་ལྷ་
སར་ཐོན་རྒྱུའི་གྲ་སྒྲིག་བྱས་ཚར་ནས་ཨ་ཁུ་བསྒུགས་ནས་བསྡད། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པས་རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟོང་པ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ནང་གཟན་རྩ་བརྒྱངས་ཏེ་
རྩམ་པ་ཡིན་ཁུལ་གྱིས་བོང་བུར་བཀལ་ནས་དེ་གར་སྦེབས་རྗེས་ཁོང་གཉིས་མཉམ་དུ་ལྷ་སར་ཐོན། དེ་ཉིན་ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པ་དང་ཕྱུག་
བྱ་རྒྱུར་ཁ་འཆམ། ཉིན་གང་བསྐྱོད་པའི་ངལ་དུབ་ཀྱིས་ཕྱུག་པོ་ནི་ཉལ་མ་ཐག་གཉིད་ལ་ཤོར་ནས་ཤི་བ་ལླར་དུ་གྱུར། ནམ་
ཁལ་རྒྱབ་གཅིག་པོ་དེ་རང་གི་སྒྱེ་མོའི་ནང་དུ་བརྒྱངས། དེ་ནས་ཨ་ཁུས་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེའི་རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟོང་པ་དེ་ལྷ་སྐུའི་ལག་ཏུ་བཞག་པ་དང་
ཡང་རྩམ་པ་སྦར་མོ་གང་ཁྱེར་ནས་ལྷ་སྐུ་དེའི་ཁ་ལ་བྱུགས་རྗེས་གཞི་ནས་སྔར་བཞིན་གཉིད་ཉལ། ནམ་ལང་ས་རྗེས་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་རང་
ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྩམ་པ་དོ་པོ་བསྡད་མེད་པ་མཐོང་འཕྲལ་ཨ་ཁུ་བོས་ཏེ་གཉིད་ལས་སད། ཁོང་གཉིས་པོས་རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟོང་པ་ལྷ་སྐུའི་ལག་ཏུ་
ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པས་འཇིག་རྟེན་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་དུས་ཡུན་རིང་པོ་ལྷ་མ་གསོལ་བར་བརྟེན་ལྷ་ཕལ་ཆེར་སྟོགས་ནས་
ཐབས་ཤས་མ་བྱུང་སྟབས་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་ཙམ་པ་འགམས་པ་རེད་ཅེས་བཤད། ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་ལྷ་འདིས་ངའི་རྩམ་པ་ཁོ་ན་བཟས་པ་ལས་
ཁྱོད་ཀྱི་རྩམ་པ་དེ་མི་ཟ་བ་གང་ཡིན་ནམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་པར། ཨ་ཁུས་ལྷ་ཁྱེད་ལ་མཉིས་པོ་ཡོད་པས་རེད་ཅེས་ལན་བཏབ། དེས་ན་
ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་དབུགས་རིང་གཏོང་བཞིན་པར་ང་ལྷ་སར་འགྲོ་ཡི་མིན། ཁྱེད་རང་གཅིག་པུར་རྒྱུགས་ཤིག་ཅེས་བཤད། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་

7.14.l.2 Interlinear translation
Agu dönba and person rich
l . Agu dönba-of house of tsamba exhausted because he-by coutry that-to household
rich one exist that-of place-to tsamba borrow to went/ nevertheless
2. rich that avarice great is because that-by agu-totsamba handful full about even borow
no send/ that from day several went afier
3. agu once-again rich that-of house to went having pan big one borrow together-with
these days lhasa-to tsamba price big exist because
4. i tomorrow tsamba sell to go plan exist quote said/ talk that rich-by heard as-soon-as
cat mouse see like hap-
5. py limitless got having now as-for profit big one obtain do need thought having he-by
agu-to lhasa-of market-of goods price and/
6. selling of about etc. detail-to ask after he happy extremely having did if tomorrow i
also you together lhasa-to tsamba sell to
7. go of is quote said/ the next day rich that-by morning early from arose having
carring yak to tsamba load one load having lha-
8. sa-to depart gyu-of prepare do finish agu wait having stayed/ agu dönba-by tsamba
bag empty two of in straw stuff having
9. tsamba is pretend by donkey-to load having there arrive after he two together lhasa-to
depart/ that day agu dönba and rich
10. he two day all go having monastery rlbble small one of near to arrive because he two
this-evening monastery that-of in stop overnight
11. do gyu-to agree/ all day go-of tred by rich as-for lie down as soon as fall asleep
having death like to become/ mid-
12. night about to agu dönba-by quietly up arose having own of tsamba bag-of in of straw
pl. donkey-to gave and rich-of tsamba
13. load single that itself of bag-of in to stuff/ then agu-by rich that-of tsamba bag empty
that god statue-of hand to left and
14. also tsamba handful one carry having god statue that-of mouth to smear after only-
then before like sleep lie-down/ dawn arose after rich that-by
15. oneself of tsamba load stayed without saw at-once agu called having sleep woke/ he
two-by tsamba bag empty god statue-of hand to
16. exist saw/ agu dönba-by world people pl. by time long god no offering because god
probably hungry having
17. means no got because you of tsamba ate past compl. quote said/ rich that-by god

this-by i-of tsamba only ate tham
l8. you to tsamba that no eat why quote asked to/ agu-by god you to like exist-by is
quote answer give/ therefore
18. rich that-by sigh send manner i lhasa-to go neg.fut. compl./ you self alone go! quote
said/ agu dönba-
19. by i alone go neg. fut. compl. quote said having he two together once-again house to
return past compl./ Translation
Agu dönba and a Rich Man(3)
Because all of Agu dönbas family's tsamba was exhausted, he went to the house
of a rich person in that area to borrow grain. However, because that man was very
avaricious, he did not lend even a handful to Agu. Several days afrer that, Agu again went
to that rich man's house and together with borrowing a (tsaba) roasting pan (from him),
said, "These days because the price of tsamba is high in Lhasa, I plan to go to sell
tsamba. "As soon as the rich man heard that, like a cat spotting a mouse, he got very
happy and thinking, "Now I have to do something so as to make a big profit," asked Agu
in detail about prices and sales in the Lhasa market. After this, he got very happy and
said, "Well then, tomorrow I also will go together with you to Lhasa to sell tsamba."
The next day, that rich man got up earl and loaded a load of tsamba on his
carrying yak and waited for Agu, all prepared to depart for Lhasa. Agu dönba stuffed two
empty sacks with hay and sraw and, pretending they were tsamba, loaded them on
donkeys. Afrer he arrived there (at the rich nan's house), they left for Lhasa together.
That day Agu dönba and the rich man went all day and, having arrived by a ruined small
monastery, agreed to stay there that night.
The rich man, tired from travelinga all day, lay down and immediately fell asleep
(beconing) as if he were dead. At about midnight, Agu dönba quietly aose and gave the
straw and hay from his sacks to the donkeys, filling his sacks with the tsamba from the
rich man's load. After that, Agu put the rich man's empt tsamba bag in the hand of a
statue of a deity and also carried a handful of tsamba, smearing it in the mouth of the
statue. Then he slept like before. Afrer dawn, as soon as the richman saw that his load of
tsamba was not there, he called Agu, waking him up. The two of them saw with certaint
(3) Agu dönba is Tibet's most famous folklore trickster. Poking fun at the rich, the
hypocritical and the greedy, his stories are known and relished throughout Tibet.

the empty bags in the hand of the statue. Agu dönba said, "Because humans have not
given offerings to the god for a long time, probably the god was hungry and had no
means to get food so he ate your tsamba. "The rich man asked, "How come the god ate
only my tsamba and not yours? "Agu replied, "It is because the god likes you."Therefore,
that rich man, sighingly said, " I am not going to Lhasa. You go alone!" Agu dönba said,
"I will not go alone," and the two of them together again returned home. Grammatical notes
l . The first segment consists of two clauses l . ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པའི་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་རྩམ་པ་ཛོགས་རྐྱེན་ 2. ཁོས་ཡུལ་
དེར་དུད་ཚང་ཕུག་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་དེའི་སར་རྩམ་པ་གཡར་ད་སོང་ .
The core of the first clause is the noun རྩམ་པ་ ("tsamba") and the involuntary verb
རྫོགས་ ("got exhausted/fnished"), with the remaining component ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པའི་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་
("Agudönbas houses familys") modifying tsamba. Thus, what was exhausted was
"Agudönba's family's tsamba."The clause connective རྐྱེན་ ("because"— see 5.9 ) links this
with the second clause.
Clause two starts with the subject in the instrtmental (ཁོས་). This is followed by a
nominalized existential phrase (ཡུལ་དེར་དུད་ཚོང་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་) that modifies "place" (ས་),
explaining what kind of a place it is: "a place where there existed a rich family in that
area. "The genitive particle attached to the demonstrative "that" (དེའི་) links this modifying
phrase to the noun "place" (ས་). If the demonstrative had been omitted (ཡོད་པའི་སར་), the
phrase would have simply conveyed "a place where there existed... ." The addition of
the demonstrative gives added emphasis to the specific place where that rich family lived.
It is not translatable into English.
"Place," in turn, is joined with the dative-locative particle so that it conveys the
location of the verbal action: "in/at a place."
The rest of this clause begins with the direct object "tsamba" (རྩམ་པ་). This is
followed by an infnitive construction consisting of the first verb (གཡར་) + dative-locative
particle (དུ་) + ma inver b (སོང་): "went to borrow."
2. The second segment consists of two clausesl. འོན་ཀྱོང་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེ་སེར་སྣ་ཆེན་པོ་ཡིན་ཙོང་ 2. དེས་ཨ་
ཁུར་རྩམ་པ་སྦར་མོ་གང་ཙམ་ཡང་གཡར་པོ་མ་བྱས་ .
The first clause is a simple linking verb construction describing the rich man. The
second clauses subject དེས་ ("by that one") refers to the rich man. The active verb is "did
not lend" (གཡར་པོ་མ་བྱས་), and the remainder modifies this verb. It consists of a "handful"
(སྦར་མོ་), plus གང་,which here functions as "one, " and ཙོམ་,which means "approximately"

or "about as much" These together (སྦར་མོ་གང་ཙམ་) convey "as much as one handful."
"Even" (ཡང་), which is joined tothis, is commonly used with negative verbs to convey
"even as much as X, did not...," or here, སྦར་མོ་གང་ཙོམ་ཡང་གཡར་པོ་མ་བྱས་: "did not lend even
as much as a handful." Another example of this use of ཡང་ and ཀྱང་ is ཁོས་ངར་སྒོར་མོ་གཅིག་
ཀྱོང་སྤྲོད་མ་སོང་ ("He did not give me even one dollar").
The above use of གང་ to convey "one" in measurements is common. For example,
ང་ར་ཇ་དཀར་ཡོལ་གང་སྤྲོད་རོགས་གནང་ ("Please give me one cup of tea").
3. The third segment consists of four clauses: l . དེ་ནས་ཉིན་ཤུས་སོང་རྗེསཨ་ཁུས་སླར་ཡང་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེའི་
ཁྱིམ་དུ་ཕྱིན་ནས་ 2. སླ་ང་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་གཡར་བ་དང་སྦྲགས་ 3. དེང་སང་ལྷ་སར་རྩམ་པ་གོང་ཆེན་པོ་ཡོད་ཙང་ 4. ང་སང་ཉིན་
རྩམ་པ་བཙོང་བར་འགྲོ་རྩིས་ཡོད་ཅེས་བཤད་ .
The first clause is a siple active construction beginning with the time-slot phrase
(དེ་ནས་ + ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་ - "after that + after a few days passed"). The remainder is the verb
"went" (ཕྱིན་), the location of his going (ཕྱུག་པོ་དེའི་ཁྱིུམ་དུ་ - "to the house of that rich man"),
an adverbial word meaning "once a gain" (སླར་ཡང་), and the subject in the instrumental.
The cormective ནས་ links this to clause two.
The second clause consists of an implict subject (by Agu), the verb "to borrow"
(གཡར་) and the object phrase "a big pan" (སླ་ང་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་). Note that གཡར་ can mean both
"borrow"and "lend." It is linked by the "together with" clause connector (see 7.9 ), which
here conveys the idea that together with going to borrow a pan, he said ... .
The third clause is a simple existential sentence, "the price of tsamba is high in
Lhasa," linked to clause four by the "because" connective.
The final clause centers around an infinitive construction ("go to sell" — བཙོང་བར་
འགྲོ་), which in turn is modified by the "plan to" particle (རྩིས་), sothat it means "plan to go
to sell tsamba." The rest consists of the subject ("I") and the time of the verbal action,
4. The fourth segment consists of six clauses l . སྐད་ཆ་དེ་ཕྱུག་པོས་ཐོས་མ་ཐག་ 2. ཞུམ་བུས་ཙོ་ཙི་མཐོང་
བ་ལར་དགའ་སྣང་ཚད་མེད་བྱུང་སྟེ་ 3. ད་ནི་ཁེ་བཟང་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་ཐོབ་པ་བྱེད་དགོས་བསམས་ཏེ་ 4. ཁོས་ཨ་ཁུར་ལྷ་སའི་ཁྲོམ་
རའི་ཟོག་གོང་དང་། བྲིན་ཚོང་གི་སྐོར་སོགས་ཞིབ་པར་དྲིས་རྗེས་ 5. ཁོ་དགའ་ཐག་ཆོད་ནས་ 6. བྱས་ན་སང་ཉིན་ང་ཡང་ཁྱོད་
མཉམ་དུ་ལྷ་སར་རྩམ་པ་བཙོང་བར་འགྲོ་ཡི་ཡིན་ཞེས་བཤད་ .
The first clause is a simple involuntary verb construction. The object comes first
("that speech"), followed by the subject ("by that rich man") and then the verb ("to hear")
and the "as soon as" clause cormective. Thus, "as s on as that rich man heard the speech."
The second clause begins with ལྟར་ ("like/as"), a common construction used to
construct similes. In this case the phrase is: "like a cat seeing a mouse" (ཞུམ་བུས་ཙི་ཙི་མཐོང་བ་
ལྟར་). Note that ལྟ་བུ་ could have been substituted for ལྟར་ .

The second parto of this clause means "got joy/happiness" (དགའ་སྣང་ ... བྱུང་). It
consists of "joy/happiness" and the modifying adverbial ཚོད་མེད་ ("boundless" or
"limitless"). Thus, "(He) got extremely happy like a cat seeing a mouse."
Clause three explains what the implicit subject (the rich man) "thought" (བསམས་).
It utilizes the དགོས་ pattern explained in 7.5.6,which here conveys" (I) have to do
something so that (I) will get a big profit."
Clause four is an active sentence whose core structure is ཁོས་ཨ་ཁུར་ ... དྲིས་ (by him
to Agu ... asked). The verb "asked" is modified by the adverb ཞིབ་པར་,which means "in
What he asked is ཟོག་གོང་དང་། བྲིན་ཚོང་གི་སྐོར་སོགས་. ཟོག་གོང་ and བྲིན་རཚོང་ are
unproblematic, conveying "prices" and "sales." སྐོར་ is a common term used for "about"
or "concerning" something. It is normally accompanied by the genitive particle. Thus, "he
asked about prices... . "The remainder of the clause consists of two location phrases
linked by the genitive: Lhasa's markets (ལྷ་སའི་ཁྲོམ་རའི་ -lit., "of the market of Lhasa").
Thus, "he asked about prices and sales in Lhasa's market." One last element remains to be
discussed: སོགས་ . It was discussed in 5.4 where it was explained that with lists of
enumerations it conveys the meaning of "et cetera" or "such as." Thus, "he asked about
such things as the price... ."
The next two clauses describe how he felt (ཁོ་དགའ་ཐག་ཆོད་ནས་ -"he, having felt very
happy") and what he said (བྱས་ན་སང་ཉིན་ང་ཡང་ ... འགྲོ་ཡི་ཡིན་ - "well then, tomorrow I also ...
will go"). There is also the infnitive phrase ལྷ་སར་རྩམ་པ་བཙོང་བར་ ("to sell tsamba in
5. The fifh segment consists of four clauses l . ཕྱི་ཉིན་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོ་ནས་ལང་ས་ཏེ་ 2. ཁལ་
གཡག་ལ་རྩམ་པ་ཁགལ་རྒྱབ་གཅིག་བཀལ་ནས་ 3. ལྷ་སར་ཐོན་རྒྱུའི་གྲ་སྒྲིག་བྱས་ཚར་ནས་ 4. ཨ་ཁུ་བསྒུགས་ནས་བསྡད་.
The first clause is straightforward: a temporal (ཕྱི་ཉིན་) + subject (ཕྱུག་པོ་དས་) + adverb
(སྔ་པོ་ནས་) + verb (ལངས་) + clause connector(ཏེ་). The second clause is also simple. Its
subject is continued from clause one ("by that rich man"), and it consists of the indirect
object (ཁལ་གཡག་ལ་) + the direct object (རྩམ་པ་ཁལ་རྒྱབ་གཅིག་) + verb (བཀལ་) + clause connector
Clause three starts with a nominalized phrase meaning "the departure for Lhasa"
(ལྷ་སར་ཐོན་རྒྱུའི་). It is linked to "preparations" (གྲ་སྒྲིག་) by the genitive, so that together they
convey the meaning, "preparations for departing to Lhasa." The verbal phrase གྲ་སྒྲིག་བྱས་
("to make preparations") in turn is modified by the verb ཚོར་,which conveys the meaning
of "finished" and is used with verbs by being placed immediately after their stem, for
example ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་ཚོར་སྐབས་ ("when they finished eating"). The final clause consists

of a comon construction (see 5.11.2 ) wherein two verbs linked by ནས་ convey
simultaneous action" ཨ་ཁུ་བསྒུགས་ནས་ + བསྡད་ "waiting for Agu, he stayed (there)."
6. The sixth segment consists of. l . ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟོང་པ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ནང་གཟན་རྩྭ་བརྒྱངས་ཏེ་ 2. རྩམ་
པ་ཡིན་ཁུལ་གྱིས་བོང་བུར་བཀལ་ནས་ 3. དེ་གར་སླེབས་རྗེས་ 4. ཁོང་གཉིས་མཉམ་དུ་ལྷ་སར་ཐོན་ .
The first clause is a simple active verb senrence. Beginning with the subject in the
instrtmental (ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་), it is followed by the indirect object (རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟང་པ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ནང་), the
direct object (གཟན་རྩྭ་), and the verb (བརྒྱང་ས་).
The second clause is a bit tricky. It begins with a verb phrase that has been first
modifed by the "pretend" particle (ཁུལ་) (see 6.8 ) and then adverbialized by the
instrumental particle (གྱིས་) (see 6.5.2 ). Thus, the linking verb construction "it is/was
tsamba" (རྩམ་པ་ཡིན་) becomes "pretending it was tsamba" (རྩམ་པ་ཡིན་ཁུལ་) and then "in the
manner of pretending it was tsamba" (རྩམ་པ་ཡིན་ཁུལ་གྱིས་). Clauses three and four are
7. The seventh segment consists of three clausesl. དེ་ཉིན་ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པ་དང་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཁོང་གཉིས་ཉིན་གང་
བསྐྱོད་ནས་ 2. དགོན་ཧྲུལ་ཆུང་ཆུང་ཞིག་གི་འགྲམ་དུ་སླེབས་པས་ 3. ཁོང་གཉིས་དོ་ནུབ་དགོན་པ་དེའི་ནང་ཞག་སྡོད་བྱ་རྒྱུར་ཁ་
The first clause consists of the time-slot phrase "that day" (དེ་ཉིན་), a complex
subject, " the two of them, Agu and the rich man" (ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པ་དང་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཁོང་གཉིས་), the
adverbial phrase "all day" (ཉིན་གང་), and the verb "went" (བསྐྱོད་). The second clause does
not require comment.
The third clause contains a future nominalized verb phrase ཞག་སྒོད་བྱ་རྒྱུར་ ("the
stopping over night on a trip"), which functions as the object of the verb "agree" (ཁ་འཆམ་).
Thus, what did they agree to? — to making an overnight stop.
8. The eighth segment consists of three clauses l. ཉིན་གང་བསྐྱོད་པའི་ངལ་དུབ་ཀྱིས་ཕྱུག་པོ་ནི་ཉལ་མ་
ཐག་ 2. གཉིད་ལ་ཤོར་ནས་ 3. ཤི་བ་ལྟར་དུ་གྱུར་ .
The first clause starts with an adverbialized phrase ཉིན་གང་བསྐྱོད་པའི་ངལ་དུབ་ཀྱིས་ ("in
the manner of being tired from going all day"). This modifies the verb "to lie down" (ཉལ་),
explaining that "beng tired fom going all day, (someone) lay down. "The subject, i.e.,
the one who lay down, is "the rich man" (ཕྱུག་པོ་ནི་), and the clause connector is the "as
soon as" particle (མ་ཐག་). Thus together these mean, "Being tired from going all day, the
rich man lay down, and as soon as he did so... ."
The second clause is the standard verb phrase conveying involuntarily falling
asleep. The "having" clause connector links it to the third clause, which begins with
another metaphorical phrase marked by ལྟར་ -"like being dead" (ཤི་བ་ལྟར་). It ends in with
the past tense verb གྱུར་ "became" or "changed into." This verb requires use of the dative-

locative so that the preceeding phrase is written ཤི་བ་ལར་དུ་ . Together they mean, "came to
be as if he were dead."
9. The ninth segment consists of three clauses l . ནམ་ཕྱེད་ཙོམ་ལ་ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་ཁ་ཁར་ཡར་ལང་ས་ཏེ་
2. རང་གི་རྩམ་སྒེའི་ནང་གི་གཟན་རྩ་རྣམས་བོང་བུར་སྟེར་བ་དང་ 3. ཕྱུག་པའི་རྩམ་པ་ཁལ་རྒྱབ་གཅིག་པོ་དེ་རང་གི་སྒྱེ་མོའི་ནང་དུ་
The first clause begins with a time phrase meaning "at about midnight" (ནམ་ཕྱེད་ཙམ་
ལ). ཙམ་ here modifies ནམ་ཕྱེད་ to convey the idea of "about" or "approximately." This is
followed by the subject int he instrumental case (ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་) and the verb "got up/arose"
(ལངས་), here modified by the adverbial ཁ་ཁར་ ("quietly/silently/secretly"). Thus, "at about
midnight, Agu quietly arose."
The subject of the next clause, Agu, is implicit. Clause two, therefore, begins with
a long direct object phrase རང་གི་རྩམ་སྒྱེའི་ནང་གི་གཟན་རྩ་རྣམས་ ("the hay and grass inside his
own tsamba bag"). This is followed by the indirect object, "to the donkey" (བོང་བུར་), and
then the active verb "give" (སྟེར་).
Clause three starts with the direct object phrase "that single load of tsamba of the
rich man" (ཕུག་པའི་རྩམ་པ་ཁལ་རྒྱབ་གཅིག་པོ་དེ་). Next comes the indirect object phrase: "to the
inside of (his) own tsamba bag" (རང་གི་སྒྱེ་མོའི་ནང་དུ་). Finally the active verb "stuffed"
(བརྒྱངས་). Thus, "(Agu) stuffed the single load of the rich man into his own tsamba bag."
10. The tenth segment consists of four clauses: l. དེ་ནས་ཨ་ཁུས་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེའི་རྩམ་སྐྱེ་སྟོང་པ་དེ་ལྷ་སྐུའི་ལག་
ཏུ་བཞག་པ་དང་ 2. ཡང་རྩམ་པ་སྦར་མོ་གང་ཁྱེར་ནས་ 3. ལྷ་སྐུ་དེའི་ཁ་ལ་བྱུགས་རྗེས་ 4. གཞི་ནས་སྔར་བཞིན་གཉིད་ཉལ་ .
The first clause begins with the time-slot word "afrer that," and then the subject in
the instrumental case (ཨ་ཁུས་). The object phrase ཕྱུག་པོ་དེའི་རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟོང་པ་དེ་ ("that empty bag of
that rich man") occurs next. Following this is the verb "leave" (བཞག་) and the indirect
object "in the hand of a statue of a god" (ལྷ་སྐུའི་ལག་ཏུ་). Thus, "after that, Agu left the empty
tsamba bag of that rich man in the hand of a statue of a god, and... ."
The second clause begins with the word ཡང་ ("also" or "again"), followed by the
object phrase རྩམ་པ་སྦར་མོ་གང་ ("one handful of tsamba"), and the active verb in the past
tense ཁྱེར་ ("carried/took"). The subject continues to be Agu. Thus together they mean,
"also, having taken a handful of tsamba."
Clause three again does not mention the subject. It consists only of an active verb
"smear" (བྱུགས་), and the location of the verbal action, " in/to the mouth of that statue of the
god" (ལྷ་སྐུ་དེའི་ཁ་ལ་). Clauses two and three therefore translate as, " Also, having taken a
handful of tsamba, (he) smeared it on the mouth of the statue of the god. "The clause
connector here is "after" (རྗེས་), so "Also, aftrer having taken a handful of tsamba, (he)
smeared it on the mouth of the statue of the god."

The fourth clause begins with གཞི་ནས་,a term which means "only then." It is
followed by the time phrase སྔར་བཞིན་ ("like before") and the active verb གཉིད་ཉལ་ ("lie
down to sleep"). བཞིན་ here functions as "as" or "like." Agu continues to be the implicit
11. The eleventh segment consists of three clauses l . ནམ་ལང་ས་རྗེས་ 2. ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་
རྩམ་པ་དོ་པོ་བསྡད་མེད་པ་མཐོང་འཕྲལ་ 3. ཨ་ཁུ་བོས་ཏེ་གཉིད་ལས་སད་.
The first clause "afrer dawn arose" (ནམ་ལངས་རྗེས་) functions as a time-slot phrase.
Clause two consists of a subject (ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་) and a nominalized verb phrase (རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྩམ་པ་
དོ་པོ་བསྡད་མེད་པ་), which serves as the object of the verb "see" (མཐོང་). This nominalized verb
phrase breaks down into "his own tsamba load" (རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྩམ་པ་དོ་པོ་) and the negative
verbal phrase "not sitting there (lit., sitting there did not exist)" (བསྡད་མེད་). རོང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྩམ་པ་དོ་
པོ་ could have been written རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་རྩམ་པའི་དོ་པོ་ . The particle པ་ converts this into the
nominalized phrase "the not sitting there of the load of his own tsamba." Thus, the rich
man saw what? — "He saw that his load of tsamba was not sitting there."
The "at once" clause connector links this to clause three which carries over
implicitly the subject of clause two (the rich man). Clause three consists of the active
verb "to call" (བོས་) and the object of the calling, Agu. Thus, "(the rich man) called Agu."
The ཏེ་ clause connector here conveys that the "calling" woke him up (གཉིད་ལས་སད་). The
phrase གཉིད་ལས་སད་ breaks down into "sleep" (གཉིད་), " from, than" (ལས་), and "awoke"
12. The twelfth seg ent consists of one clause ཁོང་གཉིས་པོས་རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟོང་པ་ལྷ་སྐུའི་ལག་ཏུ་ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་ .
The subject of this phrase (ཁོང་གཉིས་པོས་) goes with the verb "see" (མཐོང་) — thus,
"the two of them saw..." The object phrase (what they saw) consists againof a
nominalized verb construction རྩམ་སྒྱེ་སྟོང་པ་ལྷ་སྐུའི་ལག་ཏུ་ཡོད་པ་ ("the empty tsamba bag existing
in the hand of the deity").
13. The thirteenth segment consists offour clausesl: 1. ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་འཇིག་རྟེན་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་དུས་
ཡུན་རིང་པོ་ལྷ་མ་གསོལ་བར་བརྟེན་ 2. ལྷ་ཕལ་ཆེར་ལྟོགས་ནས་ 3. ཐབས་ཤས་མ་བྱུང་སྟབས་ 4. ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་ཙམ་པ་འགམས་པ་
རེད་ཅེས་བཤད་ .
These clauses convey Agu's explanation of where the tsamba went. The subject
(ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་) goes with the final verb "said" (བཤུད་), the rest conveying what he said. His
comment begins with an active verb sentence whose subject is "humans" (འཇིག་རྟེན་མི་རྣམས་
ཀྱིས་). The verbal action is "not make offerings" (མ་གསོལ་), and the object is "god" (ལྷ་).
Modifying this is the phrase "for a long time" (དུས་ཡུན་རིང་པོ་). With the "because"
connector, this means, " because humans have not made offerngs to the god for a long

The next clause completes this stating that "the god was probably hungry " (ལྷ་ཕལ་
ཆེར་སྟོགས་). The "having" clause connective conveys that "having been hungry, ..."
Clause three omits the subject and begins with the object "method" (ཐབས་ཤས་) and
the verb "get" (བྱུང་), made negative by མ་ . Together they convey "havng not got any
means [for alleviatng the hunger]." The final clause concludes that the implied subject
(the god) "ate your tsamba" (ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་ཙམ་པ་འགམས་པ་རེད). འགམས་ is a special verb used for
"eating tsamba."
14. The fourteenth segment consists of one clause. ཕུག་པོ་དེས་ལྷ་འདིས་ངའི་རྩམ་པ་ཁོ་ན་བཟས་པ་ལས་
The overall structure is ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་ ... དྲིས་ ("by the rich man ... asked"). What the
rich man asked, however, is a bit complicated. In essence it is an active verb construction
with two sub-clauses within it that have been nominalized.
The subject of the first clause within a clause is ལྷ་འདིས་ ("by this god"). The object
is ངའི་རྩམ་པ་ (my tsamba), the active verb is བཟས་ ("ate"), and there is an adverb ཁོ་ན་
("only"). It is nominalized by པ་ and then linked to the next sub-clause by ལས་,which
here means "than" rather than "from." Together they mean, "Than that god eating only
my tsamba, ... "Other examples of this common use of ལས་ are ཚོལ་ལས་ཤ་གོང་ཆེ་ ("Meat
is more expensive than vegetables") and འདིར་ཡོང་བ་ལས་ལྷ་སར་ཕྱིན་ན་ཡག་གི་རེད་ ("Rather than
coming here, if (you) go to Lhasa it will be better").
The second sub-clause begins with the phrase ཁྱོད་ཀྱི་རྩམ་པ་ ("your tsamba") and is
followed by མི་ཟ་བ་ ("not eating"). This in turn is followed by the interrogative phrase གང་
ཡིན་ནམ་,which means "why." Together the two sub-clauses convey: "Than that god eating
only my tsamba, yourt tsamba not eating, why?" Or in normal English, "Why did that god
eat only my tsamba and not yours?"
Finally, note that the verb "asked" (དྲིས་པར་) is nominalized with the dative-
locative. This construction conveys "to or concerning the asking," indicating that what
follows is the answer to that question (see 6.6.3).
15. The fifteenth segment consists of one sentence: ཨ་ཁུས་ལྷ་ཁྱེད་ལ་མཉེས་པོ་ཡོད་པས་རེད་ཅེས་ལན་
The main structure of this is: ཨ་ཁུས་ ... ལན་བཏབ་ ("Agu replied..."). What he
replied was ལྷ་ཁྱེད་ལ་མཉེས་པོ་ཡོད་པས་རེད་ . This is a simple existential construction consisting
of subject (ལྷ་) + object (ཁྱེད་) + dative-locative (ལ་) + adjective (མཉེས་པོ་) + existential verb
(ཡོད་པས་རེད་). Together these mean, "The god likes you."
Note that the existential verb ཡོད་པས་རེད་ is a new construction that conveys "it is
because... ." This, therefore, would be translated as "it is because the god likes you."

This construction is equivalent to ཡོད་པ་ཡིན་ཙང་རེད་ . Several other ways to express this are:
(a) ཡོད་པ་ཡིན་པས་ན་རེད་,(b) ཡོད་པ་ཡིན་པས་ནའོ་,(c) ཡོད་པས་སོ་,(d) ཡིན་པས་སོ་,(e) ཡོད་པས་དབང་གིས་རེད་,
or negative existential verbs such as (f) མེད་པས་སོ་ or (g) མིན་པས་སོ་ .
16. The sixteenth segment consists of three clauses l . དེས་ན་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེས་ད་བུགས་རིང་གཏོང་བཞིན་པར་
2. ང་ལྷ་སར་འགྲོ་ཡི་མིན། 3. ཁྱེད་རང་གཅིག་པུར་རྒྱུགས་ཤིག་ཅེས་བཤད་ .
The first clause begins with དེས་ན་ ("therefore"), anotherin the class of words that
function as clause connectors but are placed at the head of the second of two clauses.
Others in that class that occurred in earlier lessons are འོན་ཀྱང་,བྱས་ཙང་,and ཡིན་ན་ཡང་ . The
remainder of the clause is a simple active construction consisting of a subject in the
instrumental case, and the active verb ("sighed" — ད་བུགས་རིང་གཏོང་). It is modified by བཞིན་
པར་,which here conveys the meaning that "while in the process of X, something else was
done." In this case the second action is conveyed by the fnal verb, " said" (བཤད་). Thus,
something was said in the manner of or while sighing. Note that "sigh" in Tibet is
considered an active verb.
Clause two is a simple negative construction. Clause three is another simple
construction consisting of the subject ("you"), an adverb ("alone"- གཅིག་པུར་), and a verb
("go away"- རྒྱུགས་).
The particle ཤིག་ is a common form used with verbs ending in ས་ to convey the
17. The seventeenth segment consist of two clauses: l. ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པས་ང་གཅིག་པུར་འགྲོ་གི་མིན་ཅེས་
བཤད་ནས་ 2. ཁོང་གཉིས་མཉམ་དུ་སླར་ཡང་ཁྱིམ་ལ་ཕྱིར་ལོག་སོང་ .
The first clause consists of a direct speech segment, "Agu said, "I will not go
alone. "It is linked to clause two by the "having" clause connective, constructing the
phrase "having said, ..." Clause two ends the story with a simple descrptive active
sentence: "The two of them together, once again, returned to (their) house."
7.14.2. Reading number two: "Coming from Afghanistan to Pakistan" Tibetan text
ཨབ་གྷ་ནི་སི་ཐན་ནས་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་བར་དུ་ཡོང་བ་ (4)
འདི་གར་ཚགས་པར་ཁང་དུ་ཁ་ར་ཆི་ནས་གློག་འཕྲིན་འབྱོར་གསལ། ཕྱི་ལོ་ 1978 ལོ་ཨབ་གྷ་ནི་སི་ཐན་ལ་ཟིང་
འཁྲུག་ལང་ས་རྗེས་ང་ཚོ་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་བར་བྲོས་བྱོལ་དུ་ཡོང་ཅིང་། ལམ་ཁ་ལ་ཉི་མ་མང་པོ་གོམ་པ་བརྒྱབ་པའི་དུ་ས་ལ་སྐབས་རེ་
(4) This reading selection is a simplified newspaper article.

ལྟོ་ཆས་ཆད་དེ་རྒན་གོག་ན་ནས་ཤི་བ་མ་ཚད། མཚམས་མཚམས་གནམ་གྲུས་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་ནས་མི་མང་པོ་བསད་པ་རེད།
འོན་ཀྱང་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ས་མཚམས་སུ་སླེབས་ཚི་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་གཞུང་དང་། རོགས་རམ་ཚོགས་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ང་ཚོར་སྙིང་རྗེ་
ཆེན་པོའི་སྒོ་ནས་ལྟོ་ཆས་དང་། གོས་ལོག། སྨན་སོགས་སྐྱོབ་གསོ་གནང་བས་ང་ཚོར་ཕན་ཐོག་ཆེན་པོ་བྱུང་།
ཐོག་མར་གཞིས་ཆགས་འདིར་སླེབས་ནས་ད་བར་ང་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ཤིང་ནགས་སྟུག་པོ་བཅད་པ་མ་ཟད། ས་ཞིང་གསར་པ་
མང་པོ་བཟོས་པ་དང་། ཁང་པ་དང་། སློབ་གྲྭ། ལག་ཤེས་བཟོ་གྲྭ། ཚོང་ཁང་བཅས་གསར་པ་བརྒྱབ་པས་མ་ཚད། ཕྱི་
ལོ་ཡང་ང་ཚོས་སྨན་ཁང་ཞིག་རྒྱག་རྩིས་ཡོད། ད་ཆ་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་གཞིས་ཆགས་འདིར་ཨབ་བྷ་ནི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་མི་ཁྲི་
གཅིག་ཙམ་ཡོད་པ་རེད། Interlinear translation
afghanistan from pakistan up-to come
l . here newspaper house to karachi from telegram arrived clear/ year1978 year
afghanistan to disturbance
2. arose after i pl. pakistan up-to refugee to come having/ road today many walk when
3. food exhausted having old sick having die not only/ sometmes airplane-by gun fire
having people many kill past compl./
4. nevertheless pakistan of boundary to arrived when pakistan of government and/ help
association pl. by i pl.-to compassion
5. great-of door from food and/ clothes/ medicine etc. relief do (h.) because i pl.-to
benefit great gob/
6. border that-to month several stayed after i pl. all settle do for pakistan of south side to
sent having/
7. formerly settlement this-to arrive having now until i pl.-by diligence by forest dense
cut not only/ fields new
8. many made and/ house and/ school/ handicraft factory/ store etc. new built because
not only/ year
9. also i pl.-by hospital one built plan exist/ now pakistan of settlement this-to
afghanist an of person 10,000
10. one about exist/ Translation
Coming from Afghanistan to Pakistan
(What follows is according to) a cable that arrived at this newspaper office from
Karachi. In 1978, after disturbances arose in Afghanistan, we came seeking refuge in
Pakistan. When we were walking on the road for many days, sometimes we were out of
food and the elderly got sick and died. Not only that, but sometimes airplanes shot (at us)
and killed many people. Nevertheless, when we arrived at the Pakistan border, the
Pakistan goverrment and relief agencies compassionately gave us aid in the form of food,
clothes, medicines, etc. Because of this, we benefited greatly.
After we stayed at the border for several months, we were sent to southern
Pakistan for the purpose of resettling all ofus. From the time (lit., "when") we arrived
initially at the resettlement camp until now, we not only energetically cut down a dense
forest, but we made many new fields and newly built such things as houses, stores,
schools, and handicraft centers. Not only that, but next year we even plan to build a
hospital. There are nowa bout 10,000 Afghanistan refugees in this resettlement camp in
the south of Pakistan. Grammatical notes
1 . The first segment consists of the title ཨབ་གྷ་ནི་སི་ཐན་ནས་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་བར་དུ་ཡོང་བ་.
བར་དུ་ usually means "up to" or "until," and here it is used with ནས་ (in its
prepositional function of "from") to convey "from" X "up to" Y. The subject is implicit
here sothat this translates as "the coming from X to Y."
2. The second segment consists of the sentence འདི་གར་ཚགས་པར་ཁང་དུ་ཁ་ར་ཆི་ནས་གློག་འཕྲིན་འབྱོར་
This sentence is one of a number of standard ways that newspaper articles begin
by indicating the source of the story. In this case it informs us that the story derives from
a telegram from Karachi. The first part འདི་གར་ཚགས་པར་ཁང་དུ་ conveys the location of the
verb འབྱོར་ ("to arrive") — "(it arrived) in the newspaper office here." The rest of this
segment is straightforward until the final word གསལ་ ("clear"). In newspapers this has
come to mean "as was stated in" or "according to" rather than "clear." Other parallel
phrases used equivalently in newspapers are གསལ་ལྟར, དོན་,དོན་དུ་,བརྗོད་ན་,ལྷར་,and དོན་ལྟར་ན་
3. The third segment consists of two clauses l . ཕྱི་ལོ་ 1978 ལོ་ཨབ་བྷ་ནི་སི་ཐན་ལ་ཟིང་འཁྲུག་ལང་ས་རྗེས་
2. ང་ཚོ་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་བར་བྲོས་བྱོལ་དུ་ཡོང་ཅིང་.

བར་ in clause two is a variant of བར་དུ་ in clause one above, conveying the meaning
"up to." Therefore, " they fled (up) to Pakistan."
The construction བྲོས་བོལ་དུ་ functions here as an adverbial conveying in what
manner they came — they came seeking refuge.
4. The fourth segment consists of five clauses: l. ལམ་ཁ་ལ་ཉི་མ་མང་པོ་གོམ་པ་བརྒྱབ་པའི་དུས་ལ་ 2.
སྐབས་རེ་ལྟོ་ཆས་ཆད་དེ་ 3. རྒན་གོག་ན་ནས་ཤི་བ་མ་ཚད། 4. མཚམས་མཚོམས་གནམ་གྲུས་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་ནས་ 5.
མི་མང་པོ་བསད་པ་རེད་ .
Clause one begins by specifying the location of the verbal action, namely, "on the
road" (ལམ་ཁ་ལ་). It is followed by the main verb ("walked") and a phrase meaning "many
days." Together these mean "(they) walked many days on the road." Note that the clause
conmective དུས་ལ་ is identical with the more common སྐབས་ (སུ་).
Clause two is a sentence based on the involimtary verb ཆད་ ("to be short of,
missing"). ལྟོ་ཆས་ ("food") conveys what is in short supply — food — and སྐབས་རེ་
("sometimes") conveys when this occurs.
Clause three is another involuntary sentence that begins with the subject – "old
people" (རྒན་གོག་)- -followed by the involuntary verb "to be sick" (ན་). It is linked to the
verb ཤི་ ("to die") by the ནས་ connective so that together they convey, "old people having
become ill, died."The clause ends with the "not only" clause connective (མ་ཚོད་), so that,
"not only did old people get sick and die."
The fourth clause begins with the adverb of time "sometimes" (མཚམས་མཚམས་),
followed by the subject in the instrumental case: "by planes" (གནམ་གྲུས་). The clause ends
with the verbal phrase "fired guns" (མེ་མད་འ་བརྒྱབ་)
The fifth clause continues the subject of the previous clause ("by planes"). It
begins with the object phrase མི་མང་པོ་ ("many people"), followed by the active verb
"killed" (བསད་པ་རེད). Together these convey, "Planes fired guns and killed many people."
5. The fifth segment consists of three clauses l . འོན་ཀྱོང་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ས་མཚམས་སུ་སླེབས་ཚེ་ 2. པ་
ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་གཞུང་དང་། རོགས་རམ་ཚོགས་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ང་ཚོར་སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོའི་སྒོ་ནས་ལྟོ་ཆས་དང་། གོས་ལོག། སྨན་
སོགས་སྐྱོབ་གསོ་གནང་བས་ 3. ང་ཚོར་ཕན་ཐོག་ཆེན་པོ་བྱུང་།
འོན་ཀྱོང་ ("nevertheless") in clause one is one of the clause connectives that occur at
the beginning of the second clause rather than at the end of the first. It is followed by a
phrase that specifies the location (པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ས་མཚོམས་སུ་ — at/on the border of Pakistan) of
the verb "to arrive." The "when" clause connective links this with clause two.
The second clause begins with a long subject in the instrumental case that consists
of two elements joined by the conjunction "and" (དང་): པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་གཞུང་ ("Pakistan's
government") and རོགས་རམ་ཚོགས་པ་ ("aid agencies"). Both of these are modified by the

pluralizer རྣམས་ and the instrumental ཀྱིས་ . The subjects action is "gave reliefaid" (སྐྱོབ་གསོ་
The rest of the segment consists of the indirect object ང་ཚོར་ ("to us"), the
adverbial phrase སྙིང་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོའི་སྒོ་ནས་ ("in the manner of great compassion"), and the direct
object — what was given as relief aid, namely, ལྟོ་ཆས་དང་། གོས་ལོག། སྨན་སོགས་ ("foodstuffs,
clothes, medicines, and so forth"). Note again that the use of སོགས་ conveys that this list is
incomplere, in other words, it means "etc." or "and so forth." Thus, together these mean,
"Pakistan's government and Relief Agencies compasionately gave us relief aid of
foodstuffs, clothes, medicines, etc."
6. The sixth segment consists of three clauses: l . ས་མཚོམས་དེར་ཟླ་བ་ཁ་ཤས་བསྡད་རྗེས་ 2. ང་ཚོ་
ཚང་མ་གཞིས་ཆགས་བྱེད་ཆེད་ 3. པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་སུ་བཏང་ཞིང་ .
The first has "we" as its implicit subject. It begins with the location of the action,
"on that border" (ས་མཚམས་དེར་), followed by a t ine phrase meaning "several months" (ཟླ་བ་
ཁ་ཤས་), and then the verb "to sit, stay, live" (བསྡད་). Thus, "(we) stayed on that border for
several months."
The second clause consists of an object phrase, " all of us" (ང་ཚོ་ཚང་མ་), an active
verb, "to settle permanently" (གཞིས་ཆགས་བྱེད་), and the "for the purpose of" particle (ཆེད་), so
that together the clause conveys, "for the purpose of settling all ofus." The article does
not specify who wanted to do that.
The third clause says what was done to accomplish this. An unnamed subject
"sent" (བཏང་) an unnamed object ("us") to the south of Pakistan (པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་སུ་).
7. The seventh segment consists of five clauses 1 . ཐོག་མར་གཞིས་ཆགས་འདིར་སླེབས་ནས་ 2. ད་བར་
ང་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་ཤིང་ནགས་སྟུག་པོ་བཅད་པ་མ་ཟད། 3. ས་ཞིང་གསར་པ་མང་པོ་བཟོས་པ་དང་། 4. ཁང་པ་དང་། སློབ་
གྲྭ། ལག་ཤེས་བཟོ་གྲྭ། ཚོང་ཁང་བཅས་གསར་པ་བརྒྱབ་པས་མ་ཚད། 5. ཕྱི་ལོ་ཡང་ང་ཚོས་སྨན་ཁང་ཞིག་རྒྱག་རྩིས་ཡོད་ .
The first clause is an involuntary sentence with the implicit subject "we" and the
core verb "to arrive" (སླེབས་). The location of the arriving is གཞིས་ཆགས་འདིར་ ("in this
settlement"). The clause begins with the term ཐོག་མར་ ("at first"). Together these convey,
"At first, having arrived in this settlement."
The second clause is linked to clause one by ད་བར་,which means "up to now."
Thus, it conveys that "from having arrived in the settlement up to now... "The clause,
however, is basically an active sentence with the subject ང་ཚོས་ ("by us") doing "cutting"
(བཅད་) of dense forests (ཤིང་ནགས་སྟུག་པོ་). The adverbial phrase ཧུར་བརྩོན་གྱིས་
("energetically") modifies the active verb. The "not-only" clause connective (མ་ཟད་) is
joined to these, conveying: "Not only did we energetically cut dense forests... ."
The third clause continues what the subject ("we") did, namely, " made" (བཟོས་)

"many new fields' (ས་ཞིང་གསར་པ་མང་པོ་).
The fourth clause continues this by listing other things the subjects did, namely,
ཁང་པ་དང་། སློབ་གྲྭ། ལགཔ་ཤེས་བཟོ་གྲྭ། ཚོང་ཁང་བཅས་གསར་པ་བརྒྱབ་ ("built newly houses, schools,
handicraft centers, and stores"). Whether each of these is plural or singular is a matter of
context. This ends with a "not-only" (པས་མ་ཚད་) clause connective linking this to clause
The fifth clause states what the same subject plans to build (རྒྱག་རྩིས་ཡོད་) next year
(ཕྱི་ལོ་) a hospital (སྨན་ཁང་).
8. The eighth segment consists of a single sentence ད་ཆ་པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་གཞིས་ཆགས་འདིར་
This clause is an exisential senence whose basic structure is "in this settlenent
in the southern part of Pakistan (པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་གྱི་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་གཞིས་ཆགས་འདིར་) there exist (ཡོད་པ་རེད་)
about 10,000 Afghanis (ཨབ་གྷ་ནི་སི་ཐན་གྱ་མི་ཁྲི་གཅིག་ཙམ་). "The clause starts with the time-slot
word "now" (ད་ཆ་).
7.15 Vocabulary
བཀའེ་དྲི་ asking (h.), va. — ཞུ་ (gə̅ndri shu̲)
ཁམས་ Kham (eastern area of Tibet) (ka~m)
བཀའ་མོལ་ talk, discussion, conversation (h.), va — གནང་ (h.) (ga~möö̀ nān)
ཁར་ "about to" clause - connective (kār)
ཁལ་ a volume measure (kɛ̅ɛ̅)
བཀལ་ va. p. of
བཀལ་ va. p. of འགེལ: loaded (gɛ̅ɛ̅)
ཁལ་རྒྱབ་ a load (kɛ̅ɛ̅gyəb)
སྐད་གཏོང་ va. to call, invite (gɛ̅ɛ̀ dōŋ)
ཁལ་གཡག་ a carrying/ transportation yak (kɛ̅ɛ̅yaà)
སྐབས་རེ་ sometimes (gə̅bre)
སྐོར་ about, concerning(gɔ~ɔ~)
ཁེ་བཟང་ profit (kēbsaŋ)
སྐྱོན་ཤོར་ vi. to get damaged, hurt (gyȫn shɔ~ɔ~)
ཁོ་ན་ only (kōna)
ཁོང་གཉིས་པོ་ the two together(kōŋ ñi~bo) (h.)
སྐྱོབ་གསོ་ welfare (gyōbso)
ཁ་ཁར་ quietly (kāga)
ཁྱེར་ va. p. of འཁྱེར་ took, carried (kēr)
ཁ་འཆམ་ vi. to agree (kāchām)
ཁ་འདོན་ prayers, praing va. – བྱེད་ (ka~ndön che̲e`)
ཁྲི་གཅིག་ 10,000 (tri~jig)
གོ་ཁྲིད་ leader, boss (gu̲dri)
ཁ་ར་ཆི་ Karachi (kāraji)
གོང་ "before" clause connective གོང་ + dative-locative (ལ་ etc.) (gɔ̲n)
ཁ་ལ་ཁ་ར་ "about to" clause connective (kāla kār)

གོམ་པ་ walking, steps, va. — རྒྱག་ (go̲mba ga̲à)
སྔ་ལོ་ last year (ŋā̅o)
གཅེག་པུ་ alone (ji~gu, ji~gbu)
གོས་ལོག་ clothing (gö̲lɔɔ̀)
གཅིག་པོ་ a single item, one alone (ji~gbu)
གྱུར་ vi. p. of འགྱུར་ became (gu̲r)
བཅད་ va. p. of གཅོད་ cut (jɛ̅ɛ̀)
གྲ་སྒྲིག་ preparation va. — བྱེད་ (trə_driì)
ཆད་ vi. to be missing, short of (chɛ̅ɛ̀)
གྲབས་ "about to" clause connective (drə̲b)
ཆབས་སྦྲགས་ "together with" clause connective (chə̅bdra)
གྲབས་བྱེད་དུས་ "about to" clause connective (drə̲b che̲düǜ)
ཆུ་གཏོང་ va. to irrigate (chū dōŋ)
ཆུ་ཚོད་ o'clock; hour (chōdzöö̀)
ཆེ་རུ་ increasing, bigger, ་ va. — གཏོང་ (to make bigger, larger) ་ vi . — ཕྱིན་ (to become bi gger, larger) (chēru)
གློག་འཕྲིན་ cable, telegram, telex (lɔ̅gdrin)
དགའ་ སྣང་ happiness (ga̲naŋ)
དགའབསུ་་ welcome, va. — ཞུ་ (gə̲su shu)
འཇིག་རྟེན་མི་རྣམས་ human bei ngs (ji̲gden mi̲nə)
དགོན་ཧྲུལ་ ruined monastery (gonhrü)
དགོས་ have to, want to (gö̲ö̀)
བརྗོད་ན་ see གསལ་
འགམས་ va. to eat tsamba (ga̲m)
ཉིན་གང་ all day (ñi̲ngauŋ)
འགོ་འཁྲིད་ leader (gu̲dri)
ཉེ་ "about to" particle (ñe̲)
རྒྱག་ va. auxiliary verb used with nouns to build, shoot, etc., pres./fut. of རྒྱབ་ (gya̲à)
ཉེར་ sm. ཉེ་ (ñe̲r)
ཉོ་ཆ་ shopping (ño̲bja)
གཉིད་ sleep (ñīì)
གཉིད་སད་ vi. and va. to be awoken or awake from sleep (ñīì sɛ̅ɛ̀)
རྒྱུགས་ va. to go (gyu̲ù)
སྐྱེ་མོ་ bag, sack (gye̲mo)
བརྒྱངས་ va. p. of རྒྱོང་ stuffed (gya̲ŋ)
གཉིད་ལས་སད་ sm. གཉིད་སད་ (ñiì lɛɛ̀ sɛ̅ɛ̀)
མཉམ་དུ་ together (ñə̅mdu)
བརྒྱད་པ་ 8th (gyɛ̲ba)
མཉེས་པོ་ like (h.) (ñēēbo)
བསྒུགས་ v a. p. of སྒུག་ ་ waited (gu̲ù)
སྙན་ཞུ་ report (ñɛ̅shu)
ངལ་དུབ་ tired (ŋe̲e̲dub)
སྙིང་རྗེ་ compassion (ñīŋje)
ངེས་ certainty particle
ཏང་ political party (dāŋ)
མངར་མོ་ sweet (ŋaāmo)
ལྟར་ similar, like, as (dār)

ལྟོ་ food (dō)
སྟེར་ va. to give (dēē)
སྟོང་པ་ empty (dōŋba)
པ་དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་ "together with" clause connective, "according to" clause connective (bədaŋ tə̅b dǖn)
བསྟུན་ "according to," " together with" clause connective (dǖn)
བསྟུན་ནས་ sm. བསྟུན་ (dǖnnɛ)
པ་དང་བསྟུན་ "together with" clause connective, "according to" clause connective (bədauŋ dǖn)
ཐག་ཆོད་ "very " or "་ extremely" (tāgjöö̀)
ཐབས་ means, methods (tə̅b)
ཐབས་ཤས་ means, methods (tə̅bshɛɛ̀)
པ་དང་སྦྲགས་ "together with " clause connective (bədaŋ dra̲à)
ཐོག་མར་ " initially (tɔ̅ɔ̅maa)
ད་ཆ་ now (ta̲cha)
ད་བར་ until now (ta̲bar)
ཕན་ཐོགས་ benefit (pɛ̅ndoò)
དང་ཆབས་ཅིག་ "together with" clause connective (da̲ŋ chə̅bji)
ཕལ་ཆེར་ probably (pɛ̅ɛ̅jee)
བར་དུ་ up to (bə̲do; pa̲rtu)
དང་མཉམ་དུ་ "together with" clause connective (da̲ŋ ñə̅mdo)
བོང་བུ་ donkey (phu̲ŋgu)
བོས་ va p. of འབོད་ ་ called, shouted (bö̲ö̀)
དུད་ཚང་ household, family (dü̲dza n)
དེ་གར་ there (te̲gar)
བྱས་ན་ well then (chɛ̲na)
དོ་དགོང་ tonight (to̲goŋ)
བྱུགས་ va. to smear (ju̲ù)
དོ་ནུབ་ tonight (to̲nub)
བྲིན་ཚོང་ sales, marketing (dri̲ndzoŋ)
དོ་པོ་ a load (do̲bo)
བྲོས་བྱོལ་ seeking refuge, fleeing (drojöö)
དོན་ see གསལ་ (tö̲n)
དོན་ལྟར་ན་ see གསལ་ (tö̲ndarna)
དབུགས་རིང་ sighing, a sigh; va. — གཏོང་ (ūriŋ dōŋ)
དོན་དུ་ see གསལ་ (tö̲ndu)
དྲིས་ va. p. of འདྲི་ : asked (tri̲ì)
འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ Bhutan (dru̲gyüü)
འདི་གར་ here (di̲gar)
འབྲེལ་ "together with" clause connective (dre̲)
ནའང་ even though (na̲ aŋ)
ན་ཡང་ even though (na̲ ya̲ŋ)
འབྲེལ་ "according to" clause connective (dre̲)
ནམ་ཕྱེད་ midnight (na̲mjeè)
གནས་ཚུལ་ situation; news, events, conditions (nɛ̅ɛ̅dzüü)
སྦར་མོ་གང་ a handful (ba̲rmo ga̲n)
མ་ + vb. གོང་ "before" clause connective མ་ + vb. གོང་ (ma̲ . . . go̲ŋ)
པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན་ Pakistan (bāgisidan)
པ་དང་ཆབས་ཅིག་ "together with" clause connective (bədaŋ chə̅bji)

མ་ཚད་ " not only " clause connective (m a̲tsɛɛ̀)
གཞི་བཟུང་ "accordingto" clause connective (shi̲suŋ)
མ་ཟད་ sm . མ་ཚད་ (m a̲sɛɛ̀)
གཞིས་ཆགས་ resettlement, resettling (shi̲jaà)
མོད་ "even though" clause connective (mö̲ö̀)
གཞོན་པ་ youth (shö̲nnu)
རྨོན་པ་རྒྱག་ va. to plow (mȫnba gya̲à)
བཞིན་ as, like (shi̲n)
སྨན་ medicine (mɛ̅n)
ཟིང་འཁྲུག་ disturbance, riot; uprising vi. — ལངས་ (si̲ŋdru la̲ŋ)
ཙམ་ about, approximately (dzām)
ཟོག་གོང་ price of goods (sɔ̲ɔ̀goǹ)
ཙི་ཙི་ mouse (dzī̀dzi)
གཟན་རྩྭ་ hay and straw (sɛ̲ndzə)
རྩ་ཁྲིམས་ constitution (dzə̲drim)
ཟླ་ཉིན་ last year (də̲ñin)
རྩམ་སྒྱེ་ small bag for carrying tsamba
ཟླ་བ་ month (da̲wa)
འང་ "even though" clause connective (a̲ŋ)
རྩམ་པ་ tsamba (roasted barley flour) (dzām ba)
ཡོད་པས་རེད་ it is because (yö̲bɛreè)
རྩིས་ "plan/intend to" clause connective (dzì)
རང་ self (ra̲ŋ)
རང་ཉིད་ one's own (ra̲ŋñiì)
རིང་པོ་ long (ri̲ŋgu)
ཚར་ vi. to be finished (tsār)
རུང་ "even though" clause connective (ru̲ŋ)
མཚམས་མཚམས་ sometimes (tsāmtsām)
ཞག་སྡོད་ an overnight stop on a trip (sha̲gdöö̀)
རོགས་རམ་ཚོགས་པ་ relief/ aid agency (rɔam tsɔ̅gba)
ཞབས་འདེགས་ serving, service, va. — ཞུ་ (h.) to serve (shə̲bdeg shu)
ལ་ཁད་ལ་ "about to" clause connective (la khɛla)
ལག་ hand (la̲g)
ཞིབ་པ་ detailed, in detail (shi̲bə)
ལག་ཁྱེར་ pernnit (la̲ggye)
ཞུ་ va. to say, ask or tell (to someone of equal or higher status) (shu̲)
ལག་ཤེས་བཟོ་གྲྭ་ handicraft work shop (l a̲gsheè so̲dra)
ལམ་ཁ་ road (la̲ŋga)
ཞུས་ va. p. of ཞུ་ (shü̲ǜ)
ལའང་ even (ləauŋ)
ཞུམ་བུ་ cat (shi̲mi, shu̲mbu)
ལས་ than; from (lɛ̲ɛ̀)
ཞོགས་པ་ morning (shɔ̲ɔ̲gɛ; shɔ̲gba)
ལོ་གསར་ new year (lo̲sar)
གཞི་ནས་ only then (shi̲nɛɛ̀)
ལོས་ certainty particle (lö̲ö̀)

ཤག་ certainty particle (sha̲à)
ཤས་ several (shɛ̅ɛ̀)
ཤིག་ imperative parti̅cle after final ས་ (shi̅g)
ཤིང་ནགས་ forest (shi̅ŋnaà)
ས་ཆ་ place (sāja)
སམ་ question particle used after final "s"
སེར་སྣི་ avaricious (sērna)
གསར་འགྱུར་ news (sə̅ngyuu)
གསལ་ used in newspapers to convey source: "as was stated in" (sɛ̅l)
གསལ་ལྟར་ see གསལ་
གསོལ་ va. to make offerings (sȫȫ)
བསྲུས་མ་ Tibetan style tea (sǖmə)
སླ་ང་ roasting pan (lāŋa)
ལྷ་ a god (lhā)
ལྷ་སྐུ་ statue of a god (lhə̅gu)
ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་ southern direction (lhōjoò)
ཨ་ཁུ་བསྟན་པ་ p.n. (ə̅gu dȫmba)
ཨབ་གྷ་ནི་སི་ཐན་ Afghanistan (āb ghānisitɛ̅n)

Lesson Eight
8.1 Cardinal numbers
གཅིག་ one བཅོ་ལྔེ་ fifteen
གཉིས་ two བཅུ་དྲུག་ sixteen
གསུམ་ three བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen
བཞི་ four བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ eighteen
ལྔ་ five བཅུ་དགུ་ nineteen
དྲུག་ six ཉི་ཤུ་ twenty
བདུན་ seven སུམ་ཅུ་ thirty
བརྒྱད་ eight བཞི་ཅུ་ forty
དགུ་ nine ལྔ་ཅུ་ fifty
བཅ་ ten དྲུག་ཅུ་ sixty
བཅུ་གཅིག་ eleven བདུན་ཅུ་ seventy
བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ eighty
བཅུ་གསུམ་ thirteen དགུ་ཅུ་ ninety
བཅུ་བཞི་ fourteen བརྒྱ་ (ཐམ་པ་) one hundred
As is evident from the above list, the num bers eleven through nineteen are
constructed by adding the number ten (བཅུ་) before the numbers one to nine. Thirteen is,
therefore, "ten" (བཅུ་) + "three" (གསུམ་) . Note that with the numbers fifteen and eighteen,
བཅུ་ changes to བཅོ་.
The numbers twenty to ninety are constructed the opposite way by adding "ten'"
(བཅུ་ or ཅུ་) afrer the numbers three thurough nine. Thus thirty is "three" (སུམ་) + "ten" (ཅུ་) .
Note, however, that the number "three" changes its form slightly, being written སུམ་ rather
than གསུམ་. The number "two" in "twenty" does likewise. The number "ten" is also
sometimes written without the prefixed "བ་," i.e., as ཅུ་.
Counting within each of the sets of ten (e.g., 20s, 30s) is somewhat complicated
by the fact that each set of ten requires a separate particle.
རྩ་ for the twenties ར་ for the sixties
སོ་ for the thirties དོན་ for the seventies
ཞེ་ for the forties གྱ་ for the eighties
ང་ for the fifties གོ་ for the nineties
For example:
ཉིས་ཤུ་རྩ་གཉིས་ 22 དྲུག་ཅུ་རེ་བདུན་ 67
སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་བཞི་ 34 བརྒྱད་ཅུ་གྱ་བརྒྱད་ 88

བཞི་ཅུ་ཞེ་ལྔ་ 45 དགུ་ཅུ་གོ་གསུམ་ 93
ལྔ་ཅུ་ང་དྲུག་ 56 བདུན་ཅུ་དོན་བདུན་ 77
The hundreds are written as follows:
བརྒྱ་ (ཐམ་པ་) 100 དྲུག་བརྒྱ་ 600
ཉིས་བརྒྱ་ 200 བདུན་བརྒྱ་ 700
གསུམ་བརྒྱ་ 300 བརྒྱད་བརྒྱ་ 800
བཞི་བརྒྱ་ 400 དགུ་བརྒྱ་ 900
ལྔ་བརྒྱ་ 500 སྟོང་ཕྲག་གཅིག་ or ཆིག་སྟོང་ l,000
Counting in the hundreds = the hundred number + དང་ + the remaining number. For
བརྒྱ་དང་བརྒྱད་ 108 གསུམ་བརྒྱ་དང་བཞི་ཅུ་ཞེ་དགུ་ 349
ཉིས་བརྒྱ་དང་ལྔ་ཅུ་ང་དྲུག་ 256 དགུ་བརྒྱ་དང་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་གྱ་བདུན་ 987
For numbers with zeros such as 108, an alternative way to express them is by the term
མེད་ ("without ten"), which really means the "ten's place" in arithmetic. For example, the
number 108 could be written བརྒྱ་དང་བཅུ་མེད་བརྒྱད་. Sometimes even the དང་ is omitted and
108 would be written བརྒྱ་བཅུ་མེད་བརྒྱད་ .
Counting in thousands:
l,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་གཅིག་ or གཅིག་སྟོང་ 6,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་དྲུག་ or དྲུག་སྟོང་
2,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་གཉིས་ or ཉིས་སྟོང་ 7,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་བདུན་ or བདུན་སྟོང་
3,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་གསུམ་ or གསུམ་སྟོང་ 8,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་བརྒྱད་ or བརྒྱད་སྟོང་
4,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་བཞི་ or བཞི་སྟོང་ 9,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་དགུ་ or དགུ་སྟོང་
5,000 སྟོང་ཕྲག་ལྔ་ or ལྔ་སྟོང་ 7,520 བདུན་སྟོང་ལྔ་བརྒྱ་ཉི་ཤུ་
Counting in ten thousands:
10,000 ཁྲི་གཅིག་ or གཅིག་ཁྲི་ 70,000 ཁྲི་བདུན་ or བདུན་ཁྲི་
20,000 ཁྲི་གཉིས་ or ཉིས་ཁྲི་ 80,000 ཁྲི་བརྒྱད་ or བརྒྱད་ཁྲི་
30,000 ཁྲི་གསུམ་ or གསུམ་ཁྲི་ 90,000 ཁྲི་དགུ་ or དགུ་ཁྲི་
40,000 ཁྲི་བཞི་ or བཞི་ཁྲི་ 96,000 ཁྲི་དགུ་དང་སྟོང་ཕྲག་དྲུག་ or དགུ་ཁྲི་དྲུག་སྟོང་
50,000 ཁྲི་ལྔ་ or ལྔ་ཁྲི་ 85,695 བརྒྱད་ཁྲི་ལྔ་སྟོང་དྲུག་བརྒྱ་དགུ་ཅུ་གོ་ལྔ་
60,000 ཁྲི་དྲུག་ or དྲུག་ཁྲི་
Counting in hundreds of thousands:
100,000 འབུམ་གཅིག་ or ཆིག་འབུམ་
200,000 འབུམ་གཉིས་ or ཉིས་འབུམ་
300,000 འབུམ་གསུམ་ or (ག)སུམ་འབུམ་
400,000 འབུམ་བཞི་ or བཞི་འབུམ་
500,000 འབུམ་ལྔ་ or ལྔ་འབུམ་
600,000 འབུམ་དྲུག་ or དྲུག་འབུམ་

700,000 འབུམ་བདུན་ or བདུན་འབུམ་
800,000 འབུམ་བརྒྱད་ or བརྒྱད་འབུམ་
900,000 འབུམ་དགུ་ or དགུ་འབུམ་
Tibetans in Tibet, however, nowadays typically use ཁྲི་ ("'ten thousand") to express
larger numbers, for example, 100,000 would be ཁྲི་བཅུ་ ("ten ten thousands") .
For millionsand higher:
1,000,000 ས་ཡ་གཅིག་
10,000,000 བྱེ་བ་གཅིག་
100,000,000 དུང་ཕྱུར་གཅིག་
l,000,000,000 དུང་ཕྱུར་བཅུ་
Millions can also be conveyed using ཁྲི་ (10,000) . For example, l,000,000 could
be written ཁྲི་བརྒྱ་ ("one hundred ten thousands") .
8.2 Ordinal numbers
Ordinal numbers with the exception of "first" are expressed by placing the particle
པ་ after the cardinal number.
first དང་པོ་ fifth ལྔེ་པ་ ninth དགུ་པ་
second གཉིས་པ་ sixth དྲུག་པ་ tenth བཙུ་པཚེ
third གསུམ་པ་ seventh བདུན་པ་ eleventh བཙུ་གཅིག་པ་
fourth བཞི་པ་ eighth བརྒྱད་པ་ twelfth བཙུ་གཉིས་པ་
8.3 Percentages
The most common way to express percentages in Tibetan is to place cardinal
numbers after བརྒྱ་ཆ་, the word for percent.
one percent བརྒྱ་ཆ་གཅིག་ ten percent བརྒྱ་ཆ་བཅུ་
two percent བརྒྱ་ཆ་གཉིས་ fifty percent བརྒྱ་ཆ་ལྔ་བཅུ་
seventy-five percent བརྒྱ་ཆ་བདུན་བཅུ་དོན་ལྔ་
Another way to express percentage is through fractions. This is done by placing
number (l -10) before ཆ་ and then another number after it. The first number indicates
whether it is fourths, fifths, etc., while the second number indicates how many fourths,
fifths, etc.
one quater བཞི་ཆ་གཅིག་ four fifths ལྔ་ཆ་བཞི་
three quarters བཞི་ཆ་གསུམ་ one sixth དྲུག་ཆ་གཅིག
two fifths ལྔ་ཆ་གཉིས་ five eighths བརྒྱད་ཆ་ལྔ་
two thirds གསུམ་ཆ་གཉིས་

8.4 Months
Tibetans use three terms for month. ཟླ་བ་ is a neutral word that can refer to either
Western months or months in the Tibetan lunar calendar.
First month ཟླ་བ་དང་པོ་ Seventh month ཟླ་བ་བདུན་པ་
Second month ཟླ་བ་གཉིས་པ་ Eighth month ཟླ་བ་བརྒྱད་པ་
Third month ཟླ་བ་གསུམ་པ་ Ninth month ཟླ་བ་ད་གུ་པ་
Fourth month ཟླ་བ་བཞི་པ་ Ten month ཟླ་བ་བཅུ་པ་
Fifth month ཟླ་བ་ལྔེ་པ་ Eleventh month ཟླ་བ་བཅུ་གཅིག་པ་
Sixth month ཟླ་བ་དྲུག་པ་ Twelfth month ཟླ་བ་བཅུ་གཉིས་པ་
བོད་ཟླ་ is used exclusively for "Tibetan (lunar) month" and སྤྱི་ཟླ་ is used exclusively
for "Western month." For example, སྤྱི་ཟླ་ལྔ་པ་ would be the fifth Western month or "May."
Similarly, བོད་ཟླ་ལྔ་པ་ would be the fifth Tibetan month (roughly mid-June to mid-July).
When only ཟླ་བ་ is used, context will indicate which calendar is meant, e.g., if the
sentence starts with སྤྱི་ལོ་ ("Western year") 1959 then the Western month is obviously

8.5 Tibetan numerals
You will have noticed that each page in this book presents both the English and
Tibetan written numerals. The latter are listed below.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
༡ ༢ ༣ ༤ ༥ ༦ ༧ ༨ ༩ ༡o
གཅིག་ གཉིས་ གསུམ་ གཞི་ ལྔ་ དྲུག་ བདུན་ བརྒྱད་ དགུ་ བཅུ་
In written materials, numbers (particularly the larger ones) are usually expressed
by written numerals rather that by spelling them out.
For example:
197 l ༡༩༧༡ 1883 ༡༨༨༣
1967 ༡༩༦༧ 1926 ༡༩༢༦
1954 ༡༩༥༤ 1989 ༡༩༨༩
8.6 "Or" and "whether or not" constructions
"Or" constructions parallel the question particles discussed in 1.11 in that the last
letter of the first element is attached to the letter "m" (མ་); e.g., in (a.) below, ག་ becomes
a. ལུག་གམ་ར་

sheep or goats
b. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ལུག་གམ་ར་ཉོས་སམ།
you by sheep or goat bought ?/
Did you buy a sheep or a goat?
If the final of the first syllable is a vowel, འམ་ is attached.
c. ར་འམ་ལུག་
goats or sheep
d. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཚོས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་པའམ། ཚོང་བརྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
student pl.-by farming did or/ trade did past compl./
The students farmed or traded.
"Whether or not" constructions are similarly formed.
e. ཁོས་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་དམ་མེད་ངར་བཤད་མ་སོང་།
he-by india to go pres. compl. or no-exist i-to said neg. went compl./
He didn't tell me whether or not he is going to India.
This, of course, literally means, " He didn't tell me whether he is going to India or not
going to India."
f. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁོ་བོད་ལ་སྡོད་དུས་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་ནམ་མིན་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
he pl. by he tibet to live when monk is or no-is ask pres. comp./
They are asking whether or not he was a monk when he lived in Tibet.
g. ཁོས་འདིར་ཉི་མ་ཁ་ཤས་སྡོད་དམ་སང་ཉིན་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་པ་ང་ལ་མ་བཤད།
he-by here day several live whether-or-not tomorrow go fut. compl. i to no said/
He didn't tell me whether he will stay here for several days or go tomorrow.
The more usual manner of forming "whether or not" constructions consists of
joining positive and negative linking or existential verbs without any intervening
particles. Thus ཡིན་མིན་ conveys "whether it is or is not" (in the linking verb sense) and
མེད་ "whether there is or is not" (in the existential verb sense) . In essence, wherever
linking verb would be used, ཡིན་མིན་ is used, and wherever an existential verb would
used, ཡོད་མེད་ is used. Thus, in example h., the sentence "He is Chinese" requires a linked
verb, so ཡིན་མིན་ is used.
h. ཁོ་རྒྱ་མི་ཡིན་མིན་ངས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མེད།
he chinese is no-is i-by know neg./
I do not know whether or not he is Chinese.
i. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་སྔོད་དུས་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་མིན་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
he tibet to live when monk is no-is ask pres. compl./
(They, he, etc.) are asking whether or not he was a monk when he lived in Tibet.
j. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁོ་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་མིན་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
he pl.-by he food eat fut. is no-is ask pres. compl./
They are asking whether or not he will eat.

Examples k. and l. illustrate how the tense of such constructions is alter
changing the stem of the verb andthe verb complement.
k. ཁོས་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་ཡོད་མེད་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
he food ate is no-is ask pres. compl./
(They, he, etc.) are asking whether or not he has eaten.
l. ཁོས་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་གི་ཡོད་མེད་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
he food eat pres.-compl. is no-is ask pres. compl./
(They, he, etc.) are asking whether or not he is eating.
Abbreviated forms are also commonly used with active or involuntary verb
convey this. For example.
ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་མིན་ > ཟེ་མིན་ ཟེས་ཡོད་མེད་ > ཟས་མེད་ ཟ་གི་ཡོད་མེད་ >
m. ཁོས་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་མེད་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
he food ate no-is ask pres. compl./
(They, he, etc.) are asking whether or not he ate.
When ཡིན་མིན་ and ཡོད་མེད་ constructions are used with interrogatives such as
ཅི་, ཇི་, and ག་ they convey not the idea of "whether or not," but rather a simple
interrogative meaning.
n. འདི་གང་ཡིན་མིན་བཤད་མ་སོང་།
this what is is-not said no went compl./
(They, he, etc.) didn't say what this is. (What this is, or what this is not, (they
etc.) did not say.
o. ཁོ་གང་དུ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་མེད་སུས་ཀྱང་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མེད་པ་རེད།
he where go pres.compl. no-exist who-by even know pres. compl. neg./
Nobody knows where he is going (or not going).
p. ཞྭ་མོ་འདི་ག་ནས་ཉོས་མེད་དྲན་གྱི་མི་འདུག།
hat this where from bought no-exist remember pres. compl. neg./
(I) don't remember where (I) bought the hat from.
q. གང་གིས་ཁོ་ན་བ་ཡིན་མིན་ཁོས་ཨེམ་ཆིར་བཤད་སོང་ངམ།
what by he sick nom. is is-not he-by doctor-to said past compl. ?/
Did he tell the doctor what made him sick?
r. ཁོ་ལ་དངུལ་གང་ཙམ་བྱུང་ཡོད་མེད་མོས་ཤེས་པ་རེད།
he to money how much got exist no-exist she-by knew past compl./
She knew how much money he got.
s. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁོས་ཉི་མ་ག་ཚོད་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་ཡོད་མོད་ཐོ་རྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
he pl-by he-by days how many work did exist no-exist list acted past compl.
They recorded how many days he worked.
t. ཁོ་ཚོ་ག་དུས་ནང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་མེད་དོ་སྣང་མ་བྱུང་།
he pl. when home to go pres. compl. no-exist notice no got/

(I) didn't notice when they go home.
u. ཁོའི་ཁང་པ་ག་གི་ཡིན་མིན་ངས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཡོད།
he-or house which is is-not i-by know pres. compl./
I know which is his house.
v. མི་འདི་སུུ་ཡིན་མིན་སུས་ཀྱང་ཤེས་མེད་པ་རེད།
person this who is is-not who-by even knew perf. compl.neg./
No one at all knew who the man was.
w. དེབ་འདི་སུའི་ཡིན་མིན་འདྲི་གི་འདུག།
book this who-of is-not ask pres. compl./
(They, he etc.) are asking whose book this is.
x. སུས་དེབ་འདི་ཉོས་མེད་བཀའ་འདྲི་གནང་སོང་།
who-by book this bought no-exist question (h.) did (h.) went compl./
(They, he etc.) asked who bought the book.

8.7 "With" constructions using དང་
We have already encountered དང་ as the conjunction "and, " e.g., ནོར་
"Norbu and Pema." However, it also can convey the meaning ''with."
a. ཁོས་པད་མ་དང་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་པ་རེད།
he-by pema with food ate past compl./
He ate with Pema.
america-by india with war made went compl./
america-by india with war made went compl./
America made war with India.
There are a number of standard compounds that use དང་ with this meaning.
have already been discussed in 7.9 and 7.10:
དང་མཉམ་དུ་ དང་ལྷན་རྒྱས་ དང་འདྲ་བ་ དང་ལྡན་པ་
together with together with (h.) similar to (withl) possess
དང་མཐུན་པ་ དང་འབྲེལ་ དང་མི་འདྲ་བ་ ད་ང་བསྟུན་
compatible with/ related to/with dissimilar to/with in acco
in accordance with
c. མི་འདི་དང་མཉམ་དུ་ཕྱིན་པ་ཡིན།
man this together with went past comp./
I went (together) with this man.
d. ཆོས་དང་མཐུན་པའི་སློབ་དེབ་ཅིག་རྩོམ་པ་ཡིན།
religion compatible with-of textbook a wrote past compl./
I wrote a textbook that is compatible with religion.
e. མོས་ཁྲིམས་དང་མཐུན་པའི་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
she-by law in accordance with work did past compl./

She worked in accordance with the law.
8.8 "Coincidental" constructions: དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་ and ཞོར་ + dative-locative
There are two common ways to convey that an action occurred secondarily or
coincidentally with or to another action.
a. རི་པིན་ལ་འགྲོ་དགོས་པ་དང་སྟབས་བསྟུན་ངས་ཀྲུང་གོར་ཕྱིན་པ་ཡིན།
japan to go have nom. and coincidental i-by china-to went past compl./
(I) had to go to Japan, so coincidental with that, I went to China.
b. ཁོང་བོད་ལ་ཕེབས་ཞོར་ལ་བལ་ཡུལ་ལ་ཕེབས་སོང་།
he tibet to go incidental to nepal to go went compl./
He (h.) went (h.) to Tibet and incidental to that went to Nepal.
c. ཁྱེད་རང་ལས་ཀ་ནས་ལོག་པའི་ཞོར་དུ་ངའི་ནང་ལ་ཕེབས་རོགས་གནང་།
you work fom return incidental to i-of home to go help do/
On your way home from work, please come to my house.
This particle can also be used with nouns:
d. ཁོས་ལས་ཀའི་ཞོར་ལ་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱས་པ་རེད།
he-by work-of incidental to study did past compl./
Incidental to his work, he studied. (i.e., during his spare time)

8.9 Constructions using སྒང་: "on top of," "on," and "in addition to"
The term སྒང་ was encouuntered in 5.10 where it conveyed "at the time of." It is
also used to convey the physical meaning of "on" or "on top of." It commonly requires
addition of the genitive particle.
a. རིའི་སྒང་ལ་ར་དང་གཡག་མང་པོ་འདུག།
mountain on to goat and yak many exist/
There are many goats and yaks on top of the mountain.
b. ཡར་ཀླུང་གཙང་པོའི་སྒང་ལ་ཆུ་གློག་ས་ཚིགས་ཤིག་བཙུགས་པ་རེད།
yarlung river on to hydroelectric station one established past compl./
(They, he, etc.) established a hydroelectric station on the Yarlung Tsaungpo (river.)
སྒང་ is also used as a verbal connective to convey the meaning of "on top of" or
addition to" in verbal clauses. In such constructions the patternis པའི་/བའི་སྒང་ལ་ These
constructions also require ཀྱང་/ཡང་ ("also") in the second clause.
c. མོས་ཚལ་ཉོས་པའི་སྒང་ལ་ཤིང་ཏོག་ཀྱང་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
she-by vegetables bought on fruit also bought past compl./
On top of buy ing vegetables, she also bought fruit.
d. ཚོང་ཁང་དེར་ཅ་ལག་སྣ་ཚོགས་ཡོད་པའི་སྒང་ལ་གོང་ཡང་ཁེ་པོ་འདུག།
store that-to things various exist on price also cheap exist/
In addition to having various things, that store also has cheap prices.

The meaning of "in addition to" can also be conveyed in conjunction with nouns and
noun phrases.
e. བོད་ལ་སྐྱོར་མོ་ལུང་པའི་སྒང་ལ་ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་གཞན་དསག་ཀྱང་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
tibet to kyomolungga on opera group other also exist/
In Tibet, in addition to Gyomo lunga, there are also other opera troupes.
f. ཁོས་བོད་སྐད་ཤེས་པའི་སྒང་ལ་སྐད་ཡིག་གཞན་དག་ཀྱང་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
he-by tibetan know on language other also know usu. compl./
In addition to knowing Tibetan language, he also knows other languages.
Another meaning conveyed by སྒང་ is "at the time of'" or "in the midst of doing"
"while." It was encountered earlier in Lesson Five (5.10). It should be noted that this
meaning can usually be differentiated from the above meanings partly because it is not
accompanied by ཀྱང་/ཡང་ in the second clause, but mainly from semantic context.
g. མོས་ཁ་པར་གཏོང་བའི་སྒང་ལ་ཁོ་ཚོ་སླེབས་པ་རེད།
she-by telephone send on he pl. arrived past compl./
While she was phoning, they arrived.
h. མི་དམངས་རྣམས་ནོན་འདེབས་པའི་སྒང་ལ་ཆར་པ་བབས་པ་རེད།
people pl. seed plant on rain descend past compl./
While the people were planting, it rained.
i. ཁོང་ཚོ་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པའི་སྒང་རེད།
he pl. work do on is/
They are in the midst of working.

8.10 Reading exercise: "The Golden Axe"
The rest ot this lesson consists of a lengthy reading selection containing new
words but no new major grammatical constructions. Its aim is to reinforce and solidify
previously encountered patterns and skills by providing a coherent segment of modern
literaury Tibetan in a familiar style. To make this reading more realistic, no interlinear
translation will be included.

8.10. Tibetan text
སྔར་ལྷག་བསམ་ཟེར་བའི་ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆུང་ཆུང་ཞིག་ཡོད།l ཁོ་པའི་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་འཚོ་བ་ཧ་ཅང་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཡིན་ཙང་ཕ་མ་གཉིས་ཀས་ཁོ་པ་ས་
བདག་གི་ཁྱིམ་དུ་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པར་བཏང་།2 ཁོ་པས་ཉིན་ལྟར་ཞོགས་པ་ནས་དགོང་མོ་བར་ལས་ཀ་ཧ་ཅང་མང་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་
རེད།3 འོན་ཀྱང་ས་བདག་གིས་ཁོང་ལ་ཁྱོད་ར་སྒྱིད་ལུག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས།4 ཉིན་ཞིག་ལྷག་བསམ་རི་ལ་མེ་

དེ་ནས་ལེན་མ་ཐུབ་ཙང་ལྷག་བསམ་སེམས་ཁྲལ་བྱུང་སྟེ་སྟ་རེ་མེད་ན་མེ་ཤིང་འཐ་མི་ཐུབ་པ་དང་། མེ་ཤིང་མེད་ན་ས་བདག་གིས་
གློ་བུར་སྨ་ར་དུང་ལས་དཀར་བའི་རྒད་པོ་ཞིག་དེ་གར་ཡོང་ནས་ལྷག་བསམ་ལ། བུ་ཁྱོད་ཅི་ཕྱིར་མཆི་མ་གཏོང་གི་འདུག་
ཞེས་དྲིས།7 ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་སྟ་རེ་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་བའི་གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་རྒད་པོར་བཤད།8 རྒད་པོས་ངས་ད་ལྟ་ཆུ་ནང་ནས་
སྟ་རེ་ལེན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཅེས་བཤད་དེ་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས9 ཡུད་ཙམ་སོང་རྗེས་རྒད་པོས་ཆུ་ནང་ནས་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བླང་ས་ཏེ་ལྷག་
བསམ་ལ། བུ་སྟ་རེ་འདི་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་10 ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་མིག་ལྟས་རྗེས་དེ་ནི་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པ་མཐོང་བས་
མགྱོགས་མྱུར་མགོ་བོ་གཡུག་གཡུག་བྱས་ནས་སྤོ་བོ་ལགས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་འདི་ངའི་སྟ་རེ་མ་རེད་ཅེས་ལན་བཏབ། l l དེ་ནས་རྒད་པོས་
སླར་ཡང་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས་ནས་དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བླངས་ཏེ་བུ་སྟ་རེ་འདི་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲི་།12 དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་འདི་
བཏབ། 13 རྒད་པོས་སླར་ཡང་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་མཆོང་ས་ནས་ལྕགས་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་ནག་ཐིང་ཐིང་ཞིག་བླང་ས་ཏེ་བུ་སྟ་རེ་འདི་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད་དམ་
ཞེས་དྲིས་ 14 ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་ལྟ་སྐབས་དེ་ནི་དངོས་གནས་རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཡིན་པས་དགའ་མཆོངས་རྒྱག་བཞིན་པར་སྟ་རེ་ཚུར་
བླངས་པ་དང་སྦྲགས་སྤོ་བོ་ལགས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞེས་ཡང་ཡང་ཞུས།15 རྒད་པོ་དེས་ལྷག་བསམ་གྱི་མགོ་ལ་བྱིལ་བྱིལ་བྱེད་བཞིན་པར་
པར་གྱུར། 16
སོང་།17 ཁོ་པའི་སྟ་རེར་དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་བྱིལ་བའི་དབང་གིས་སྟ་རེ་རྣོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཆགས་ཏེ་ཤིང་མགྱོགས་པོ་བཅད་ནས་ཁྱིམ་ལ་
ལོག་པ་རེད།18 ས་བདག་གིས་ཁོ་པ་སྔ་པོ་དེ་འདྲ་ལོག་ཡོང་བ་མཐོང་སྐབས་ཁོས་སྐྱིད་ལུག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་གཤེ་གཤེ་བཏང་བས་
ཕྱི་ཉིན་ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོ་ནས་ས་བདག་གིས་ལྷག་བསམ་ལས་ཀ་གཞན་བྱེད་པར་བཏང་བ་དང་། ཁོ་པ་རང་ཉིད་མེ་ཤིང་
འཐུ་མཁན་དབུལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཏུ་བརྫུས་ཏེ་སྟ་རེ་གོག་པོ་ཞིག་ཁྱེར་ནས་རི་ལ་མེ་ཤིང་གཅོད་པར་འགྲོ་ཁུལ་བྱས།20 ཁོ་པས་ཟམ་པའི་
ཐོག་ལ་སླེབས་སྐབས་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཆུའི་ནང་རྐང་བཙུགས་ནས་དབྱུགས་ཏེ་སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོས་ངུས་པ་རེད།21 སྐབས་དེར་དྲང་སྲོང་
སླར་ཡང་དེ་གར་ཡོང་།22 ས་བདག་གིས་མིག་ཆུ་ཕྱིས་བཞིན་པར་ངའི་སྟ་རེ་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་སོང་བས་ཁྱིམ་དུ་ལོག་ན་ངའི་དཔོན་
སྤྲད།23 ས་བདག་གིས་འཕྲལ་དུ་མགོ་བོ་གཡུག་གཡུག་བྱས་ཏེ་འདི་ངའི་མ་རེད་ཅེས་བཤད།24 དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་ཡང་བསྐྱར་ཆུའི་
འདུག། འོན་ཀྱང་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བྱུང་ན་ཡག་ཤོས་རེད་ཅེས་བཤད།25 དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ས་བདག་གི་རྐང་

པའི་འགྲམ་དུ་དབྱུགས་ཏེ་སླར་ཡང་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་འཛུལ་ནས་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བླངས་པ་རེད།26 ས་བདག་གིས་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་
གྱི་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཡར་བསྒུགས་ཏེ་ལག་པ་རེ་རེར་ཁྱེར་ནས་དགའ་ཐག་ཆོད་པ་རེད།27 སྐབས་དེར་དྲང་སྲོང་ནི་ཡང་སྐྱར་ཡལ་སྟབས་ས་

8.10.2 Translation
The Golden Axe
Formerly, there was a small boy named Lhaksam. Because he (his family's
livelihood) was very poor, his parents sent him to work in the house of a lord. That boy
Lhaksam used to work very hard every day from morning to night. Nevertheless, the lord
criticized him, saying, "you are acting lazy." One day, Lhaksam went to the hills to
collect firewood and was not careful when he was going on top of a bridge along the road
so the axe fell into the water. He was unable to get it from the water. He thought,
therefore, that without the axe he would be unable to collect firewood, and without
firewood, the lord would scold and beat him. He cried from fright.
Suddently, an old ma, with a beard whiter than a conch shell came there and asked
Lhaksam, "Boy, why are you crying?" Lhaksam told the old man the events of the axe
falling into the river. The old man said, " I will get the axe from the water," and jumped
into the river. After a moment, he emerged from the water carrying a golden axe and
asked Lhaksam, "Boy, is this your axe?" Lhaksam looked and seeing that it was a golden
axe, quickly shook his head and answered, "Old man, thank you, but this is not my axe."
After that the old man again jumped into the water and emerged bringing a silver axe. He
asked the child, "Boy, is this your axe?" Even though this axe was good, Lhaksam once
again shook his head and replied, "Old man, thank you. This axe also is not mine." The
old man again jumped into the river and (this time) brought a completely black iron axe.
He asked the child, "Boy, is this axe yours?" Lhaksam looked at it and because it was
really his own axe, jumped for joy, took the axe, and said over and over, "Old man, thank
you." The old man stroking Lhaksam's head said, " You really seem a good boy. You will
have a happy life." After saying that, the old man suddenly vanished from sight.
Lhaksam then (lit., at that time) knew that he (the old man) must be an ascetic
lama and continued to collect firewood. Because the ascetic lama stroked his axe, the axe
had become very sharp and he cut the wood quickly and returned home. Because the lord
saw that he had come home so early he (thought), "He is being lazy," and scolded him.
Lhaksam explained all the events to him. Because of this the lord got angry and verbally
abused him, "You are really an idiot for taking the iron axe instead of (lit., rather than)
the gold and silver axes."
The next day, early in the morning, the lord sent Lhaksam to do different work.

(Then), pretending he was a poor firewood collector, he himself took an old beat up axe
and acted as if he was going to cut wood in the mountains. When he arrived on top of the
bridge, he purposely threw the axe into the water, and (started) crying loudly. At that
time, the ascetic once again come to that place. The lord, while wiping the tears from his
eyes, said, "My axe fell into the water. If l return home my lord will beat me." As soon as
he said that the ascetic, as before, jumped into the water and immediately gave him his
iron axe. The lord shook his head and said, "This is not my axe." The ascetic again
jumped into the water and brought out a silver axe. The lord stared at it wide-eyed and
immediately said, "This silver axe is good, but if get a golden axe it will be best." The
ascetic threw the silver axe by the feet of the lord and again entered the water and
brought a golden axe. The lord said over and over again, "That gold axe is very good, "
and took the gold axe from the ascetic's hands. He (also) picked up the silver axe from
the ground and, carrying one in each hand, was extraordinarily happy. At that time the
ascetic again disappeared. Because of that the lord thought, "If (I) take the two axes it
will be good," and went quickly (home). (However), as soon as (he went), he fell in the
water and died.

8.10.3 Grammatical notes
1. The first segment consists of a single sentence སྔར་ལྷག་བསམ་ཟེར་བའི་ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆུང་ཆུང་ཞིག་ཡོད་
The first word of this sentence is another of the temporal terms meaning
"formerly" or "in the past." The remainder of the clause is a simple existential sentence
— "there was a small child." The phrase ལྷག་བསམ་ཟེར་བའི་ཕྲུ་གུ་ illustrates a common way in
which names are expressed: name + ཟེར་བ་ + gen. + noun. This glossesas, "A child who
was called Lhaksam."
2. The second segment consists of two clauses 1. ཁོ་པའི་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་འཚོ་བ་ཧ་ཅང་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཡིན་ཙང་ 2.ཕ་མ་
The first clause is a linking verb construction that begins with the possessive
subject. " his family's livelihood" — ཁོ་པའི་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་འཚོ་བ། It breaks down into the head word
"he" + gen. + "family" (ཁྱིམ་) + gen. + "livelihood." This clause is linked by the "because"
clause connective.
The second clause is typical of active sentences in that it begins with the subject
in the instrumental (ཕ་མ་གཉིས་ཀས་). The main verbal phrase consists of the infinitive
construction sent to work (ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་པ་ར་བཏང་). The remainder explains who was sent to
work (he - ཁོ་པ་), and where he was sent to work ("to the landlord's house" — ས་བདག་གི་ཁྱིམ་
3. The third segment is a simple active verb sentence conveying the usual mode ཁོ་པས་ཉིན་
It contains the common pattern "from X up to Y" (X ནས་ Y བར་ (དུ་)), or in this

case "from morning until (up to) evening." Note that "very" (ཧ་ཅང་) must come before the
adjective it modifies.
4. The fourth segment consists of a single sentence འོན་ཀྱང་ས་བདག་གིས་ཁོང་ལ་ཁྱོད་ར་སྒྱིད་ལུག་བྱེད་
It is linked to the previous segment by "nevertheless" (འོན་ཀྱང་). This is followed
by the subject ("by the lord" — ས་བདག་གིས་), the object ("to him" — ཁོང་ལ་), the main verb
("scolded" — སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་), and a quotation of the scolding (ཁྱོད་ར་སྒྱིད་ལུག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་).
5. The fifth segment consists of three clauses: 1. ཉིན་ཞིག་ལྷག་བསམ་རི་ལ་མེ་ཤིང་འཐ་བ་ར་འིགྲོ་བའི་ལམ་
གར་ཟམ་པ་ཞིག་གི་ཐོག་ནས་འགྲོ་སྐབས་ 2. གཟབ་གཟབ་མ་བྱས་སྟབས་ 3. སྟ་རེ་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་ཞིང་།
The first clause is difficult since it consists of sub-clauses nestled within subclauses.
The essence of the clause is "when Lhaksam was going" (ལྷག་བསམ་...འགྲོ་སྐབས་).
Then there are two location modifying units "on a bridge" — literally, from on top of a
bridge" (ཟམ་པ་ཞིག་ག་གི་ཐོག་ནས་) and "on a road" (ལམ་གར་). Note that སྒང་ནས་ could be
substituted for ཐོག་ནས་
Modifying "road" is the nominalized verbal phrase རི་ལ་མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་བ་ར་འ་གྲོ་བའི་, which
explains what kind of a road it was — "it was a road on which Lhaksam was going to
collect firewood in the mountains." Thus, this clause means, "One day when Lhaksam
was going on a bridge on the road to collect firewood in the mountains, ..." The
The second clause consists of only a negative verb ("was not careful" — གཟབ་གཟབ་མ་
བྱས་) and the "because" clause connective སྟབས་
The third clause is a simple involuntary verb construction སྟ་ར་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་, "the axe
fell into the water." The Tibetan term ཆུ་ conveys not only water, but in cases like this
also "river." This could also have been written with the genitive སྟ་རེ་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་. This
clause is joined with the next segment by the conjunctive clause connector ཞིང་
6. The sixth segment consists of five clauses 1. ཆུ་དེ་ནས་ལེན་མ་ཐུབ་ཙང་ 2. ལྷག་བསམ་སེམས་ཁྲལ་
བྱུང་སྟེ་ 3. སྟ་རེ་མེད་ན་མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མི་ཐབ་པ་དང་། 4. མེ་ཤིང་མེད་ན་ས་བདག་གིས་གཤེ་གཤེ་དང་ཉིས་རྡུང་གཏོང་གི་རེད་
བསམ་སྟབས་ 5. ལྷག་བསམ་དངངས་སྐྲག་གི་ངང་ནས་མཆི་མ་བཏང་།
The first clause consists of the active verb "to take" (ལེན་), anegative particle, and
the auxiliaury verb "be able" and conveys "not being able to take (the axe) from that
water." Note that the subject is omitted and has to be inferred.
The second clause consists of the subject Lhagsam and the involuntary verb
"worried" (སེམས་ཁྲལ་). Thus, " because (he) was unable to take (the axe) from the water,
Lhagsam was worried." The clause end swith the "having" connective (སྟེ་). What follows
in clauses three, four, and five is what Lhaksam was woried about. །
Clause three reveals avery common structure that consists of two sub-parts. 1) "if
(I) do not have the axe" (སྟ་རེ་མེད་ན་), and 2) "(I) will not be able to collect firewood" (མེ་ཤིང་
འཐ་མི་ཐ་བ་). The difference between the negative particle here (མི་) and that in clause one

(མ་) is due to tense. མི་ nornlally is used in present-future constructions. These thoughts
are incomplete, however, and པ་དང་ connects them to the rest of what Lhaksam was
worried about.
Clause four begins with the sub-clause, "if (I) do not have firewood" (མེ་ཤིང་མེད་ན་),
and then the main subject of Lhaksam's thought, "the lord will scold and beat (me)" (ས་
བདག་གིས་གཤེ་གཤེ་དང་ཉེས་རྡུང་གཏོང་གི་རེད་). Note that the Tibetan does not specify the object
("me"), and abbreviates གཤེ་གཤེ་གཏོང་ and ཉེས་རྡུང་གཏོང་ into གཤེ་གཤེ་དང་ཉེས་རྡུང་གཏོང་ Thus, once
again, we see a single construction that in English would be sentences within sentences
སྟ་རེ་མེད་ན་མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མི་ཐུབ་པ་དང་། མེ་ཤིང་མེད་ན་ས་བདག་གིས་གཤེ་གཤེ་དང་ཉེས་རྡུང་གཏོང་གི་རེད་ within ཆུ་དེ་
ནས་ལེན་མ་ཐུབ་ཙང་། ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་སེམས་ཁྲལ་བྱུང་སྟེ་ ... བསམ་
The "because" clause Connective (སྟབས་) links this t0 the last clause. It consists of
the subject followed by a གི་ངང་ནས་ type adverbial phrase meaning "in the manner or
being frightened" (དངངས་སྐྲག་གི་ངང་ནས་). Then this section ends with the active verb "cried"
or "shed tears" (མཆི་མ་བཏང་). Note that the syllable མ་ is not the negative particle but a part
of the word for tears (མཆི་མ་).
7. The seventh segment consists of two clauses 1. གློ་བུར་སྨ་ར་དུང་ལས་དཀར་བའི་རྒད་པོ་ཞིག་དེ་གར་
ཡོང་ནས་ 2. ལྷག་བསམ་ལ། བུ་ཁྱོད་ཅི་ཕྱིར་མཆི་མ་གཏོང་གི་འདུག་ཞེས་དྲིས་
The subject of the first clause is "an old man" (རྒད་པོ་ཞིག་) and the verb is "to come"
(ཡོང་). The clause begins with the adverbial "suddenly" (གློ་བུར་) and is followed by a
typical "X than Y" comparative phrase — དུང་ལས་དཀར་བའི་ "conch than white" (whiter than
conch). This phrase is then joined to the subject by the genitive so that it describes him —
"an old man witha beard whiter than a conch shell."་ The last element in this clause is the
term དེ་གར་ ("there"), which explains where the old man came to. Thus, the entire clause
means, "Suddenly, an old man with a beard whiter than a conch shell came there."
The "having" connective links this to the next clause, which contains no explicit
subject. Context, however, indicates clearly tha t the subject of this active construction is
the "old man." The main verb of the clause is "asked" (དྲིས་) and everything else indicates
what was asked and to whom it was asked. The old man's question is a straightforward
interrogative construction ་ "you why crying" or "why are you crying" (ཁྱོད་ཅི་ཕྱིར་མཆི་མ་གཏོང་
གི་འདུག་). Note that use of the non—past tense stem of the verb (གཏོང་) conveys the present
tense here. If past tense were to be conveyed this would have been written: ཁྱོད་ཅི་ཕྱིར་མ་ཆི་མ་
8. The eighth segment consists of the sentence ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་སྟ་རེ་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་བའི་གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་
This is a simple active verb sentence "by Lhaksam — to the old man — told" (ལྷག་
བསམ་གྱིས་རྒད་པོར་བཤད་). The remainder explains what he told him. As is so common, this is
accomplished by means of a nominalized phrase "the events of the axe falling into the

river" (སྟ་རེ་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་བའི་གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་).
9. The ninth segment consists of two clauses 1. རྒད་པོས་ངས་ད་ལྟ་ཆུ་ནང་ནས་སྟ་རེ་ལེན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཅེས་
བཤད་དེ་ 2. ཆུ་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས་
The first clause conveys what the old man said: "I will get the axe from the river"
(ངས་ད་ལྟེ་ཆུ་ནང་ནས་སྟ་རེ་ལེན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཅེས་), and the second, what he did: "jumped in the river" (ཆུ་
10. The tenth segment consists of two clauses l. ཡུད་ཙམ་སོང་རྗེས་རྒད་པོས་ཆུ་ནང་ནང་ནས་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་
ཞིག་བླངས་ཏེ་ 2. ལྷག་བསམ་ལ། བུ་སྟ་རེ་འདི་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་
The first clause begins with ཡུད་ཙམ་སོང་རྗེས་ ("after a moment passed"), a time-slot
phrase that is similar to the one encountered in Lesson Five (ཉིན་ཤས་སོང་རྗེས་ — "after several
days passed"). The first clause is straightforward, although note should be taken that the
past tense stem of the verb "to take/get" (ལེན་) is བླངས་
The second clause contains a question (བུ་སྟ་རེ་འདི་རེད་དམ་ — "Son, is this your axe?")
asked by the old man (the implicit subject). The word བུ་ is a common term of address for
young boys. It does not here convey a real son, although in other contexts it does, for
example, ངའི་བུ་རྡོ་རྗེ་ཟེར་བ་དེ་རེད་ ("My son is the one called Dorje").
11. The eleventh segment consists of four clauses 1. ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་མིག་ལྟས་རྗེས་ 2. དེ་ནི་གསེར་གྱི་
སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པ་མཐོང་བས་ 3. མགྱོགས་མྱུར་མགོ་བོ་གཡུག་གཡུག་བྱས་ནས་ 4. སྤོ་བོ་ལགས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་འདི་ངའི་སྟ་རེ་མ་
The first clause is unproblematic. The second clause contains a nominalized
linking verb phrase (གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པ་ — (it) being a golden axe), which functions as the
object of the verb "see." Thus, what did he see? — he saw that it was a golden axe. The
"because" connective (བས་) links this clause so that "because he saw that it was a golden
axe, ..."
Clause three is also straightforward, although it should be noted that while མགོ་བོ་
གཡུག་གཡུག་བྱས་ means only "shake ones head," Tibetans use this for shaking ones head to
say no.
Clause four contains a direct quote (སྤོ་བོ་ལགས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་འདི་ངའི་སྟ་རེ་མ་རེད་ཅེས་) and the
final verb "answered" (ལན་བཏབ་).
12. The twelfth segment consists of three clauses l. དེ་ནས་རྒད་པོས་སླར་ཡང་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས་ནས་
2. དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བླངས་ཏེ་ 3.བུ་སྟ་རེ་འདི་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་
The first two clauses describe what the old man did ("having jumped ... and
having taken the silver axe"), and the third clause states what he asked.
13. The thirteenth segment consists of three clauses: 1. དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་འདི་ཡང་ལྟས་ནས་ 2. ལྷག་
བསམ་གྱིས་སླར་ཡང་མགོ་བོ་གཡུག་གཡུག་བྱས་ནས་ 3. སྤོ་བོ་ལགས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཡང་ངའི་མ་རེད་ཅེས་ལན་བཏབ་
The first clause is the same as earlier ones with the addition of འདི་ཡང་ ("this also,
this even"). Thus, he looked at "this also." Note that མི་ག་ལྟས་ and ལྟས་ are equivalent. The

second and third clauses have also been encountered earlier with the addition of "once
again" (སླར་ཡང་) in clause two and "that also" (དེ་ཡང་) in clause three.
14. The fourteenth segment consists of three clauses l. རྒད་པོས་སླར་ཡང་ཆུ་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས་ནས་ 2.
ལྕགས་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་ནག་ཐིང་ཐིང་ཞིག་བླངས་ཏེ། 3. བུ་སྟ་རེ་འདི་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས།
A new element in clause two is ཐིང་ཐིང་ When it is added to a color word it
conveys "completely that color." Thus སྔོ་ཐིང་ཐིང་ is "completely blue" and སེར་ཐིང་ཐིང་ is
"completely yellow."
15. The fifteenth segment consists of five clauses 1. ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་ལྟ་སྐབས་ 2. དེ་ནི་དངོས་གནས་
རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཡིན་པས་ 3. དགའ་མཆོངས་རྒྱག་བཞིན་པར་ 4. སྟ་རེ་ཚུར་བླངས་པ་དང་སྦྲགས་ 5. སྤོ་བོ་ལགས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་
The first and second clauses are straightforward, although རང་ཉིད་ in the second
clause is a typical word that conveys "oneself." It can also convey "himself" or "herself"
depending on context. Here one would translate it as "my own."
The third clause consists of a verb (དགའ་མཆོངས་རྒྱག — jumping joyfully") with the
"while in the act" particle བཞིན་པར་, together conveying "while in the process of joyfully
jumping ..." This is followed by another short clause" (he) took the axe hither (towards
him)." It, in turn, is linked to what follows by པ་དང་སྦྲགས་, the "together with" clause
connective, conveying that "together with" taking the axe, something else happened. That
something else is stated in clause five.
It is a direct speech clause, "Old man, thank you" (སྤོ་བོ་ལགས་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞེས་). The use
of the verb ཞུས་ ("said," "asked") conveys respect to the person being addressed, i.e., that
the speech is going from a person of lower status to one of higher status. If this respect
dimension had been ignored, the verb བཤད་ could have been used with no change in
referent meaning. ཡང་ཡང་ is an adverb meaning "over and over again."
16. The sixteenth segment consists of five clauses. 1. རྒད་པོ་དེས་ལྷག་བསམ་གྱི་མགོ་ལ་བྱིལ་བྱིལ་བྱེད་
བཞིན་པར་ 2. ཁྱེད་ནི་དངོས་འབྲེལ་ཕྲུ་གུ་ཡག་པོ་ཞིག་རེད་ 3. ཁྱོད་མི་ཚེ་སྐྱིད་པོ་ཡོང་གི་རེད་ཅེས་བཤད་རྗེས་ 4. རྒད་པོ་གློ་
བུར་དུ་ཡལ་ནས་ 5. མཐོང་རྒྱུ་མེད་པར་གྱུར་
The first clause consists of a noun + a declarative in the instrumental (རྒད་པོ་ + དེས་).
The object with the dative — locative particle follows this (ལྷག་བསམ་གྱི་མགོ་ལ་). Then comes the
verb (བྱིལ་བྱིལ་བྱེད་) and བཞིན་པར་, which conveys "while in the act of doing the verbal
action." Together these mean "while that old man was (in the process of) stroking
Lhaksam's head, ..."
This is followed by the old man's speech which consists of two sentences. The
first is a linking construction conveying that "you" (ཁྱོད་ནི་) "are" (རེད་) "really a good boy"
(དངོས་འབྲེལ་ཕྲུ་གུ་ཡག་པོ་ཞིག་). This is followed by another sentence conveying that "a happy
life" (མི་ཚེ་སྐྱིད་པོ་) "will come" (ཡོང་གི་རེད་) "to you" (ཁྱོད་). The sentence ends with the direct
quote marker ཅེས་, the verb "said" (བཤད་), and the temporal ("after") clause connective (རྗེས་).

The fourth clause consists of an involuntary verb construction. The subject is "old
man" (རྒད་པོ་) and the verb is "vanished (ཡལ་), modified by the adverb "suddenly " (གློ་བུར་དུ).
It conveys that "the old man vanished suddenly."
The last clause consists of the verbal phrase མེད་པར་གྱུར་ This is a common
construction meaning "came into the (or a) state of not being or not existing." It is
preceded by what came into this state: "the seeing (of him)" (མཐོང་རྒྱུ་). Note that རྒྱུ་ here
nominalizes the verb མཐོང་. This may seem a rather strange way to convey this meaning,
but it is very typical of Tibetan.
17. The seventeenth segment consists of two clauses l. ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་སྐབས་དེར་རྒད་པོ་དེ་ནི་བླ་མའི་
དྲང་སྲོང་ཡིན་པ་གཞི་ནས་ཤེས་པ་དང་ 2. མུ་མཐུད་མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་བར་སོང་
The first clause inverts the usual sentence order by placing the time slot term (at
that time— སྐབས་དེར་) after the subject (ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་). The clause ends with the verb "knew"
(ཤེས་). It is modified by the adverbial term གཞི་ནས་, which conveys "only then." Thus,
"Lhaksam, at that time, only then knew... ." What he knew is conveyed by the
nominalized linking verb construction རྒད་པོ་དེ་ནི་བླ་མའི་དྲང་སྲོང་ཡིན་པ་ ("the old man being an
ascetic lama"), so that together they translate as, "Lhaksam knew that the old man was an
ascetic lama."
This clause is linked with the next by the "and" connective (པ་དང་). The final
clause is a simple infinitive construction with the implicit subject "he," the verb "went"
(སང་), and the infinitivized verbal phrase "to collect firewood" (མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་བར་). མུ་མཐུད་ is an
adverbial meaning "continuing without a break." It conveys here that the boy continued
on his original task, collecting firewood. སོང་ in the phrase འཐུ་བར་སང་ functions not as a
past tense marker but as the past tense stem of the verb "to go" (འགྲོ་). It is the equivalent
of ཕྱིན་.
18. The eighteenth segment consists of four clauses 1. ཁོ་པའི་སྟ་རེར་དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་བྱིལ་བའི་དབང་གིས་
2. སྟ་རེ་རྣོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཆགས་ཏེ་ 3. ཤིང་མགྱོགས་པོ་བཅད་ནས་ 4. ཁྱིམ་ལ་ལོག་པ་རེད་
The first clause starts with an object phrase "to his axe" (ཁོ་པའི་སྟ་རེར་). It is followed
by the subject in the instrumental (དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་) and then the verb "stroked" (བྱིལ་). "Thus,
the ascetic stroked his axe... ." This clause is linked to the next clause by the "because"
verbal clause connective (པའི་དབང་གིས་). Thus, "because the ascetic stroked his axe... ."
The second clause is an involuntary construction based on the verb "became"
(ཆགས་). The subject of the sentence is "the axe," and what the axe became is "very sharp"
This is linked to the third clause by the gerundive verbal clause connective (ཏེ་).
Clause three has an implicit subject (by him) and consists only of the verb "cut" (བཅད་),
the adverb " quickly " (མགྱོགས་པོ་), and the object "wood" (ཤིང་). Thus, "because the ascetic

stroked his axe, the axe became very sharp and cut the wood quickly."
This is linked to clause four by the verbal clause connective (ནས་), to make
"having cut the wood quickly... ." Clause four begins with the object ཁྱིམ་ལ་ (to the
house), followed by the verb "returned" (ལོག་ + ་ པ་རེད་). Thus, " having cut the wood quickly,
he returned home."
19. The nineteenth segment consists of five clauses 1. ས་བདག་གིས་ཁོ་པ་སྔ་པོ་དེ་འདྲ་ལོག་ཡོང་བ་
མཐོང་སྐབས་ 2. ཁོས་སྒྱིད་ལུག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་གཤེ་གཤེ་བཏང་བས་ 3. ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་ཚང་མ་གསལ་
པོ་བཤད་སྟབས་ 4. ས་བདག་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཟ་བཞིན་པར་ 5. ཁྱོད་ཀྱིས་གསེར་དང་དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་མ་བླངས་པར་ལྕགས་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཁྱེར་
The first clause begins with the subject in the instrumental case ("by the landlord"
— ས་བདག་གིས་). The verb that goes with this is མཐོང་ ("see"). Thus, "the lord saw"
What he saw is presented as a nominalized verb phrase: ཁོ་པ་སྔ་པོ་དེ་འདྲ་ལོག་ཡོང་བ་ ("his
returning early like that"). This is structurally identical with a clause encountered earlier:
རྒད་པོ་དེ་ནི་བླ་མའི་དྲང་སྲོང་ཡིན་པ་ཤེས་ ("that old man being an ascetic lama, (he) knew").
Note that དེ་འདྲ་ is commonly used with adjectives to convey "like that" or "so." In
this case ཆེན་པོ་དེ་འདྲ་ means "big like that" or "so big."
The "when" clause connective (སྐབས་) links this clause to clause two, which begins
with the pronoun "he" in the instrumental (ཁོས་). This pronoun refers to the lord and goes
with the subsequent active verb "scold" (གཤེ་གཤེ་བཏང་). Thus, what he did was to scold
someone, here the boy. However, in typical literary Tibetan style, the object, the boy, is
left implicit, context conveying this. The remainder of the clause is the content of what he
said or scolded, སྒྱིད་ལུག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ ("[you] are acting lazy"). In English we would to
translate this as, "He scolded him saying, "You are lazy."
The "because" clause connective (བས་) links this to clause three which consists of
the simple active verb construction, "Lhaksarn said/told..." (ལྷག་བསམ་གྱིས་ . . བཤད་). In this
clause the object, ("to the lord"), is implicit.
What Lhaksam told the lord was: གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་ཚང་མ་ (news + plural + all — i.e.,
"all the news, events, or situation"). The redundancy or using the plural marker རྣམས་ plus
ཚང་མ་ ("all") is typical. Either one could have been left out with no change in meaning.
Note also that the adverb "clearly" (གསལ་པོ་) modifies the verb བཤད་ It could have been
placed in the dative-locative (གསལ་པོར་).
This clause is linked to clause four by another of the "because'" clause
connectives, སྟབས་ Like English, good style in Tibetan requires avoiding repetition of
Clause four is an involuntary verb construction conveying that the subject
experienced something — "got angry" (ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟ་). Since the verbal action is involuntary, the

subject is not placed in the instrumental case. The verbal complement (བཞིན་པར་) here
conveys not "while," but "in the manner of," and the clause is a derived adverbial
meaning "angrily" — "in the manner of being angry." It modifies the final verb ཁ་རྡུང་བཏང་
("verbally abuse"). Thus, "angrily, (he) verbally abused (him)."
The rest of this segment expresses what he said in his verbal abuse. It begins with
a long nominalized verb phrase: ཁྱོད་ཀྱིས་གསེར་དང་དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་མ་བླངས་པར་ལྕགས་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཁྱེར་བ་ནི་,
which means, "as for your (by you) bringing that iron axe in the manner of not taking the
gold and silver axes." Note that མ་བླངས་པར་ would normally be translated here as "without
This section is followed by དངོས་གནས་མི་ལྐུགས་པ་ཞིག་རེད་, which means (you) "are
really an idiotic person."
20. The twentieth segment consists of four clauses 1. ཕྱི་ཉིན་ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོ་ནས་ས་བདག་གིས་ལྷག་
བསམ་ལས་ཀ་གཞན་བྱེད་པར་བཏང་བ་དང་། 2. ཁོ་པ་རང་ཉིད་མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མཁན་དབུལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཏུ་བརྫུས་ཏེ་ 3. སྟ་རེ་གོག་པོ་
ཞིག་ཁྱེར་ནས་ 4. རི་ལ་མི་ཤིང་གཅོད་པར་འགྲོ་ཁུལ་བྱས་
The first clause begins with a long time-slot statement ཕི་ཉིན་ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོ་ནས་ ("the
next day day, from early morning"). This is followed by the subject in the instrumental
(ས་བདག་གིས). The subject's action is contained in the verb བཏང་ ("sent"), which is part of an
infinitive construction meaning "sent to do other (གཞན་) work" (ལས་ཀ་གཞན་བྱེད་པར་བཏང་).
The conjunctive connective བ་དང་ links this clause to the next which begins with a
reflexive subject "he himself" (ཁོ་པ་ + རང་ཉིད་). The verb associated with this is བརྫུས་ which
means "pretended," and the long phrase immediately preceding བརྫུས་ (མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མཁན་དབུལ་པོ་
ཞིག་ཏུ་) indicates what was pretended — "to be a poor firewood collector." Note that the
object (མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མཁན་དབུལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཏུ་) ends, as usual, with the dative-locative particle (ཏུ་).
This phrase contains a shorter verb phrase converted to the agentive by means of མཁན་ —
མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མཁན་ ("a person who collects firewood"). དབུལ་པོ་ then functions as an adjective
modifying the previous phrase (མེ་ཤིང་འཐུ་མཁན་) so that it conveys "a poor person who
collects firewood."
The particle ཏེ་ (the gerundive clause connective) links this to clause three,
conveying simultaneous action "pretending to be …,(he) did something."
Clause three tells what he simultaneously did: he took an old beat-up axe. It is
linked to the next clause by the gerundive clause connective. Thus, clauses two and three
translate: "pretending to be a poor firewood collector, he took an old axe."
The fourth clause is another infinitive clause conveying that he went to cut wood
in the mountains. However, by inclusion of the "pretend" particle ཁུལ་ (འགྲོ་ཁུལ་བྱས), the
clause conveys that "he pretended to go to... ."
21. The twenty-first segment consists of three clauses 1. ཁོ་པས་ཟམ་པའི་ཐོག་ལ་སླེབས་སྐབས་ 2. སྟ་
རེ་དེ་ཆུའི་ནང་རྐང་བཙུགས་ནས་དབྱུགས་ཏེ་ 3. སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོས་ངུས་པ་རེད་

The first clause begins with the subject in the instrumental (ཁོ་པས་). This, however,
relates not to the involuntau̲ry verb སླེབས་ ("arrive") in this clause but rather to the active
verbs དབྱུགས་ ("threw") in clause two and ངུས་ "cry" in clause three.
Clause two introduces a new adverb, རྐང་བཙུགས་ནས་ ("intentionally, purposely"), so
that "at the time (he) arrived on the bridge, he intentionally threw that axe into the river."
This is linked by the gerundive clause connective to the third clause.
Clause three consists of the active verb "cry" (ངུས་), modified by the adverbial
phrase "loudly" or "in a loud voice" (སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོས་). Note that this is an example of the
instrumental functioning to create an adverbial (see 5.5.2). Together they convey, " When
he arrived on the bridge, (he) intentionally threw the axe into the river and cried loudly
22. The twenty second segment consists of the simple sentence སྐབས་དེར་དྲང་སྲོང་སླར་ཡང་དེ་
The sentence begins with the time-slot term" at that time" (སྐབས་དེར་). This is
followed by the subject, "the ascetic" (དྲང་སྲོང་), and the verb "to come" (ཡོང་). Between
these is the location of the verbal action —"there-to that place" (དེ་གར་). The verb ཡོང་ is
also modified by the adverbial "once again" (སླར་ཡང་). Together they convey, "At that
time, the ascetic once again came there."
23. The twenty third segment consists of six clauses 1. ས་བདག་གིས་མིག་ཆུ་ཕྱིས་བཞིན་པར་ 2. ངའི་
སྟ་རེ་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་སོང་བས་ 3. ཁྱིམ་དུ་ལོག་ན་ 4. ངའི་དཔོན་པོས་ཉེས་ཀྱི་རེད་ཞེས་བཤད་མ་ཐག་ 5. དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་སྔར་
བཞིན་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས་ཏེ་ 6. ལམ་སེང་ཁོ་པའི་ལྕགས་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཁོ་པར་སྤྲད་
The first clause is a simple active construction with its subject in the instrumental
(ས་བདག་གིས་). The active verb is "wiped" (ཕྱིས་) and the object is "tears" (མིག་ཆུ་). Together
they mean, "The landlord wiped (his) tears." The clause connector is (བཞིན་པར་ — "while")
Thus, "the lord, while wiping (his) tears, …".
The second clause is one half of the landlord's statement that ends in clause four
with the verb བཤད་ . It is an involuntary sentence construction whose subject is "my axe"
(ངའི་སྟི་རེ་). The involuntary verb here is "fell" (ལྷུང་), and the location of the involuntary
falling is "in the river/water" (ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་). The past complement སོང་ completes this
construction. This clause is linked by the "because" connective (བས་), so that it means,
"Because my axe fell into the water …"
The third clause continues the landlord's speech with a short conditional phrase,
"if I return home" (ཁྱིམ་དུ་ལོག་ན་). The fourth clause ends the speech with an active
construction consisting of the subject "by my lord" (ངའི་དཔོན་པོས་) and the verb "beat"
(ཉིས་), accompanied by a future complement (ཀྱི་རེད་). Clauses three and four, therefore,
conveys "If I return home my lord will beat (me)." The "as soon as" clause connective
(མ་ཐག་) links this with clause five.

Clause five narrates an action: "by the ascetic (དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་), like before (སྔར་བཞིན་),
jumped into the river" (དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་སྔར་བཞིན་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས་).
This is linked to clause six by the "having connective" so that "having jumped in
the river," the subject in clause five (དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་) "gave" (སྤྲད་) something. The direct object
phurase consists of a phrase with two genitives ཁོ་པའི་ལྕགས་ཀྱི་སྟ་རེ་ — he of iron of axe, in
which "he-of (his)" modifies "iron of axe (iron axe) " so that it is "his iron axe." This is
followed by the indirect object "to him." Thus, "immediately (the old mau) gave his (the
lord's) axe to him (the lord)."
བྱས་ཏེ་ 2. འདི་ངའི་མ་རེད་ཅེས་བཤུད་
The subject in the first clause is in the instrumental and the active verb is "shook
(head)" ([མགོ་བོ་] གཡུག་གཡུག་བྱས་).
The second clause contains a linking verb statement, "this is not mine," with the
following main active verb: "said" (བཤད་) . These two convey that "the lord immediately
shook his head no and said, This is not mine.
25. The twenty fifth segment consists of six clauses . དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་ཡང་བསྐྱར་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་མཆོངས་
ནས་ . 2.དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བླངས་བས་ 3.ས་བདག་གིས་མིག་ཆེན་པོ་གདང་ས་ནས་ 4.ལམ་སང་དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་འདི་ཡག་པོ་
འདུག། 5. འོན་ཀྱང་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བྱུང་ན་ 6. ཡག་ཤོས་རེད་ཅེས་བཤད་
The first two clauses parallel ones previously encountered. The third clause is an
active verb construction linked towhat follows by the "having" connective. However, the
third clause really functions as an adverb modifying the verb བཤད་ ("said") in clause six,
answering the question, "the lord said how? — in the manner of opening his eyes wide."
Clause four begins with another adverb (ལམ་སང་ - "at once"),which modifies
"said." It is followed by what was said, namely that "this is good."
Clause five starts with "even though" (འོན་ཀྱང་) . The rest of this segment is
straightforward. This could have been written ཡག་པོ་འདུག་་ཀྱང་
26. The twenty sixth segment consists of three clauses: l. དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་དངུལ་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ས་བདག་གི་
རྐང་པའི་འགྲམ་དུ་དབྱུགས་ཏེ་ 2. སླར་ཡང་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་འཛུལ་ནས་ 3. གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཞིག་བླང་ས་པ་རེད་
The first clause is another simple active construction: དྲང་སྲོང་གིས་ . . . དབྱུགས་ The
direct object is "that axe" (སྟ་རེ་དེ་) and the location of the verbal action (where he threw it)
is ས་བདག་གི་རྐང་པའི་འགྲམ་དུ་ The second and third phrases parallel those encountered earlier.
2. The twenty seventh segment consists of five clauses: 1. ས་བད་ག་གིས་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཡག་པོ་ཞེ་
དྲ་གས་འདུག་ཞེས་ཡང་ཡང་བཤད་ན་ས་ 2. དྲང་སྲོང་གི་ལག་པ་ནས་གསེར་གྱི་སྟ་རེ་ཚུར་བླང་ས་པ་དང་ 3. ས་སྟེང་ནས་དངུལ་གྱི་
སྟ་རེ་དེ་ཡར་བསྒུགས་ཏེ་ 4. ལག་པ་རེ་རེར་ཁྱེར་ནས་ 5. དགའ་ཐག་ཆོད་པ་རེད་
The first clause is a typical active construction presenting direct speech (ས་བདག་གིས་
... བཤད) . The second clause is another standard type construction describing an activity
with the subject ("by the lord") implicit. Note again that the verb "take" (བླང་ས་) often is

preceded by ཚུར་ a term meaning "hither" or "toward oneself."
The third clause describes an activity, "picking up the silver axe from the ground."
Note that ཡར་ ("upwards") is commonly used with the verb བསྒྲུགས་ ("pick up").
28. The final segment consists of six clauses: l.  སྐབས་དེར་དྲང་སྲོང་ནི་ཡང་སྐྱར་ཡལ་སྟབས་ 2. ས་བདག་
གིས་སྟ་རེ་གཉིས་ཀ་ཁྱེར་ན་ 3. ཡག་པོ་འདུག་བསམ་ནས་ 4. མགྱོགས་པོ་ཕྱིན་འཕྲལ་ 5. ཁོ་པ་ཆུའི་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་སྟེ་ 6. ཤི་བ་
It follows the standard pattern of actions linked by clause connectives ... སྟབས་...ན་
... ནས་ ... འཕྲལ་ ... སྟེ་
8.11 Vocabulary (Beginning with this lesson, pronunciation notation will not be included)
བཀའ་འདྲི་ asking, ་ va. — ཞུ་ (h.) happy
རྐང་པ་ foot
དགུ་ nine
རྐང་བཙུགས་ནས་ phuurnosely
དགུ་བརྒྱ་ 900
ལྐུགས་པ་ idiot
དགུ་བརྒྱ་དང་བརྒྱད་ ཙུ་གྱ་བདུན་ 987
སྐད་ voice
ཁ་བརྡུང་ verbally abuseva. ——གཏོང་
དགུ་ཁྲི་ 90,000
ཁྱོད་ར་ you
དགུ་བཅུ་ 90
ཁྲི་ 10,000
དགུ་སྟོང་ 9,000
ཁྲི་དགུ་ 90,000
དགུ་པ་ ninth
ཁྲི་དགུ་དང་སྟོང་   ཕྲཁ་དྲུག་ 96,000
དགུ་འབུམ་ 900,000
དགོང་མོ་ night
ཁྲི་བརྒྱད་ 80,000
མགོ་ head
ཁྲི་ལྔ་ 50,000
མགྱོགས་མྱུར་ quickly
ཁྲི་གཅིག་ 10,000
རྒད་པོ་ old man
ཁྲི་གཉིས་ 20,000
བརྒྱ་ཆ་ percent
ཁྲི་དྲུག་ 60,000
བརྒྱ་ཆ་གཅིག་ one percent
ཁྲི་བདུན་ 70,000
བརྒྱ་ཆ་གཉིས་ two percent
ཁྲི་བཞི་ 40,000
བརྒྱ་ཆ་བཙུ་ ten percent
ཁྲི་གསུམ་ 30,000
བརྒྱ་ཆ་ལྔ་བཅུ་ fifty percent
ཁྲིམས་ law
བརྒྱ་ཆ་བདུན་ཅུ་    དོན་ལྔ་ seventy-five percent
གོ་ nineties
གོག་པོ་ old, beat up
བརྒྱ་ (ཐམ་པ་) 100
གྱ་ eighties
བརྒྱ་དང་བརྒྱད་ 108
གྱུར་ vi. p. of འགྱུར་
སྒྱིད་ལུག་ lazy
དགའ་མཆོངས་ jumping for joy; va. — རྒྱག་
བརྒྱད་ eight
དགའ་ཐག་ཆོད་ vi. to be or become very
བརྒྱད་ཁྲི་ 80,000

བརྒྱད་ཁྲི་ལྔ་སྟོང་དྲུག་   བརྒྱ་དགུ་བཅུ་  གོ་ལྔེ་ 85,695
བཅུ་གཉིས་ twelve
བཅུ་གཉིས་པ་ twelfth
བཅུ་དྲུག་ sixteen
བརྒྱད་བརྒྱ་ 800
བཅུ་བདུན་ seventeen
བརྒྱད་ཅུ་ 80
བཅུ་པ་ tenth
བརྒྱད་ཆ་ལྔ་ five eighths
བཅུ་མེད་ the ten's place in
བརྒྱད་སྟོང་ 8,000
བཅུ་བཞི་ fourteen
བརྒྱད་པ་ eighth
བཅུ་གསུམ་ thirteen
བརྒྱད་འབུམ་ 800,000
བཅོ་ལྔ་ fifteen
བསྒྲུག་ va. to pick up
བཅོ་བརྒྱད་ eighteen
བསྒྲུགས་ va. p. of བསྒྲུག་
ལྕགས་ iron
ང་ I
ཆིག་སྟོང་ l,000
ང་འི་ my
ཆིག་འབུམ་ 100,000
ངུས་ va. to cry
ཆུ་གློག་ས་ཚིགས་ hydroelectric station
དངངས་སྐྲག་ fright
ཆོས་ religion, dharma
དངུལ་ silver
ཉི་ཤུ་ twenty
ལྔ་ five
ཉིས་ཁྲི་ 20,000
ལྔ་ཁྲི་ 50,000
ཉིས་བརྒྱ་ 200
ལྔ་བརྒྱ་ 500
ཉིས་བརྒྱ་དང་ལྔ་བཙུ་ ང་དྲུག་ 256
ལྔ་བཅུ་ 50
ལྔ་ཆ་གཉིས་ two fifths
ཉིས་སྟོང་ 2,000
ལྔ་ཆ་བཞི་ four fifths
ཉིས་འབུམ་ 200,000
ལྔ་སྟོང་ 5,000
ཉེས་ va. to beat, hit
ལྔ་པོ་ fifth
ཉེས་བརྡུང་བྱེད་ va. to beat
ལྔ་འབུམ་ 500,000
གཉིས་པ་ second
སྔ་པོ་ early
སྟ་རེ་ axe
སྔར་བཞིན་ like/as before
སྟོང་ཕྲག་གཅིག་ l,000
ཅི་ཕྱིར་ why
ཐིང་ཐིང་ adjective used to convey "completely" with certain colors
གཅིག་ཁྲི་ 10,000
གཅིག་སྟོང་ l,000
གཅད་ va. to cut
ཐོ་ a list; va. — རྒྱག་ : to make a list, to record
བཅད་ va. p. of གཅོད་
བཙུ་ ten
ཐོག་ནས་ from on top
བཅུ་དགུ་ nineteen
དང་མཉམ་དུ་ together with
བཅུ་གཅིག་ eleven
དང་བསྟུན་ in accordaunce with
བཅུ་གཅིག་པ་ eleventh
དང་མཐུན་པ་ compatible with

དང་འདྲ་བ་ similar to (with)
གནས་ཚུལ་ news, events, situation
དང་ལྡན་པ་ possessing, having
རྣོ་པོ་ sharp
དང་པོ་ first
དཔོན་པོ་ lord
དང་འབྲེལ་ related to, joined with
སྤོ་བོ་ (ལགས་) old man (h.)
དང་སྦྲགས་ see སྦྲགས་
སྤྱི་ཟླ་ Westernmvonth
དང་མི་འི་དྲ་བ་ dissimilar to (with)
ཕ་མ་ parents
དང་ལྷན་རྒྱས་ together with (h.)
ཕྱི་ཉིན་ the next day
དུང་ conch shell
ཕྱིས་ va. to wipe
དུང་ཕྱུར་གཅིག་ 100,000,000
བོད་ཟླ་ Tibetan (lunar) mvonth
དུང་ཕྱུར་བཅུ་ l,000,000,000
བྱིལ་ va. to stoke, caress
དེ་གར་ there
བྱིལ་བྱིལ་ stroking va.— བྱེད་
དེ་འདྲ་ like that
བྱེ་བ་གཅིག་ 10,000,000
དོ་སྣང་བྱེད་ vi. to notice, to pay attention to
བླ་མའི་དྲང་སྲོང་ an ascetic lama
བླངས་ va. p. of ལེན་ : took
དོན་ seventies
དབྱུགས་ va. to throw
དྲང་སྲོང་ an ascetic
སྦྲགས་ "together with" connective
དྲན་ vi. to remember
མི་ཚེ་ life, a lifetime
དྲུག་ six
མིག་ཆུ་ tears
དྲུག་ཁྲི་ 60,000
མིག་ཆེན་པོ་ གདང་ (ས) " va. to open one's eyes wide
དྲུག་བརྒྱ་ 600
དྲུག་ཅུ་ 60
མེད་པར་གྱུར་ vi. to come into a state not existing
དྲུག་ཆ་གཅིག་ one sixth
དྲུག་སྟོང་ 6,000
སྨ་ར་ beard
དྲུག་པ་ sixth
རྩ་ twenties
དྲུག་འབུམ་ 600,000
རྩོམ་ va. to write, compose, author
བདུན་ seven
བདུན་ཁྲི་ 70,000
འཛུལ་ va. to enter
བདུན་བརྒྱ་ 700
བརྫུས་ va. to pretend
བདུན་ཅུ་ 70
ཞེ་ fortie
བདུན་སྟོང་ 7,000
ཞོགས་པ་ morning
བདུན་སྟོང་ལྔ་བརྒྱ་ ཉི་ཤུ་ 7,520
ཞོར་ incidental particle
གཞན་ other, different
བདུན་པ་ seventh
གཞི་ནས་ only then
བདུན་འབུམ་ 700,000
བཞི་ཁིྲ་ 40,000
སྡོད་ va. to stay, live, reside
བཞི་བརྒྱ་ 400
ནག་ཐིང་ཐིང་ completely black
བཞི་ཅུ་ 40

བཞི་ཆ་གཅིག་ one quarter
གསུམ་བརྒྱ་ 300
བཞི་ཆ་གསུམ་ three quarters
གསུམ་བརྒྱ་དང་བཞི་  བཅུ་ཞེ་དགུ་ 349
བཞི་སྟོང་ 4,000
བཞི་པ་ fourth
གསུམ་ཆ་གཉིས་ two thirds
བཞི་འབུམ་ 400,000
གསུམ་སྟོང་ 3,000
ཟམ་པ་ bridge
གསུམ་པ་ third
གཟབ་གཟབ་ careful
གསུམ་འབུམ་ 300,000
ཡག་ཤོས་ best
གསེར་ gold
ཡང་ཡང་ over and over
བསམ་ va. to think
ཡར་ up, upwards
ཧ་ཅང་ very
ཡར་ཀླུང་གཙང་པོ་ the (Yarlung) Tsangpo River
ལྷག་བསམ་ p.n. Lhaksam
ཡིན་མིན་ whether is or is not
ཡུད་ཙམ་ a moment
གཡུག་གཡུག་བྱེད་ va. to shake
ཡོད་མེད་ whether exists or does not
རེ་ sixties
རེ་རེ་ each
ལན་བཏབ་ va. p. of ལན་འདེབས་
ལན་འདེབས་ va. to answer, respond, reply
ལམ་ག་ road
ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོ་ strong, tough; loud
ས་བདག་ landlord
ས་ཡ་གཅིག་ (or ཁྲུ་བརྒྱ་ཐམ་པ་) l,000,000
སུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་ like who; whoever, what kind of a
སུམ་ཙུ་ 30
སེམས་ཁྲལ་ worries; va. — བྱེད་
སོ་ thirties
སྲིད་འཛིན་ president, rule; va. — བྱེད་: to act, serve as president; to rule
སློབ་དེབ་ textbook
གསུམ་ཁྲི་ 30,000

Part Two

Lesson Nine
9.l Constructions with ཐབས་ ("way, means")
ཐབས་ (which was first introduced in 7.5.6) expresses the idea of "the means to do"
or "the way to do" something. It is used with the present (or non-past) stem of verbs in
the following format: Vb. (pres.) + ཐབས་ + existential verb (positive or negative). For
example, འགྲོ་ཐབས་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་ conveys the idea that "there is no way or means to go."
a. སོན་གསར་པ་མེད་པར་བརྟེན། ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཡར་རྒྱས་གཏོང་ཐབས་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Because there are no new seeds, there is no way to improve production.
b. ཁོ་རྒྱ་གར་ནས་འདིར་ཆུ་ཚོད་གཉིས་ནང་འབྱོར་ཐབས་མི་འདུག།
There is no way for him to arrive here from India in two hours.
c. ཨེམ་ཆི་ལྷ་ས་ནས་འདིར་ཆུ་ཚོད་གཅིག་ནང་ཕེབས་ཐབས་མེད་སྟབས[
Because there was no way for the doctor to come here from Lhasa in an hour,
(They, he, she, etc.) took the patient to the hospital.
ཐབས་ is also commonly used in negative constructions with the verb བྲལ་ ("to
separate") conveying the meaning of "no way to do the verbal action."
Vb. (non-past) + ཐབས་ + བྲལ་བ་རེད་
Vb. (non-past) + ཐབས་ + དང་ + བྲལ་བ་རེད་
d. ཁོ་བལ་ཡུལ་ནས་འདིར་ཆུ་ཚོད་གཉིས་ནང་འབྱོར་ཐབས་བྲལ་བ་རེད།
There was no way for him to a rive here from Nepal in two hours.
e. ནད་པ་དེ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་སྐྱེལ་ཐབས་བྲལ་སྟབ་། ཨེམ་ཆི་ཞིག་སྐད་བཏང་སོང་།
Because there is no way to take the patient to the hospital, (they, he, she, etc.) called
doctor (to come).
ཐབས་ is also sometimes used in conjunction with the verb བྱེད་ ("to do") where it
conveys the idea of "trying to do." The pattern is. Vb. (non-past) + ཐབས་ + བྱེད་ + verbal
f. ཁོ་ཚོས་གཞུང་གསར་པ་ཞིག་འཛུགས་ཐབས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
They are trying to establish a new government.
g. བོད་པ་མང་པོས་འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ནས་བལ་ཡུལ་བར་དུ་ཡོང་ཐབས་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Many Tibetans tried to come to Nepal from Bhutan.
h. ཁོས་བྲོས་ཐབས་བྱས་ཀྱང་། ཕྲུ་གུ་དང་སྐྱེ་དམན་ཡོད་སྟབས་གྲོས་མ་ཐུབ་པ་རེད།
Even though he tried to escape, because (he) had a wife and children, (he) was unable
to escape.

ཐབས་ can also nominalize verb phrases and therefore can be used with indefinites
such as ཅིག་
i. འདིར་ཆུ་གཏོང་ཐབས་ཤིག་གནང་དང་།
Please irrigate here. (lit., Do or make a way/method so that one can irrigate
9.2 The auxiliary verbs "to dare to" ཕོད་ and ནུས་
ཕོད་ and ནུས་ are used with verb stems to convey the meaning of "daring to do" the
verbal action.
a. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཚོས་དགེ་རྒན་ལ་དྲི་བ་འདྲི་ཕོད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
The students will not dare to ask the teacher questions.
b. སློབ་ཕྲུག་དེས་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱི་མི་དེ་ལ་དྲི་བ་མང་པོ་དྲིས་ཕོད་མ་སོང་།
That student did not dare to ask the foreigner many questions.
c. ངས་དེ་བྱེད་ནུས་ཀྱི་མི་འདུག།
I do not dare to do that.
d. དེང་སང་ཁོང་ཚོས་མི་དམངས་ལ་བརྙས་བཅོས་བྱེད་ཕོད་དམ།
Do they dare to abuse the people these days?
e. འབྲོག་པ་དེས་གནམ་གྲུའི་ནང་འགྲོ་ཕོད་ཀྱི་མེད་ཙང་། རྟ་བཞོན་སྟེ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
Because the nomad did not dare to go into the airplane, (he) went riding a horse.
f. གྲོང་གསེབ་པ་འདིས་ནགས་ཚལ་ནང་འགྲོ་མ་ཕོད་སྟབས། ནང་ལ་བསྡད་པ་རེད།
Because this villager did not dare to go into the forest, (he) stayed at home.
g. དམག་མིས་གྲོང་གསེབ་དེ་ལ་རྙོག་ཁྲ་བཤད་ཕོད་དམ།
Did the soldier dare to cause trouble to that village?
h. གྲྭ་པས་གཡག་བསད་ཕོད་མ་སོང་།
The monk did not dare to kill the yak.
9.3 The "let alone/far from" clause connectives: ལྟ་བཞག་, ཕར་བཞག་, and ལྟ་ཅི་
ལྟ་བཞག་ and ཕར་བཞག་ both are generally preceded by རྒྱུ་ or ཡས་/ ཡག་ They convey
the meaning "let alone X, (they, he, etc.) did Y" or "far from X being done, Y was done
a. ང་ཚོར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་ཕར་བཞག་གནོད་སྐྱོན་བཏང་བ་རེད།
Let alone helping us, (they, he, etc.) did us harm. (Or, Far fom helping us, they did
us harm.)
b. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཁ་ཤས་བོད་ཡིག་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱ་རྒྱུ་ལྟ་བཞག་ལས་ཀ་ཡང་ཡག་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མེད།
Let alone studying written Tibetan, some children are not even doing (their) work

well. (Or, Far from studying written Tibetan...)
c. ཁོས་དགེ་རྒན་ལ་ཡི་གེ་གཏོང་རྒྱུ་ཕར་བཞག་ཁ་པར་ཡང་གཏོང་གི་མི་འདུག།
Far from sending a letter to the teacher, (he) does not even call him (by phone).
d. གྲྭ་པ་དེས་དགོན་པར་སྡོད་རྒྱུ་ལྟ་བཞག་མཆོད་མཇལ་ལ་ཡང་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
The monk does not even go for religious visits, let alone stay in the monastery.
e. ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་གྱི་ཡུལ་སྐོར་སྤྲོ་འཆམ་པ་དེས་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ལྟ་ཅི་འབྲས་ཀྱང་ཟ་གི་མི་འདུག།
Let alone eating Tibetan food, that foreign tourist doesn't even eat rice.
Past tense constructions are typically formed by using past tense verb stems or past time
f. ཁོས་གྲོགས་པོར་ཡི་གེ་བཏང་རྒྱུ་ཕར་བཞག་ཁ་པར་ཡང་བཏང་མ་སོང་།
He did not even make a phone call, let alone sending a letter to his friend.
g. ཟླ་ཉིན་སོ་ནམ་པ་དེས་ཚགས་པར་བཀླགས་རྒྱུ་ལྟ་བཞག་ཡི་གེ་ཐུང་ཐུང་ཞིག་ཀྱང་བཀླགས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Last year, that farmer did not even know how to read a short letter, let alone reading a
Note that even though example g. ends with a present tense verbal complement, it
conveys past tense because of the initial time element ("last year" - ཟླ་ཉིན་)
h. ཁོང་ཚོས་ནད་པ་དེ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་བསྐྱལ་རྒྱུ་ཕར་བཞག་སྨན་ཡང་མ་ཉོས།
Let alone taking the patient to the hospital, (they) did not even buy medicine (for
him) .
9.4 The "excluding" clause connective. ཕུད་
The particle ཕུད་ is used with nouns to convey "aside from," "not including," "with
the exception of," "except for," and "excluding."
a. ཨ་ཞང་ཕུད་ནང་མི་དྲུག་ཡོད།
Excluding uncle, (I) have six family members.
b. སློབ་ཕྲུག་འགའ་ཤས་ཕུད་ཚང་མས་བོད་སྐད་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Excluding several students, all studied Tibetan.
c. ཚེ་རིང་གིས་གཟའ་ཉི་མ་ཕུད་ཉིན་ལྟར་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་ལ་དེབ་ཀློག་པར་འགྲོ་གི་འདུག།
Excluding Sunday, Tsering goes to the library to read books every day.
d. བཀྲིས་ཕུད་སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚང་མ་ཚོགས་འདུར་སླེབས།
Excluding Tashi, all students arrived at (came to) the meeting.
e. གྲྭ་པ་གཅིག་ཕུད་གཞན་དག་ཚང་མས་ཤ་ཟས་སོང་།
With the exception of one monk, all the others ate meat.
When ཕུད་ is used with nominalized verbsit conveys the meaning of "not only"
and "in addition to." It nornlally requires ཡང་ ("also/even") in the second clause.

f. ལྷ་སར་ཕྱིན་པ་ཕུད་ས་ཆ་གཞན་དག་ལ་ཡང་ཕྱིན།
Not only did (they, he, etc.) go to Lhasa, (they, he, etc.) also went to other places.
g. ལྷ་སར་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་ཕུད་རྒྱལ་རྩེར་ཡང་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
Not only will (they, he, etc.) go to Lhasa, (they, he, etc.) will also go to Gyantse.
h. མོས་ཚལ་ཉོས་པ་ཕུད་ཤིང་ཏོག་ཀྱང་མང་པོ་ཉོས་སོང་།
Not only did (she) buy vegetables, (she) even bought lots of fruit.

9.5 The "danger of" clause connective ཉེན་
This particle comes from the word ཉེན་ཁ་ —"danger." It is used primarily as a
verbal auxiliary to convey that there is a daunger that the verbal action is going to occur.
For example:
a. ཡུལ་གཉིས་བར་དམག་ཡོང་ཉེན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
There is a danger that war will break out (come) between those two countries.
b. ཁ་ལག་འདི་ཟས་ཚེ་ན་ཉེན་འདུག།
If (you, he, she, etc.) eat this food, there is a danger (you, he, etc.) will get sick.
c. དེང་སྐབས་མི་དམངས་རྣམས་སྐྱིད་པོ་ཡོད་ཙང་། ངོ་ལོག་རྒྱག་ཉེན་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Because people are happy these days, there is no danger of (them) revolting.
d. དམག་མི་དེ་ཚོས་གྲོང་གསེབ་ནང་བཙན་འཛུལ་བྱེད་ཉེན་བྱུང་སྟབས་མི་དམངས་རྣམས་ཚོགས་འདུ་འཚོགས་པ་རེད།
Because there was danger of soldiers invading the village, the people held a
9.6 The auxiliaury verb མྱོང་ "to experience"
This verb is used with non-past verb stems to convey the idea of "having
experience" with respect to the verb.
a. ཁོ་ཚོར་བོད་ཇ་འཐུང་མྱོང་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
They have experienced (the drinking of) Tibetan tea.
(They have drunk Tibetan tea.)
b. ང་བལ་ཡུལ་ལ་འགྲོ་མྱོང་ཡོད་ཀྱང་། དེར་ཡུན་རིང་སྡོད་མྱོང་མེད།
Even though I have gone to Nepal (experienced going to Nepal), I have not stayed
there for a long time (have not had the experience of staying there for
long time) .
c. གསར་འགྱུར་འདི་འདྲ་གོ་མ་མྱོང་།
(I) have not heard (any) news like this.

d. རེ་བོང་ཆེན་པོ་འདི་འདྲ་སུས་ཀྱང་མཐོང་མྱོང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
No one has ever seen a rabbit as big as this. (lit., even by whomever rabbit big like
this seeing not experienced)
e. རྒྱ་མི་དེ་བོད་ལ་འགྲོ་མྱོང་ཡོད་ཀྱང་བོད་སྐད་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མི་འདུག།
Even though the Chinese person has gone to Tibet (has had the experience of going to
Tibet), he does not know Tibetan.
f. བསོད་ནམས་ཀྱིས་གྲྭ་པ་བྱེད་མྱོང་བ་རེད།
Sonam has experienced being monk.
g. ཁོང་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཕེབས་མྱོང་ཡོད་སྟབས་གྲྭ་པ་མང་པོ་གཟིགས་པ་རེད།
Because he (h.) has gone to India (had the experience of going to India), he saw (h.)
many monks.
9.7 "Seem" constructions using བཟོ་
བཟོ་ is used with the non-past stem of verbs to convey the idea that "it seems" that
the verbal action will occur.
a. ཆར་པ་གཏོང་བཟོ་འདུག།
It seems as if it will rain.
In this usage, བཟོ་ actually forms a verbal noun: "What exist? —the likelihood that it will
rain." The next example shows this nominalized verb ("increase" + བཟོ་) modified by the
adjective "big."
b. ཟ་ཆས་ཀྱི་གོང་ཚད་ནི་འཕར་བཟོ་ཆེན་པོ་འདུག།
It seems very likely that the price of foodstuffs will increase. (There is a great
likelihood that the price of foodstuffs will increase.)
c. ཁོ་ཚོ་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཡོང་བཟོ་འདུག།
It seems as if they will come soon.
d. ཁོ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་འགྲོ་བཟོ་འདུག།
It seems he will go to India.
e. ལུང་པ་དེ་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཡར་རྒྱས་འགྲོ་བཟོ་མི་འདུག།
It doesn't seem that country will develop quickly.
བཟོ་ sometimes joins with existential and inking verbs.
f. མོ་བོད་པ་མིན་བཟོ་འདུག།
It doesn't seem as if she is a Tibetan.
g. ཁོ་པར་དངུལ་ཡོད་བཟོ་མི་འདུག།

It doesn't seem as if he has money.
བཟོ་ also occurs in more complex constructions:
h. གྲྭ་པས་ངོ་ལོག་རྒྱག་བཟོ་མཐོང་ཙང་། གཞུང་གིས་མི་མང་པོ་འཛིན་བཟུང་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Because (the government) saw that it seemed as if the monks would revolt, the
government arrested many people.
Another way to express "seem/does not seem" is to add པ་/བ་ (མི་) འདུག་ to the
present tense stem of verbs:
i. ཁོ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་འགྲོ་པ་མི་འདུག།
It does not seem he will go to India.
བཟོ་ is also used in a construction consisting of the dative-locative + the verb "to
look" + the conditional "if" (ལ་བལྟས་ན་) to convey the idea that "if one looks at how
something seems, "one can make an assessment about something else. It will often
translated as "basedon...."
j. ད་རང་གི་གནམ་གཤིས་དེའི་བཟོ་ལ་བལྟས་ན་དོ་དགོང་ཆར་པ་གཏོང་བ་འདུག།
Based on how this morning's weather seems, it will rain tonight.
k. མི་དེའི་བཟོ་ལ་བལྟས་ན་རྒྱ་གར་བ་རེད།
Based on how this person seems, (he) is an Indian.
9.8 The "completed/finished" auxiliary verbs ཟིན་, ཚར་, and གྲུབ་
These verbs follow the past stems of active verbs and convey that the verbal
action is completed or finished. The last of these, གྲུབ་, has an honorific connotation so
generally is not used for oneself.
a. བོད་ནས་ཡོང་མཁན་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ལས་ཀ་དེ་ཁ་ས་བྱས་ཟིན་པ་རེད།
The ones who came from Tibet completed that work yesterday.
b. དེབ་གསར་པ་བཀླགས་ཟིན་ནས་ངས་བརྙན་འཕྲིན་བལྟས་པ་ཡིན།
After finishing reading the new book, I watched television.
c. ཁོང་ཚོས་རྒྱ་མིའི་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་ཚར་སོང་ང་ས།
Have they finished eating the Chinese food?
d ཁོང་ཚོའི་ལས་ཀ་ཚང་མ་གནང་གྲུབ་ཙང་བོད་ལ་ཕེབས་ཐུབ་གྱི་རེད།
Because (they) have finished all their work, they are able to go to Tibet.
e. ཁོ་ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཐོན་ཟིན་སོང་ཞེས་ང་ཚོར་ལན་འབྱོར་བྱུང་།
We received the message, "He departed (finished departing) from Lhasa."
f. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཚོས་ཇ་འཐང་ཟིན་འཕྲལ་འཛིན་གྲྭར་ཕྱིན།
As soon as students finished drinking tea, (they) went to class.
g. ལས་ཀ་ཚང་མ་བྱས་མ་ཟིན་གོང་ལ་ནང་ལ་འགྲོ་ཐུབ་གི་མ་རེད།

(You) cannot go home before (you) finish all (your) work.
9.9 Emphatic negative adverbs ནམ་ཡང་, གཏན་ནས་, གང་ཡང་, རྒྱུན་ནས་, རྩ་བ་ནས་, and ཁྱོན་ནས་
There are six common emphatic negatives གཏན་ནས་, ནམ་ཡང་, གང་ཡང་, རྒྱུན་ནས་, རྩ་
བ་ནས་, and ཁྱོན་ནས་
When used with negative active and involuntaury verbs, the term ནམ་ཡང་ means
a. ཁོས་འཛིན་གྲྭར་ནམ་ཡང་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
He never went to class.
On the other hand, the ternm གང་ཡང་ expresses the idea of "not at all" or "not in any
amount" when used with negative active and involuntary verbs.
b. ངས་མོ་ལ་དངུལ་གང་ཡང་གཏོང་གི་མ་རེད།
I will not give her any money at all.
The remaining particles can convey either meaning depending on context.
c ཁོ་ཚོ་བོད་ལ་ཁྱོན་ནས་ལོག་ཐུབ་གྱི་མ་རེད།
They will never be able to return to Tibet.
d. གྲྭ་པ་རྒན་ཁོག་དེས་སྐྱག་རྫུན་ནམ་ཡང་ཤོད་པ་མ་རེད།
That old monk never tells lies.
e. ངས་མོ་ལ་དངུལ་ཁྱོན་ནས་གཏོང་གི་མིན།
I will never give money to her.
However, when these verbs are used with negative existential or linking verbs
they convey the meaning of "not at all."
f. ལུང་པ་དེར་འབྲོག་པ་རྩ་བ་ནས་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
There are no nomads at all in that place.
9.10 "Want" constructions using འདོད་, མོས་, བློ་, and སེམས་
འདོད་ ("want, " "desire") generally follows the verb it modifies, with that verb
being placed in the non-past stem. It is followed by an existential verb.
a. ཚོང་པ་ཚོར་ཚྭ་ཚོང་རྒྱག་འདོད་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The traders want to trade (barter/sell) salt.
Note that the subject (ཚོང་པ་ཚོ་) may or may not be placed in the dative-locative.
b ཞིང་པ་ཚོ་ཀུང་ཧྲེ་ལ་ཞུགས་འདོད་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
The farmers do not want to participate in the commune.
འདོད་ often occurs with the བྱུང་ complement.
c. ཁོང་གཉིས་པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་འདོད་བྱུང་མ་སོང་།

Those two did not want to go to Beijing.
འདོད་ is also used with the verb བྱེད་
d. མོས་ཆང་ས་རྒྱག་འདོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མེད་ཙང་། ནང་ནས་བྲོས་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
Because she does not want to get married, (she) ran away from home.
This could also have been written:
e. མོས་ཆང་ས་རྒྱག་འདོད་མེད་ཙང་། ནང་ནས་བྲོས་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
Because she does not want to get married, (she) ran away from home.
f. གཞུང་གིས་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་འདོད་མ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
The government did not want to help the refugees.
མོས་ ("to like"), བློ་ ("mind") and སེམས་ ("mind") are used interchangeably with
g. ཁོ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་འགྲོ་མོས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
He wants to go to India.
h. དགེ་རྒན་རྣམས་པེ་ཅིང་ལ་ཕེབས་སེམས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The teachers want to go to Beijing.
9.11 "Hope" constructions using རེ་, འདུན་, and བ་/པའི་རེ་བ་
འདུན་, རེ་, and བ་/པའི་རེ་བ་ are used in constructions that parallel those འདོད་, མོས་
and སེམས་
a. ཁོ་པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་རེ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
He hopes to go to Beijing.
b. མོ་པེ་ཅིང་ལ་འགྲོ་བའི་རེ་བ་ཡོད།
She hopes to go to Beijing.
c. ངོ་ལོག་པས་གཞུང་གི་དམག་མི་དེ་ཚོ་རྩ་མེད་གཏོང་རེ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
The rebels hoped to annihilate those government soldiers.
d. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་ཧུར་བརྩོན་བྱས་པར་བརྟེན། ཁོ་ལ་བྱ་དགའ་ཐོབ་འདུན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Because he worked diligently, he has hopes of winning a prize.
e. ཏང་མི་དེ་ལ་མའོ་ཀྲུའུ་ཞི་མཇལ་འདུན་ཆེན་པོ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
That party member had great hopes of meeting Chairman Mao.
f. བཀྲིས་ཀྱིས་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་འགྲོ་འདུན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག།
Tashi is hoping to go to India.
g. ཨ་མས་བུ་དེ་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཡོང་རེ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
The mother hoped that her son will come quickly from abroad

9.12 "Manner" constructions: སྟངས་, ལུགས་, and ཚུལ་
These three verbal particles are used immediately after the present (non-past)
stem of the verbs they modify, conveying the idea of "the manner of doing" the verbal
action. The resultant compounds function as derived nouns. For example, in sentence a.
planting rice becomes "the way/manner of planting rice." It is then modified by the
adjective "new," conveying the sense, "a new way of planting rice."
a. ཁོས་ཞིང་པ་ཚོར་འབྲས་འདེབས་སྟང་ས་གསར་པ་གཅིག་སློབ་སྟོན་བྱས་པ་རེད།
He taught the farmers a new way to plant rice.
b. ཁོ་ཚོས་གནམ་གྲུ་བཟོ་སྟངས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
They don't know how (the way) to make airplanes.
c. གཡོག་པོས་ངོ་ལོག་བརྒྱབ་ཚུལ་གྱི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་བཤད་སོང་།
(They, he, she, etc.) told the history of how the servants rebelled.
d. ཁོས་མོའི་ལུང་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ཡོད་ལུགས་ཤོད་ཀྱི་འདུག།
He is telling about the size of her country (the manner of its being big).
When one of these particles is used with an adjective stem (as in e.),the linking or
existential verb is not required.
e. གུང་བྲན་རིང་ལུགས་ཡག་ཚུལ་དང་། མ་རྩའི་རིང་ལུགས་རྩ་མེད་བཟོ་དགོས་ལུགས་སོགས་ཁྱབ་བསྒྲགས་མང་པོ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
(They) made many announcements about (proclaiming) such things as how good
communism is and how capitalism has to be annihilated.
These particles are often used in conjunction with ལ་ལྟས་ན་ ("if you look at").
f. ཁང་པ་འདི་ཚོའི་རྒྱབ་སྟངས་ལ་ལྟས་ན། ལྷ་ས་འདྲ་པོ་འདུག།
If you look at how these houses are built, (they are) similar to (others in) Lhasa.
g. མི་དེའི་སི་སྤན་ཟ་སྟངས་ལ་ལྟས་ན། ཁོ་ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀའི་མི་མ་རེད།
If you look at the manner in which that man eats hot chili, he is not American.
9.13 Perfect tense
The perfect tense is made by joining a verb directly to one of the existential verbs
such as འདུག་ or ཡོད་པ་རེད་, i.e., vb. past stem + existential verb.
a. ཁོས་དེབ་དང་སྙུ་གུ་ཉོས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
He has bought a book and a pen.
b. ཁོས་དེབ་དང་སྙུ་གུ་ཉོས་ཡོད་པ་རེད་པས།
Has he bought abook and a pen?
This, of course, could also have been:
c. ཁོས་དེབ་དང་སྙུ་ག་ཉོས་ཡོད་པ་རེད་དམ།
Has he bought a book and a pen?

འདུག་ is also commonly used.
d. འབྲོག་པ་ཚོ་ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་མི་འདུག།
The nomads have not arrived in Lhasa.
e. འབྲོག་པ་ཚོ་ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་འདུག།
The nomads have arrived in Lhasa.
f. འབྲོག་པ་ཚོ་ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་འདུག་གམ།
Have the nomads arrived in Lhasa?
In spoken Tibetan the perfect tense particle ཤུག་ is normally used in third person
positive constructions. It is also sometimes utilized in written materials.
g. འབྲོག་པ་ཚོ་ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་ཤག།
The nomads have aurived in Lhasa.
Perfect tense is used in subordinate clauses as follows.
h. སྟག་དེས་ལུག་མང་པོ་བསད་ཡོད་ཙང་འབྲོག་པ་ཞིག་ཀྱིས་སྟག་དེར་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
Because that tiger has killed many sheep, a nomad shot the tiger.
i. གཞུང་གིས་མི་དམངས་ལ་རོགས་རམ་བྱས་ཡོད་ཙང་ཁོ་པ་ཚོས་གཞུང་ལ་རྒྱབ་སྐྱོར་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Because the government has helped the people, they supported the government.
First and second person "perfect" constructions use ཡོད་ and མེད་
j. ངས་དེབ་དང་སྙུ་གུ་ཉོས་ཡོད།
I have bought a book and a pen.
k. ངས་དེབ་དང་སྙུ་གུ་ཉོས་མེད།
I haven't bought a book and a pen.
l. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་དེབ་དང་སྙུ་གུ་ཉོས་ཡོད་པས།
Have you bought a book and a pen?
9.14 "Would have" constructions
When པ་/བ་ཡོད་ is used with the past stem ot verbs in conjunction with a
subordinate verb in a perfect tense conditional ("if") construction (e.g., སྤྲད་ཡོད་ན་ — "if had
given"), the idea of "would have" is conveyed.
a. ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་རོགས་རམ་སྤྲད་ཡོད་ན་ཁོ་ཚོར་དམག་ཐོབ་པ་ཡོད།
If help had been given from abroad, they would have won the war.
b. ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ནས་རོགས་རམ་སྤྲད་ཡོད་ན་ཁོ་ཚོའི་དམག་ཤོར་བ་མེད།
If help had been given from abroad, they would not have lost the war.
c. རྡོ་རྗེ་ཁ་ས་སླེབས་ཡོད་ན་གནས་ཚུལ་ཚང་མ་ཤེས་པ་ཡོད།
If Dorje had arrived yesterday, (he) would have known all about the situation.
d. མོ་ནང་ལ་བསྡད་མེད་པ་ཤེས་ཡོད་ན་ང་ཚོ་མོའི་ནང་ལ་འགྲོ་བ་མེད།

If (we) had known that she was not staying at home, we would not have gone to
e. ཡི་གེ་དེ་ཁ་ས་འབྱོར་ཡོད་ན་ངས་དེ་རིང་ཁ་པར་གཏོང་བ་མེད།
If the letter had been received yesterday, I would not have called today.
f. མི་དམངས་རྣམས་ནས་ཞིང་ལས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་བྱས་ཡོད་ན། གྲོང་གསེབ་དེར་ཡར་རྒྱས་ཆེན་པོ་བྱུང་ཡོད་བགྱི་རེད།
If people had worked hard, the village would have improved a lot.
When this form is used in constructions that aue not conditional, the meaning of
"will be" is conveyed. Such constructions are used when there is considerable certainly
about the future action.
g. མོས་སང་ཉིན་ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་བ་ཡོད།
She will make food tomorrow.
9.15 The "be fit/worthy" particles ཉན་, ལོ་, and རུང་
ཉན་ and ལོ་ are placed after verbs to convey being "fit" or "worthy" of the verbal
action. For example:
a. ཤ་འདི་ཟ་ཉན་གྱི་རེད་པ་།
Is this meat fit for eating?
b. ཐ་མག་འདི་འཐེན་ཉན་གྱི་མ་རེད།
This cigarette is not fit to smoke.
c. ཤ་འདི་རྙིང་པ་ཡིན་སྟབས་ཟ་ལོ་པ་མི་འདུག།
Because this meat is old, it is not fit to eat.
d. གོས་ལོག་དེ་རྩབ་ཧྲལ་ཡིན་ཙང་གོན་ཉན་པ་མི་འདུག།
Because the clothes are torn, they are not fit to wear.
ཉན་ is also used to convey the meaning of "allowed" when used in constructions
conveying a general statement, for example, e. below.
e. ཐ་མག་འཐེན་ཉན་གྱི་མ་རེད།
One is not allowed to smoke cigarettes. (Or, Smoking cigarettes is not allowed.)
In this usage, ཉན་ functions identically with རུང་ ("allow"་).
f. ཐ་མག་འཐེན་རུང་གྱི་མ་རེད།
One is not allowed to smoke cigarettes.
Other examples of རུང་ are:
g. དགོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་ཆང་འཐུང་རུང་གི་མ་རེད།
One is not allowed to drink beer in the monastery.
h. དགོན་པ་འདིའི་ནང་ལ་གྲྭ་པས་ཤ་ཟ་རུང་གི་རེད།
In this monastery the monks are allowed to eat meat.

9.16 The "possible" auxiliary verb ་ སིད་
སྲིད་ is placed after verbs to convey its being "possible" to do the verbal action. It
is more often used with a negative particle to convey that the verbal action is impossible
a. ལས་ཀ་འདི་བྱེད་མི་སྲིད།
It is not possible to do this work.
b. འདི་འདྲ་བྱས་ན་ཁེ་བཟང་ཆེན་པོ་ཡོང་སྲིད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
If you do like this, it will not be possible to obtain a big profit.
c. ཁེ་བཟང་ཆེན་པོ་ཡོང་མི་སྲིད་ན་ཅ་ལག་རྙིང་མ་དེ་ཚོ་ཉོ་གི་མེད།
If it is not possible to get a large profit, (I) will not buy those old things.
9.17 Reading exercises
Lengthy grammatical narrative analyses will no longer be utilized in Part Two.
Instead, grammatical explanations will be provided via brief notes.
9.17.1 Reading number one "The Wolf and the Hunter"
9.17.1.l Tibetan text
རྒན་རབས་ཚོའི་ཤོད་སྲོལ་ལ་l གནའ་སྔ་མོ་ཞིག་ལ་སྤྱང་ཀི་ཞིག་ནགས་ཚལ་ཀྱི་ཁྲོད་དུ་ཟས་འཚོལ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད2། བསམ་
ཡུལ་ལས་འདས་པ་ཞིག་ལ་3 སྤྱང་ཀི་དེ་ཟས་འཚོལ་བའི་ལམ་བར་4 གློ་བུར་དུ་རྔོན་པས་བརྐོས་པའི་དོང་རྙིའི་ནང་དུ་ལྷུང་། སྤྱང་
ཀིས་དོང་རྙིའི་ནང་ནས་སྐད་ཤུགས་ཆེན་པོས་དགེ་བ་ཡོང་སྲོག་སྐྱོབ་རོགས་གནང་5 ཞེས་སྐད་ངན་རྒྱག་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། སྐབས་
བྱེད་མཁན་མེད་སྟབས་6 ཚང་མ་ལྟོགས་ཤི་ཐེབས་ཀྱི་རེད་ཅེས་ཟེར་ནས་ངུ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་7། ར་དེས་དོགས་ཟོན་ཆེན་
པོའི་ངང་8 སྤྱང་ཀིར་གལ་ཏེ་9 ད་ལྟ་ངས་ཁྱོད་བསྐྱབས་ན་ཁྱོད་ཀྱིས་ང་བཟའ་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་པས་སྐྱོབས་མི་ཉན་ཞེས་བཤད། སྤྱང་ཀིས་
ལག་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ཐལ་མོ་སྦྱར་ནས་ཁྱེད་ཀྱིས་ང་བསྐྱབས་ན་བཀའ་དྲིན་མཚོ་ལས་ཟབ་པས་10 ངས་དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ལ་མནའ་སྐྱེལ་
དམ་བཅའ་བཞག་ནས་11 དུས་ནམ་ཡང་ཁྱེད་ལ་གནོད་འཚེ་གང་ཡང་12 གཏོང་གི་མིན་ཞེས་ཞུ་བ་འཐེན་པ་རེད། སྤྱང་ཀིས་ཞུ་
དྲང་ས་ཏེ་དོང་རྙིའི་ཕྱི་རུ་བཏེགས་པ་རེད། སྤྱང་ཀིས་རང་ཉིད་དོང་རྙི་ལས་ཐར་མ་ཐག་13 ལམ་སེང་ར་བཟའ་སྟབས་མི་བདེ་
བས14། ཁོས་ངག་འཇམ་ཚིག་མཁས་15 ཀྱི་སྒོ་ནས་ཁྱེད་ཀིས་ངའི་སྲོག་བསྐྱབས་པ་གནང་བའི་བཀའ་དྲིན་དེ་ངས་ནམ་ཡང་
བརྗེད་མི་སྲིད16། འོན་ཀྱང་ད་ལྟ་ང་ལྟོགས་ཤི་ཐེབས་གྲབས་17 བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག་པས་ཁྱེད་ཀྱིས་སླར་ཡང་ངའི་སྲོག་སྐྱོབ་ཐབས་ཤིག་

18 གནང་དང་19 ཞེས་བཤད་པ་རེད། ཞི་དུལ་སེམས་བཟང་གི་ར་དེས་སྤྱང་ཀིར་ཁྱོད་ཀྱིས་ང་ལ་གནོད་འཚེ་གང་ཡང་གཏོང་རྒྱུ་
མེད་པའི་མནའ་བསྐྱལ་དམ་བཅའ་བཞག་སོང་ཞེས་བཤད་པས་སྤྱང་ཀིས་ང་ནི་ཤ་གཟན་སྲོག་ཆག་ཆགས་20 ཡིན་པས་ཁྱོད་གློད་ན་ག་ནས་
འགྲིགས་21ཞེས་བཤད། ར་དེའི་སེམས་ལ་ད་ནི་སྤྱང་ཀིའི་ཁ་ནས་ཐར་ཐབས་བྲལ་སོང་སྙམ་ནས་སེམས་ནང་འགྱོད་པ་དྲག་པོ་
སྐྱེད་དེ་སྡོད་པའི་ཚེ་གློ་བུར་དུ་རི་བོང་ཞིག་མཆོང་ས་རྒྱུ་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་22 མདུན་དུ་སླེབས་བྱུང་བས་རས་ལམ་སེང་རི་བོང་ལ་ཁྱེད་ཀྱིས་
ད་ལྟ་འདིར་བྱུང་བའི་གནས་ཚུལ་ལ་ང་གཉིས་སུ་བདེན་གྱི་དཔང་པོ་ཞིག་གནང་རོགས་ཞེས་23 ཞུ་བ་འཐེན་པ་རེད། རི་བོང་གིས་
གཉིས་ཀར་རྒྱུ་མཚན་འདུག་པས་ངས་ཁྱོད་གཉིས་སུའི་སྐད་ཆ་བདེན་པ་ཡིན་མིན་24 མ་ཤེས་པས་སྔོན་ལ་ཁྱོད་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་ཐོག་མའི་
གནས་ཚུལ་བྱུང་ལུགས་རྣམས་25 ངས་མཐོང་སར་སླར་ཡང་ཐེངས་གཅིག་གྱིས་དང་26 ངས་གནས་ཚུལ་རྣམས་དངོས་སུ་མཐོང་
རྗེས་གཞི་ནས་27 སུ་བདེན་ཤན་འབྱེད་བྱེད་ཐུབ་ཅེས་བཤད་པ་རེད། སྤྱང་ཀིས་སྔར་གྱི་དོང་རྙིའི་ནང་མཆོངས་རྗེས་རང་ཉིད་དོང་
གི་ཕྱི་ལ་ཐོན་ཐབས་མེད་པ་ཤེས་28 ཏེ་སླར་ཡང་ར་འབོད་29 ནས་ང་སྐྱོབ་རོགས་30 ཞེས་ཞུ་བ་ཡང་ཡང་འཐེན་པ་རེད། སྐབས་
དེར་རི་བོང་གིས་དོང་རྙིའི་ཁ་ནས་མར་བལྟས་ཏེ་དྲིན་ལན་ལོག་འཇལ་བྱེད་མཁན་31 ཁྱོད་རྔོན་པས་སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་བར་བསྒུགས་32
ནས་སྡོད་ཅིག་33 ཅེས་སྨྲས། དེ་ནས་རི་བོང་དང་ར་གཉིས་དགའ་སྤྲོའི་ངང་མཉམ་དུ་ནགས་ཚལ་གྱི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་བསྐྱོད་དོ34 །།།

9.17.l.2 Translation
The Wolf and the Hunter
According to sayings (passed down) from previous generations, in ancient times
there was a wolf who searched for food in a forest. Incredibly, that wolf suddenly fell
into a pit-trap set by a hunter while on the road in search of food. The wolf shouted
loudly in anguish, "Obtain merit. Please save me." At that time a goat heard (the shouts)
and looked into the pit. When he did this, he saw a wolf crying. (The wolf said,) "(My)
children are left at home alone and there is no one to look after them, so now they will all
starve to death." That goat was very suspicious and said to the wolf, "If I help you now,
you will eat me. You are not fit for saving." The wolf clasped his two hands together (in
prayer-like fashion) and pleaded, "Because your kindness is as deep as the ocean, if you
save me, I swear to konchosum that I will never harm you at all."
Because the wolf pleaded over and over again, the goat could not tolerate it and
finally searched for a leather rope and threw it into the pit. The wolf grabbed the rope and
(the goat) lifted him to the outside of the the pit. As soon as the wolf escaped from the
pit, feeling uneasy about immediately eating the goat, he smoothly and cleverly said,
"The gratitude (I have) for saving my life is impossible to forget. Nevertheless, because I

am about to starve to death, now once again please take action to save me." That peaceful
and kind goat said, "Didn't you, wolf, swear an oath that you would never harm me?" The
wolf said, "Because Iam a carnivore, how is it okay to let you go?" That goat thought, "I
have noway to escape from the mouth of that wolf, " and felt very regretful. While he was
sitting there (like that), suddenly a rabbit, ruunning and jumping, arrived before him. The
goat at once pleaded to the rabbit (saying), "You now please act as a judge to say who is
right regarding the events that have occurred here." The rabbit got up on top of a boulder
(and with) his ears standing erect listened to the stories told by the goat and the wolf.
After that he said, "Because both of you have reasons, I do not know which of your
comments to believe. You two reenact how things first came to be, so that I can see it
myself. Then and only then will I be able to say whois correct." The wolf then jumped
into the former pit and after that knew that he couldn't get out (without help) and once
again called, "Goat" and pleaded over and over, "Please save me." After that, the rabbit
went to the edge of the pit and looked in. He said, "You, who are one who does not repay
kindness, can wait until the hunter comes to save you!" Then the goat and rabbit happily
went together in the direction of the forest. Gammatical notes
1. ཤོད་སྲོལ་ལ་ is a common phrase (pattern = vb. non-past. + སྲོལ་ ("custom") + dat.-loc.)
conveying "as is commonly said" or "according to what people traditionally say." Here it
is modified by རྒན་རབས་ཚོའི་ to convey "as was traditionally said in past generations."
སྲོལ་ can also be used with non-past stems of verbs in the pattern vb. + སྲོལ་ +
existential verb. Used this way it convays the meaning "there is" or "there is not" a
custom of... For example, འབྲོག་པས་ཉ་ཤ་ཟ་སྲོལ་མི་འདུག་། means "There is no custom of
nomads eating fish." And རྒྱ་མིས་ཉ་ཤ་ཟ་སྲོལ་འདུག། means "There is a custom of Chinese
eating fish."
2 In more sophisticated writings this would have been expressed as འཚོལ་བཞིན་པར་
3. This is a common phrase used to mean "something that passes beyond the mind, "i.e.,
that is unimaginable.
4. བར་ or བར་དུ་ means "in between" and is commonly used to mean "between" beginning
and finishing the jouurney. In this sense it conveys the meaning "while on the road." A
similar example is: གནམ་གྲུ་གནམ་བར་དུ་སྐྱོན་ཤོར་སོང་ — "The plane got damaged on the way" (lit.,
in the sky between starting and finishing). བར་དུ་, however, also can mean "up to." For
example, བོད་བར་དུ་མོ་མཉམ་དུ་འིགྲོ་གི་ཡིན་ — (I) will go together with her up toTibet."

5. This construction disaggregates into two sentences "Obtain merit" (དགེ་བ་ཡོང་) and
"Please save me" (སྲོག་སྐྱོབ་རོགས་གནང་) . For examples of རོགས་གནང་ constructions see 7.13.
6. The verb "left behind" (ལུས་) is modifiedby the adverb "alone" (གཅིག་པུར་), conveying
that her children were left behind alone.
Following this there is a construction consisting of the active verb phrase "to look
after" (ལྟ་སྐྱང་བྱེད་),which has been tansformed by the agentive particle (མཁན་) to convey
"the one or person who looks after."་ Now functioning as a noun, this existential sentence
means, "because there was no..."
7. This is a long nominalized construction starting with "by a goat" (ར་ཞིག་གིས་) . Thus a
goat saw the wolf crying (while) saying..."
8. The adverbializing particle ངང་ here converts the noun + adjective compound "great
doubt" into an adverbial unit meaning "in the manner of having great doubt." It then
modifies "say" (བཤད་) so that it explains how or in what manner he said it.
9. Recall that གལ་ཏེ་ ... ན་ is one of the "if " clause connectives.
10. མཚོ་ལས་ཟབ་ is a common phrase meaning "deeper than the ocean, "with ཟབ་ coming
from the adjective ཟབ་པོ་ ("deep," "profound") . The addition of the instrumental particle
(མཚོ་ལས་ཟབ་པས་) adjusts the phurase so as to say, "because your kindness is deeper than the
11. མནའ་སྐྱེལ་དམ་མཅའ་བཞག་ is an example of a redundaunt construction in that both མནའ་སྐྱེལ་
and དམ་མཅའ་བཞག་ convey "taking an oath" or "swearing." Redundant constructions such as
these are very common. This oath is taken "on" (ལ་) the དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ ("three precious
things [the Buddha, the clergy and the doctrine]").
12. The "amount" or "quantity" emphatic negative གང་ཡང་ is discussed in 9.9 The
construction means "never" will do it "in any amount."
13. མ་ཐག་ is one of the "as soon as" clause connectives (see 6.2).
14. The phrase སྟབས་བདེ་པོ་ meauns "convenient" or "easy to do" and is often used after
active verb constructions to convey that it is "convenient" to do the verbal action. For
example, དེང་སང་ཁ་པར་གཏོང་སྟབས་བདེ་པོ་བདུག་ means: "Nowadays it is convenient to
This construction is also often used as སྟབས་བདེ་བས་, where it means "because it is
convenient." In this example this phrase is negativized to convey "inconvenient" or ''hard
to do" in the mental rather than physical sense. In other words, here it means
"uncomfortable"་ rather than physically difficult—thus, "because it was hard (he was
uncomfortable) to eat the goat at once."

15.  ངག་འཇམ་ཚིག་མཁས་ consists of two noun + adjective constructionsin which only the
adjective stems (འཇམ་) and (མཁས་) are used. The conjunction "and" has been omitted. This
type of construction is very common.
16. Here we see both an emphatic negative (ནམ་ཡང་) and the "possible" auxiliary verb
(སྲིད་), together emphatically conveying the idea, "it is not possible ever that I will forget."
17.  གྲབས་ is explained in 7.11.
18. ཐབས་ཤིག་ is explained in 9.1.
19. གནང་དང་ is explained in 7.12.
20. ཤ་གཟན་སྲོག་ཆགས་ is a compound consisting of two nouns: "carnivore" (ཤ་གཟན་) and
"sentient creature" (སྲོག་ཆགས་).
21. ག་ནས་འགྲིགས་ is a phrase asking, "How could that be okay ?" It will be discussed in a
later lesson.
22. དང་བཅས་ཏེ་ here conveys "along with" or "together with" (see 6.4 e.-h.).
23. The construction ང་གཉིས་སུ་བདེན་གྱི་དཔང་པོ་ཞིག་གནང་རོགས་ breaks down into the phrase ང་
གཉིས་སུ་བདེན་ ("(between) we two, who (is) true/correct"), which is linked to དཔང་པོ་ཞིག་ ("a
judge") by the genitive. The resultant phrase means "a judge who (will decide) which of
us (we two) is correct."
གནང་རོགས་ is a polite imperative meaning "please do/act (as a judge) ."Its use is
explained in 7.12.
Semantic context indicates that སུ་ here is not the dat-loc. particle but the
interrogative "who." In other sentences it can convey the dat-loc., e.g., ང་གཉིས་སུ་ཁོས་དངུལ་
སྤྲད་བྱུང་། ("He gave money to we two").
24. ཡིན་མིན་ ("is is-not") conveys whether something "is" or "is not." For example, in the
sentence འདི་ཆེན་པོ་ཡིན་མིན་ལྟ་, ཡིན་མིན་ is followed by the verb ལྟ་ ("to look") and means "look
whether (this) is or is not (big) " (see 8.6).
In this story it is used with བདེན་པ་, meaning "is or is not true." The entire segment
means "I do not know (མ་ཤེས་པ) (regarding) you two (ཁྱོད་གཉིས་) whose talk (སུའི་སྐད་ཆ་) is
true (or not true) (བདེན་པ་ཡིན་མིན་) ."
25.  This construction uses ལུགས་ to transform the verbal phrase ཐོག་མའི་གནས་ཚུལ་བྱུང་ ("the
first events came about") into "the manner in which the first events came about." The
plural particle emphasizes that there are multiple events or actions.
26. This is a difficult clause. The main verb is གྱིས་, the imperative stem of the verb "do":
བགྱིད་ Note that this is not the instrumental particle. This verb is followed by the polite
imperative particle དང་ so that the two mean "please do!"

སླར་ཡང་ཐེང་ས་གཅིག་ functions adverbially, conveying that the verbal action was done
"once again," or "one more time." མཐོང་སར་ means "to the place where something is
seen," or "in my field of vision." The pattern where by ས་ is used with verbs to convey
"the place where the verbal action occurred" is discussed in 10.13.
27.  གཞི་ནས་ is one of the connective particles that occurat the start of the second of two
clauses. It conveys "then and only then." For example, དེབ་ཀློག་ནས་གཞི་ནས་ཤེས་པ་རེད། —
"Having read the book, then and only then did I know."
28. This use of the verb མེད་ plus the nominalizer པ་ plus ཤེས་ is common. It means "knew
that there was no way" (see 6.6.2).
29. The verb འབོད་ means "to call" or "to cry out." Thus, what he called out was the word
"goat." This would have been clearer if the direct quote particle had been used, for
example, ར་ཅེས་འབོད་
30. རོགས་ following a verb functions identically with གནང་རོགས་ (see note 23) meaning
"please do the verbal action."
31. དྲིན་ལན་ལོག་འཇལ་བྱེད་མཁན་ is a construction that consists of the verb phrase དྲིན་ལན་འཇལ་
("to show gatitude, to repay someone's kindness") plus ལོག་ ("opposite" or "backwards'")
which transfornns it to དྲིན་ལན་ལོག་འཇལ་། ("not showing one's gratitude").
The addition of the verb བྱེད་ plus the agentive particle མཁན་ makes the whole thing
a noun phrase modifying "you" (ཁྱོད་) and meaning, "You who are a person who does not
repay kindness."
32. སྐྱོབ་པར་ཡོང་བར་བསྒུགས་ is a verbal phrase consisting of two infinitives "wait for (a hunter)
to come to save (you)."
33. བསྒུགས་ནས་སྡོད་ཅིག་ consists of two verbs linked by the simultauneous gerundive ནས་ to
mean "staying in the manner of waiting" (see 5.11.2) . ཅིག་ is a particle used with verbs to
convey the imperative. Here it means "stay!"
34. དོ་ is a sentence-ending construction made by adding an "'o" vowel to the final letter of
the sentence.
9.17.2 Reading number two: "The Brief History of Ramoche (Temple)'s Jo (Statue)"
9.17.21 Tibetan text
ར་མོ་ཆེ་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ནི། གྲོང་ཁྱེར་ལྷ་སའི་བྱང་ཕྱོགས་སུ་གནས་ཡོད། རྒྱ་བཟའ་ཀོང་ཇོ་བོད་ལ་མནའ་མར་ཡོང་དུས་རྟེན་

སྐལ་དུ་ཇོ་བོ་ཤཀྱ་མུ་ནེ་དགུང་ལོ་བཅུ་གཉིས་གྱི་ཚད་གཞི་ལྟར་བྱས་པ་l དེ་རྒྱ་ནག་ནས་བོད་ཀྱི་ལྷ་སར་གདན་དྲངས་པ་ཞིག་རེད།
སྟབས་ས་ཆ་དེར་རྒྱ་བཟས་རྩིག་རྨང་གཏིང་ནས་ཨར་པོ་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་ད་ལྟའི་ར་ཆེ་3 གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ཆགས། ཤོད་སྲོལ་ལ་དེའི་འོག་
ལ་ཀླུའི་ཕོ་བྲང་ཡོད་ཟེར་4། བོད་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ལ་བཙུན་མོ་ལྔ་ཡོད་པ་དང་། བཙུན་མོ་རེ་རེར་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་རེ་
5 ཡོད་6 རྒྱ་བཟའི་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ནི་ར་ཆེ་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ཡིན7། དེའི་ཁ་རྒྱ་ནག་ཏུ་ཤར་ལ་གཏད་ཡོད། སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་
ནས། བལ་བཟའི་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ར་ས་འཕྲུལ་སྣང་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་8 དུ་གདན་དྲངས་ནས་སྦས་པ་མ་ཟད། ད་དུང་སྒོ་ལ་ཞལ་
བ་བྱས་ཏེ་དེའི་ཐོག་9 འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས་ཀྱི་སྐུ་ཞིག་བྲིས་པ་རེད། རྒྱ་དམ་ག་གིས་ཇོ་བོ་ནོར་དེ་འཕྲུལ་སྣང་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་
ནས་ཇོ་བོ་མི་བསྐྱོད་རྡོ་རྗེ་དེ་ལྷ་སའི་ཤར་ཕྱོགས་འོ་རྒྱལ་ཐང་བར་གདན་དྲང་ས་པའི་རྗེས་ཟུ། ས་ཆ་དེར་ཇོ་བོ་ཤཀྱ་མུ་ནེ་མིན་པ་
ཤེས་ཏེ་བོར་བ་དང་། རྗེས་སུ་ཇོ་བོ་དེ་ར་མོ་ཆེར་གདན་དྲངས་ནས་བཞག་པ་རེད། སྦས་པའི་ཇོ་བོ་ཤཀྱ་མུ་ནེ་དེ་ར་ས་འཕྲུལ་སྣང་
གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་དུ་བཞག་སྟབ་། ལྷ་ཁང་གཉིས་ཀར་ཇོ་བོ་གཉིས་བརྗེ་འཕྲུལ་ཤོར་10 ཡོད།།། Translation
The Brief History of Ramoche (Temple)'s Jo (Statue)
Ramoche temple is locatedin the north of Lhasa. When Kongjo, the Chinese bride (of
King Songtsen Gambo), came as a bride to Tibet, she brought with her toLhasa as part of
her dowry a statue of the Shakyamuni Buddha at the age of 12. In the past, when they
were transporting it, the horse cart (that was carrying it) got stuck in the sand at the place
where the present day Ramoche is. Even though many people pulled (to free it), (they)
were unable to free it, so at that place the Chinese bride laid the foundation stone and
constructed what became the temple of Ramoche. According to oral legends, it is said
that there was a nāga's palace beneath that spot. Tibet's king Songtsen Gambo had five
queens. Each of the five queens had a temple. As for the Chinese bride's temple, it was
Ramoche temple. Its door faced east to China. After Songtsen Gambo died, at the time
Mangsong Maungtsen ruled, (he) heard news of war coming from China and moved the
statue of Jo Shakyamuni from Ramoche to the Nepalese bride's temple, the Tsuglakang
[i.e., today's Jokhang], and buried it. Not only that, but (he) also plastered over the door
and on top of that drew (an image) of Manjusri. The Chinese soldiers, mistaking the
statue of Jo Akshobhya for the Jo (Shakyamuni) statue, took it from the Tsuglakaung and

carried it to the he Ogyɛtaŋ plain in the east of Lhasa. At that place they realized that it
was not the Shakyamuni statue and threw it away. Later, that Jo (Akshobhya) statue was
taken to Ramoche and left there. The buried Jo Shakyamuni statue was left in the
Tsuglakang temple. Consequently, the two Jo statues in the two temples came to be
mistakenly exchanged. Grammatical notes
l. ལྟར་བྱས་པ་ or ལྟར་བྱས་ནས་ has two basic functions. On the one hand it conveys the
meaning intended here, namely, "just like." Thus ལྟར་བྱས་པ་ conveys that the statue was
"just like" Shakyamuni when he was at the physical size (ཚད་གཞི་) of 12 years old. Another
example of this usage is མོས་རི་མོ་དེ་ལྟར་བྱས་ནས་བྲིས་པ་རེད། ("She drew it just like that picture").
In other contexts it also can mean "acting just like," conveying the idea that the
subject is different from that which he or she is compared with. The "acting like"
function of ལྟར་བྱས་ is seen in the following examples.
a. ཁོས་ར་ལྟར་བྱས་ནས་བྲག་ལ་འཛེགས།
He climbed the rock just like a goat. (indicates he is not a goat)
b. ཏང་མི་ལྟར་བྱས་ནས་མོས་མའོ་ལ་སྟོད་ར་བཤད།
She praised Mao just like a party member. (indicates she is not a
party member)
2. The pattern དྲུད་ཀྱང་དྲུད་མ་ཐབ་ conveys the idea that "even though they tried to do X, they
were unable to do X." In this case, even though they tried to pull it out, they were unable
to pull it out (free it). The first verb in such constructions is in the non-past stem (if it has
one), and the second in the past tense stem. For example:
a. ཆུ་འདྲེན་ཀྱང་དྲང་མ་ཐུབ་
Even though (they, he, etc.) tried to irrigate, (they, he, etc.) were
unable to irrigate (get the water to flow).
3. ར་ཆེ་ is an abbreviation for ར་མོ་ཆེ་, one of Lhasa's two most famous temples.
4. ཟེར་ here acts as a verb conveying "it is said."
5.  Tibetan uses རེ་རེ་ ("each each") to convey that each X had a Y. The normal pattern is:
X+ རེ་རེར་ ("to each X") + Y + རེ་ ("each Y") . Thus, here, "to each queen, there existed a
temple each."
6. The absence of any clause connective or even space after ཡོད་ is common.
7.  རེད་ could be used here as well.
8. ར་ས་འཕྲུལ་སྣང་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ is the full name of Lhasa's famous Cathedral or Tsuglakang.

9. ཐོག་ has many functions, one of which conveys "on top of." It is discussedin detail in
Lesson l2.
10. The involuntary verb ཤོར་ means "to lose" something (either physical or a contest) .
However, it is also used with other verbs to convey the involuntary happening of
something negative. In this case, the phrase བརྗེ་འཕྲུལ་ཤོར་ consists of "exchaunge'" +
"mistake" and ཤོར་ Together they mean "(involuntarily and) mistakenly came to be
9.18 Vrocabulary
ཀུང་ཧྲི་ ch. commune
གང་ཡང་ emphatic negative
ཀོ་ཐག་ leather rope
གུང་བྲན་རིང་ ལུགས་ communism
ཀྲུའུ་ཞི་ ch.chairnlaun
ཀྲོང་ཀྲོང་ standing erect
གོ་ vi. to hear
ཀླུའི་ཕོ་བྲང་ nāga's palace
གོང་ཚད་ rate/level of price
དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ་ the three precious things (the buddha, the clergy, and the dharma)
གོན་ va. to wear
གྱིས་ va.imp. of བགྱིད་ did
གྲུབ་ . "completed/finished" auxiliaury verb, ་ . vi. obtain, achieve
བཀའ་དྲིན་ kindness
བཀྲིས་ abbr. of བཀྲ་ཤིས་
སྐད་ངན་ anguished cry; va.—རྒྱག་
གྲོང་གསེབ་པ་ villager
སྐད་བཏང་ va. p. of སྐད་གཏོང་ called
དགུང་ལོ་ age (h.)
སྐུ་ statue. body (h.)
དགེ་བ་ཡོང་ vi. to get merit
སྐྱག་རྫུན་ a lie. va. — བཤད་
འགོྱད་པ་ regret, ་ vi.—སྐྱེད་
སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བ་ refugee
རྒན་རབས་ elder or previous generation
སྐྱེད་ vi. to grow, increase, widen; see འགྱོད་པ་
སྒང་ on, on top
རྒྱ་བཟའ་ཀོང་ཇོ་ p.n. (the Chinese wife named Kongjo)
བརྐོས་ va. p. of རྐོ་ dug
བསྐྱབས་ va. p. of སྐྱབ་ saved
རྒྱབ་སྐྱོར་ support; va.—བྱེད་
ཁ་ 1. mouth; 2. edge; 3. direction
རྒྱུན་ནས་ emphatic negative
ཁོ་པ་ཚོ་ they
ངག་འཇམ་ཚིག་ མཁས་ id. speaking gentlyl and cleverly, smoothly
ཁྱབབསྒྲགས་ announcement
ཁྱོན་ནས་ emphatic negative
ཁོྲད་ among
ངུ་ va. to cry
ག་ནས་འགྲིག་ how could that be okay?
ངོ་ཤེས་པ་ an acquaintance

དངོས་སུ་ really, truly, actually
directtowards, 2. hand over, give
གཅིག་པུར་ alone
ཆང་ beer
བཏེགས་ va. p. of འདེག་ lifted
ཆང་ས་ marriage; va. —རྒྱག་
རྟེན་སྐལ་ dowry
མཆོངས་རྒྱུག་ jumping and running
ལྟ་སྐྱོང་ looking after, caring for; va. —བྱེད་
ཇོ་བོ་ Jo (name of the Buddha) (also used torefer to the famous statue in the Lhasa Cathedral)
ལྟ་ཙི་ "let alone/far from"་ clause connective
ལྟ་བཞག་ "let alone/far from" clause connective
ཇ་བོ་མི་བསྐྱོད་རྡོ་རྗེ་ the Buddha (Jo) Akshobhya
ཇོ་བོ་ཤཀྱ་མུ་ནེ་ the Buddha (Jo) Shakyamuni (also used torefer to the famous statue in the Lhasa
ལྟར་བྱས་ just like, as, like
ལྟོགས་ཤི་ starving to death vi. — ཐེབས་
སྟང་ས་ "manner" particle
སྟབས་མི་བདེ་བ་ inconvenient; unfortunate
བལྟས་ va. p. of ལྟ་ looked
འཇམ་དཔལ་  དབྱངས་ Manjusri
བསྟོད་ར་ praise, va —གཏོང་
རྗེས་ after
ཐག་པ་ rope
བརྗེ་འཕྲུལ་ mistakenly exchanged; vi.—
ཐབས་ way, means, methods
ཐབས་བྱེད་ (vb. + —) to try to do the verbal action
བརྗེད་ vi to forget
ཉ་ཤ་་ fish meat
ཐབས་བྲལ་ (vb. + —) no way/means to do verbal action
ཉན་ l."fit/worthy" particle; to listen
ཐལ་མོ་སྦྱར་ va. to clasp one's hands together (as in show of devotion or respect)
ཉེན་ "danger of" clause connective
ཉེན་ཁ་ danger
རྙོག་ཁྲ་ trouble, difficulty; va. —བཤད་ to cause trouble
ཐུང་ཐུང་ short
ཐོག་མ་ beginning, first, start
སྙམ་ think (h)
ཐོབ་ vi. to win, to get, obtain
སྙི་གུ་ pen
མཐར་ finally, at last, in the end
བརྙན་འཕྲིན television
མཐོངས་ the place where some thing is
ཏང་མི་ party member seen, the field of vision
གཏད་ va.p. of གཏོད་: faced
འཐུང་ va. to drink
གཏན་ནས་ emphatic negative
ད་རང་ this morning
གཏམ་ news; conversation, talk; proverb
དེའི་ of that
དེར་ there
གཏོད་ 1. va. to aim at, face towards,
དོ་ sentence-ending particle

དོང་ pit
དཔང་པོ་ witness; judge
དོང་རྙི་ pit trap
ཕར་བཞག་ "let alone/far from" clause connective
དྲངས་ va. p. of འདྲེན་
དྲི་བ་ a question; va. —འདྲི་: to ask
ཕུད་ 1. "excluding" clause connective 2. va. to take off (clothes); 3. va. to expel; 4. va. p. of འབུད་
དྲིན་ལན་   ལོག་འཇལ་ va. to act ungrateful, to not repay kindness
དྲིས་ va. p. of འདྲི་
དྲུག་ six
ཕོད་ va. "to dare to" auxiliaury
དྲུད་ va. p. of འདྲུད་ pulled, dragged
ཕྱི་ outside
གདན་དྲངས་ va. p. of གདན་འདྲེན་:transported, carried
ཕྱོགས་ direction
བདེན་ true, right
འཕྲུལ་སྣང་གཙུག་   ལག་ཁང་ p.n. of Lhasa Cathedral (sometimes called the Jokang in Western literature)
མདོར་བསྡུས་ brief, abreviated
འདས་ vi. p. of འདའ་: died
བར་ in between; up to
འདུན་ "hope" particle
བར་དུ་ see བར་
འདོད་ "want" particle
བལ་ཡུལ་ Nepal
བལ་བཟའ་ name of the Nepalese bride of King Songtsen Gambo
འདྲེན་ l. va. to lead, pull, draw, bring, transport, convey; 2. to invite; 3. to quote
བོད་སྐད་ Tibetan language
ལྡོག་ opposite
བོད་ཇ་ Tibetan tea
ནང་མི་ family (householdl) member
བོད་ཡིག་ written Tibetan, Tibetan writing
ནམ་ཡང་ emphatic negative
ནུས་ va to dare to
བོར་ va. p. of འབོར་ threw, flung
གནང་ va. to do (h.)
གནའ་སྔ་མོ་ ancient time, in the past
བྱང་ north
གནོད་འཚེ་ harm, damage
བྱེ་ཐང་ desert
མནའ་སྐྱེལ་དམ་ བཅའ་ swearing an oath; va. — འཇག་ (p. བཞག)
བྲག་ rock, boulder
བྲག་རྡོ་ boulder
བྲལ་ separate; for its use with ཐབས་ see 9.l
རྣ་ཅོག་ ear
པ་མི་འདུག་་ "does not seem" pattern
བྲིས་ va. p. of འབྲི་: drew; wrote

བྲོས་ va. p. of འབྲོས་: fled
འཛིན་བཟུང་ arresting; va. —བྱེད་
བློ་ mind, ་ "want" particle
འཛེགས་ va. to climb
སྦས་ va. p. of སྦ་: buried
ཞལ་བ་ plastered wall
མ་རྩའི་རིང་ལུགས་ capitalism
ཞི་དུལ་ སེམས་བཟང་ peace ful and kind
མང་སྲོང་མང་བཙན་ p.n. of a Tibetan king
མོ་ she
ཞུ་བ་འཐེན་ va. to make a request, beseech
མོའི་ her
མའོ་ p.n. Mao (Zedung)
གཞན་དག་ others, another
མོས་ l. to like, agree; her (she + instrumental); 3. "want" particle
ཟ་ va. to eat
ཟས་ 1. food; 2. va. p. of ཟ་
ཟིན་ the "completed/finished auxiliaury verb
མྱོང་ auxiliary verb "to experience"
གཟའ་ཉི་མ་ Sunday
སྨྲས་ va p. of སྨྲ་: said
བཟོ་ 1. "seem" construction particle; to make
གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་ temple also used as abbr. for འཕྲུལ་སྣང་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་
བཟོད་པ་ tolerating, va.——སྒོམ་
བཙལ་ va. p. of འིཚོལ་ searched
འོ་རྒྱལ་ཐང་ p.n. of a plain near Lhasa
བཙུན་མོ་ queen
འོག་ beneath, under
རྩ་བ་ནས་ emphatic negative
ཡུན་རིང་ long time
རྩབ་ཧྲལ་ torn, tattered
ཡུལ་སྐོར་སྤྲོ་   འཆམ་པ་ tourist
རྩིག་རྨང་ foundation of a building;va. — འདིང་ས་ (p. བཏིང་): to lay a foundation
ཡོང་ va. to come
གཡོག་པོ་ servant (male)
ཚད་ a level, limit
ར་མོ་ཆེ་ Ramoche (name of a temple in Lhasa)
ཚད་གཞི་ size, standard, criteria, rate
ཚར་ the "finished/completed" auxiliary verb
ར་ས་འཕྲུལ་སྣང་ p.n. for Lhasa Cathedal
རུང་ l. "be fit/worthy" particle 2. even though
ཚུར་ hither, toward this side
ཚུལ་ "manner" particle
རེ་ "hope" paticle
ཚྭ་ salt
ལ་ཡང་ even to
མཚོལས་ཟབ་པ་ deeper than the ocean
ལམ་བར་ on the road
འཚོགས་ va. to assemble, convene, hold a meeting
ལན་སློག་ va. to reply, answer in kind, act in response to, counter
འཚོལ་ va. to search, look for
འཇིན་གྲྭ་ a class (in school)
ལུགས་ "manner" particle

ལུང་པ་ place; country
ལུས་ to be left behind, forgotten, left over; 2. vi. to get stuck, bogged down
ལོ་ "be fit/worthy" particle
ལོ་རྒྱུས་ history
ཤ་གཟན་ a meat eater, carnivore
ཤག་ third person perfect tense particle
ཤན་འབྱེད་ va. to separate, differentiate, distinguish between
ཤར་ 1. vi. to arise, rise; 2.east
ཤིང་ཏོག་ fruit
ཤིང་རྟ་འཁོར་ལོ་ horse cart
ཤེས་ va. to know
ཤོད་སྲོལ་ as is commonly said, according to a saying; according toan oral legend
ས་དོང་ pit, tunnel
སུས་ by whom
སི་སྤན་ hot chili, cayenne pepper
སེམས་ 1. mind; 2."want" construction particle
སོ་ནམ་པ་ farmer
སྲིད་ vi. "possible" auxiliary verb
སྲོག་ཆགས་ living, animate, sentient creature/being
སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ p.n. Songtsen Gambo (Tibetan king)
སྲོལ་ "way/custorn of doing" particle
སློབ་སོྟན་ advice, teachings
བསམ་ཡུལ་ལས་  འདས་པ་ incredibly, beyond one's imagination
ཨ་མ་ mother
ཨ་ཞང་ uncle (maternal)
ཨར་པོ་ construction; va —རྒྱག་

Lesson Ten
10.1 The "while" clause connective ཤུལ་
ཤུལ་ is placed after non-past verb stems to signify "while" the verbal act was going on.
a. ང་ཚོ་ཁྲོམ་ལ་འགྲོ་ཤུལ་མོས་ཁ་ལག་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
While we were going to the market, she made the food.
b. ངས་ལྟད་མོ་ལྟ་ཤུལ་ཁོ་ནང་ལ་ལོག་པ་རེད།
While I was watching the show, he returned home.
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་ཤུལ་ངས་ཚགས་པར་བ་ཀླགས་པ་ཡིན།
While they were eating food, I read the newspaper.
ཤུལ་ is also used with demonstratives
d. ཁོ་ཚོས་ངོ་ལོག་བརྒྱབ་པ་རེད། དེའི་ཤུལ་དུ་ ...
They rebelled. While that was going on. . . .

10.2 Past-present constructions
To express an action that was done (in the past) and is still being done (at
present), the following pattern is employed: past stem of a verb + དང་ + the present (non-
past) stem of the verb + བཞིན་ or མུས་ + a final complement or clause connective. For
a. དམག་མི་ཚོས་དམག་བརྒྱབ་དང་རྒྱག་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
The soldiers were and are fighting
b. དམག་མི་ཚོས་དམག་བརྒྱབ་དང་རྒྱག་མུས་རེད།
The soldiers were and are fighting.
c. གྲྭ་པ་དེ་ཚོས་དཔེ་ཆ་བཀླགས་དང་ཀློག་བཞིན་པ་རེད།
Those monks were and are reading books.
d. གཞུང་གིས་ཁྲལ་བསྡུས་དང་སྡུ་མུས་རེད།
The government was and is collecting taxes.
e. གྲོང་འཁྱེར་དེར་ཡར་རྒྱས་བཏང་དང་གཏོང་བཞིན་པ་ཡིན་ཙང་། ངས་ལྟ་པར་ཕྱིན་པ་ཡིན།
Because that city was and is improving, I went to see it.

10.3 Adjectives and adjectival constructions
10.3.1 Basic adjective form
Almost all true adjectives (i.e. non-derived ones) have a basic, a comparative, and

a superlative stem. The basic stem is the one we have frequently encountered, for
example, ཆེན་པོ་ ("big") and མང་པོ་ ("many"). The basic form, therefore, is normally
disyllabic with the second syllable being པོ་. However, you will recall that we have
encountered "irregular" adjectives that do not take པོ་, for example, གསར་པ་ ("new") and
ཆུང་ཆུང་ ("small").
As indicated earlier, adjectives follow the noun they modify so that "red book"
becomes "book red" in Tibetan (དེབ་དམར་པོ་) . We have also seen that adjectives are used
with existential and linking verbs, for example: དེབ་དེ་ཆེན་པོ་འདུག། ("That book is big") but
དེབ་དེ་དམར་མོ་རེད། ("That book is red") . There is no simple rule regarding this but, with the
exception of colors, adjectives normally take existential verbs.
When the adjective modifiesa nominal, case endings normally are attached to it.
For example, སློབ་ཕྲུག་གིས་བཟོས་ས་སོང་། becomes སློབ་ཕྲུག་མང་པོས་བཟོས་སོང་།་
a. སློབ་ཕྲུག་མང་པོའི་ནང་ནས་ཁོ་ལ་བྱ་དགའ་ཐོབ་པ་རེད།
From among many students, he won a prize.
b. མི་མང་པོར་རྟ་འདུག།
Many people have horses. (To many people, there exist horses.)

10.3.2 The comparative form of adjectives
The compative stem (adj. comp.) of most adjectives is the first syllable of the
basic adjective form. For example, ཡག་ is the comparative stem of ཡག་པོ་ and མང་ of
མང་པོ་ Some adjectives, however, have slightly different compartive stems, for example,
ཆེ་ is the compative stem of ཆེན་པོ་
Comparative adjectival constructions of the type "X is bigger, whiter, etc. than Y"
have the following pattern: X+ ལས་ ("than") + adj. comp. plus an optional གི་རེད་.
a. ཕྲུ་གུ་འདི་ལས་དེ་ཡག་གི་རེད།
That childis better than this one. (Than this child, that one is better.)
b. ལུག་ལས་གཡག་ཆེ།
Yak are bigger than sheep.
The comparative idea can also be expressed by placing the པ་/བ་ nominalizing
particles after the comparative stem, for example, ཆེ་བ་ ("the bigger one").
c. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆེ་བ་དེ་སློབ་ཕྲུག་རེད།
The bigger (older) child is a student.
d. མོས་ཞྭ་མོ་ཡག་པ་དེ་ཉོས་སོང་།

She bought the better hat.
e. ང་ཚོའི་དགེ་རྒན་གྱིས་དགེ་རྒན་གཞན་དག་ལས་སྒྲུང་རིང་བ་ཞིག་འབྲི་གི་རེད།
Our teacher will write a longer story than the other teacher.
f. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆེ་བ་དེ་ཚོས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་མྱོང་བ་རེད།
The older children have done (experienced) agricultural work.
g. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆེ་བ་དེའི་ཨ་མ་ཤི་བ་རེད།
The mother of the older children died.
Nominalized comparative adjectives also express the comparative degree when
used with existential verbs.
h. ལྷ་ཁང་དེ་ལས་འདི་ཆུང་བ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
This temple is smaller than that one.
Often ཀྱང་ ("also, even") is used after ལས་ for emphasis.
i. ལྷ་ཁང་དེ་ལས་ཀྱང་འདི་ཆུང་བ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
This temple is even smaller than that one.
Nominalized compaative adjectives, however, do not always convey the
comparative meaning. When they are part of relative clauses modifying a noun or
nominal, they sometimes convey the adjectival meaning. Only context will differentiate
these two meanings.
j. ངས་གནམ་གཤིས་གྲང་བའི་ལུང་པར་ཕྱིན་པ་ཡིན།
I went to a place which has a cold climate. [What kind of a place?— one which has a
cold climate.]
k. རྒྱ་ནག་ནང་གི་མགྲོན་ཁང་ཆེ་བའི་འགོ་ཁྲིད་རྣམས་རི་བིན་ལ་ལྟ་སྐོར་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
The heads (leaders) of the bigger hotels in China went on a (sightseeing) tour to
When the instrumental particle is used with nominalized adjectival stems, the
meaning of "because..." is conveyed.
l. ཁོ་འཚོ་བ་སྐྱོ་བས་བརྙན་འཕྲིན་གསར་པ་ཞིག་ཉོ་མི་ཐུབ།
Because his livelihood is poor, (he) is unable to buy a new television set.
m. ཁོར་དངུ་ལ་མང་བས་བརྙན་འཕྲིན་ཡག་པོ་ཞིག་ཉོ་ཐུབ་སོང་།
Because he has much money, (he) was able to buy a good television.
Dative-locative particles and verbs such as གཏོང་ ("to send"), བྱེད་ ("to do"), or འགྲོ་
("to go") are often used together with comparative adjective stems (comp. adj. stem +
dat.- loc. + vb.) . These constructions convey the comparative meaning.

n. རྒྱ་ནག་གི་མི་འབོར་ཆེ་རུ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The population of China is increasing. (... is going bigger)
o. ང་ཚོས་བོད་རིག་པའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་མང་དུ་གཏོང་དགོས་
We have (need) to do more Tibetological research.
However, when nominalized adjectival stem sare used with the dative-locative instead of
the simple comparative stem (ཆེ་བར་ versus ཆེ་རུ་), an adverbial meaning is conveyed.
p. ཁོས་གསལ་བར་མཐོང་བ་རེད།
He saw it clearly.
The dative-locative performs the same function with basic adjective sterms:
q. ཁོས་གསལ་བར་མཐོང་བ་རེད།
He saw it clearly.
10.3.3 Augmentation of nominalized adjective stems with the particles ཆེས་, ཤིན་ཏུ་,
ཞེ་དྲགས་, ཏོག་ཙམ་, ཕྲན་བུ་, ཇེ་, and ཇེ་...ཇེ་
ཆེས་ and ཤིན་ཏུ་ are placed in font of nominalized adjective stems to convey the
meaning of "very" or "extremely" with regard to the adjectival meaning. For example,
ཆེས་ཡག་པ་ means "extremely good."
a. ས་ཆ་ཆེས་མང་བར་བཟོ་གྲྭ་འདུག།
There are factories in very many places.
[In this example the basic noun-adjective unit is ས་ཆ་མང་པོ་ ("many places").]
b. ས་ཆ་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཆེ་བའི་ནང་ལ་བཟོ་གྲྭ་མང་པོ་འདུག།
There are many factories in this very big place.
ཞེ་དྲགས་ ("lots") is also used to modify and augment adjectives, but it conveys
different meanings when joined to basic and comparative adjectival stems. With the basic
adjective it conveys simply the idea of "very" or "extremely."
c. སྒྲུང་འདི་ཞེ་དྲགས་རིང་པོ་འདུག།
This story is very long.
However, when it is used with a nominalized adjective stem it conveys the idea of "very"
but with respect to the comparative degree.
d. སྒྲུང་འདི་ཞེ་དྲགས་རིང་བ་འདུག།
This story is very much longer.
ཆེས་, ཞེ་དྲགས་, and ཤིན་ཏུ་ can be used with the གི་རེད་ comparative pattern to express

"very, very much" or "much—er."
e. འདི་ལས་འདི་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཆེ་གི་རེད།
This is much bigger than this.
f. དེབ་གཞན་དག་དེ་ལས་དེབ་འདི་ཞེ་དྲགས་རིང་གི་རེད།
This book is much longer than that other book.
g. ཉ་ཤ་ལས་ལུག་ཤ་ཆེས་ཞིམ་གི་རེད།
Mutton is much more delicious than fish.
Even greater emphasis can be conveyed when both ཆེས་ and ཤིན་ཏུ་ are used together.
h. འདི་ལས་འདི་ཆེས་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཆེ་གི་རེད།
This is very much bigger than this.
i. གླང་ཤ་ལས་ལུག་ཤ་ཆེས་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཞིམ་གི་རེད།
Mutton is very much more delicious than beef.
Less extreme augmentation is conveyed by the two words ཏོག་ཙམ་ and ཕྲན་བུ་, both
of which mean "a little."
j. ཉ་ཤ་ལས་ལུག་ཤ་ཏོག་ཙམ་ཞིམ་གི་རེད།
Mutton is a little more delicious than fish.
k. འདི་ལས་འདི་ཕྲན་བུ་ཆེ་གི་རེད།
This is a little bigger than this.
Both ཆེས་ and ཇེ་ are used to augment the comparative constructions that consist
of the comparative adjective stem + dat.-loc. + གཏོང་ and འགྲོ་, e.g., ཆེ་རུ་འགྲོ་ ("become
bigger") and ཆེ་རུ་གཏོང་ ("make bigger").
l. རྒྱ་ནག་གི་མི་འབོར་ཇེ་ཆེ་རུ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The population of China is increasing a lot. [... is becoming much bigger]
m. ང་ཚོས་བོད་རིག་པའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཆེས་མང་དུ་གཏོང་དགོས།
We have to do much more Tibetological research.
The idea of more and more (e.g., "greater and greater" or "bigger and bigger")
conveyed by the pattern: ཇེ་ + adjective comparative stem + ཇེ་ + adjective comparative
stem + dative-locative:
n. རྒྱ་ནག་གི་མི་འབོར་ཇེ་ཆེ་ཇེ་ཆེ་རུ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The population of China is increasing more and more. [... is becoming bigger and
o. ང་ཚོས་བོད་རིག་པའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཇེ་མང་ཇེ་མང་དུ་གཏོང་དགོས།
We have to do more and more Tibetological research.

p. གནམ་གྲུ་ཇེ་མཐོ་ཇེ་མཐོར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
The plane went higher and higher.
For stylistic reasons, Tibetans sometimes use two different adjective stems with the
meaning in such constructions. For example, in sentence q. the adjectives ངན་ and སྡུག་
both of which mean "bad," are employed.
q. གནས་ཚུལ་ཇེ་ངན་ཇེ་སྡུག་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
The situation became worse and worse.
The same meaning can be conveyed by two other patterns:
1. comp. adj. stem + ནས་ + comp. adj. stem + dative-locative, or
2. comp. adj. stern + dative-locative + comp. adj. sterm + dative-locative
For example:
r. ང་ཚོས་བོད་རིག་པའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་མང་ནས་མང་དུ་གཏོང་དགོས།
We have to do more and more Tibetological research.
s. གནམ་གྲུ་མཐོ་རུ་མཐོ་རུ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
The plane went higher and higher.
t. གནས་ཚུལ་ངན་དུ་སྡུག་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
The situation became worse and worse.
10.3.4 The superlative degree: ཤོས་
Superlative constructions are formed by adding ཤོས་ to the comparative adjective
stem. For example, ཆེན་པོ་ becomes ཆེ་ཤོས་ ("biggest").
a. གཡག་ཆེ་ཤོས་བོད་ལ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The biggest yaks are in Tibet.
b. མེ་མདའ་འདི་ཆུང་ཤོས་རེད་དམ།
Is this the smallest gun?
10.3.5 Excessive constructions དྲགས་ or སྐྱོན་
Constructions conveying "too much" of an adjectival meaning (e.g., "too big") are
formed by:
1. placing the auxiliary verb དྲགས་ after the comparative stem of adjectives, either
with or without a normal verbal complement
a. རྟ་འདི་ཆུང་དྲགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
This horse is too small.

b. རྟ་འདི་ཆུང་དྲགས།
This horse is too small.
c. རྟ་འདི་ཆུང་དྲགས་པ་རེད།
This horse was too small.
2. placing སྐྱོན་ after the comparatve adjective stem. It is followed by the various
existential verbs or the verb བྱུང་
d. རྟ་འདི་ཆེ་སྐྱོན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
This horse is too big.
e. རྟ་འདི་ཆེ་སྐྱོན་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
This horse was too big.
10.3.6 Derived adjectives
Nouns and nominals are converted into adjectives in a variety of ways. One of the
most common is by adding either ཆེན་པོ་ ("big") or ཚ་པོ་ ("hot") after a noun. For examle
ཡོན་ཏན་ ("knowledge") is adjectivized by adding ཆེན་པོ་ so that ཡོན་ཏན་ཆེན་པོ་ means
a. མི་ཡོན་ཏན་ཆེན་པོ་འདི་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་དེབ་རྙིང་པ་ཞིག་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
The two knowledgeable persons bought an old book.
b. མི་འདི་ཡོན་ཏན་ཆེན་པོ་འདུག།
This person is knowledgeable.
In a similar fashion the noun སྐྱག་རྫུན་ ("lie") becomes adjectivized by adding ཚ་པོ་
so that སྐྱག་རྫུན་ཚ་པོ་ = "mendacious."
c. མི་སྐྱག་རྫུན་ཚ་པོ་འདི་སུའི་གྲོགས་པོ་རེད་དམ།
This mendacious person is whose friend?
Another་way to adjectivize nominals is by placing ལྡན་པ་, དང་ལྡན་པ་, or ཅན་ after a
noun. These constructions convey the meaning of "having" or "possessing" the nominal
quality. For example, ཧུར་བརྩོན་ means "diligence" or "hard work," whereas ཧུར་བརྩོན་ཅན་
means "diligent" (having the quality of diligence).
d. མི་འདི་ཧུར་བརྩོན་ལྡན་པ་ཞིག་རེད།
This person (man) is diligent.
e. མི་ཧུར་བརྩོན་ཅན་འདི་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
The diligent person went abroad.
f. མི་ཧུར་བརྩོན་དང་ལྡན་པ་འདིས་དེབ་གསུམ་ཉོས།

The diligent person bought three books.
g. ཧུར་བརྩོན་ཅན་གྱི་སློབ་གྲྭ་ཚོར་བྱ་དགའ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
(They) gave the diligent students a prize.
Such adjectivized nominals can be modified by other adjectives.
h. ཁོས་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ཡར་རྒྱས་ཅན་མང་པོར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
He went to many developed countries.
The existential verb ཡོད་ can also be used to adjectivie nominals.
i. མི་ཧུར་བརྩོན་ཡོད་པ་འདི་འདིར་འདུག།
The diligent person is here.
There are also derived adjectives that use མེད་པ་ or དང་བྲལ་བ་ to convey the negation
of the basic nominal meaning. For example, ཧུར་བརྩོན་མེད་པ་ and ཧུར་བརྩོན་དང་བྲལ་བ་ mean "not
possessing the quality of diligence" or "lazy."
j. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མེད་པ་དེ་ཤི་བ་རེད།
That lazy student died.
k. ཤིང་ནགས་དང་བྲལ་བའི་རི་བོ་དེ་
That mountain which is without forests (i.e., that unforested mountait)
10.3.7 Conjuunction of adjectives དང་, ཞིང་, ལ་, and ཁར་
Adjectives are joined together in a number of different ways. One way is by
means of the conjunction དང་ ("and") .
a. སྒམ་འདི་དམར་པོ་དང་ཆུང་ཆུང་རེད།
This box is red and small.
Another more common construction places ཞིང་ (or one of its complementary
forms ཅིང་ and ཤིང་) between the adjectives. The adjective occurring before ཞིང་ is usually
the comparative stem, while that following ཞིང་ occurs in both the comparative and basic
b. ལུང་པ་དེ་ཚ་ཞིང་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་འདུག།
That place is (one that is) hot and large.
c. ཁོ་ནི་སེམས་ཤུགས་ཆེ་ཞིང་ཧུར་བརྩོན་ཅན་གྱི་འགོ་ཁྲིད་ཞིག་རེད།
He is a leader who is enthusiastic and diligent.
Another common conjunctive constructive uses ལ་ or ཁར་ in place of ཞིང་ It is
usually translated by "as well as."
d. ཁོ་ནི་སེམས་ཤུགས་ཆེ་ལ་ཧུར་བརྩོན་ཅན་གྱི་འགོ་ཁྲིད་ཞིག་རེད།

He is a leader who is enthusiastic as well as diligent.
e. ལུང་པ་འདི་གནམ་གཤིས་གྲང་ཁར་ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཆུང་བ་ཞིག་རེད།
This place is one that is cold as well as one that has poor production.
When one wants to modify a noun with two adjectives, sometimes the two are
simply listed one after another. For example
f. ཁོ་པས་ཚགས་པར་རྙིང་པ་མང་པོ་ཉོས་སོང་།
He bought many old newspapers.
g. མོས་དེབ་སྙན་རིང་པོ་ཅིག་བཀླགས།
She read a long and interesting book.
10.3.8 Adjectival constructions using ལོས་
When ལོས་ is used with the comparative stem of adjectives it conveys the
interrogative meaning of "how much." For example,
a. རྟ་དེ་ཆེ་ལོས་འདུག།
How big is that horse?
b. ཁོ་པས་མེ་མདའ་མང་ལོས་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
How many guns did he buy?
10.4 Verbal constructions with ལ་ and ཁར་
10.4.1 ལ་ as a verbal clause connective
One function of vb. + ལ་ parallels its use with adjectives by conveying the
meaning of "as well as." Note that ཡང་ (ཀྱང་/འང་-"also") is normally used in this type of
a. ཚོགས་པ་དེའི་ནང་དུ་ཞིང་པ་ཡོད་ལ་འགྲོག་པ་ཡང་འདུག།
There are nomads as well as farmers in that association.
b. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་ལ་ཚོང་ལས་ཡང་རྒྱག་བཞིན་ཡོད།
They do agricultural work as well as trading.
A second, less common function of ལ་ conveys the meaning of "with respect to"
or "concerning" or "because" (see c.) . Only context will differentiate these two meanings.
c. དཔེ་ཆ་དེ་ཚོ་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་ནས་ཐོབ་མིན་ལ་བལ་ཡུལ་ནས་མགྱོགས་པོར་བསྐུར་ཐུབ་གྱི་རེད་དམ།
With respect to (my) not (being able to) obtain those books from the library, can
(you, etc.) send them quickly from Nepal?

10.4.2 ཁར་ as a verbal clause connective
One function of ཁར་ parallels that of ལ་ in conveying the meaning of "as well as."
a. ཁོ་པ་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་ཁར་བཟོ་གྲྭ་ལའང་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
He goes to school as well as to the factory.
In this usage ཁར་ is interchangeable with ལ་ Note also that འགྲོ་བ་རེད་ is the "usual"
verb complement.
A second function of ཁར་ is to convey the meaning of "in addition to" or "on top
b. སྔར་ཡོད་བོད་པའི་དམག་མི་གསུམ་སྟོང་ཁར་ད་དུང་གཅིག་སྟོང་གསར་པ་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
In addition to the 3,000 Tibetan soldiers that previously existed, (they) recruited
1,000 new ones.
c. དུད་ཚང་༢༨༠་ལ་གློག་འཛུགས་ཐུབ་པ་བྱུང་ཁར་ལམ་ཁ་གསར་པ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
As well as being able to electrify (bring [put in] electricity) to 280 households, (they,
he, etc.) built a new road.
A third function of ཁར་ is to convey the meaning of "just before." It is used with
the non-past stem of verbs to accomplish this.
d. ཉལ་ཁར་སོ་འཁྲུད་དགོས།
Just before going to sleep, (you) have to brush (your) teeth.
e. ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་སྐྱེ་ཁར་ཨ་མ་ཞེ་དྲགས་ན་པ་རེད།
Just before that child was born, (its) mother was very sick.
Semantic context differentiates this meaning from the "as well as" meaning.
10.5 Verbal constructions using: མ་ + vb. (past stem) + ན་
This clause construction links two clauses to indicate that "if the verbal action
does not occur," or "unless the verbal action is done, "something will happen.
a. ཁྱེད་རང་ལས་ཀ་འདི་མ་བྱས་ན་དམག་མིས་ཉེས་ཀྱི་རེད།
If you do not do this work, the soldiers will beat you.
b. ཁོང་ལྷ་སར་ཟླ་བ་འདིའི་ནང་ལ་མ་ཕེབས་ན་བྱ་དགའ་རག་གི་མ་རེད།
If he (h.) does not go (h.) to Lhasa this month (i.e., unless he goes to Lhasa this
month), (he) will not get the prize.
c. ཁྱེད་རང་ཤ་མ་ཟས་ན་གྲོད་ཁོག་ལྟོག་
If you do not eat meat you will br hungry.
d. དགུན་ཁ་གོས་ལོག་མཐུག་པོ་མ་གོན་ན་ཁྱག་གི་རེད།
If you do not wear thick clothing in winter you will get cold.
e. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་མ་ཕྱིན་ན་ཇོ་བོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་མཇལ་མི་ཐུབ།

Unless he goes to Tibet, (he) will not be able to visit the Jo Buddha (the famous
statue in the Jokang).
10.6 The "unless" clause connective ན་/ནས་མ་གཏོགས་
One mode of expressing "unless" is by the pattern: vb. (past stem) + ན་མ་གཏོགས་ or
a. ཁྱེད་རང་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཕྱིན་ན་མ་གཏོགས་གནམ་གྲུ་ཐོན་གྱི་རེད།
Unless you go quickly, the plane will leave.
The previous མ་ + vb. + ན་ construction could be substituted for this (see b.).
b. ཁྱེད་རང་མགྱོགས་པོ་མ་ཕྱིན་ན་གནམ་གྲུ་ཐོན་གྱི་རེད།
Unless you go quickly, the plane will leave.
c. ད་ལྟ་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་ནས་མ་གཏོགས་གྲང་མོ་ཆགས་གི་རེད།
Unless (you) eat the food now, it will become cold.
d. ཁོ་ཚོས་མེ་མདའ་གསར་པ་མང་པོ་བཟོས་ན་མ་གཏོགས་དམག་ཕམ་ཉེས་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
Unless they make many new guns, (they) will lose the war.
10.7 མ་གཏོགས་ as a clause connective expressing "except for"
When མ་གཏོགས་ is used together with the instrumental case and the པ་ཡོད་/བ་ཡོད་ and
པ་མེད་/བ་མེད་ ("'would have") subjunctive verbal complements, it conveys the meaning
"except for X, Y would have (or would not have) occurred."
a. ཁོས་རོགས་རམ་བྱས་པས་མ་གཏོག་ང་ཚོར་དཀའ་ལས་ཆེན་པོ་ཡོང་བ་ཡོད།
Except or the help he gave, we would have had great difficulties.
b. གནམ་གྲུའི་ནང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པས་མ་གཏོགས་དེ་རིང་སླེབས་པ་མེད།
Except for going by plane, (I) would not have arrived today.
10.8 "Each" constructions using རེ་རེ་...རེ་ or རེ་རེ་
Tibetan conveys the notion of "each" somewhat differently than English. Whereas
English requires that only the object be accompanied by "each, " e.g., " He gave each man
a book," Tibetan requires that both the direct and indirect object be accompanied by
"each." For example, "He gave to each man a book each."
a. ཁོས་མི་རེ་རེར་དེབ་རེ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
He gave each man a book.
b. ཁང་པ་རེ་རེར་སྒོ་རྟགས་རེ་རེ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Each house hasa house number.

The instrumental particle is also used:
c. མི་རེ་རེས་མེ་མདའ་རེ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
Each person made a gun. (By each person, gun each made.)
Either རེ་ or རེ་རེ་ can be used in genitive case constructions (see d. below).
d. མི་རེ་རེའི་ཁང་པར་ཁ་གདན་རེ་ཡོད།
There is a rug in each person's house.
10.9 Constructions with the verb "to change, alter": འགྱུར་
The normal use of this verb is presented in examples a and b.
a. ང་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ལ་སྡོད་བཞིན་པར་ཏང་གི་སྲིད་ཇུས་རྦད་དེ་འགྱུར་སོང་།
While I was living abroad, the party's policy changed completely.
b. འདི་འདྲ་བྱས་ན་ཁོ་ཚོའི་བསམ་ཚུལ་འགྱུར་གྱི་མ་རེད།
If (you, etc.) act like that, their opinion will not change.
འགྱུར་ in its nominalized form (འགྱུར་བ་), however, is used with the verbs "to go"
(འགྲོ་, etc.) and the verb to "send" (གཏོང་) །to convey respectively, (l) to passively "get
changed/altered," and (2) to actively "change or alter."
c. ཁོ་ཚོའི་བམས་ཚུལ་ལ་འགྱུར་བ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
Their opinion (got) changed.
d. ཁོས་ཁོ་ཚོའི་བམས་ཚུལ་ལ་འགྱུར་བ་བཏང་བ་རེད།
He changed their opinion.
10.10 "Without" clause connective constructions using མ་ + vb. + བར་/པར་
This construction conveys the meaning of "without" doing a verbal action.
a. སློབ་གྲྭར་མ་ཕྱིན་པར་ཡི་གེ་ཤེས་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
Without going to school, (one, etc.) will not be able to know how to read (lit.
not understand writing/letters)
b. ཡུན་རིང་མ་སོང་བར་ཁོ་ཚོ་འདིར་སླེབས་བྱུང་།
Without much time having passed, they arrived here.
c. ལས་ཀ་ཡག་པོ་མ་བྱས་པར་བྱ་དགའ་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
Without doing a good job, (one, etc.) will not get a prize.
d. གནམ་གྲུའི་ནང་མ་ཕྱིན་པར་ཉིན་གཉིས་ལ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་སླེབས་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
Without going by airplane, (one, etc.) will not be able to arrive India in two
e. གྲྭ་པ་མ་བྱས་པར་དགོན་པའི་ནང་སྡོད་ཐུབ་གི་མ་རེད།
Without being monk, (one, etc.) will not be able to stay in the monastery.

This construction can also convey the related meaning of "so as not to."
f. མེ་ཤིང་མ་སྤྲོད་པར་དངུལ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
So as not to give (them) firewood, (he, she, etc.) gave money.
10.11 "Until" clause connective constructions using: མ་ + vb. + བར་/པར་དུ་
It should be noted that with the exception of the dative-locative particle (དུ་), this
construction is identical to that in 10.10.
a. ཁོ་འདིར་མ་ཡོང་བར་དུ་སྐྱོབ་གསོ་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
Until he comes here, (they) will not give him welfare.
b. གྲྭ་པས་ཞལ་འདོན་མ་གནང་བར་དུ་གསོལ་ཇ་འབུལ་གྱི་མ་རེད།
Until the monks pray (h.), (he, she, etc.) will not give (h.) (he, she, etc.) tea (h.)
c. ངས་མེ་ཤིང་མ་འཐུ་བར་དུ་མེ་གཏོང་མི་ཐུབ།
Until I collect firewood, (I) am unable to make a fire.
10.12 Constructions with འཕྲོ་, འཕྲོར་, and འཕྲོས་ ("left over, uncompleted"): vb +འཕྲོ་
(འཕྲོར་, འཕྲོས་) + ལུས་ or བཞག་
a. དགེ་འདུན་ཆོས་འཕེལ་ལགས་ནས་བོད་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་རབས་བྲི་འཕྲོར་ལུས་པ་རེད།
Gedun Chömphel did not complete writing a history of Tibet.
This could also have been written:
b. དགེ་འདུན་ཆོས་འཕེལ་ལགས་ཀྱིས་བོད་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་རབས་བྲི་འཕྲོ་ལ་ལུས་པ་རེད།
Gedun Chömphel did not complete writing a history of Tibet.
c. རྡོ་རྗེ་ལགས་ཕྱག་ལས་གནང་འཕྲོས་བཞག་སྟེ་བོད་ལ་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
Dorje left (his) work unfinished and went to Tibet.
This could also have been written:
d. རྡོ་རྗེ་ལགས་ཕྱག་ལས་གནང་འཕྲོ་ལུས་ཏེ་བོད་ལ་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
Dorje left (his) work unfinished and went to Tibet.
e. དེབ་འདི་མགྱོགས་པོ་མ་ཀློག་ན་ཀློག་འཕྲོར་ལུས་ཀྱི་རེད།
If (he, she, they, you) don't read this book quickly, it will get left over (unread).
f. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་དེས་ཇ་འཐུང་འཕྲོ་བཞག་སྟེ་འཛིན་གྲྭར་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
The student went to class leaving (his) tea unfinished.
g. མོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་འཕྲོས་བཞག་མི་འདུག།
She didn't leave (her) work unfinished.

10.13 The "location" particles: ཡུལ་ and ས་
These particles are used with the non-past stem of verbs to express the idea of

"the place where" or "a thing on/at/in/to which" or "a person to whom" the action
is done. Thus, ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ས་ means "the place where the work is being done."
a. ཁོའི་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ས་ག་པར་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Where is the place he works at?
b. གྲོང་ཁྱེར་འདིར་ལྟད་མོ་ལྟ་ཡུལ་མང་པོ་འདུག།
In this city, (there) are many places to see shows.
c. ཁོས་དམག་རྒྱག་སར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
He went to the place where the war (was being) fought.
This could also convey, depending on context, "He went to the place where the war is
being fought."
d. ང་ཚོ་ཚོགས་འདུ་འཚོག་ས་དེར་མགྱོགས་པོར་འགྲོ་དགོ་
We have to go quickly to the place where the meeting is convened.
e. མོས་སྐད་ཆ་ཤོད་ཡུལ་དེ་བཀྲིས་རེད་དམ།
That person to whom she is talking, is it Tashi?
f. རི་མོ་འདིའི་འབྲི་ས་རས་རེད་པས།
The thing on which this picture is painted, is it cloth ?
g. མོའི་རོགས་བྱེད་ས་མང་ཆེ་བ་ཁྱིམ་ཚང་སྐྱོ་པོའི་བུ་ཕྲུག་ཚོ་རེད།
Most of the persons whom she helps are children of poor families.

10.14 "Like what," "how," and "what kind of" constructions ཇི་ལྟར་ or ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་
ཇི་ལྟར་ and ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་ can function as adverbial interrogatives literally asking "like what"
or "how" with regard to the verbal action. In example a. ཇི་ལྟར་ modifies the verbal phrase
"to trick" (མགོ་བསྐོར་བཏང་), asking "like what" or "how" did he trick.
a. ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པས་ཁྱིམ་མཚེས་དེ་ལ་མགོ་བསྐོར་ཇི་ལྟར་བཏང་བ་རེད་དམ།
How did Agu dönba trick that neighbor?
b. ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པས་རྣམ་འགྱུར་ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་ཞིག་བསྟན་པ་རེད།
What kind of an appearance (expression) did Agu dönba show?
c. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་ཞིག་ལ་བྱ་དགའ་ཐོབ་བམ།
What kind of a student won the prize ?
d. ང་ཚོས་ཇི་ལྟར་བྱས་ནས་ཞིང་ལས་ཡར་རྒྱས་གཏོང་དགོ་
What (like what) should we do to improve farm work?
These are also usedwith existential and linking verbs
These are also usedwith existential andlinking Verbs. For example:
e. ལུང་པ་འདི་ལ་ལུགས་སྲོལ་ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་ཞིག་ཡོད་དམ།
What kind of customs do they have in this countrry?
ཇི་ལྟར་ and ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་ are also usedin non-interrogative constructions, sometimes

functioning as indefinite or relative clauses and sometimes meaning "just like..."
f. བླ་མས་ཇི་ལྟར་གསུང་ས་པ་དེ་བཞིན་གྲྭ་པས་བྱེད་དགས།
Monks should do just like (whatever) the Lama said.
g. ཁྱོད་ར་སློབ་དེབ་ནང་ཇི་ལྟར་ཡོད་པ་དེ་ལྟར་བྱེད་ན་འགྲིག་ཀྱི་རེད།
If you do just like what is in the textbook, it will be all right.
h. གྲོང་འཁྱེར་ནང་ཚོང་ཁང་ཇི་ལྟར་ཡོད་པ་ལྟར་གྲོང་གསེབ་ནང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
There are no shops in villages like those in the city.
i. འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་དེ་བརྙན་འཕྲིན་ནང་ཇི་ལྟར་བསྟན་པ་ལྟར་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
This machine is as good as the one shown on TV.
j. ཁ་ས་ཁོང་ཚོ་སྐད་ཆ་ཇི་ལྟར་བྱུང་མེད་ངས་ཤེས་མ་བྱུང་།
I did not know what kind of conversation they had (or didn't have) yesterday.
10.15 Reading exercises
10.15.1 Reading number one: "Agu dönba Cuts Down A Walnut Tree"
10.15.1. Tibetan text
༈ ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པས་སྟར་སྡོང་བཅད་པ།
༄༅། སྔོན་ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པའི་ཁྱིམ་མཚེས་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་དེས་ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པར་བརྙས་བཅོས་l ཀྱིས་ཨ་ཁུའི་སྒེའུ་ཁུང་གི་
འོག་ཏུ་སྟར་སྡོང་ཞིག་བཙུགས། ལོ་ལྟར་དབྱར་ཁ་ཤར་བ་དང་སྟར་སྡོང་གི་ལོ་འདབ་རྒྱས་ཏེ་ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པའི་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་སྒེ་ཁུང་གི་
དཀར་ཆ་བསྒྲིབས་ནས་ཉིན་མོའང་2 སྒྲོན་མེ་སྤར་དགོས་པའི་མཚམས་སུ་སླེབ། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པའི་བསམ་པར་ངན་པར་ངན་
ལན་མ་བསློགས་ན3 ། བརྙས་བཅོས་བྱེད་མཁན་མང་དུ་འགྲོ་ངེས་རེད་སྙམ་ནས་ཉིན་ཞིག་ཤིང་རིང་པོ་ཕྲག་ཏུ་ཁུར་ནས་ཕྱུག་པོ་དེའི་
སྒོའི་མདུན་ནས་4 སོང་། དེ་ཕྱུག་པོས་མཐོང་ན་། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པ། ཁྱོད་རང་ཤིང་ཕྲག་པར་ཁུར་ནས་གང་དུ་འགྲོ་རྩིས་
ཡོད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་པར5 ། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པས་ཧ་ལས་པའི་རྣམ་འགྱུར་ཞིག་བསྟན་ན་། ཁྱེད་ཀྱིས་ད་དུང་མ་མཁྱེན་ནམ6 ། དེ་
རིང་ལྷ་ས་ནས་སྟར་ཤིང་ཉོ་མཁན་ཚོང་པ་འབྱོར་ནས་སྟར་ཤིང་འདོམ་གང་7 རེར་སྒོར་མོ་བརྒྱ་རེ་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་འདུག། ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་
སྟར་སྡོང་དེ་བཙོང་ན་མ་མཐར་ཡང་དངུལ་སྟོང་ཕྲག་8 མང་པོ་རག་གི་རེད། ཡིན་ནའང་མགྱོགས་པོ་མ་ཕེབས་ན་ཚོང་པ་འགྲོ་
གྲབས་འདུག་ཅེས་ལབ། ཕྱུག་པོའི་བསམ་པར་ངའི་སྟར་སྡོང་དེ་ནི་སྦོམ་ལ་རིང་བས་9 གོང་ཆེན་པོ་རག་རྒྱུ་ཐེ་ཚོམ་མེད་10
བསམ་ནས་སྟར་སྡོང་དེ་ལམ་སེང་བཅད་དེ་ཚོང་ལ་སོང་། གྲོང་ཁྱེར་ལ་སླེབས་དུས་ཤིང་ཉོ་མཁན་གཅིག་ཀྱང་མེད་11 སྟབས།
ཕྱུག་པོ་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཚད་མེད་ལང་ས་ནས་ཤིང་དེ་བུད་ཤིང་དུ་བཙོང་ནས་བོང་བུར་བཞོན་ནས་ཁྱིམ་དུ་ལོག། དེའི་ཕྱི་ཉིན་ནོར་བདག་ལ་
ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པ་ཐུག་ནས་ཁོས་ཁོང་ཁྲོ་ཆེན་པོའི་སྒོ་ནས་ཁྱེད་ཀྱིས་ང་ལ་མགོ་སྐོར་བཏང་སྟེ། གྲོང་ན་ཤིང་ཉོ་མཁན་ཚོང་པ་གཅིག་ཀྱང་
མི་འདུག་ཅེས་བཤད། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པས། ང་ཡིས་ཕྱུག་པོར་མགོ་སྐོར་གཏོང་ག་ལ་ཕོད12 །མགྱོགས་ཙམ་13 མ་ཕེབས་ན་
ཤིང་ཉོ་མཁན་ཚོང་པ་འགྲོ་གྲབས་འདུག་ཅེས་ཞུས་མ་བྱུང་ངམ14 ཁྱེད་རང་ཕྱིས་དྲགས་པའི་རྐྱེན་གྱིས་རེད་ 15 ཅེས་བཤད་

པས་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཁོ་ཅི་ཤོད་འདི་ཤོད་མེད་པར་16 གྱུར། ཨ་ཁུ་སྟོན་པའི་ཁང་པར་ཉི་མ་དྲོ་པོ་བྱུང་ཁར་17 དཀར་ཆ་ཡང་གསལ་པོ་
བྱུང་ངོ་། Translation
Agu dönba Cuts Down A Walnut Tree
Formerly, Agu dönba had a wealthy neighbor who took advantage of him by
planting a walnut tree outside Agu's house's window. Every year, as soon as summer
started, the leaves on the tree grew and blocked the light from (reaching) Agu's window,
making it necessary to light a lamp even during the day. At this juncture, Agu thought,
"If one does not respondin kind to bad deeds, those who abuse one will certainly
increase." (So) one day, he put a long piece of wood on his shoulder (carried it) and went
in front of the door of the wealthy man. The wealthy man saw him and asked, "Agu
dönba, where are you planning to go carrying a pole like that on your shoulder?" Agu
dönba showed the appeance of surprise and said, "You still do not know? Today,
walnut tree buyers arrived from Lhasa who are paying 100 dollars for each arm's length
of walnut wood. If you sell your walnut tree, at the very least, you will obtain many
thousands of dollars. Nevertheless, if you do not go quickly, they are about to leave." The
wealthy man thought, "Because my walnut tree is thick and tall, I will certainly get a
high price for it." So he immediately cut down the tree and went to sell it. When he
arrived in the city, because there was not one tree buyer, the wealthy man got angnry and
sold it as firewood and returned home riding on a donkey. The next day, the wealthy man
met Agu dönba, and angrily said, "You deceived me! There was not even one buyer of
wood in town." Agu dönba replied, "How could I deceive a wealthy man (like you)?
Didn't I tell you, "If you do not go quickly the traders who are buyers are ready to go?" It
is because you were too late." The wealthy man was unable to retort. Agu dönba's house
(from then on) was warm and light. Grammatical notes
1. The term བརྙས་བཅོས་ is often translated as "abuse" but here it conveys not physical abuse
but "taking advantage of one's position or power" or '"bullying." It is adverbialized by the
instrumental particle ཀྱིས་ and explains how the rich neighbor planted the tree. See 6.5.2
for an explanation of this kind of adverbialization.
2. འང་ is the form of ཀྱང་ and ཡང་ ("even, also") that is used after syllables ending in a
vowel. It attaches directly to the stem. In this segment it conveys the meaning that "even
in daytime, it had reached the point where there was a need to light a lamp."

3. The pattern of noun or adjective + ལན་བསློགས་ conveys "responding in kind" in the
manner of the noun or adjective. Thus ངན་ལན་བསློགས་ conveys "respond with evil" and བཟང་
ལན་བསློགས་ means "respond with kindness." Consequently, ངན་ལན་མ་བསློགས་ན་ conveys
"unless (one) responds to evil."
4. The use of ནས་ here conveys "via" or"by, "i.e., ཕྱུག་པོ་དེའི་སྒོའི་མདུན་ནས་སོང་ ("went by the
front of the door of that rich person") .
5. This use of the dative-locative with nominalized verbs (དྲིས་པར་) is explained in 6.6.3.
རྩིས་, the "plan to" particle, is explained in 7.3.
6. མ་མཁྱེན་ནམ་ is a negative question meaning "don't you know?" Here it is joined to ད་དུང་
("still") andmeans "you still don't know?"
7.  གང་ is typically used in measurements to mean "one." For example, ངར་ཇ་དཀར་ཡོལ་གང་སྤྲོད་
རོགས་གནང་ ("Please give me one cup of tea"). Similarly, with measurement units such as
རྒྱ་མ་ (a jin or half kilogram) one would say རྒྱ་མ་གང་ for "one jin."
8. ཕྲག་ has two meanings. Earlier we saw it meant "shoulder," but here it conveys round
numbers in multiples of ten, i.e., "tens, " hundreds, " thousands, " "ten thousands," and so on.
9. ལ་ in སྦོམ་ལ་རིང་བ་ ("thick as well as long") functions as an adjectival conjunctive
meaning "as well as"་ (see 10.3.7) . Note that the addition of the instrumental particle (རིང་
བས་) here means "because."
10. The nominalized phrase གོང་ཆེན་པོ་རག་རྒྱུ་ conveys a future action: "the obtaining of a
high price." It modifies the Verbal phrase ཐེ་ཚོམ་མེད་ ("having no doubts"), explaining what
it is he has no doubts about.
11. གཅིག་ཀྱང་མེད་ is a common phrase meaning "there was not even one" of something, in
this instance, "buyers" (ཉོ་མཁན་).
12. ག་ལ་ཕོད་ is a pattern consisting of ག་ལ་ ("how could I") + ཕོད་ ("dare"), meaning "how
could I dare." Other such ག་ལ་ phrases are presentedin Lessons 11 and 1.
13. The use of ཙམ་ in མགྱོགས་ཙམ་མ་ཕེབས་ན་ conveys a meaning akin to "—ish" or "sort of " in
English, in this instance, "if you do not go sort of quickly."
14. ཞུས་མ་བྱུང་ངམ་ is a negative rhetorical question construction: "Didn't Itell you?"
15.  ཕྱིས་དྲགས་པའི་རྐྱེན་གྱིས་རེད་ is a common pattern consisting of adj. stem + དྲགས་པའི་རྐྱེན་གྱིས་རེད་
It conveys the meaning that "it is because of too much of the adjective, "here, "to late."
For example, དེ་ནི་ཁྱེད་རང་སྐྱོ་དྲ་གས་པའི་རྐྱེན་གྱིས་རེད་—"As for that, it is because you are/were too

poor." Another example is: ད་རེས་ཡིག་ཚད་ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་པ་དེ་ནམ་རྒྱུན་སློབ་སྦྱོང་ཡག་པོ་བྱས་པའི་རྐྱེན་ཀྱིས་རེད།
"The doing well on your examination this time is because you usually study hard (well)."
16. ཅི་ཤོད་འདི་ཤོད་མེད་པར་ is a pattern that consists of ཅི་ + vb. + དི་ + vb. + མེད་པར་, meaning
"to be unable to do anything regarding the verbal action." Here it conveys that he was
unable to say anything (respond) . Another example of this is. ཁོས་རྐུ་མ་རྐུ་དུས་ང་ནང་ལ་འབྱོར་ཏེ་ཁོ་
ཅི་བྱེད་འདི་བྱེད་མེད་པར་སྒེའུ་ཁུང་ནས་མཆོངས་སང་།——"I arrived home when he was (in the act of)
stealing, and since there was nothing he could do, he jumped out of the window."
17. ཁར་ here functions as an adjectival conjunctive (see 10.3.7).

10.15.2 Reading number two "The «Prayer—Festival» Holiday" Tibetan text
བོད་ཀྱི་སྐད་གྲགས་ལྡན་པའི་ l ལྷ་སའི་སྨོན་ལམ་ཆེན་མོ་ནི་སྤྱི་ལོ་ཆིག་སྟོང་བཞི་བརྒྱ་བཅུ་མེད་བཞིའི་ལོར་རྗེ་ཙོང་ཁ་པ་ཆེན་
པོས་2 ལྷ་སའི་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་དུ་གྲྭ་པ་སྟོང་ཕྲག་འགའ་ཞིག་ཞུགས་པའི་ཚོགས་ཆེན་ཞིག་གསར་འཛུགས་གནང་བ་དེ་3 རེད། ཏཱ་
སྤུངས་ཚོགས་ཆེན་ཞལ་ངོར་གནང་སྟབས་དེའི་རིང་4 ཁྲིམས་ཀྱི་དབང་ཆ་འབྲས་སྤུང་ས་ཚོགས་ཆེན་ཞལ་ངོ་ནས་བྱེད་པ་རེད།།
བོད་ཟླ་དང་པོའི་ཚེས་བཞི་ཉིན་5 སྨོན་ལམ་གྲལ་འཛིན་ཟེར་བ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། གྲལ་འཛིན་ཟེར་6 བ་གྲྭ་པ་སོ་སོའི་7
སྡོད་ས་ག་པར་ཡོད་མེད་8 ངོ་སྤྲོད་བྱས་པ་རེད། ཚེས་ལྔ་ཉིན་ནས་བཟུང་9 སྨོན་ལམ་དངོས་གཞི་འགོ་ཚུགས་ཀྱི་རེད། དེའི་རིང་
བོད་གཞུང་ནས་ཇ་ཐུག་འགྱེད་དངུལ་སོགས་10 དཀྲིགས་བཅར་ l l གནང་པ་མ་ཟད། ད་དུང་ལྷ་སའི་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཁག་གིས་མང་ཇ་དང་
འགྱེད་སོགས་འབུལ་ཡས་12 ཀྱི་ལུགས་སྲོལ་ཡོད། ཚེས་བཅོ་ལྔ་ནི་བཅོ་ལྔ་མཆོད་པ་ཟེར་བའི་གལ་ཆེའི་དུས་ཆེན་དེ་རེད། དེ་ཉིན་
དགོང་དྲོ་ས་སྲིབ་མཚམས་སུ་ལྷ་སའི་བར་སྐོར་ནང་དུ་མཆོད་པ་མང་པོ་སྒྲིག་གཤོམ་བྱ་གི་རེད། མཆོད་པ་ཆེན་པོ་དེ་ཚོ་ནི་མར་ཚོན་
ཁྲས་བཟོས་པའི་རིས་བཟོ་13 མཛེས་པོ་མང་པོ་ཤིང་སྒྲོམ་ཆེན་པོའི་སྟེང་དུ་བཀོད་པ་ཞིག་རེད། མཆོད་པ་འདི་ཚོའི་ཆེ་ཆུང་ཆ་
སྙོམས་ལ་མིའི་ཊར་༡༥ ཙམ་ཡོད་པ་རེད། ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་མཆོག་གིས་མཆོད་པར་གཟིགས་པར་ཕེབས་པ་དང་། དེའི་རིང་བར་
སྐོར་ནང་དུ་དམག་མག་མི་བཀྲམ་ནས་མང་ཚོགས་ནམས་བར་སྐོར་དུ་ཡོང་མི་ཆོག་14 ། ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མས་མཆོད་པར་གཟིགས་གྲུབ་རྗེས་
སྤྱི་ཚོགས་རྙིང་པའི་སྐབས་ལ་སྨོན་ལམ་ལ་སེ་ར་ནས་གྲྭ་པ་སྟོང་བརྒྱད་ཀྱི་གཡས་གཡོན་15 དང་། འབྲས་སྤུངས་ནས་གྲྭ་
པ་ཆིག་ཁྲི་ཙམ། དགའ་ལྡན་ནས་གྲྭ་པ་ལྔ་སྟོང་ཙམ་ཞུགས་གི་ཡོད་པ་མ་ཟད་ད་དུང་དགོན་ཁག་16 གཞན་དག་ནས་ཀྱང་17 དགེ་

I0.15.2.2 Translation
The "Prayer—Festival" Holiday
As for Lhasa's "Great Prayer—Festival," which is famous inTibet, it is the prayer
meeting in which thousands of monks participate in Lhasa's Cathedral (Tsuglakaung)
temple. It was established in the year 1404 by the great (lama) Tsongkaba. Because the
Fifth Dalai Lama gave all power within Lhasa's outer circumambulation road to the
Disciplinary Officers of Drepung, judicial decisions were made by the Drepung
Disciplinaury Officers for the 21days of the festival (lit., during that time).
On the 4th day of the 1st Tibetan month, the event called "arranging the rows" is
done. The (activity) called "arranging the rows" (involves) showing (lit., introduces) the
monks where their seats are. From the 5th onwards, the "prayer festival" really begins.
During the time (of the festival), the Tibetan government not only gives tea, stew, and
money distributions (to the monks) but there was also the custom that rich people in
Lhasa give tea and money gifts (to the monks) in accordance with traditional amounts. As
for the 15th, it is the important festival known as the "Offering of the Fifteenth." On that
day, at dusk, (they) erect many "offerings" in the Bargor (circular pathl) of Lhasa. As for
these big "offerings," they consist of mauny beautiful artistic forms made from colored
butter that have been put on a large scaffolding. These "offerings" on the average are 15
meters high. The Dalai Lama comes to view the "offerings" and at that time soldiers are
stationed in the Bargor and the common people are not allowed to come into the Bargor.
After the Dalai Lama has finished seeing the offerings, the people come to have an
audience with the "offering."
During the old society, not only did about 8000 monks from Sera, 10,000 from
Drepuung, and about 5,000 from Ganden participate in this, but many monks came even
from other monasteries. Grammatical notes
1. ལྡན་པ་ here adjectivizes སྐད་གྲགས་ ("fame"), making it སྐད་གྲགས་ལྡན་པ་ ("famous")—see
10.3.6. Note that the genitive links this phrase to the noun phrase it modifies.
2. Tsongkapa (ཙོང་ཁ་པ་) isthe name of the founder of the Gelugpa sect. རྗེ་ ("lord") and ཆེན་པོ་
("great") are commonly added to denote respect.

3. Note that the segment བོད་ཀྱི་སྐད་གྲགས་ལྡན་པའི་ལྷ་སའི་སྨོན་ལམ་ཆེན་མོ་ནི་སྤྱི་ལོ་ཆིག་སྟོང་བཞི་བརྒྱ་བཙུ་མེད་
གནང་བ་དེ་རེད་། is really nothing more than a linking verb construction: ... ནི་ ... དེ་རེད་
("As for X, it is Y").
What makes this construction difficult, however, is its use of an object phrase that
is a nominalized verbal construction (སྤྱི་ལོ་ཆིག་སྟོང་བཞི་བརྒྱ་བཙུ་མེད་བཞིའི་ལོར་རྗེ་ཙོང་ཁ་པ་ཆེན་པོས་ལྷ་སའི་
གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་དུ་གྲྭ་པ་སྟོང་ཕྲག་འགའ་ཞིག་ཞུགས་པའི་ཚོགས་ཆེན་ཞིག་གསར་འཛུགས་གནང་བ་) that itself contains a
nominalized verb construction functioning as a relative clause (སྤྱི་ལོ་ཆིག་སྟོང་བཞི་བརྒྱ་བཙུ་མེད་
བཞིའི་ལོར་རྗེ་ཙོང་ཁ་པ་ཆེན་པོས་ལྷ་སའི་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་དུ་གྲྭ་པ་སྟོང་ཕྲག་འགའ་ཞིག་ཞུགས་པའི་). The overall
nominalized phrase is "the establishing newly of a meeting in1404 by Tsongkapa which
had seveal thousand monks participating in Lhasa's Tsuglakhang cathedral." It explains
what "Tibet's famous Lhasa Great Prayer Festival" (བོད་ཀྱི་སྐད་གྲགས་ལྡན་པའི་ལྷ་སའི་སྨོན་ལམ་ཆེན་མོ་
ནི་) is.
The nominalized sub-clause (i.e., the clause within the nominalized clause) —གྲྭ་པ་
སྟོང་ཕྲག་འགའ་ཞིག་ཞུགས་པའི་ ("several thousand monks who participated")—modifies ཚོགས་ཆེན་
("meeting") describing what kind of a meeting it was, namely that it was a meeting "of
several thousand monks." This could have been written: གྲྭ་པ་སྟོང་ཕྲག་འགའ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པའི་
4. The syllable རིང་ here does not mean "long" but rather "duration," this function being
related to its use as one of the "when" connectives discussed in 5.10. དེའི་རིང་ means,
therefore, "for the duration of that" (the 21 days) . Note that this phrase could have
included a dative-locative particle དེའི་རིང་ལ་
5.  This could be expressed in a less abbreviated manner as. བོད་ཟླ་དང་པོའི་ཚེས་པ་བཞི་གི་ཉིན་
6. ཟེར་བ་ here conveys the meaning "the one called" (see 5.17.4 13). Thus it translates as
"They do that which is called སྨོན་ལམ་གྲལ་འཛིན་ on the 4th day of the Tibetan 1st month."
7. སོ་སོ་ here conveys the meaning of "each his own," "individually," "separately." Thus
གྲྭ་པ་སོ་སོའི་སྡོད་ས་ means "each monk's individual residence (or the place where each lives)." སོ་
སོ་ can also take the instrumental case particle, for example, གྲྭ་པ་སོ་སོས་སྨོན་ལམ་སྐྱོན་པ་རེད་—
"Each monk prayed separately"་ and the dative-locative particles, for example, ངས་གྲྭ་པ་སོ་
སོར་འགྱེད་རྒྱབ་པ་ཡིན་—"I gave alms to each monk (individually)." Note that སྡོད་ས་ consists of
སྡོད་ + ས་, this pattern being explained in 10.12.
8. The pattern ག་པར་ཡོད་མེད་ is explained in 8.6.
9. The term ནས་བཟུང་ conveys "from X onwards." Thus, ཚེས་ལྔ་ཉིན་ནས་བཟུང་ means "from the
fifth onwards."

10. This is a standard way to list an enumeration. ཇ་ཐུག་འགྱེད་དངུལ་སོགས་ consists of four
iterms: ཇ་ (tea), ཐུག་ (porridge), འགྱེད་ (alms [can be goods in kind]), དངུལ་ (money). Use of
སོགས་ indicates that the list is not complete so it is normally translated as "etc.".
11. དཀྲིགས་བཅར་ is probably derived from Hindi. It refers to doing something in a usual or
customary way.
12. ཡས་ is a verbal nominalizer that is explained in 6.7.
13. ཚོན་ཁྲས་བཟོས་པའི་རིས་བཟོ་ is a common relative construction conveying "X which is made
from Y." Here it means "shapes which are made from colored butter."
14. ཆོག་ is an auxiliary verb meaning "allowed" that is used after other verbs to indicate
"allowed" or "not allowed" with respect to that verbal action. In this case, མི་ཆོག་ following
ཡོང་ means "not allowed to come." This verb is presented in more detail in 11.9.
15. གཡས་གཡོན་ literally means "left and right" but with numbers conveys "more or less."
16. ཁག་ is a pluralizing particle that when used with nouns conveys a pluurality of different
kinds of unit, sections, sectors, or parts. Thus, མེ་མདའ་ཁག་མང་པོ་འདུག་་ means "many different
kinds of guns." Here དགོན་ཁག་ means from different monasteries but not necessarily from
all monasteries.
17. The combination of ནས་ཀྱང་ means "also from" or "even from."
10.16 Vocabulaury
དཀའ་ངལ་ difficulties
ཁ་གདན་ smallrug (usually 3' x 5')
དཀར་ཆ་ light
ཁག་ pluralizing particle
དཀར་ཡོལ་གང་ one cup
ཁར་ conjunctive particle for adjectives, verbal clause connective
དཀྲིགས་བཅར་ regularly, in a usual or customaury way
བཀོད་ va. p. of འགོད་ put into, onto
ཁུར་ va. p. of འཁུར་ carried
ཁྱོད་ར་ you
བཀྲམ་ va. p. of འགྲེམས་ spread, distributed, stationed (soldiers)
མཁྱེན་ va. to know (h.)
འཁྲུད་ va. to wash, brush (teeth)
འགྱུར་ vi. to be/get changed, altered
སྐད་གྲགས་ལྡན་པ་ famous
སྐུ་འཕྲེང་ལྔ་པ་ fifth incarnation (in a line of incaurnations)
འགྱེད་ alms (gift usually of money) to monks va. —རྒྱག་
སྐྱེ་ va. to give birth
སྐྱོན་ excessive particle
གྲལ་འཛིན་ the rite of arranging the rows where monks sit in the Great Prayer Ceremony
བསྐུར་ va. p. of སྐུར་ sent

གྲོང་ town, city
སླིང་བསྐོར་ outer circumambulation road in Lhasa
ཆ་སྙོམས་ average
གློག་འཛུགས་ va. to electrify, to put in electricity lines
ཆ་ཚང་ complete, all
ཆུང་བ་ younger, smaller
དགེ་འདུན་ monk (h.)
ཆེ་བ་ older, bigger
དགེ་འདུན་ཆོས་ འཕེལ་ p.n. (Gedun Chömphel)
ཆེས་ augmentive particle
ཆོག་ 1. ready, 2. allow
དགོང་དྲོ་ evening
མཆོག་ honorific word used after names and titles
འགོ་ཚུགས་ va. to begin, start
འགྲིག་ vi. to be okay, all right
མཆོད་པ་ an offering
རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ large
ཇི་ལྟ་བུ་ "like what," "just like"
རྒྱལ་རབས་ history ཇི་ལྟར་ "like what," '"just like"'
རྒྱས་ vi. to become plentiful, abundant
ཇེ་ augmentive particle
རྗེ་ཙོང་ཁ་པ་ Je Tsongkaba (founder of the Gelukpa sect)
སྒམ་ box
སྒེའུ་ཁུང་ window
ཉིན་མ་ a day
སྒོ་ door
ཉིན་མོ་ day time
སྒོ་རྟགས་ house number
བརྙན་འཕྲིན་ television
སྒོར་མོ་ dollar
ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་ Dalai Lama
སྒྲིག་གཤོམ་ erecting, arranging; va.—བྱེད་
ཏོག་ཙམ་ a little bit
སྟར་སྡོང་ walnut tree
སྒྲུང་ story
བསྟན་ va. to show
སྒྲོན་མེ་ lamp
ཐུག་པ་ stew, porridge
བསྒྲིབས་ va. p. of སྒྲིབ་ blocked, covered, concealed
ཐེ་ཚོམ་ doubt
མཐུག་པོ་ thick
ང་ན་ bad
དང་ and
ངན་ལན་བསློགས་ va. to respond to evil with evil
དུས་ཆེན་ festival, holiday
དྲགས་ excessive particle ("too")
དངོས་གཞི་ really
དྲོ་པོ་ warm
ཅན་ having, possessing
འདོམ་ a length measurement equal to a person's outstretched arms
བཅུག་ va. p. of འཇུག་ put in, recruited
བཅོ་ལྔེ་མཆོད་པ་ "offering on the fifteenth" (the butter sculpture ritual conducted on the 15 th of l st Tibet monthl)
ལྡེན་པ་ having, possessing

སྡུག་ bad
ན་མ་གཏོགས་ the "unless" clause connective
མང་ཚོགས་ the people
མར་ཚོན་ཁྲ་ colored butter
ནང་ཚུད་ within
མི་འབོར་ population
ནས་མ་གཏོགས་ the "unless" clause connective
མིའི་ཊར་ eng. meter
སྨོན་ལམ་དུས་ཆེན་ Lhasa's Great Prayer Festival
ནས་བཟུང་ from X onwards
ནོར་བདག་ wealthy person
ཚེས་ "th" as used with dates, i.e., the 10 th of Iune
གནམ་གཤིས་ climate, weather
རྣམ་འགྱུར་ appearance
ཚོགས་ཆེན་ཞལ་ངོ་ head disciplinary officer in monastery
སྤར་ va. to light
སྤྱི་ཚོགས་ society, social
ཚོན་ཁྲ་ color
སྤྱི་ལོ་ a year in the Western calendar
འཛིན་གྲ་ class (in school)
ཞིང་ conjunctive particle for adjectives
ཕམ་ཉེས་ཡོང་ vi. to be defeated, lose
ཕྱིས་དྲགས་པ་ too late
ཞིབ་འཇུག་ research; va.—བྱེད་
ཕྲག་ even numbered units of ten, hundreds, thousands, etc.
ཞེ་དྲགས་ the augmentation particle
བཞོན་ va. to ride
ཡུལ་ the location particle
ཕྲག་པ་ shoulder
ཡོན་ཏན་ knowledge
ཕྲན་བུ་ a little
གཡས་གཡོན་ left-right; both sides; approximately
འཕྲོ་ left over, uncompleted
བར་བསྐོར་ the Barkor (Circular path in Lhasa)
རས་ cloth
རི་བོ་ hill, mountain
བུ་ཕྲུག་ child, children
རི་མོ་ picture, drawing
བུད་ཤིང་ firewood
རིང་པོ་ long
བོད་རིག་པ་ Tibetology, Tibetological
རིང་བ་ longer
དབང་ཆ་ power
རིས་བཟོ་ shape (of a drawing, sculpture)
འབྲི་ va. to write
སྦོམ་ thick
རེ་རེ་ each
མ་ l. "unless" clause connective, 2. "until" clause connective
ལ་ 1. conjunctive particle for adjectives, 2. verbal clause connector (see lesson)
མ་མཐར་ཡང་ at the very least
མ་གཏོགས་ clause connective expressing "except
ལན་བསློགས་ va.p.of ལན་སློག་ responded in kin

ལུགས་སྲོལ་ custom
ལོ་སྟར་ every year
ལོ་འདབ་ leaf
ལོས་ "how"—in adjectival constructions
ཤིང་སྒྲོམ་ scaffold
ཤིན་ཏུ་ the augmentation particle
ཤུལ་ the "while" connective
ཤོས་ the superlative degree particle
ས་ the location particle
ས་སྲིབ་མཚམས་ at dusk
སེ་ར་ Sera (monastery)
སོ་སོ་ each one's, individually, separately
སྲིད་ཇུས་ policy, strategy
གསར་འཛུགས་ newly establish
བསམ་ཚུལ་ thought, opinion
ཧ་ལས་ vi. to be surprised

Lesson Eleven
11.1 The "time to do" auxiliaury verb རན་
This verb follows the non-past stem of verbs to convey that "it is/was time" to do
the verbal action.
a. ད་རྒྱལ་རྩེ་ལ་འགྲོ་རན་འདུག།
Now it's time to go to Gyantse.
b. ད་ཁོང་ཚོ་ཞལ་ལག་མཆོད་རན་འདུག།
Now it"s time for them to eat dinner. (h.)
c. ཁྱེད་རང་ཕེབས་རན་སོང་ན་ང་ལ་གསུངས་རོགས་གནང་།
Please tell me if it is time for you to leave. (h.)
d. ད་ལྟ་ཆང་འཐུང་རན་མི་འདུག།
It's not time to drink beer now.
ར་ན་ itself takes various verbal connectives:
e. ཐུགས་སྤྲོར་འགྲོ་མ་རན་གོང་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
(One) should not go to the party until it's time to go.
11.2 Constructions using the phrases ག་ལ་ཡོད་, ག་ལ་རུང་, and ག་ལ་འགྲིགས་: "how can it be
ག་ལ་ཡོད་, ག་ལ་རུང་, and ག་ལ་འགྲིགས་ all convey the notion that some action is not
acceptable or should not be done, implying an element of shock and/or disdain. These
constructions generally convey conditional meaning: "Given X, how could it be all
right/okay to do Y?"
a. སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚོས་འཛིན་གྲྭ་མ་གྲོལ་གོང་ལ་ནང་ལ་ལོག་རྒྱུ་ག་ལ་ཡོད།
How can it be okay for students to return home before class is over? (i.e., Students
should not return home before class is over).
b. ཞིང་པས་དཔྱིད་ཀ་སོན་མ་བཏབ་པར་ལྷ་སའི་གྲོང་འཁྱེར་ནང་ལ་སྡོད་རྒྱུ་ག་ལ་ཡོད།
How is it okay for farmers to stay in Lhasa and not sow their seeds in spring?
c. ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་ནས་ཇོ་བོ་མ་མཇལ་ན་ག་ལ་འགྲིགས།
How could it be all right ifyou didn't visit the Jo Rimpoche statue after arriving in
d. དགོན་པར་སླེབས་ནས་མཆོད་མཇལ་མ་ཞུས་པར་ལོག་ན་ག་ལ་རུང་།
How could it be okay to return without making a religious visit after arriving at the
e. བླ་མས་ཆོས་མ་ཤེས་ན་ག་ལ་འགྲིགས་

How couldit be all right if a Lama does not know religion?
f. བླ་མས་རྫུན་གསུང་བ་ག་ལ་རུང་།
How could it be all right if a Iama tells lies?
11.3 Constructions using ག་ལ་ + vb. (non-past)
ག་ལ་ is also used directly with active verbs to ask "how can" such a thing as the
verbal action occur. Again it conveys shock at the idea.
a. འགྲོག་པས་རྟ་ཤ་ག་ལ་ཟ།
How could nomads eat horse meat?
b. ལག་ཁྱེར་མེད་པར་བོད་ལ་ག་ལ་འགྲོ།
How can one go to Tibet without a permit?
c. དམག་མིས་ཕྲུ་གུར་མེ་མདའ་ག་ལ་རྒྱག།
How can the soldiers shoot children?
d. གྲྭ་པ་རྒན་འཁོགས་དེ་ལ་མེ་མདའ་རྒྱག་ག་ལ་ཕོད།
How can one dare to shoot that old monk?
e. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེས་མཚན་མོ་ཕྱི་ལ་འགྲོ་ག་ལ་ཕོད།
How can that small child dare to go out in the night?
Past tense is conveyed by context and past tense words. For example:
f. ཟླ་ཉིན་དམག་རྒྱབ་དུ་ས་སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་ཚོ་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་ག་ལ་ཕོད།
How could the students dare to go to school during the war last year?
ག་ལ་ is also frequently used with སྲིད་ ("to be possible"), conveying the meaning of
"how is it possible" to do the verbal action or for the verbal action to occur. It implies that
there is no possibility or, sometimes, no custom for the action in question to occur. Note
that the verbs are nominalized.
g. ཉི་མ་ནུབ་ནས་ཤར་བ་ག་ལ་སྲིད།
How is it possible for the sun to rise in the west?
h. གྲྭ་པས་དགོན་པའི་ནང་ཆང་ས་བརྒྱབ་པ་ག་ལ་སྲིད།
How is it possible for monks to marry in the monastery?
i. ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་ནས་བོད་པ་མ་མཐོང་བ་ག་ལ་སྲིད།
How is it possible to not see Tibetans after you arrive in Lhasa?
j. སློབ་གྲྭ་བས་རང་སྦྱོང་མ་བྱེད་པར་སློབ་གྲྭ་ཆེན་མོའི་ཡིག་ཚད་གཏོང་ཐུབ་པ་ག་ལ་སྲིད།
How is it possible for students to pass the college exam without doing homework?
l l.4 Constructions using the phrase དོན་ཅི་ཡོད་
དོན་ཅི་ཡོད་ follows the non-past stem of verbs conveying "what is the
point/reason/purpose" of doing the verbal action. In certain contexts it is also used to ask

a. ཁྱེད་རང་འདིར་སླེབས་མ་ཐག་ཏུ་ཁོ་ལ་ཁ་པར་གཏོང་དགོས་དོན་ཅི་ཡོད།
What is the point of needing to phone him as soon as you arrived here?
b. ཁོང་གྲོམ་ནས་མགྱོགས་པོ་དེ་འདྲ་ལོག་དགོས་དོན་ཅི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Why does he have to return home from the market as fast as this?
c. ཁོ་དམག་མི་མིན་པར་དམག་སྒར་ནང་སྡོད་དགོས་དོན་ཅི་ཡོད།
Because he is not a soldier, what is the point of (him) having to stay in the base?
d. ཁོང་གིས་དེ་འདྲ་གསུང་ས་དོན་ཅི་ཡོད། ངས་ཤེས་མ་སོང་།
I didn't know what is the point of his saying that.
e. ལྟད་མོ་དེ་ང་ཚོས་ཐེང་ས་ཁ་ཤས་མཐོང་ཙང་། ཡང་བསྐྱར་ལྟ་དགོས་དོན་ཅི་ཡོད།
Because we saw the show several times, what is the point of having to watch it again?
f. མི་དམངས་སྐྱིད་པོ་ཡོད་ན་ངོ་ལོག་རྒྱག་དོན་ཅི་ཡོད།
If people are happy, what is the point of revolting?
11.5 Constructions using the pattern vb. + རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད་ "What is there to be . . ."
This pattern is used with the present (non-past) tense stem of verbs. It asks
rhetorically what is the reason for doing the verbal action.
a. འདི་འདྲ་བྱས་ན་ཞེད་རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད།
What is there to be afraid of if you act (do) like this?
b. དགེ་རྒན་ལ་སྐད་ཆ་དྲིས་པར་ངོ་ཚ་རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད།
What is there to be embarrassed at if you ask the teacher questions?
c. ཉོ་ཆ་རྒྱག་དགོས་མེད་ན་ཚོང་ཁང་ནང་ལ་འགྲོ་རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད།
Why go to the store if you don't have to do shopping?
d. ཁྱེད་རང་གྲྭ་པ་མིན་པར་གྲྭ་ཆས་གོན་རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད།
Why wear monk's clothes if you are not a monk?
This pattern can also be used with the perfect tense complement in the first clause:
e. འདི་འདྲ་བྱས་ཡོད་ན་ཞེད་རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད།
If this is what you have done, what is there to be afraid of?
11.6 Constructions using ཐ་ན་: "even"
ཐ་ན་ is normlally placed at the start of the second of two clauses and typically is
accompanied by ཀྱང་ ("even/also").
a. སྒྲུང་དེ་མི་རྒན་པས་མ་ཟད། ཐ་ན་ཕྲུ་གུས་ཀྱང་ཧ་གོ་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
Let alone adults, even children are able to understand that story.

b. དཔེ་ཆ་དེ་བླ་མས་མ་ཟད། ཐ་ན་གྲྭ་པ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་གིས་ཀྱང་ཀློག་ཤེས་ཀྱི་རེད།
Let alone Lamas, even a new monk knows how to read that book.
c. ཟ་འཐུང་ནི་ཐ་ན་དུད་འགྲོས་ཀྱང་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Even animals know how to drink and eat. (lit., As for eating and drinking, even
animals know.)
d. ཚོང་ཁང་དེའི་ནང་ཐ་ན་མུ་སི་ཡན་ཆད་ཚོང་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
That shop sells even everything upwards from (larger than) matches.
ཡན་ཆད་ in example d. normally means "upwards of, " or "above," or "more than,"
including the item mentioned: for example, བཙུ་ཡན་ཆད་ conveys the meaning "ten and
above" and ཟླ་བ་བཙུ་པ་ཡན་ཆད་ means "from the tenth month onwards." In a parallel fashion,
མུ་སི་ཡན་ཆད་ means "from matches upwards" or "everything from a match onwards," i.e.
match and everything larger.
11.7 Causative constructions
11.7.1 Constructions using འཇུག་ (p. བཅུག་)
There are several ways to form causatives. One places the verb འཇུག་ ("to put in"
or "insert into") immediately after the non-past stem of a verb. This conveys the
strongest, most coercive expression of causation (X made Y do something) — direct force
or coercion. Such constructions sometimes include the dative-locative particle
immediately after the non-past stem of the verb as in b. below.
a. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks do agricultural work.
b. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་དུ་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks do agricultural work.
c. སང་ཕོད་གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་དུ་འཇུག་གི་རེད།
The government will make the monks do agricultural work next year.
11.7.2 Constructions using བཟོ་
A second causative construction uses དགོས་ and བཟོ་ after verb stems (non-past).
literally means "made it necessaury for them to do the verbal action." This generally
conveys the idea that the actor did something so that someone had to do the action in
a. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་དགོས་པ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks (have to) do agricultural work.

b. འགོ་ཁྲིད་ཚོས་ཁོ་ཚོ་ལམ་སེང་འགྲོ་དགོས་པ་བཟོ་གི་མ་རེད།
The ]eaders will not make them have to go immediately.
རྒྱུ་ is often used to indicate that the action that someone is being made to do is in the
The government made monks have to do agricultural work (in the future).
In example c. the main verb ("made") is in the past tense (བཟོས་པ་རེད་), while the object of
the verb, "the future doing of fieldwork," is in the present/future tense (ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་དགོས་རྒྱུ).
རྒྱུ་ can also be used alone with བཟོས་
d. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks do agricultural work (in the future).
Another way to express future tense is via the future tense stem of verbs:
e. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱ་དགོས་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks have to do agricultural work (in the future).
When བཟོ་ is added to nominalized verb stems (non-past), a causative meaning is also
f. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་པ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks do agricultural work.
g. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་མཁན་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks agricultural workers.
h. གཞུང་གིས་གྲྭ་པ་རྣམས་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་མི་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
The government made the monks agrcultural workers.
11.7.3 Constructions using བྱེད་
The verb བྱེད་ can be substituted for བཟོ་ to convey a causative meaning. Causative
constructions using བྱེད་ follow nominalized verb stems and generally imply causation due
to indirect means such as inducements or incentives rather than direct force or the threat
of it. Thus in sentence a. below, the implication is that the doctor would have been
ordered to come with the threat of force hanging over his head, while in sentence b., he
would have been coaxed or induced to come.
a. ཁོས་ཨེམ་ཆི་འདི་འདིར་ལམ་སེང་ཡོང་དུ་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
He made this doctor come here at once.
b. ཁོས་ཨེམ་ཆི་དེ་འདིར་ལམ་སེང་ཡོང་བ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
He made (did something so that) that doctor come here at once.

A somewhat stronger causative voice than b. would be conveyed by:
c. ཁོས་ཨེམ་ཆི་འདི་འདིར་ལམ་སེང་ཡོང་དགོས་པ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
He did something so that this doctor had to come here at once.
d. གཞུང་གིས་དགོན་པ་ཉམས་གསོ་བྱེད་ཐབ་པ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
The government made (did something to make) it possible to repair the monastery.
e. ཞིང་པ་གསར་པ་ཚོས་ཐོན་སྐྱེད་བརྒྱ་ཆ་བཅུ་འཕར་བ་བྱེད་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The new farmers are acting so that production can increase 10%.
f. ང་ཚོས་ཁོང་དབྱིན་སྐད་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཤེས་པ་བྱས་པ་ཡིན།
We made him learn English quickly. (We did things so that he learned [came to
know] English quickly.)

11.8 "Let" or "allow" constructions using the verb འཇུག་
A source of confusion in reading Tibetan stems from the fact that འཇུག་ is also
used to convey the meaning of "let do" or "allow" in grammatical constructions identical
with the causative ones discussed above. Only context can differentiate the two.
a. ཁོ་ཚོས་མོ་ལྷ་སར་འགྲོ་རུ་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
They made her go to Lhasa. Or, They allowed her to go to Lhasa.
b. ཁོ་ཚོས་མོ་ལྷ་སར་འགྲོ་མ་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
They did not allow her go to Lhasa.
c. མོས་ཁྱི་འདི་ཤ་ཟ་དུ་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
She let the dog eat the meat.
While བཅུག་ in c. could be taken to convey "made," normally it would have been written
with an extra modifier such as ཨུ་ཚུགས་རྒྱབ་ནས་ ("insist") if that was intended:
d. མོས་ཨུ་ཚུགས་རྒྱབ་ནས་ཁྱི་འདི་ཤ་ཟ་རུ་བཅུག་པ་རེད།
She made the dog eat the meat.
e. ངས་ཁོ་ལ་བཏང་ཡིག་ཞིག་འབྲི་རུ་བཅུག་པ་ཡིན།
I let (or made) him write a letter.
Negative constructions, however, normally convey "not allowed":
f. གཞུང་གིས་དམག་མི་རྣམས་ལ་མེ་མདའ་རྒྱག་རུ་བཅུག་མ་སོང་།
The government did not allow the soldiers to shoot guns.

11.9 "Allow" constructions using the auxiliaryverb ཆོག་
ཆོག་ is used with verbs to convey the idea of "allowing" or "permitting" the verbal
action to occur. With some verbs, both the past and non-past stems can be used, but with
others, only the past stem is permissible. For example, in example a. the non-past tense

stem of the verb "talk" (ཤོད་) is not used but in b. and c. both stems of the verb are used.
a. དམག་མི་འདི་ཚོར་ང་ཚོས་སྐད་ཆ་བཤད་ཆོག་གི་མ་རེད།
We are not allowed to talk to these soldiers.
b. ལག་ཁྱེར་མེད་པར་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་འགྲོ་ཆོག་གི་མ་རེད།
Without a permit (visa), (one) cannot go to China.
c. ལག་ཁྱེར་མེད་པར་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་ཕྱིན་ཆོག་གི་མ་རེད།
Without a permit (visa), (one) cannot go to China.
d. ལྷ་ཁང་དེའི་ནང་ན་ཞྭ་མོ་གོན་ཆོག་གི་མ་རེད།
It is not permitted to wear a hat in that temple.
e. དེང་སང་བོད་ལ་ལྟ་སྐོར་བ་ཕྱིན་ཆོག་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་པས།
Are tourists allowed to go to Tibet these days?
f. ཟླ་ཉིན་བོད་ལ་ལྟ་སྐོར་བ་ཕྱིན་ཆོག་སོང་ངས།
Were tourists allowed to go to Tibet last year?

11.10 "I'll do" volunteering constructions using the auxiliary verb ཆོག་
When ཆོག་ is used at the end of a sentence following the past tense stem of verbs,
it conveys the idea that "I volunteer to do" the verbal action.
a. ཁྱེད་རང་གི་ཕྲུ་གུ་སྐྱེ་སྐབས་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་ལས་ཀ་ཚང་མ་ངས་བྱས་ཆོག།
When your child is born, I'll do all the housework.
b. ཁྱེད་རང་ཁ་ལག་བཟོས་དགོས་ཡོད་སྟབས་ང་ཚོས་ཤ་ཉོ་བར་ཕྱིན་ཆོག།
Because you have to make the food, (if you want) we'll go to buy the meat.
Another way of expressing this is thurough the pattern: vb. + པས་ཆོག་.
c. ངས་ད་ལྟ་ཆུ་ནང་ནས་སྟ་རེ་ལེན་པས་ཆོག་ཅེས་བཤད་པ་རེད།
(He) said, "I'll get the axe from the water now."

11.11 "Ready to do" constructions using: ཆོག་ and ཆོག་ཆོག་
ཆོག་ and ཆོག་ཆོག་ are also used with verb stems to convey the meaning ot "ready to
do the verbal action." Usually this means ready in the sense of having completed the
packing and preparations for the trip or for some task.
a. ང་རྒྱལ་རྩེར་འགྲོ་ཆོག་ཡིན།
I am ready to go to Gyantse.
b. ཁྱོད་རྒྱལ་རྩེར་འགྲོ་ཆོག་ཡིན་པས་།
Are you ready to go to Gyantse?
c. ཁ་ས་ང་རྒྱལ་རྩེར་ཕྱིན་ཆོག་ཡིན་ཀྱང་། གནམ་གྲུ་སླེབས་མ་བྱུང་།

Even though I was ready to go to Gyantse yesterday, the plane did not come.
d. ཁ་ལག་བཟོས་ཆོག་ཡིན།
The food is ready to make.
11.12 "Approve" or "agree" constructions using the verb འཐུས་
When the verb འཐུས་ is used after another verb, it conveys the meaning of
"approval" ("permission") being given for the action of the first verb. In example a.
approval was given to establish monk soldiers.
a. གཞུང་གི་ཞབས་ཞུར་སེར་དམག་དྭང་བླངས་འཛུགས་འཐུས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
It was approved to establish (enrolling) monk volunteer soldiers to serve the
b. ཁོང་ཚོས་དེ་ལྟར་གནང་ན་འཐས་ཀྱི་རེད།
If they do (like) that, (it) will be approved. (h.)
c. བོད་ལ་ཕེབས་འཐུས་ཞེས་བཀའ་ཕེབས་ཤག།
An order has come that it was approved to go to Tibet.
d. ལས་ཀ་དེ་འདྲ་བྱས་ན་འཐུས་མིན་བཀའ་འདྲི་ཞུས་སོང་།
(They, he, etc.) asked whether (it) would be approved (or not) if (they, he, etc.) did
work (like) that.
e. ང་ཚོས་དེ་ལྟར་གནང་འཐུས་ཁོང་ལ་ཞུས་པ་ཡིན།
We told him that we approved doing like that.
Sometimes context requires that འཐུས་ be translated as "all right."
f. ཁོའི་དྲི་བ་དེ་ལ་ཁྱོད་རས་ལན་དེ་འདྲ་ཞིག་རྒྱབ་ན་འཐུས་ཀྱི་རེད།
It will be all right if you answer his question like that.
An alternative form for this is འགྲིགས་
g. ཁོའི་དྲི་བ་དེ་ལ་ལན་དེ་འདྲ་ཞིག་རྒྱབ་ན་འགྲིགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
It will be all right if (youl) answer his question like that.

11.13 "No choice" and "no way" constructions using ཀ་མེད་, ཐབས་མེད་, ཐབས་བྲལ་, ཚད་མེད་
མཐུ་མེད་, ཚད་བྲལ་, and རང་
All but the last of the above terms is used in the following pattern: མ་ + vb. + —
They convey "no choice" but to do the verbal action.
a. ཁོ་འདིར་མ་ཡོང་ཀ་མེད་རེད།
He had no choice but to come here.
b. ང་བོད་ལ་ལོ་གཉིས་བསྡད་དགོས་བྱུང་སྟབས་བོད་སྐད་མ་བསླབས་ཐབས་མེད་བྱུང་།

Because I had to live in Tibet for two years, I had no choice but to learn Tibetan.
c. ངའི་གཞུང་གིས་གྲོས་མཐུན་དེར་ཆ་འཇོག་མི་བྱེད་མཐུ་མིད་བྱུང་།
My government had no choice but to abide by that agreement.
Note that changing the stem of the verb in b. to non-past changes the overall tense (see c).
d. ང་བོད་ལ་ལོ་གཉིས་སྡོད་རྒྱུ་ཡིན་སྟབས་བོད་སྐད་མ་སློབ་ཐབས་བྲལ་རེད།
Because I will live in Tibet for two years, I will have no choice but to learn Tibetan.
Another semantically identical "no choice" pattern consists of. མ་ + vb. + རང་ + vb.
e. ཁོང་འདིར་མ་ཕེབས་རང་ཕེབས་རེད།
He had no choice but to come here. (h.)
f. སྲིད་གཞུང་ཡག་པོ་མེད་ཙང་། ངོ་ལོག་མ་རྒྱབ་ཐབས་བྲལ་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
Because the government was not good, (they, he, etc.) had no choice but to rebel.
Note that ཡག་པོ་མེད་ཙང་ is translated as past tense because of the past tense of the second
g. བག་ལེབ་མེད་པར་བརྟེན། ཁོ་ཚོ་འབྲས་མི་ཟ་ཐབས་མེད་རེད།
Because there is no bread, they have no choice but to eat rice.
h. ཁོར་ལས་ཀ་གཞན་དག་མེད་ཙང་། འདི་མ་བྱེད་རང་བྱེད་རེད།
Because he has no other work, he has no choice but to do this.
i. ཁོ་ཚོར་བཙན་གནོན་གཏོང་གི་ཡོད་པས། ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་ལ་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་དུ་མི་འགྲོ་ཀ་མེད་ཡིན་པ་རེད།
Because (they, he, etc.) are oppressing them, (they) have no choice but to seek refuge
When no negative precedes the verb, many of these can be used to convey that there is no
way the verbal action can/could occur. For example:
j. ཤིང་སྡོང་སྦོམ་པོ་ཡིན་ཙང་གཅོད་ཐབས་བྲལ་བ་རེད།
Because the tree is thick, there is no way to cut it down.

11.14 Constructions expressing the idea of "about" and "concerning": སྐོར་ and ཐད་
སྐོར་ and ཐད་ are two important words that convey "about" and "concerning.'" They
typically are linked to the words they modify by the genitive particle and often are
followed by the dative-locative particles. In examplea.below, སྐོར་ conveys what kind of
a petition he submitted.
a. ཁོས་འབྲོག་པའི་འཚོ་བའི་སྐོར་སྙན་ཞུ་ཞིག་ཕུལ་བ་རེད།
He submitted a petition concerning the livelihood of the nomads.
In example b., however, སྐོར་ is part of an adjectivized nominal clause modifying "petition'"

(སྙན་ཞུ་) .
b. འབྲོག་པའི་འཚོ་བའི་སྐོར་གྱི་སྙན་ཞུ་འདི་ང་ཚོས་ཀློག་དག་དགོས
We must read this petition about the livelihood of the nomads.
c. དམག་མིས་མི་དམངས་དཀྱིལ་ལ་མེ་མདའ་བརྒྱབ་སྐོར་ཚགས་པར་ནང་བྲིས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The newspaper contained (an article) concerning the soldiers shooting amongst
d. ཁོས་ཟླ་ཉིན་བོད་ལ་ཡུལ་བསྐོར་སྤྲོ་འཆམ་བྱས་སྐོར་གདམ་བཤད་བྱས་སོང་།
He gave a speech concerning his visit to Tibet last year.
Note that if the writer had intended to convey that he gave the speech last year, the
sentence would probably have been written ཁོས་བོད་ལ་ཡུལ་བསྐོར་སྤྲོ་འཆམ་བྱས་སྐོར་ཟླ་ཉིན་གཏམ་ཤད་
e. ང་ཚོས་འབྲོག་ལས་ཡར་རྒྱས་གཏོང་རྒྱུའི་སྐོར་ལ་འཆར་གཞི་ཞིག་བཀོད་པ་ཡིན།
We made a plan concerning improving animal husbandry.
f. ཨ་མི་རི་ཀ་བ་དེས་ལྷ་སའི་གཙུག་ལག་ཁང་གི་སྐོར་ལ་དེབ་ཅིག་བྲིས་ཤག།
The American has written a book concerning the Cathedal in Lhasa.
g. རྒྱལ་ཁབ་དེའི་སྐོར་ངས་གང་ཡང་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མེད།
I don't know anything (at all) about that nation.
ཐད་ perfornls the same function even though its use is not completely
interchangeable with སྐོར་
h. གནས་ཚུལ་འདིའི་ཐད་ལ་ཁོས་བསམ་འཆར་བཤད་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
He hasn't given (spoken) his opinion regarding this situation.
ཐད་ is also used to convey the meaning "by means of." In this role it generally
occurs with ནས་, i.e., ཐད་ནས་
i. བཟོ་ལས་ཀྱི་ཐད་ནས་ཁོ་ཚོ་གཞིས་ཆགས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
(They) aue setting them by means of (giving theml) industrial work.
11.15 Rhetorical negative constructions
Rhetorical negative constructions convey the idea "isn't it ..." or "aren't
there ...?" or "are there not ..." For example:
a. བོད་མི་ནི་ཆོས་པ་མ་རེད་དམ།
As for Tibetans, aren't they (considered) "religious people?" (are they not religious
Note that if this were not in the negative, the simple interrogative idea wouldbe

b. བོད་མི་ནི་ཆོས་པ་རེད་དམ།་
As for Tibetans, are they (considered) "religious people"?
c. བོད་ལ་དགོན་པ་ཆེན་པོ་མང་པོ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་དམ།
Aren't there many big monasteries in Tibet?
d. ག་ས་ག་ལ་དམྱལ་བ་མ་རེད་པས།
Isn't there hell everywhere?
e. རོ་ཞིག་མཐོང་བས་པ་ཕའི་སྙིང་ནད་ལང་ས་པ་མིན་ནམ་བསམས།
(He) thought, "Because (father) saw a corpse, (perhaps) father's heart disease has
started up?" [In colloquial = ñī་ŋnɛɛ̀ la̲ŋgi mɛ̲ɛ̀dro sām.]
f. བུས་ཨ་ཕའི་རྐང་པའི་རྨ་དེ་དྲག་མེད་དམ་བསམ།
The son thought, "(perhaps) the sore on father's leg is healing?"
If a conditional is used (e.g., g.),a probable future action is conveyed.
g. ཚ་ལུ་མ་ཁ་གཤགས་ན་ལྷ་མོ་གནམ་ལ་འཕུར་མི་ཡོང་ངམ་དགོངས་ནས་སྐྲག།
Thinking, "If (I) split open the orange, will not the goddess fly into the sky ?" (he) was
frightened. (If I split ... probably the goddess will fly ...)
h. རྒྱལ་སྲས་ཕྱིར་ལོག་ཕེབས་རྒྱུ་མི་འདུག་པས་འདྲེ་ཡིས་བཟས་པ་མ་ཡིན་ནམ།
Because the prince has not returned, might not a demon have eaten (himl)? (perhaps a
demon ate him)
i. གལ་ཏེ་ཨ་མ་དང་པ་ཕ་གཉིས་བསྡད་ཡོད་ན་གཏམ་བཟང་འདི་གོ་དུས་དགའ་པོ་ག་ཚད་ཡོང་གི་མ་རེད་ད་མ་བསམས།
(He) thought, "If mother and father were alive (]it., "living"),་when (they) heard
this good news how much gladness would they have not had? (i.e., they
would have been so happy.)
Another function of this type of construction is to convey "didn't I ... ?"
j. དམག་མི་ཡོང་གི་རེད་ཞེས་ངས་ཞུས་མ་བྱུང་ངམ།
Didn't I tell you that soldiers will come?
11.16 Double negatives
Tibetan makes frequent use of double negative constructions. There are several
common past tense constructions:
1. མ་ + vb. (past) + པ་ + neg. linking verb — མ་བྱས་པ་མ་རེད་
2. vb. + མིན་པ་ + neg. linking verb — བྱེད་རྒྱུ་མིན་པ་མ་རེད་
3. མི་ + vb. (pres. or non—past) + པ་ + ཡོང་གི་མ་རེད་ — མི་བྱེད་པ་ཡོང་གི་མ་རེད་
4. མ་ + vb. (past) + པ་ + neg. existential verb— མ་བྱས་པ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་
5. མ་ + vb. (past) + པ་ + བྱུང་ + neg. existential verb — མ་བྱས་པ་བྱུང་མི་འདུག་་ (or ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་)

The first, second, and third of these express the idea that "it is not that the verbal
action was not done."
a. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མ་བསས་པ་རེད། དགེ་རྒན་ཡག་པོ་མི་འདུག།
It is not that they were not diligent, (they) did not have a good teacher (the teacher
wasn't good) . (i.e., it means they were diligent.)
b. ཁོས་ཁ་ལག་འདི་ལ་དགའ་པོ་མ་བྱས་པ་མ་རེད། ཁོ་ན་བ་རེད།
It is not that he did not ike the food, he was sick.
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མ་བྱས་པ་མིན་ཀྱང་། ཁོ་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མ་བྱས་པ་རེད་ལབ་པ་རེད།
Even though it is not that they didn't work diligently, they said they did not work diligently.
d. ཁོས་ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་རྒྱུ་མིན་པ་མ་རེད།
It is not that he is not going to make food.
e. ཁོས་ང་ལ་རྩོལ་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་མིན་པ་མིན་ཀྱང་། ཞོར་ལ་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད།
Even though it is not that he will not do (manual) labor (i.e., even though he will do
manual labor,) (he) will study in his spare time.
f. ཁོས་བོད་ཀྱི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་མི་ཤོད་པ་ཡོང་གི་མ་རེད།
He will not not talk about Tibetan history. (i.e., he will talk about Tibetan history.)
The fourth and fifth constructions express the idea that "there is nothing with
regard to the verbal action that was not done" or "there was nothing (or hasn't been
anything) with regard to the verbal action that was not done."
g. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མ་བྱས་པ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
There isn't anything (or there is nothing) they didn't work diligently at.
h. མོས་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་མ་ཟས་པ་བྱུང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
There is not any Tibetan food that she has not eaten.
Double negative constructions are also used in subordinate clauses. Some typical
examples are:
i. ཁོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མ་བྱས་པ་མེད་ཀྱང་། གཞུང་གིས་ཁོར་བྱ་དགའ་མ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
Even though there isn't anything he hasn't done diligently, the government didn't give
him a prize.
j. གཞུང་གིས་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བ་དེ་ཚོར་རོགས་རམ་མ་བྱས་པ་བྱུང་མེད་ཙང་། ཁོ་ཚོ་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཆགས་པ་རེད།
Because there hasn't been anything that the government hasn't done to help the
refugees, they have become rich.
First person constructions take མེད་
k. ངས་བོད་པའི་གཞས་མ་གོ་བ་མེད།
There isn't any Tibetan song I haven't heard.

Perfect tense double negatives are commonly formed as follows vb. (past) + མེད་
+ པ་ + neg. linking verb.
l. ཁོ་ཚོས་གྲོས་ཐབས་བྱས་མེད་པ་མ་རེད། པུ་ལི་སིས་འཛིན་བཟུང་བྱས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
It isn't that they (have not tried or) did not try to flee, the police have arrested (them
m. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་མེད་པ་མིན་པ་མ་ཟད། གྲུབ་འབྲས་ཀྱང་ཡག་པོ་བྱུང་འདུག།
Not only isn't it that they haven't worked, (they) have even achieved a lot [lit.,
theyeven got a good result].
By substituting མི་ for མ་, and by using the present (non-past) verb stem,
present/usual tense double negative constructions aue formed. Note should be made,
however, that མ་ + vb. + མ་རེད་ constructions can also be used to express present time
context dictates.
n. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མི་བྱེད་པ་མ་རེད།  དགེ་རྒན་ཡག་པོ་མི་འདུག།
It is not that they are not diligent, (they) don't have a good teacher.
o. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་མི་ད་གོས་པ་མ་རེད། ཁོ་ན་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
It isn't that he does not have/need to work, he is sick.
p. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཧུར་བརྩོན་མི་བྱེད་པ་མིན་ཡང་། གཞུང་གིས་བྱ་དགའ་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Even though it isn't that they are not diligent, the government is not giving
them a prize.
q. ཁོ་ཚོས་ཁ་ལག་མི་ཟ་བ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
There is not (does not exist any) food they do not eat.
Double negative constructions also occur with linking and existential verbs.
r. བོད་པའི་ནང་ལ་ནང་པ་མིན་པ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Among Tibetans, there is not anyone who is not a Buddhist.
s. རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་གནམ་གྲུ་མེད་པ་མ་རེད།
It is not that China has no planes.
t. ཏང་ནང་ལ་ལོག་སྤྱོད་པ་མེད་པ་མིན་པར་བརྟེན། ལས་འགུལ་ཞིག་བྱེད་དགོས།
Because it is not that there are no reactionaries in the party, (we) must make a
campaign (against them) .
u. ལུང་པ་དེ་ལ་དམག་མེད་པ་བྱུང་མེད།
In that country, there has never been (a time) without war.
Present (usual) constructions are also formed by vb. (pres. or non-past) + ཀྱི་མེད་
པ་ + མ་རེད་
v. ཁོ་ཚོས་འདེབས་ལས་ཡག་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མེད་པ་མ་རེད། ད་ལོ་ཆར་པ་ཞེ་དྲགས་བབས་མ་སོང་།
It isn't that they are not planting well, it did not raina lot this year.

w. དེང་སང་ཁོ་ནང་ལ་སྡོད་ཀྱི་མེད་པ་མ་རེད། མཚན་ལས་བྱེད་པར་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
It is not that he is not living at home these days, (he) goes to work at night.
Constructions using མི་ + vb. (non—past) + པ་ + བྱེད་ + རྒྱུ་ + neg. existential verb
convey the idea of "should not not do" or, put positively, that "the action should be done"
x. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་མི་སྐྱོ་པོར་རོགས་རམ་མི་བྱེད་པ་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་མེད།
You shouldn't not help the poor people. (i.e., You should help ...)
y. ཁོ་ལ་སྐད་ཆ་མི་ཤོད་པ་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
(You) shouldn't not talk to him. (i.e., You should talk ...)
11.17 Double negative constructions with གཏན་ནས་, རྩ་བ་ནས་, ཁྱོན་ནས་, གྱོན་ནས་, and ནམ་ཡང་
These emphatic negative terms ("never," "not at al]") when used in double
negative constructions convey something less than the absolute negative sense. Thus,
whereas གཏན་ནས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མིན་ means "(I) don't know anything (about something)," གཏན་ནས་
མ་ཤེས་པ་མིན་ means "it is not that (I) don't know anything (about something) " (i.e., I know
a. གནས་བསྐོར་བ་དེ་ཚོས་ལམ་ག་གཏན་ནས་མ་ཤེས་པ་མིན་ཀྱང་། གསལ་པོ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མི་འདུག།
Even though the pilgrims did not completely not know the road, (they) did not know
it clearly.
b. ཁོ་བོད་ལ་ཐེངས་མང་པོ་ཕེབས་མེད་ཀྱང་། རྩ་བ་ནས་ཕེབས་མ་མྱོང་བ་མ་རེད།
Even though he hasn't gone to Tibet many times, it is not that (he) has never
experienced going there.
c. བཀྲིས་ཀྱིས་ཆང་གཏན་ནས་མ་འཐུང་བ་མིན་ཀྱང་། ཞེ་དྲགས་འཐུང་གི་མི་འདུག།
Even though Tashi has not never drunk beer, he doesn't drink much.
d. འབྲོག་པས་ནམ་རྒྱུན་ཆང་འཐུང་གི་མེད་ཀྱང་། རྩ་བ་ནས་མ་འཐུང་བ་མ་རེད།
Even though nomads usually do not drink beer, it is not that (they) never drink it.
e. དེང་སང་ལྷ་སར་ལྟ་སྐོར་བ་མང་པོ་གཏོང་གི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་དེ། རྩ་བ་ནས་མི་གཏོང་བ་མ་རེད།
Even though these days (they) are not sending (allowing) many tourists to go to
Lhasa, it is not that (they) arecompletely not sending (theml).
f. ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་སློབ་གྲྭར་གཏན་ནས་མ་ཕྱིན་པ་བྱས་མེད་པ་མ་ཟད། དགོང་མོ་ནང་ལ་མ་ལོག་པ་ཡང་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Not only does this child never not go to school, (he) even doesn't not return home in the
the evening. (He sometimes goes to school and returns home in the
11.18 Double negative constructions with ཐུབ་, དྲན་, མཐོང་, བསམ་, and ཤེས་
a. ཁོས་བོད་ཀྱི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་ཤོད་མི་ཐུབ་པ་ཡོང་གི་མ་རེད།

It won't come about that he won't be able to talk (about) Tibetan history.
(He will (definitely) be able to talk (about) Tibetan history.)
Note the difference when we switch to an existential verb:
b. ཁོས་བོད་ཀྱི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་ཤོད་མི་ཐུབ་པ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
There is nothing (about) Tibetan history he is unable to talk (about).
c. ཁོས་ངལ་རྩོལ་མ་ཐབ་པ་མིན་ཙང་ང་ཚོས་མི་གླར་གླ་དགོས།
We have to hire (him) because he is not unable to do hard work.
d. ཁོ་ཡོང་མ་ཐུབ་པ་མ་རེད། མ་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
Its not that he was unable to come, (he) didn't come.
e. ཁོ་ཚོའི་ནང་ནས་བོད་ཡིག་འབྲི་ཀློག་མི་ཐུབ་པ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
There is no one among thern who is unable to read and write Tibetan.
f. ཁོ་འདིར་ཡོང་རྒྱུ་མིན་པ་དྲན་མ་སོང་།
(He) didn't remember that he wasn't coming here.
g. ཁོས་ནང་ལ་མ་བསྡད་པ་མཐོང་མ་བྱུང་།
(I) didn't see him (when) he was not staying at home. (I never saw him not staying
h. ཁོས་བོད་ཀྱི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་མི་ཤེས་པ་མ་རེད། བཤད་འདོད་མེད་པ་རེད།
It is not that he doesn't know Tibetan history, (he) doesn't want to talk (about it).

11.19 Constructions with ག་: vb. + ག་ + བྱེད་ or བྱས་
This pattern conveys a number of rather different meanings. The first is to "try to do"
the verbal action.
a. ཁོས་དགག་པ་རྒྱབ་ག་བྱས་པ་རེད་དེ། མ་ཐོབ་པ་རེད།
Even though he tried to rebut (it), (he) did not win.
This conveys that the speaker did not really think he could win but tried anyway.
A second common meaning for this construction is to "pretend to" do the verbal
b. ཁོས་འགྲོ་ག་བྱས་ནས་ཉལ་བསྡད་པ་རེད།
Pretending to go (out), he slept.
c. ཁོས་བཙོང་ག་བྱས་ནས་སྦས་པ་རེད།
Pretending to sell it, he hid it.
A third usage conveys that the speaker does not like something or considers the
action done to be inappropriate. For example:
d. ཁོས་ཁང་པ་རྒྱབ་ག་བྱས་ནས་རྙོགས་ཁྲ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།

Because he built a house it brought problems.
This sentence conveys that the writer feels the subject did not have to build the house.

11.20 Reading exercises
11.20.1 Reading number one: "The Urine of the Precious Gem" Tibetan text
༄༅།། །། ནོར་གཅིན་བཏང་པ། 1
སྔར་བོད་ཀྱི་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་སྣེ་གདོང་ཟེར་བའི་ཡུལ་ན་2 སྣེ་གདོང་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཟེར་བ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་དེར་3 བློན་པོ་ཉི་ཆོས་
བཟང་པོ་ཟེར་བའི་བློ་རིག་ཧ་ཅང་བཀྲ་བ་ཞིག་4 ཡོད། ཉིན་ཞིག་ཉི་ཆོས་བཟང་པོས་རྒྱལ་པོར་ཞུས་པར5 ། རྒྱལ་པོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ6།
གཞན་གྱིས་རྩ་ཆེའི་ནོར་བུ་རྣམས་ཕྱིར་བཏོན་ནས་འོད་ཟེར་འཕྲོ་རུ་འཇུག་7 གི་ཡོད་པ་དེ་ནི་8 བརྗིད་ཉམས་ལྡན་ཞིང་9 སྙན་གྲགས་
ཆེན་པོ་འདུག། ང་ཚོའི་ནོར་བུ་ནམས་བང་མཛོད་ནང་དུ་བཅུག་ནས་བཞག་པ་དེར་ཆོ་མེད་པ་ཞིག་རེད། ཅེས་ཞུས་པར།
དེའི་སང་ཉིན་སྔ་དྲོ་ཉི་ཤར་གྱི་མཚམས་སུ་ 10 ཉི་ོས་བཟང་པོས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་ནོར་བུ་རྩ་འགངས་ཆེ་ཤོས་དེ་
ཕོ་བྲང་གི་ནུབ་ངོས་རི་ལྡེབས་ཤིག་གི་ཐོག་ཏུ་བསླང་ས་ནས་བཞག་པ་དེར་ 11 ཉི་འོད་ཕོག་པའི་སྐབས་སུ་དངོས་འབྲེལ་འོད་ཟེར་ཆེན་
པོ་སྤྲོ་བཞིན་ཡོད། སྐབས་དེར་ཉི་ཆོས་བཟང་པོས་མགྱོགས་མྱུར་རྒྱལ་པོའི་དྲུང་དུ་རྒྱུགས་ཕྱིན་ནས་ 12 རྒྱལ་པོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ། རྒྱང་
ཤེལ་བསྣམས་ཏེ་ཕོ་བྲང་གི་ཡང་སྟེང་ནས་ནོར་བུའི་བརྗིད་ཉམས་ལྡན་པའི་འོད་ཟེར་ལ་གཟིགས་པར་ཕེབས་དང་། 13 ཞེས་བཤད་
པར། རྒྱལ་པོས་བྲེལ་འཚབ་ངང་བློན་འཁོར་14 ཚང་མ་འཁྲིད་དེ་ཕོ་བྲང་གི་ཡང་སྟེང་ནས་ལྟ་སྐབས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་བསམ་པར་ནོར་
ཉིན་གང་བལྟས་པའི་མཐར་15 ཕྱི་དྲོ་ཉི་མ་བཞུད་ལ་ཉེ་བའི་སྐབས་སུ་16 ནོར་བུའི་འོད་ཟེར་ཆུང་དུ་ཆུང་དུ་འགྲོ་བཞིན་འདུག་
པས་ཁྱོད་རང་ཕ་གིར་མགྱོགས་མྱུར་ལྟ་བར་རྒྱུགས་དང་ཞེས་བཤད་པ་ལྟར་17 ཉི་ཆོས་བཟང་པོས་ལྟ་བར་ཕྱིན་རྗེས་ཚུར་རྒྱུགས་ཡོང་
18 ནས་ད་ནི་དཔེ་བསགས་འདུག། ནོར་བུས་ནོར་གཅིན་བཏང་ནས་བྲོས་ཕྱིན་འདུག། རྒྱལ་པོ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ།་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཕ་གིར་

ནི་དཔེ་བསགས་འདུག། ད་ཇི་ལྟར་བྱས་ན་ལེགས་ 19 དེའི་འདྲའི་ནོར་བུའི་ཕངས་པ་ལ་ཨང་20 ཞེས་བཤད་ནས་ག་བྱེད་འདི་
བྱེད་མེད་པར་གྱུར21།། Translation
The Urine of the Precious Gem
Formerly, in the area in southern Tibet called Nedong, there was a king called
King Nedong who had a very intelligent minister called Ñijösauŋbo. One day Ñijösauŋbo
said to the king, "King Rimpoche, others take out their precious gems and make them
sparkle in the light. As for that, it is a grand and fame-producing thing. Leaving our
precious gems in our storeroom is senseless." The king said, "If that is so, then take out
our most precious gem and you, Ñijösauŋbo, make it shine in the light tomorrow."
The next day, early, at the time the sun rose, Ñijösauŋbo took out the king's most
precious gem from the treasury and took it to his house and buried it there. After this, he
immediately went to the bank of a river, broke off a piece of ice, and (went) up the side
of a hill to the west of the king's palace and left it standing up there. At the time when the
sun's rays hit that, there really was a great glittering. At that time, Ñijösauŋbo quickly went
running to the king and said, "King Rimpoche, bring a telescope. Come to see a glorious
glittering gem from the roof of the palace."
The king hurried, taking along all his retinue and ministers. When they looked
from the roof of the palace the king thought in his mind, "The gem's glitter is really
shining," and was extremely happy. He even ate his noon meal on the roof, (staying)
looking all day. Finally, in the late afternoon when the sun was close to setting, because
the glitter from the gem was getting less and less, (the king) said, "you go quickly over
there to lookl" Accordingly, Ñijösauŋbo went to look andafterwards came running back
and said, "Oh my goodness. The gem has urinated gem-urine and fled away. King
Rimpoche, go at once to the place where the gem was left to see." The king went to look
as soon as he head this.
When he arrived over there, he really saw only (nothing other than) the wetness
of the melted ice. He said at that time, "Now, oh my goodness. Now what is better to do?
Oh, what a shame (to lose) a gem such as this." And there was nothing he could do. Grammatical notes
The title is a cryptic phrase meaning "gem-urination." It is actually an abbreviation of
the phrase ནོར་བུས་ནོར་གཅིན་བཏང་, which means "(by) the precious gem did a gem-urination."
The normal term for "urinate" is གཅིན་པ་བཏང་ but here the story embellishes by indicating
that a gem urinated, calling it a gem-urination, although at this point what that really
means is not clear. Linguistically, the phrase is constructed by adding the first syllable of
the word gem (ནོར་) to urine (ནོར་ + གཅིན་) and dropping the པ་ in གཅིན་པ་བཏང་.
2. ན་ as used here in ཡུལ་ན་ conveys neither the "if " verbal connective, nor the verb "be
sick." Instead it is another of the dative-locative particles meaning "in," "at," "to."
3. དེར་ marks the subject in what is basically an existential sentence ("to the king, existed
X"—སྣེ་གདོང་རྒྱལ་པོ་...དེར་ ... X ... ཡོད) . Between སྣེ་གདོང་རྒྱལ་པོ་ and དེར་ is the nominalized phrase
ཟེར་བ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་, which means "was one who was called." Thus, the entire construction
means "to that one who was called Nedong King ..."
4. The phrase བློ་རིག་ཧ་ཅང་བཀྲ་བ་ཞིག་ breaks down into བློ་རིག་ ("intellect"),ཧ་ཅང་ ("very"),བཀྲ་
བ་ ("bright, sharp"), and ཞིག་ ("a/one"). Together they mean "one who was very
intelligent." It is modified via the genitive to བློན་པོ་ཉི་ཆོས་བཟང་པོ་ཟེར་བའི་ ("who was called
Minister Ñijösanbo") . These together convey "one who was very intelligent who was
called Minister Ñijösauŋbo." They tell what the King had: "he had one who was very
intelligent called ..."
5.  The ར་ in ཞུས་པར་ is an example of the dative-locative used with nominalized verb
stems to convey "concerning" the verbal action (see 6.6.3) . Here it is used to introduce
the minister's direct speech, i.e., what he said to the king. It would be translated literally
as "concerning what the minister said to the king."
6. The use of རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ here does not convey that the king was an incaurnate lama. It is used
merely as a polite honorific.
7. See 1.7.1 for the explanation of འཇུག་ Here ཕྱིར་བཏོན་ནས་འོད་ཟེར་འཕྲོ་རུ་འཇུག་ conveys that
after talking it out (of the treasury), he made it so that it shone.
8. The particle ནི་ marks the completion of the nominalized subjectof this existential
construction ("X is Y") . The X is "as for others making (their) precious gems shine'" (གཞན་
9. The particle ཞིང་ functions here as an adjectival conjunctive (see10.3.7), joining བརྗིད་

ཉམས་ལྡན་ and སྙན་གྲགས་ཆེན་པོ་
10. The particle མཚམས་སུ་ is one of the "when" connectives (5.10).
l l.The phrase བསླངས་ནས་བཞག་ means "having set (it) up, left it. "It is modified by a phrase
indicating the location of the "setting up"་ ནུབ་ངོས་རི་ལྡེབས་ཤིག་གི་ཐོག་ཏུ་ ("on the face of a
mountain in the west") . The last portion of the phrase (པ་དེར་) nominalizes it བསླངས་ནས་
བཞག་པ་དེར་ ("to that which was set up and left ").
12. The combination རྒྱུག་ཕྱིན་ is a typical pattern conveying simultaneous action, in this
case, "went ruunning."
13. The particle དང་ functions here as a polite imperative conveying "please" come (7.12.)
14. Tibetan authors frequently use abbreviations such as བློན་འཁོར་, which consists of the
first syllables of both བློན་པོ་ ("minister") and འཁོར་བཅས་ ("retinue").
15. མཐར་ ("finally, in the end, at last") is a word that usually is placed at the start of the
second of two syllables (མོས་བོད་ཡིག་ལོ་མང་པོ་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱས་པ་དང་། མཐར་བོད་ཡིག་ཤེས་པ་རེད་). It is used
here, however, as a verbal clause connective being joined to the verb by the genitive
particle. It conveys, "looked all day, and in the end ..."
16. (ལ་) ཉི་བའི་སྐབས་སུ་ is a phrase conveying "at the time when it was close to ..."
17.  ལྟར་ occurs with nominalized verbs to convey "like" or "in accordance with" or "in the
manner of." Here it meauns "in accordance with what he said."
18. རྒྱུགས་ཡོང་—like རྒྱུག་ཕྱིན་—also conveys simultaneous action—"came running." Note that
རྒྱུགས་ is sometimes spelled with a final "s."
19. ཇི་ལྟར་ + vb. + ན་ + ལེགས་ is a common construction that means, "how is it best to do the
verbal action?"
20. ཕང་ས་པ་ལ་ཨང་ is a common spoken phrase meaning "Oh, what a shame."
21. ག་བྱེད་འདི་བྱེད་མེད་པར་གྱུར་ is a common phrase meaning "he came into a state in which
there was nothing that could be done."

11.20.2 Reading number two. "The Origin of Shodön [The "Curd" or "Opera" Festival]" Tibetan text
བའི་དུས་སྟོན་ཞིག་རེད། སྔར་གཞུང་ས་དགའ་ལྡན་ཕོ་བྲང་གིས་ l ཞོ་སྟོན་བྱེད་སྒོ་ཁག་2 འབྲས་སྤུངས་དགོན་པར་བྱེད་སྲོལ་3
བྱུང་འདུག། དེའི་དུས་བོད་ལ་ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་ཁག་བཙུ་གཉིས་ཡོད་པ་ཚང་མ་4 ལོ་ལྟར་དུས་ཚོད་དེར་འབྲས་སྤུངས་དགོན་པར་
འཁྲབ་སྟོན་དུ་ཡོང་5 དགོས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
དེས་6 ལྕགས་ཟམ་གྱི་འགྲོ་སོང་གཏོང་ཆེད་ད་དུ། ལྷ་སའི་ནུབ་ངོས་ཀྱི་ཆུ་ཤུལ་ལྕགས་ཟམ་ལས་གྲ་7 ནས་ཕོ་མོ་མཛེས་པ་དང་སྐད་
གདངས་ལེགས་པ་འདམ་གསེས་ཀྱིས་གླུ་གར་ཚོགས་པ་ཞིག་སྒྲིག་འཛུགས་བྱས[ ཚོགས་པ་དེས་ལྷ་སའི་མང་ཚོགས་ལ་འཁྲབ་སྟོན་
བྱས་པ་དེ་ནས་བཟུང་ལྷ་མོ་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་དེ་ཆགས་པ་རེད། ད་བར་ལྷ་མོའི་འཁྲབ་གཞུང་དུ། འགྲོ་བ་བཟང་མོ་དང་། སྣང་
ས་འོད་འབུམ། གཟུགས་ཀྱི་ཉི་མ། པད་མ་འོད་འབར། ཆོས་རྒྱལ་ནོར་བཟང་། གཙུང་པོ་དོན་ཡོད་དོན་གྲུབ། དྲི་མེད་ཀུན་
ལྡན། རྒྱ་བཟའ་བལ་བཟའ། རས་ཆུང་སོགས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ཟེར་མཁན་ཞིག་ཡོད། ཉིན་ཞིག་རྒྱལ་པོ་རི་དྭགས་རྒྱག་པར་འགྲོ་དུས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཁྱི་བརླག་པ་འཚོལ་དུ་འགྲོ་སར་8 མི་ཚང་གཅིག་
ལ་རན་རྒོན་གཉིས་དང་བུ་མོ་ཧ་ཅང་གི་མཛེས་མ་འགྲོ་བ་བཟང་མོ་ཟེར་བ་ཞིག་བཅས་9 ཡོད་པ་རེད། བུ་མོ་དེ་རྒྱལ་པོས་མཐོང་མ་
ཐག་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཤིན་ཏུ་དགའ་ནས་ལམ་སེང་བཀའ་བཏང་སྟེ་བུ་མོ་དེ་རང་གི་མནའ་མར་བསྐོང་ 10 སྟེ་སྲས་སྲོས་ཡང་གཉིས་བྱུང་བ་
བཙུན་མོ་ཧ་ཤང་བདུད་མོས་དེ་ལ་མི་དགའ་བ་ཆེན་པོ་11 བྱས་ཏེ་རང་ལ་དགའ་བའི་12 བློན་པོ་དང་ངན་འབྲེལ་གྱིས་
རྒྱལ་པོ་བཙོན་དུ་བཅུག་པ་དང་འགྲོ་བ་བཟང་མོ་གསོད་གྲབས་བྱས་13 ཀྱང་མོ་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱིས་གནམ་ལ་འཕུར་སྟབས་བསད་མ་ཐུབ་
པར་ཤོར།14 འོན་ཀྱང་ཕྲུ་གུ་གཉིས་བྲོས་མ་ཐུབ་སྟབས་ཧ་ཤང་བདུད་མོས་ལམ་སེང་ཐག་རིང་དུ་གསོད་པར་གཏོང་དུས་གསོད་
མཁན་གྱིས་བུ་མོ་དེར་སྙིང་རྗེ་ནས་གསོད་མ་ནུས་པར་བཞག་པས་ལུས།15 བུ་དེ་ནི་རི་སྟེང་ནས་མར་དབྱུགས་ཀྱང་ཨ་མའི་སྤྲུལ་པ་
རྒོད་དཀར་པོའི་གཤོག་པའི་སྟེང་དུ་བླངས་པས་མ་ཤི་བ་རེད། བུ་ལྷ་སྲས་རྒྱལ་པོ་དེ་ཡུལ་པད་མ་ཅན་ཟེར་བར་སླེབས་སྐབས་ལུང་པ་

དེའི་མི་སེར་རྣམས་ནས་ཁོང་རྒྱལ་པོར་བསྐོས། རྒྱལ་པོ་དེས་དམག་དྲངས་ནས་ཧ་ཤུང་བདུད་མོ་དང་དམག་འཐབ་མཐར་བདུད་
མོ་ཕམ་ནས་ཤི་བ་དང་། རང་གི་ཕ་ཀ་ལ་དབང་པོ་བཙོན་ཁང་ནས་བཏོན་ཞིང་མ་འགྲོ་བ་བཟང་མོ་ནམ་མཁའ་ནས་ཕྱིར་ཕེབས་ཐུབ་
པ་བྱུང་། རྒྱལ་བཙུན་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་ཀྱང་དུས་ཡུན་གང་ཙམ་ནས་བུ་མོ་ལྷ་གཅིག་ཀུན་བཟང་རྩད་ཆོད་ནས་རང་ཡུལ་དུ་འབྱོར། རྒྱལ་
ལྷ་མོ་བ་ཚང་མས་ཚེས་ཉི་ཤུ་དགུའི་ཉིན་རྩེ་ཕྱག་ལས་ཁུངས་སུ་འབྱོར་ཐོ་བཀོད། དེ་ནས་འབྲས་སྤུངས་ཕོ་བྲང་དུ་
གཟིགས་ཕུད་ཕུལ་ཏེ་འབྲས་སྤུངས་དགོན་པའི་ནང་འཁྲབ་གཞུང་མི་འདྲ་བ་ཁག་བགོས་ཀྱིས་འཁྲབ་སྲོལ་ཡོད། ལྷ་ས་དང་གྲོང་གསེབ་
ཟབ་ 16 བྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད། ཟེར་སྲོལ་ལ། འབྲས་སྤུངས་ཞོ་སྟོན་སྐད་གྲགས་ཆེན་པོ་དེས། གྲྭ་པ་གྲྭ་རྐྱང་17 སྤྲང་པོར་བཏང་།18
ཞེས་པའང་དེ་ནས་བྱུང་པ་རེད། ཞོ་སྟོན་དེ་ནི་འབྲས་སྤུངས་དགོན་པར་དགེ་འདུན་རྣམས་ད་བྱར་གནས་ཞེས་ཆར་དུས་ཀྱི་མཚམས་
བོད་ཟླ་བདུན་པའི་ཚེས་གཅིག་ཉིན་ནོར་གླིང་20 ཕོ་བྲང་དུ་ཞལ་ཕུད་འབུལ་བ་དང་དེ་ནས་བདུན་གཅིག་རིང་ལྷ་མོའི་ལོ་
རྒྱུས་རེ་21 ཉིན་གང་འཁྲབ་དེ་དགོང་མོ་དམག་སྒར་ཁག་ནས་རུ་སྒྲིག་ས་ལམ་ཡང་ཞུ་སྲོལ་ཡོད།
དེ་ནས་ལྷ་མོའི་ཚོགས་པ་ཁག་ཚོས་ལྷ་སའི་ནང་གི་སྐུ་དྲག་ཁག་དང་བླ་བྲང་ཁག་ལ་འཁྲབ་སྟོན་བྱེད་པ་དང་། འཁྲབ་སྟོན་
སྐབས་ལྷ་མོ་བ་ཚང་མར་ཁ་བཏགས་གཡོག་པ་དང་ཇ་འབྲུ་དངུལ་བཅས་ཀྱི་གསོལ་རས་ཆེན་པོ་གནང་ཡོང་།22 དེ་ནས་ལྷ་མོ་
འཁྲབ་མཁན་གྱིས་ལྷ་རྒྱལ་འཐེན་པ་དང་། ད་དུང་སྦྱིན་བདག་ལ་བྱ་བ་ལམ་འགྲོ་23 དང་། སྐུ་ཚེར་བར་ཆད་མི་ཡོང་བའི་སྨོན་
འདུན་ཡང་ཞུ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། ལྷ་མོ་བ་ཚོ་ལྷ་སར་ཡོང་དགོས་པའི་རྒྱུ་རྐྱེན་ནི་གཞུང་གི་ལྷ་མོའི་ཁྲལ་ཞིག་རེད།
སྤྱི་ཚོགས་རྙིང་པའི་ནང་དུ་སྐད་གྲགས་ཡོད་པའི་ལྷ་མོའི་ཚོགས་པ་སྐྱོར་མོ་ལུང་བ་ཕུད། དེ་མིན་24 ཚང་མ་གྲོང་
གསེབ་ཁག་ནས་ཡོང་པ་ཤ་སྟག་25 རེད། དཔེར་ན་གྲོང་གསེབ་ནས་ཡོང་བའི་ལྷ་མོ་བ་ཚོས་ལྷ་སར་ལྷ་མོ་འཁྲབ་པའི་དུས་
ཚོད་ཕུད། རྒྱུན་དུ་གྲོང་གསེབ་ནང་ཞིང་ལས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་བཀྲིས་ཞོལ་པ་ནི་ལྷོ་ཁ་ཡར་ལུང་ནས་ཡིན་པ་
དང་། དེ་བཞིན་གཙུང་པ་ནི་སྟོད་ངམ་རིང་། རྒྱང་དཀར་བ་རིན་སྤུངས་ནས་རེད།

བཅུག་པ་རེད། ༡༩༨༠ ལོ་ནས་བཟུང་སྲིད་ཇུས་ལྷུག་ཏུ་སོང་ནས་ལྷ་མོ་རིམ་བཞིན་འཁྲབ་མགོ་ཚུགས་པ་ད་ང་། ༡༩༨༥ ལོ་
ནས་བཟུང་ཞོ་སྟོན་ཡང་བསྐྱར་གསོ་བྱུང་ཡོད་པ་རེད། ད་ལྟའི་སྐྱོ་མོ་ལུང་པ་ནི་བོད་ལྗོངས་ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་ཡིན་པ་དང་།ལྷེ་མོ་བ་
ཚོའི་ཕོགས་ཀྱང་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་རང་ནས་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། དེ་མིན་ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་གཞན་དག་ཚང་མ་ལས་ཞོར་ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་རྐྱང་
རྐྱང་རེད།། Translation
The Origin of Shodön [The "Curd" or "Opera" Festival]
Shodön is the festival that begins on the 30th day of the 6th month of the Tibetan
calendar. It goes on for several weeks after that (date),with artistic performances and
picnics (being held) in Lhasa. In the past, the custom arose whereby the Tibetan
government held this opera festival in Drepung monastery. All twelve opera (literally
"goddess") associations had to gather aunnually at Drepung monastery to perfornm the
operas at this time.
As for (the origin of the) Tibetan opera:
The yogin called Tangdong Gyebo, (the one) who had constructed more than one
hundred iron-link bridges in Tibet, (began it) in the past in order to pay for the expenses
of the iron bridges. He selected attractive girls and boys with good voices from a work
site at Chushul (south of Lhasa) and organized (them into) a dance troupe. When they
performed the opera in Lhasa, all the people were surprised and said that it was as if the
performers had come from the realm of the gods. They received so much praise from the
public that from that time onward the name "lhamo" ("goddess") came (into use for their
performances) As of now, there (are a number of) opera stories such as: Dhrowasangmo,
Nangsaömbum, Sugiñima, Pemeömbar, Chögyenorsang, Jungpo Dkönyödöndrup,
Drirnegunden, Gyasabesa, and Rechung.
(To give an) example (of the plot of an opera, let us take) the play Drowasangmo:
A long time ago in Mon there wasa king called Galawangbo who had a queen called
Hashangdümo. One day when the king was going hunting he lost his dog, and at the place
where he was looking for it, he met a family consisting of an old couple and a very
beautiful girl whose name was Drowasangmo. As soon as the king saw the girl he felt
extremely happy and summoned the girl to the palace as his bride. After that they had

two children.
Oueen Hashangdümo did not like that at all and, conspiring with ministers who
liked her, put the king in prison and tried to kill Drowasaungmo. However, she flew into
the sky and escaped, so they couldn't kill her. Nevertheless her two children were not
able to run away. Hashangdümo immediately odered them taken to a remote area and
killed. At this time the men taking them felt compassion for the girl and did not dare to
kill her. As for the boy, they threw him from a high mountain but a white vulture who
was an emanation of his mother came at once and carried him on (its) wings, saving his
life. When Lhasegyebo, the boy, reached the place called "Pemajen," the local people
selected him as their king. He then sent his soldiers (to) battle with Hashaungdümo. She
was finally defeated and died. Then Lhasegyebo took his father, Galawangbo, out of
prison and his mother, Dhrowasangmo, was able to return from the sky. Some years later,
the king and queen were also able to find out about their daughter, Lhachikgnünsang, and
she arrived back home. King Galawangbo ruled his countrry like before, and because of
this all the people were very happy.
Later, (during) the era of the 7th Dalai Lama, most of the operas moved from
Drepung to Norbulingka, which became the main site of the Shodön opera performances.
On the 29th, all of the opera associations register their arrival with the Tseja
Office. After that, they perfornm their "first day" show in the "Palace" at Drepung.
Having done that, there is a custom that they divide into groups and perform different
operas in Drepung monastery. On that day many guests from Lhasa and the nearby
villages gather at Drepung, so the Drepungers (the monks) welcome the guests
excellently (with generous hospitality) . Thus there is a saying, "The famous Drepung
opera festival makes a common monk a beggar." This opera festival is called Shodön
because long ago at the time the monks stayed in the monastery during the rainy season
at "summer retreat" there was a custom of inviting (them to a) party (at which) curds
(were served), and therefore it became known as the "curd festival."
On the 1st day of the 7th month of the Tibetan calendar they have to perform the
"offering show"་ at Norbulingka palace. After that, for one week, each opera is performed
for a whole day. It is a tradition that in the evening (at the end of the performances),
soldiers of the different regiments line up in rows to salute them (the performers).
After that, the troupes perform for aristocratic families and for high lamas at their

residences in Lhasa. At the time of the performance, all the opera performers have
scarves put around their necks and will be given a large present consisting of tea, barley,
and money. The opera performers shout at this time, "May the gods be victorious, "and
also offer wishes for the patrons (donors) to have success in their business and no harm in
their lives. The reason for these opera troupes having to come to Lhasa is that there was a
government opera tax.
In the "old society," with the exception of the famous Gyomo lunga opera troupe,
all the others came only from villages. The opera troupes who came from the villages
were always (engaged ir) doing agricultural work except when they come to Lhasa to
perform. As for the opera association Tashishöpa, it is from Yrlung in Lhoka. Similarly,
Jungba is from Ngamring in Dö, and Gyang karwa is from Rimpung.
During the Great Cultural Revolution a movement called "Destroy the old, begin
the new" was started and such things as Tibetan religion, culture, and native customs
were seriously destroyed. At this time in Tibet the opera performances also were
absolutely not allowed. Since 1980,the government policy has become looser and opera
performances were gradually started. Since1985, the Opera Festival also started again.
Gyomo lunga currently is the Tibet National Opera Association, their salary being paid
by the state. Besides this, all the other groups are just spare-time opera associations. Grammatical notes
1. དགའ་ལྡན་ཕོ་བྲང་ was the name of the Dalai Lama's residence in Drepung monastery at the
time of the 5th Dalai Lama and became the name of the government he headed. གཞུང་ས་
means "place of the government" and is commonly used with དགའ་ལྡན་ཕོ་བྲང་ when the
government is meant.
2. ཞོ་སྟོན་བྱེད་སྒོ་ཁག་ breaks down into ཞོ་སྟོན་ ("the name of the festival"), བྱེད་སྒོ་ ("activities,
work, duties"), and ཁག་, the pluralizer described in10. Together they mean the
various activities ot Shodön. A genitive particle could have been used here ཞོ་སྟོན་གྱི་བྱེད་སྒོ་
3. སྲོལ་, as described in Lesson 9 (9.17.l.3.l), is used after verbs to convey "the custom"
of doing the verbal action. Here it means that "the government made it the custom that
the various activities of Shodön would be done at Drepung monastery."
4. The clause དེའི་དུས་བོད་ལ་ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་ཁག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ཡོད་པ་ཚང་མ་ consists of the existential

sentence "there were twelve different opera troupes in Tibet at that time" (དེའི་དུས་བོད་ལེ་ལྷ་མོ་
ཚོགས་པ་ཁག་བཅུ་གཉིས་ཡོད་པ་རེད་), which was nominalized by ending it as (ཡོད་པ་) . It then
becomes the subject of the clause, being modified by "all" (ཚང་མ་) . Thus, "all twelve of
the Opera troupes that existed in Tibet at that time ..."
5. འཁྲབ་སྟོན་ is used here as a verb ("to perform a play"), so that the phrase འཁྲབ་སྟོན་དུ་ཡོང་
becomes "came to perform a play."
6. This phrase consists of the subject/actor ("the one called Siddhi [གྲུབ་ཐོབ་] Tangdong
Gyebo" [ཐང་སྟོང་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཟེར་མཁན་]) plus a long nominalized phrase ("who had the experience
of building") and then an instrumentalized demonstrative (དེས་) conveying : by that
Siddhi Tangdong Gyebo." Thus, "By that one, the Siddhi Tangdong Gyebo who had built.
Between གྲུབ་ཐོབ་ཐང་སྟོང་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཟེར་མཁན་ and དེས་ is a phrase (modifying the former)
that says "who had built over 100 iron-link bridges in Tibet" (བོད་ལ་ལྕགས་ཐག་ཟམ་པ་ཁག་བརྒྱ་ལྷག་
7. This phrase could also be written with genitive particles: ཆུ་ཤུལ་གྱི་ལྕགས་ཟམ་གྱི་ལས་གྲ་
8. The phrase རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཁྱི་བརླག་པ་འཚོལ་དུ་འགྲོ་སར་ breaks down into "to the place (where they
were) going (འགྲོ་སར་) to search (འཚོལ་དུ་) for the king's lost dog (རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཁྱི་བརླག་པ་)." རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཁྱི་
བརླག་པ་ is a nominalized phrase meaning "the king's dog which was lost."
9. The use of བཅས་ here conveys that the enumeration is complete, i.e., inclusive (see 6.4).
Here it means that there were only the three of them in the household.
10. བུ་མོ་དེ་རང་གི་མནའ་མར་བསྐོང་ the dative-locative particle after མནའ་མ་ conveys "as"—
"summoned that girl as his bride."
11. མི་དགའ་བ་ཆེན་པོ་ means "a great not liking," the syllable མི་ here functioning as a negative
("no") rather than the word "man." The use of བྱས་ verbalizes this.
12. The phrase རང་ལ་དགའ་བའི་ ("who liked self") refers to the queen and modifies and
describes བློན་པོ་དང་ངན་འབྲེལ་ ("ministers and accomplices"): "the ministers and accomplices
who liked (herself) the queen."
13. We encountered གྲབས་ in 7.11 where it conveyed "about" to do the verbal action. This
clause reveals a second meaning for གྲབས་: "prepare" to do the verbal action. Thus, གསད་
གྲབས་བྱས་ཀྱང་ conveys "even though (they) prepared to kill (her)."
14. The dative-locative particle makes the phrase བསད་མ་ཐུབ་པར་ ("not able to kill") an

adverbial phrase modifying ཤོར་ ("escape") . Thus, "'she escaped in the manner of not
being able to be killed."
15.  པས་ལུས་ is a pattern used with active verbs to convey that the subject was "left behind"
or "left over." In this case it is redundant, emphasizing that the girl was left alive. Other
examples of this are:
(He, she, etc.) didn't arrive there at the exact time and was left behind.
That house was too small so it was left (ie., not sold or rented).
Sometimes the dative-locative is also used with ལུས་.
He was unable to do all his work, and some was left (unfinished).
16. གང་ plus an adjective stem conveys "as X as possible." This གང་ཟབ་ means as good as
possible and གང་མང་ means "as many as possible."
17. རྐྱང་ is used with nouns to mean "completely." The usual pattern is to take the first
syllable of the noun and repeat it followed by ཀྱང་ Thus གྲྭ་པ་གྲྭ་རྐྱང་ means "completely a
monk" or "a true monk." Similarly ལྐུགས་པ་ལྐུགས་ཀྱང་ means "a complete idiot."
18. This use of the noun + dative-locative + གཏོང་ parallels the adjective + dative-locative
+ གཏོང་ constructions seen in 10.3.2 q. Here གཏོང་ / བཏང་ conveys "made into a beggar,"
whereas ཆེ་རུ་བཏང་ means "made bigger."
19. This segment is a bit confusing. དགོན་པར་དགེ་འདུན་རྣམས་དབྱར་གནས་ཞེས་ཆར་དུས་ཀྱི་མཚམས་སུ་
བཞུགས་པའི་སྐབས་དང་བསྟུན་གནའ་བོའི་དུས་སུ་ཞོ་ཡི་སྟོན་མོ་དྲངས་སྲོལ་ནས་ཞོ་སྟོན་ཞེས་གྲགས་པ་རེད། breaks down
first into དགོན་པར་དགེ་འདུན་རྣམས་དབྱར་གནས་ཞེས་ཆར་དུས་ཀི་མཚམས་སུ་བཞུགས་, which means "the
monks stay in the monastery during the rainy season which is called "yarne" (summer
This is followed by སྐབས་དང་བསྟུན་, "in accordance with that time/condition," and
then by གནའ་བོའི་དུས་སུ་ཞོ་ཡི་སྟོན་མོ་དྲང་ས་སྲོལ་, which conveys "in ancient times there was a
custom of a yogurt banquet being brought." The last section says "from this it came to be
known as "shodön" (ཞོ་སྟན་) Thus, the entire segment means: "in accordance with the monks
in Drepung monastery staying during the rainy season in "summer retreat" in the past
there was the custom of a yogurt banquet, and from this it came to be known as "shodön."

20. ནོར་གླིང་ is a standard abbreviation for ནོར་བུ་གླིང་ཁ་.
21. The use of རེ་ ("each") in བདུན་གཅིག་རིང་ལྷ་མོའི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་རེ་ཉིན་གང་འཁྲབ་ conveys that "during
one week each opera history (story) is perfomed for an entire day." Note that རིང་ here
means "during."
22. This use of ཡོང་ immediately following a verb (གསོལ་རས་གནང་) is a common way to
convey that the verbal action will occur or will come to be. Here it means "large gifts will
be given" or "they will give large gifts." The recipients are all the performers (ལྷ་མོ་བ་ཚང་
23. བྱ་བ་ལམ་འགྲོ་ is a standard phrase meaning "may your deeds be successful."
24. This combination of ཕུད་ ("except for") and དེ་མིན་ ("besides that") is typical of the
stylistic redundancy often used in literaury Tibetan. It literally means "except for Gyomo
lunga, beside that ..."
25. The use of ཤ་སྟག་ with nominalized verbs conveys that "only" the verbal action
occurred or was done. Here it means "they come only from villages."
11.20.3 Reading number three: "Concerning the National Minorities in China" Tibetan text
རྒྱ་ནག་ནང་གི་གྲང་ས་ཉུང་མི་རིགས་ཀྱི་མང་ཤོས་དང་ཉུང་ཤོས་སུ་ཡིན་ན་ཟེར་ན། རྒྱ་ནག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ལ་གྲངས་ཉུང་མི་རིགས་ལྔ་
བཅུ་ང་ལྔ་ཡོད་པའི་ནང་ནས་མི་གྲངས་མང་ཤོས་ཀྱི་མི་རིགས་ནི་ཀྲོང་རིགས་ཡིན་ཞིང་། དེ་ལ་མི་གྲངས་ཁྲི་༡༣༠༠ ལྷག་ཙམ་ཡོད།
མི་གྲང་ས་ཉུང་ཤོས་ཀྱི་མི་རིགས་ནི་ཧོ་ཀྲེ་རིགས་ཡིན་ཞིང་། དེ་ལ་མི་གྲང་ས་༡༤༠༠ ལྷག་ཙམ་ལས་མེད། ཁྱབ་ཆེ་ཤོས་ཀྱི་མི་
རིགས་ནི་ཧུའེ་རིགས་ཡིན་པས་རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཀྱི་ས་ཆ་ཀུན་ལ་ཁྱབ་ཡོད། རང་རྒྱལ་དུ་ས་ཁྱོན་2 ཆེ་ཤོས་ཀྱི་ཞིང་ཆེན་ནི་ཞིན་ཅང་ཡུ་
གུར་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་ཡིན་ཞིང་། དེའི་ས་ཁྱོན་ལ་སྤྱི་ལེ་གྲུ་བཞི་༡༦༤༦༨༠༠ ཡོད། གྲངས་ཉུང་མི་རིགས་ཆེས་མང་བའི་ཞིང་
ཆེན་ནི་ཡུན་ནན་ཞིང་ཆེན་ཡིན་ཞིང་། དེར་གྲང་ས་ཉུང་མི་རིགས་ཉི་ཤུ་རྩ་བཞི་གནས་ཡོད། གྲངས་ཉུང་མི་རིགས་ཆེས་མང་བའི་
གྲོང་ཁྱེར་ནི་རྒྱལ་ས་པེ་ཅིན་ཡིན་ཞིང་། ད་བར་པེ་ཅིན་དུ་གྲངས་ཉུང་མི་རིགས་རིགས་ལྔ་བཅུ་ང་བཞི་ཡོད།། Translation
Concerning the National Minorities in China
In China, if you ask which national minority (minority nationality) has the most
population and which one has the least, from among China's 55 minorities the nationality
with the biggest population is the Zhuaung nationality. It has more than 13,000,000
people. The smallest population is the Hote nationality, which has only a little more than
l,400 people. As for the most widespread nationality, it is the Hui nationality. It has
spread to all the areas of the nation. The Sinjiaung Uighur Autonomous Region has the
largest land area — l,646,800 square miles of land. The province with the most national
minorities is Yunnan province. There are 24 national minorities living there. The city with
the most national minorities is the capital, Beijing. Up to now, there are 54 national
minorities in Beijing. Grammatical notes
1. An interrogative such as སུ་ཡིན་ན་ + ཟེར་ན་ is a common way to ask a rhetorical question.
It means "If you ask which (or who) is ..." If we change the interrogative part to ག་རེ་རེད་
ཟེར་ན་ the meaning conveyed is "if you ask what it is."
2. The particle ཁྱོན་ (all over; size in area) modifies ས་ (earth, land), indicating the area or
size of the land. Thus ས་ཁྱོན་ཆེ་ཤོས་ཀྱི་ཞིང་ཆེན་ conveys "the province with the largest area."
11.21 Vocabulaury
ཀ་མེད་ "no choice" (11.13)
ཀ་ལ་དབང་པོ་ p. n.
ཀུན་ all, entre, every
བཀོག་ va. p. of འགོག་: broke off
བཀོད་ va. p. of འགོད་: made;
ཀྲོང་རིགས་ Zhuang nationality (found in southern China)
དཀར་པོ་ white
བཀྲ་བ་ bright, shaup
དཀྱིལ་ among
བཀྲིས་ཞོལ་པ་ p.n. of an opera troupe
བཀའི་གཏོང་ va. to summon, order to come
རྐྱང་ noun or ajective + – conveys "completely" the nominal/adjectival
བཀའ་ཕེབས་ vi. to receive an order/instructions, to have an order come or arrive
རྐྱང་རྐྱང་ only

སྐད་གྲགས་ famous, fame
སྐད་གདང་ས་ལེགས་ པ་ a good voice
ག་ "trry to" and "pretend to" paticle (va. + ག་ + བྱེད or བྱས་)
སྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ Kesang Gyatso (the p.n. of the 7 th Dalai Lama)
ག་བྱེད་འདི་བྱེད་མེད་ པར་གྱུར་ id. came into a state in which there was nothing that could be done
སྐུ་དྲག་ noble, aristocrat (h.)
སྐུ་ཚེ་ life (h.)
སྐྱོང་ va. to rule, govern; to protect, take care of
ག་ལ་ "how can" + vb. (non-past)
སྐྱོར་མོ་ལུང་པ་ p.n. of an opera troupe
བསྐོང་ va. to summon, order to come
ག་ལ་འགྲིགས་ "how can it be okay"
ག་ལ་ཡོད་ "how can it be okay"
བསྐོས་ va. p. of བསྐོ་: appointed, selected as
ག་ལ་རུང་ "how can it be okay"
ག་ལ་ཕོད་ "how could one dare"
བསྐྱང་ས་ va. p. of སྐྱོང་
ག་ས་ག་ལ་ everywhere
བསྐྱར་གསོ་ recovery; restoration, va. — བྱེད་
གང་ཙམ་ནས་ after some time (དུས་ཡུན་ + —)
སྐྲག་ va. to frighten
གང་ཟབ་ as good as possible
ཁ་བཏགས་ ceremonial scarf
གྲགས་ to be known as
ཁག་ཤགས་ va. to split open
གྲངས་ཉུང་མི་ རིགས་ minority nationality
ཁག་བགོས་ va. to divide into sections, parts
གྲྭ་ཆས་ monk's dress, clothes
ཁྱབ་ vi. to spread, become widespread
གྲུབ་ཐོབ་ a great yogin, siddhi
གྲབ་འབྲས་ achievement, result
ཁྱབ་ཆེ་ཤོས་ most widespread
གྲུ་བཞི་ square
ཁྱོན་ all, all over, size in area; all told
གྲོལ་ vi. to be over, finished, to let out (e.g., a class or meeting)
ཁྱོན་ནས་ negative emphatic term
འཁྱག་པ་ ice
གྲོས་མཐུན་ agreement
ཁྲལ་ tax
གླ་ va. to hire
འཁྲབ་སྟོན་ l. perfornmance, presentation, va. — བྱེད་, to perform a show, play, opera
གླས་ va. p. of གླ་
གླུ་གར་བ་ a performer
གླུ་གར་ཚོགས་པ་ musical association, dance troupe
འཁྲབ་གཞུང་ script (story) for a play, opera, movie
ད་གག་པ་ rebuttal, va. — རྒྱག་

དགེ་འདུན་ (པ་) monk (h.)
བསྔགས་བརྗོད་ praise, va. — བྱེད་
དགོངས་ va. to think (h.)
གཅིན་པ་ urine; va. — གཏོང་
འགོ་བཙུགས་ va. p. of འཛུགས་
གཙུང་པ་ p.n. of an opera troupe
འགྲུལ་པ་ traveler, passenger
གཙུང་པོ་དོན་ཡོད་ དོན་གྲུབ་ p.n.of an opea
འགྲོ་བ་བཟང་མོ་ p.n. of an opera
འགྲོ་སོང་ expenses; va. — གཏོང་ to pay expenses
ལྕགས་ཐག་ཟམ་པ་ iron link bridge
ལྕགས་ཟམ་ abbr. iron link bridge
རྒན་རྒོན་ old person
ཆ་འཇོག་ abiding by, va. — བྱེད་
རྒན་རྒོན་གཉིས་ old couple
ཆུ་ཤུལ་ p.n. of a place south of Lhasa
རྒོད་ vulture
རྒྱ་བཟའ་ བལ་བཟའ་ p.n. of an opera
ཆེ་ཤོས་ biggest, most
ཆོ་ sense, meaning
རྒྱང་དཀར་བ་ p.n. of an opera troupe
ཆོག་ l. "I will do it" particle; 2. allow, 3.ready to do
རྒྱངས་ཤེལ་ telescope
རྒྱལ་སྲས་ prince
རྒྱལ་སྲིད་ reign, ruling a kingdom; va. – བསྐྱངས་ to rule, reign
ཆོས་པ་ religious person/ people
རྒྱུ་གང་ཡོད་ "what is there to be"
ཆོས་ལུགས་ a religion; religious doctrine
རྒྱུ་རྐྱེན་ reason
རྒྱུག་ va to run
མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུ་ va. to go on a religious visit to a monastery or temple to make offerings
རྒྱུན་དུ་ continuously, all the time,
མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུས་ va.p.of མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུ་
སྒྱུན་རྩལ་འཁྲབ་ va. to do an artistic performance
སྒྲིག་འཛུགས་ organization va. — བྱེད་
འཆར་གཞི་བཀོད་ va. p. of འཆར་གཞི་འགོད་
ངན་འབྲེལ་ conspiring, plotting, collaborating (for evil), va. — བྱེད་
ཇི་ལྟར་ (like) what, how (to do)
འཇུག་ l . va. to put in, insert into; make do (p. བཅུག་); 2. va to let, allow
ངམ་རིང་ p.n. of a district in West Tibet
ངོ་ཚ་བ་ embarrassed, embarrassing
བརྗིད་ཉམས་ལྡེན་པ་ grand, magnificent
སྔ་དྲོ་ morning
ཉི་ཆོས་བཟང་པོ་ p.n.
སྔར་བཞིན་ as or like before
ཉི་མ་བཞུད་ vi. to set (for the sun)

ཉི་འོད་ sunlight, va. — ཕོག་ to receive sunlight
དྭང་བླངས་ volunteer
དུས་སྟོན་ holiday, festival
ཉིན་གང་ all day
དེ་ནས་བཟུང་ since that time
ཉིན་གུང་ noon
དེ་རང་ that itself
ཉུང་ཤོས་ least
དོན་ཅི་ཡོད་ "what's the use," "why"
ཉེ་བ་ close
དྲག་ vi. to heal, get better, recover
རྙིང་གཏོར་གསར་ འཛུགས་ slogan: "destroy the old, start the new"
དྲང་ས་ va. p. of འདྲེན་
དྲི་མེད་ཀུན་ལྡན་ p.n. of an opera and its main character
རྙོགས་ཁྲ་ problem, difficulty va. — བཟོས་ to make problems, difficulties
དྲུང་ presence, near
འདྲེ་ demon, ghost, evil spirit
སྙན་གྲགས་ fame
བདུན་ (ཕྲག་) a week
སྙིང་ནད་ heart disease
བདེ་སྐྱིད་ happiness, joy, well-being
ཏག་ཏག་ exactly, precisely
འདམ་གསེས་ l. choosing, selecting; va. — རྒྱག་; 2. va. to choose, select
ཏང་ party
གཏན་ནས་ emphatic negative term
གཏམ་བཟང་ good news
འདེབས་ལས་ planting (work), va. — བྱེད་
གཏམ་བཤད་ speech; va. — བྱེད་
འདྲེན་ va. to lead, to draw, to pull; to bring
གཏོར་བཤིག་ destroying; va. — གཏོང་
བཏང་ཡིག་ letter (correspondence)
ནང་པ་ a Buddhist
བཏོན་ va. p. of འདོན་ took out
ནང་བཞིན་ like, similar to
སྟོད་ the entire region of western most Tibet
ནམ་མཁའ་ sky
ནམ་ཡང་ emphatic negative term
སྟོན་མོ་ feast, banquet
ནུབ་ west
ཐ་སྙད་ term, technical word
ནུབ་ངོས་ western side, direction
ཐ་ན་ "even"
ནོར་བུ་ precious gem
ཐང་སྟོང་རྒྱལ་པོ་ p.n. of a famous lama
ནོར་གླིང་ abbr. of ནོར་བུ་གླིང་ཁ་
ཐད་ about, concerning
ནོར་བུ་གླིང་ཁ་ Norbulingka ("the jewel park" — summer palace of Dalai Lama)
ཐབས་བྲལ་ "no choice" construction
ཐབས་མེད་ "no choice" construction
མཐ་མེད་ "no choice" construction
གནང་སྦྱིན་ gift, present
འཐབ་ va. to fight, struggle
གནམ་གང་ thirtieth day of the month
འཐས་ vi. to be approved, to be agreed
གནའ་བོའི་ ancient time
སྣང་ས་འོད་འབུམ་ p.n. of an opera

སྣེ་གདོང་ p.n. of a place in southern Tibet
ཕོགས་ salary
ཕྱི་ outside
སྣེ་ལེན་ hospitality va. — བྱེད་ receive guests, travelers
ཕྱི་དྲོ་ (late) afternoon
འཕྲོ་ vi. to shine, radiate, emanate
བསྣམས་ va. to take, bring, carry (h.)
བག་ལེབ་ bread
བང་མཛོད་ storeroom, treasury
པད་མ་ཅན་ p. n. of a place
བར་ཆད་ hindrance, obstruction
པད་མ་འོད་འབར་ p. n. of an opera
བྱ་བ་ལམ་འགྲོ་ good fortune in business/ work
པུ་ལི་སི་ police
དཔེ་བསགས་འདུག་ id. Oh my goodness!
བྱེད་སྒོ་ activities, work, duties
དཔེར་ན་ for example
བྲེལ་འཚབ་ hurry, rush
སྤོས་ va. p. of སྤོ་: moved, shifted residence
བླ་བྲང་ the "coporation" of a lama
སྤྱི་ལེ་ kilometer
བློ་རིག་ intellect
སྤྱི་ལེ་གྲུ་བཞི་ square kilometer
བློ་རིག་བཀྲ་བ་ intelligent
སྤྲུལ་པ་ an emanation
བློན་པོ་ minister
སྤྲོ་ vi. to sparkle, see འོད་ཟེར་
ད་བྱར་གནས་ the summer retreat of monks
སྤྲོ་སྐྱིད་ party, recreation; va. — གཏོང་ to enjoy oneself
དབྱིན་སྐད་ English language
ཕངས་ vi. to feel regret, to be sorry
འབྱོར་ཐོ་ arrival report, registation va. — བཀོད་ to make an arrival report; to register
ཕངས་པ་ལ་ཨང་ id. a common spoken phrase meaning "Oh, what a shame."
ཕམ་ vi. to lose, be defeated
འབྲོག་ལས་ dairy work
ཕོ་མོ་ male and female
སྦིན་བདག་ patron, donor
ཕོ་བྲང་ 1. palace; Drepung, the term ཕོ་བྲང་ refers to the palace of the Dalai Lama, which is known as དགའ་ལྡན་ཕོ་ བྲང་
མང་ཆེ་བ་ the majority, mostly
མང་ཚོགས་ public, the masses
མང་ཤོས་ most
མི་གྲངས་ population, the number people
མི་གླར་ hired person; worker; va. — གླ་ to hire a worker
ཕོག་ vi ་ to get, catch involuntarily (eg., an illness)
མི་ཚང་ family

མི་འདྲ་བ་ different
མི་སེར་ serf; subject; citizen
འཛམ་གླིང་ world
མུ་སི་ matches (for fire making)
འཛུགས་ va. to establish, found, start, begin
མོན་ p.n. of a place
དམག་སྒར་ military camp/ garrison
འངོ་མིསི va. to come together, to congregate, to assemble
ད་མག་དྲངས་ va. p. of དམག་འདྲེན་
དམག་འདྲེན་ va. to wage war, to lead troops into battle
རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་ miracle; magic
དམྱལ་བ་ hell
རྨ་ wound, sore
ཞབས་ཞུ་ service
རྨན་འདུན་ wish, desire; va. – བྱེད་
བཙན་གནོན་ oppressing; va. — གཏོང་
བརྩོན་ prison
ཞལ་ཕུད་ the first offering of something; va – འབུལ་ to give/make the first offering [With respect to the opera festival it refers to giving a first perfomance, which is a sampler of the different plays.]
ཙ་འགངས་ valuable
རྩ་ཆེ་ precious; sacred
རྩ་བ་ནས་ with negative constructions = never, completely not
རྩད་ཆོད་ vi. to find out about something, to get information on something
ཞིང་ཆེན་ province, state
ཞིན་ཅང་ཡུ་གུར་ Sinjiang Uighur (Autonomous Regionl)
རྩེ་ཕྱག་ལས་ཁུངས་ p.n. of a treasury office in traditional Tibetan government
ཞེད་ vi. to be afraid
ཞོ་ curd, yogurt
ཞོ་སྟོན་ opera festival
ཚ་པོ་ l. hot; 2.strong (answer)
ཞོར་ spare time
ཚགས་པར་ newspaper
གཞས་ song
གཞས་ཕུད་ first day performance of an opera [With respect to the opera festival it refers to giving a first performance, which is a sampler of the different plays]
ཚད་བྲལ་ "no choice" term
ཚད་མེད་ "no choice" term
ཚབས་ཆེན་ serious, severe
ཚུགས་ vi. p. of འཚུགས་
མཚན་མོ་ night
མཚན་ལས་ night work, va. — བྱེད་ to work at night
འཚུགས་ vi. to get established, vi. founded, 3 started,
གཞུང་ས་དགའ་ལྡེན་ ཕོ་བྲང་ p.n. of the traditional government of Tibet

way of life
ཡོང་ཁུངས་ origin; resources
གཞིས་ཆགས་ resettling, settling people, va. — བྱེད་
གཡོགས་ va. to put something on someone, to dress someone
བཞའ་བརླན་ wetness, dampness, moisture
རང་ part of the "no choice'' construction
བཞུར་ vi. to melt
ཟེར་མཁན་ the one called
རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་ an autonomous region
ཟེར་སྲོལ་ (ལ་) as the traditional/ customary saying goes
རང་སྦྱོང་ homework; self-study
རན་ "time to do" particle
ར་ས་ཆུང་ p.n.
གཟིགས་ཕུད་ first day performance of an opea va. — འབུལ་ [With respect to the opera festival it refers to givinga first performance, which is a sampler of the difterent plays.]
རིག་གནས་ culture
རིག་གནས་གསར་ བརྗེ་ཆེན་པོ་ the "Great Cultural Revolution"
རིན་སྤུང་ས་ p.n. of a district in Tibet
རུ་སྒྲིག་ va. to march in formation, to line up in rows
རུ་སྒྲིག་ས་ལམ་ temn usedin traditional society for military salute, presenting of arms va. — ཞུ་
གཟུགས་ཀྱི་ཉི་མ་ p.n. of an opera
བཟུང་ see glossary ནས་བཟུང་
བཟོ་ 1. va. to make; 2. causative particle
རོ་ corpse
བཟོ་ལས་ industrial work
ལས་གྲ་ workshop; work site
འོད་ཟེར་ sparkling ight; vi. — སྤྲོ་
ལས་འགུལ་ campaign
ལས་ཞོར་ spare time (after work)
ལོག་སྤྱོད་པ་ reactionaries
ཡང་སྟེང་ on top; roof
ཤ་སྟག་ only
ཡར་ལུང་ p.n. of a place in ལྟོ་ཁ་
ཤིང་ཅང་ཡུ་གུར་ Sinjiang Uighur (Autonomous Region)
ཡས་མས་ vicinity; up and down; about; approximately
ཤིང་བཟོ་བ་ carpenter
ཡུན་ནན་ཞིང་ཆེན་ Yunnan province
གཤོག་པ་ wings
ཡུལ་བསྐོར་སྤྲོ་ འཆམ་ sightseeing visit, tour
ས་ཁྱོན་ area, size in area
ས་ལམ་ Hindi salutation ་ "salaam"
ཡུལ་གོམས་གཤིས་ ལུགས་ native customs, habits,
སང་ཕོད་ next year

སེར་དམག་ monk soldiers
སྲས་སྲོས་ children (h.)
སྲིད་ཇུས་ policy
སྲིལ་ custom (vb. + — = custom of doing the verbal action)
སློང་ va. to cause to stand up
བསློངས་ va. p.of སློང་
གསོལ་རས་ gift; tip (h.); va. — གནང་
བསམ་འཆར་ opinion
ཧ་གོ་ vi. to understand
ཧ་ཤང་བདུད་མོ་ p.n.
ཧང་སངས་ vi. to be surprised, be shocked
ཧུའེ་རིགས་ Hui nationality
ཧོ་ཀྲེ་རིགས་ Hote nationality
ལྷ་རྒྱལ་ལོ་ "May the gods be victorious"
ལྷ་གཅིག་ཀུན་བཟང་ p.n.
ལྷ་མོ་ཚོགས་པ་ opera association, troupe
ལྷ་ཡུལ་ realm, place of the gods
ལྷ་སྲས་རྒྱལ་པོ་ p.n.
ལྷག་ཙམ་ a little more
ལྷུག་ (པོ་) loose
ལྟོ་ཁ་ p.n. of region southeast of Lhasa
ལྟོ་ཕྱོགས་ southern direction, side
ཨ་ཕ་ father
ཨུ་ཚུགས་ insisting, va. — རྒྱག་

Lesson Twelve
12.1 Constructions with the particle ཐོག་
ཐོག་ is used to convey a variety of very different meanings and is one of the more
confusing grammatical particles. The following sections explain its main uses.
12.1.1 The "on" function of ཐོག་
One of the main functions of ཐོག་ is to convey the idea of "on" or "on top of." When
used in this manner it may immediately follow the noun it modifies (example a.) or may
be preceded by a genitive particle (example b.). It may also be followed by a dative-
locative particle as in a. and b.
a. ཆུ་ཐོག་ལ་སྡོད་པའི་མི་ཚོ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་འདུག།
The people who live on the water are very poor.
b. ཡར་ཀླུང་གཙང་པོའི་ཐོག་ཏུ་ཆུ་གློག་ས་ཚིགས་ཤིག་བཙུགས་པ་རེད།
(They) established a hydroelectric station on the Yarlung Tsangpo River.
Sometimes ཐོག་ is best translated as "in," "at," or "among" in English.
c. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་རྟ་བཞོན་ནས་བྱེ་ཐང་ཐོག་ཏུ་ཤིང་སོན་འདེབས་མུས་རེད།
The farmers are sowing tree seeds in the desert from horseback. (lit., Riding a
horse, the farmers are sowing ...)
d. བསམ་ཚུལ་འབྲི་དེབ་ཀྱི་ཐོག་ཏུ་ངས་བསམ་འཆར་ཞིག་བྲིས།
I wrote a suggestion in the "suggestion book."
e. མང་ཚོགས་ཐོག་སོ་པ་མང་པོ་འདུག།
There are many spies among the masses.
f. གསོལ་སྟོན་ཐོག་ཁོས་གཞས་བཏང་བ་རེད།
He sang a song at the banquet.
12.1.2 The "via" function of ཐོག་
ཐོག་ can also function to convey the meanings of "via," "by means of, " and
"thurough." Only semantic context differentiates these from the "on" function.
a. མོས་གནམ་ཐོག་ལ་བཏང་ཡིག་དེ་བཏང་།
She sent that letter by air.
When the "by means of " meaning is intended, ཐོག་ནས་ is usually used.
b. ཁོ་པས་གྲུའི་ཐོག་ནས་གྲོང་ཁྱེར་གསར་པར་སྤོས་པ་རེད།
He mvoved by boat to a new city.
However, in many cases such as the following example, the difference between "via" and

"by means of" is indistinct.
c. ཁོས་མོར་ཁ་པར་ཐོག་ནས་སྐད་ཆ་བཤད་སོང་།
He spoke to her by telephone.
It should be noted that another way to convey the meaning of "via" is by means of a བརྒྱུད་
ནས་ construction.
d. ངས་རྒྱ་གར་བརྒྱུད་ནས་བོད་ལ་བཏང་ཡིག་ཁ་ཤས་བཏང་བ་ཡིན།
I sent several letters toTibet via India.
12.1.3 The "in addition to" function of ཐོག་
Another use of ཐོག་ expresses the meaning of "in addition to." It can be used with
nouns and verbs.
a. སྔོ་ཏུ་སྤྲད་པའི་དངུལ་ཐོག་སྒོར་ཁྲི་གཉིས་བསྐྱར་དུ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
In addition to the money which was given before, (they, he, etc.) again gave 20,000
b. འཐུས་མིར་བདམས་ཐོག་ཁོས་ཏང་གི་ཏྲུའུ་ཅིའི་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་དགོས་བྱུང་སོང་།
In addition to being selected as a delegate, he had to do the work of party chairman.
Notethat སྒང་ (cf.5.10) also functions to convey "in addition to."
c. འཐུས་མིར་བདམས་པའི་སྒང་ལ་ཁོས་ཏང་གི་ཏྲུའུ་ཅིའི་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་དགོས་བྱུང་སོང་།
In addition to being selected as a delegate, he had to do the work of party chairman.

12.1.4 The "during," "at the time of, " and "when" functions of ཐོག་
a. ཆུ་ཚོད་༡༠་ཐོག།
at ten o"clock
b. ཕྲུ་གུ་ཚོས་ལངས་ཐོག་རྒྱལ་གླུ་བཏང་བ་རེད།
The children sang the national anthem when they got up.
c. རྐུ་མ་དེ་མཚན་མོ་རྟོག་ཞིབ་ཐོག་འཛིན་བཟུང་བྱས་པ་རེད།
(They) arrested the thief during their evening inspection.

12.1.5 The "concerning" function of ཐོག་
Finally, ཐོག་ can also convey the meaning of "concerning," or "with regards to," or
"about." When this is intended, ཐོག་ typically is preceded by the genitive and may or may
not have a dative-locative particle following it.
a. འཆར་གཞི་དེའི་ཐོག་རྒྱ་གར་གཞུང་གིས་གྲོས་མོལ་གནང་བ་རེད།
The Indian Government held discussions about that plan.
b. ཁོ་ཚོའི་ཐོག་ལ་རྩད་གཅོད་བྱས་པའི་སྐབས་སུ་

At the time (they) did an investigation concerning them, ...

12.2 Verbal constructions using མདོག་ཁ་པོ་
This construction follows the non-past stem of verbs to mean "seems (or "doesn't
seem") likely to occur" with respect to the verbal meaning.
a. སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚོས་ད་ལོ་འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ལ་འགྲོ་མདོག་ཁ་པོ་རེད།
It seems that the students are going to go to Bhutan this year.
b. ཟླ་ཉིན་སླེབས་པའི་ལས་མི་ཚོས་མགྱོགས་པོ་ལོག་མདོག་ཁ་པོ་མི་འདུག།
It doesn't seem likely that the workers who came last year will return quickly.
c. སང་ཉིན་མོ་གྲོམ་ལ་འགྲོ་མདོག་ཁ་པོ་རེད།
It seems that she is going (to go) to the market tomorrow.
d. སློབ་ཕྲུག་དེས་སློབ་སྦྱོང་ཧུར་བརྩོན་བྱེད་མདོག་ཁ་པོ་འདུག།
It seems that the student studies diligently.
e. བུ་མོ་དེས་གཞས་གཏོང་མདོག་ཁ་པོ་མི་འདུག།
It doesn't seem likely that the girl will sing a song.
12.3 "Shouldn't" constructions རྒྱུ་ + negative existentials
"Shouldn't" constructions are formed by combining the non-past stem of a verb +
རྒྱུ་ + a negative existential verb.
a. གཞུང་གིས་ས་བདག་ལ་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
The government shouldn't help the landlords.
b. བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་བཏང་འཕྲལ་ཀུང་ཧྲེ་འཛུགས་རྒྱུ་མི་འདུག།
(You) shouldn't establish communes as soon as (an area has been) liberated.
"Shouldn't" constructions also occur in dependent clauses.
c. ཁྱེད་རང་ཀུང་ཧེ་འཛུགས་རྒྱུ་མེད་པ་མ་ཟད། མཉམ་འབྲེལ་ཚོང་ཁང་ཡང་འཛུགས་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Not only shouldn't you establish a commune, (you) also
shouldn't establish a cooperative store.
12.4 "What kind of" constructions གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་, ཅི་འདྲ་ཞིག་, and ཇི་འདྲ་ཞིག་
These are common interrogative phrases that follow nominals and demonstratives
a. རླངས་འཁོར་འདི་གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་རེད།
What kind of car is this?
b. ཁོ་ལ་ལས་ཀ་ཅི་འདྲ་ཞིག་ཡོད་དམ།
What kind of work (job) does he have?
c. ཁོ་ཚོས་ལྟད་མོ་གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
What kind of a show did they go to?

d. རྒྱུ་མཚན་གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་གིས་ཟིང་འཁྲུག་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
What was the reason for the uprising?
These constructions, however, do not necessarily ask a question, for example:
e. འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་འདི་ཇི་འདྲ་ཞིག་ཡིན་ངས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མེད།
I don't know what kind of a machine this is.
f. ཁོ་ལ་ཁང་པ་གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་ཡོད་ང་ལ་བཤད་མ་བྱུང་།
(He) didn't tell me what kind of a house he has.
When these are used with ཡང་ (or ཀྱང་), they convey the idea of "whatever" or "any
g. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་ཡིན་ཡང་བྱས་པ་རེད།
He did whatever kind of work it was.
h. ཕྲུ་གུ་འདིས་དེབ་གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་ཀྱང་ཀློག་ཐབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
This child will be able to read any kind of book.

12.5 "Lots of ways" constructions གང་ཅི་ and གང་དང་ཅི་
These constructions precede verbs and convey the idea that the verbal action was
done in a lot ot different ways or with respect to many different things/aspects.
a. ཁོས་ཞིང་ལས་སློབ་སྦྱོང་གང་ཅི་བྱས་པ་རེད།
He studied lotsof aspects of farming.
Note should be made that with regard to the difference between གང་ཅི་ and ཞེ་དྲགས་
"lots," the latter conveys the idea that a great deal of studying was done, whereas གང་ཅི་
conveys the idea that a lot of different aspects or dimensions of the object were studied.
b. ཁོ་ཚོར་རོགས་རམ་གང་ཅི་ཐོབ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
They got lots of kinds of aid.
c. ཁོས་ཞིང་པ་ཚོར་གང་དང་ཅིའི་སློབ་གསོ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
He educated the farmers in many things.

12.6 "By all means/in all respects" constructions གང་ཐད་ནས་, གང་ས་ནས་, གང་གི་ཐད་ནས་,
གང་གི་ཐོག་ནས་, གང་ཅིའི་ཐད་ནས་, གང་ཅིའི་ཐོག་ནས་, and གང་གི་ཆ་ནས་
The constructions listed above can convey either the idea of "all sorts of means/
methods" or that of "all sorts ot aspects." Context determines which is intended.
a. མོས་གང་ཅིའི་ཐད་ནས་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེ་སློབ་གྲྭར་གཏོང་ཐབས་བྱས་པ་རེད།
She tried all means to send the child to school.
b. ལུང་པ་འདིར་གང་ས་ནས་མཐུན་རྐྱེན་ཡག་པོ་འདུག།
In all respects, this country has good resources.
c. བོད་མི་ཚོ་གང་ཅིའི་ཐད་ནས་གཞིས་ཆགས་བྱས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།

(They) have resettled the Tibetans by all means.

12.7 "To whom" constructions (སུ་ + dative-locative) སུར་ and སུ་ལ་
a. ཁོ་ཚོས་སུ་ལ་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Who are they helping? (They are helping whom?)
b. མི་འདིས་སུ་ལ་སྐད་ཆ་བཤད་སོང་ངམ།
To whom did this man talk?
c. མི་འདི་ཚོས་སུ་ལ་སྐྱོན་བརྗོ་ད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Who are these men criticizing?
d. འདི་སུ་ལ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་རེད།
To whom do (they, he, etc.) have to give this?
12.8 "Whose" (སུ་ + genitive སུ་ཡི་ and སུའི་) and "by whom" (སུ་ + instrumental: སུས་
and སུ་ཡིས་) constructions
a. ཕྲུ་གུ་འདི་སུའི་རེད་དམ།
Whose childis this?
Notethat དམ་ here is optional.
b. ཁོ་ཚོ་སུའི་དྲུང་དུ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
Whom did they go to see? (To whose presence did they go?)
c. མི་འདི་ཚོས་སུའི་དོན་ལ་ངལ་རྩོལ་ཆེན་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
For whose puupose/benefit are these men laboring so much?
d. འདི་སུའི་ཡིན་དྲིས་པ་རེད
(They, he, etc.) asked, "Whose is this?"
e. ལས་ཀ་འདི་སུའི་ཡིན་ངས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མེད།
I don't know whose work this is.
f. ཁང་པ་འདི་སུས་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
Who bought this house?
g. ལས་ཀ་འདི་སུས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་རེད།
Who will do this work?
h. དེབ་འདི་སུས་སུ་ལ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
Who gave this book to whom?
i. དེབ་འདི་སུས་བྲིས་པ་རེད་དམ།
Who wrote this book?
The addition of the "even/also" particle conveys the meaning "even by whomever"
j. འདི་སུས་ཀྱང་བྱེད་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
Anyone will be able to do this. (This can be done even by whomever.)

k. འདི་སུས་ཀྱང་ཟ་གི་མ་རེད།
No one will eat this. (This will not be eaten even by whomever.)
l. ཁོ་ལ་སུས་བཤད་ཀྱང་ཉན་གྱི་མ་རེད།
(He) won't listen whoever tells him.
m. བཙོན་པ་ཚོས་སུ་ཡི་ལས་དོན་ལ་ཡང་ཐེ་ཇུས་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
The prisoners will not interfere even (in) whoever's work (i.e., in anyone's work).
n. སུས་གཞུང་ལ་སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་བྱས་ཀྱང་འཛིན་བཟུང་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
Whoever criticizes the government is arrested.
སུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་ ("like whom") functions the same as སུ་ in indefinite constructions but
conveys more emphasis.
o. མི་དེ་སུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་ཡིན་ཁོས་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
He knows who that man is.
p. ཁོས་སུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལ་ཁ་པར་བཏང་བ་ཤོད་ཀྱི་མི་འདུག།
He isn't saying whom he called.
q. མོས་སུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལ་ཡང་སྐད་ཆ་ཤོད་ཆོག་གི་མ་རེད།
She cannot talk to anyone.
r. ཟུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་ཡིན་ཡང་ལག་ཁྱེར་དགོས་ཀྱི་འདུག།
Whoever (it) is, a permit is needed.
s. ཁོས་སུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་ལ་བསྡད་པ་ཤེས་མ་བྱུང་།
(I) didn't know at whose house he stayed.

12.9 "Why" constructions གང་ཡིན་ཅེ་ན་, གང་ཡིན་ཟེར་ན་, གང་གིས་ཤེ་ན་, ཅིས་ཤེ་ན་,
ཅིའི་ཕྱིར་ཞེས་ན་, and ཅི་ལ་ཟེར་ན་
These all function to relate two clauses so that the latter explains the former. They
can be translated literally as "if you ask why" (the preceding clause occurred).
a. ཁོ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་སྐྱིད་པོ་བྱུང་མི་འདུག། གང་གིས་ཤེ་ན། ཁོ་ཚ་བ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་མི་འདུག།
He was not happy in India because he does not like the heat. (lit., If one asks why he
does not like the heat, ...)
b. བོད་ཟླ་དང་པོའི་ནང་གྲོང་ཁྱེར་ལྷ་སར་མི་མང་ཤོས་འཛོམས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། གང་ཡིན་ཅེ་ན། ལྷ་ལྡན་སྨོན་ལམ་ཆེན་མོ་ཞེས་
Most people gather in Lhasa city in the first month of the Tibetan calendar. If you ask
why, it is because it is the time when the biggest religious festival, the
Monlam Chemo, starts.
c. དེང་སང་མི་མང་པོས་རི་པིན་གྱི་ཅ་ལག་ཉོ་གི་འདུག། ཅིའི་ཕྱིར་ཞེས་ན། དེ་ཚོ་སྤུས་ཀ་དག་པོ་དང་གོང་ཁེ་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
These days many people are buying Japanese things. If you ask why, it is because they
are of good quality and cheap.
d. བོད་མི་དམངས་ནས་གྲུབ་ཐོབ་ཐང་སྟོང་རྒྱལ་པོར་བསྔགས་བརྗོད་ཞུ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད། གང་ཡིན་ཟེར་ན། ཁོང་གིས་ལྕགས་ཐག་ཟམ་

The Tibetan people praise Siddhi Tangdong Gyebo because he constructed iron chain
bridges that benefited the people greatly.
12.10 "Everywhere" construction ག་ས་ག་ལ།
This is a colloquial expression that sometimes appears in writing to convey the
idea of "everywhere."
a. ཁོས་ག་ས་ག་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
He went everywhere.
b. ག་ས་ག་ལ་རི་པིན་གྱི་རླངས་འཁོར་གསར་པ་མང་པོ་མཐོང་རྒྱུ་འདུག།
Many new japanese Cars can be seen everywhere.

12.11 "It's a pity" constructions. གང་དྲག་, ཅི་དྲག་, གང་ཞིག་དྲག་, and ཅི་ཞིག་དྲག་
These constructions are used as sentence final complements. They exclaim sorrow,
sympathy, or regret. The nearest English equivalents are "oh, " "too bad, " and "what a pity."
a. མི་མིག་མེད་པ་དེ་ཅི་དྲག།
That man without eyes, what a pity!
b. ཁོ་ཚོར་དཀའ་ངལ་བྱུང་ན་གང་དྲག།
It's a pity it they have difficulties.
c. སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བ་དེ་ཚོར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་མི་ཐུབ་ཙང་གང་ཞིག་དྲག།
It's too bad that (I) am unable to help those refugees.
d. འབྲོག་པ་ཚོང་པ་སྐྱོ་པོ་དེ་ལ་ཁེ་བཟང་མ་རག་ན་ཅི་ཞིག་དྲག།
If that poor nomad trader doesn't get profit, what a pity!
12.12 "However much ... that much" constructions: interrogative + ཙམ་ + vb. + དེ་ཙམ་
These constructions express the idea that "however much one does the verbal
action, that much of something else will happen." Common interrogatives used in these
constructions are གང་, ཇི་, ཅི་, ག་ཚད་, གང་ཙམ་, and ག་ཚོད་
a. ལས་ཀ་ཇི་ཙམ་བྱས་པ་དེ་ཙམ་གླ་ཆ་ཐོབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
However much (you) work, that much of a wage (you) will obtain.
b. དེབ་གང་ཙམ་ཀློག་པ་དེ་ཙམ་ཤེས་ཀི་རེད།
However many books (you) read, that much (you) will know.
c. གོམ་པ་གང་ཙམ་རྒྱབ་པ་དེ་ཙམ་གཟུགས་པོར་ཕན་ཐོགས་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
However much (you) walk, that much (your) body will beneflt.
d. ལུང་པ་ཡར་རྒྱས་གང་ཙམ་བཏང་བ་དེ་ཙམ་མི་དམངས་རྣམས་སྐྱིད་པོ་ཡོང་གི་རེད།

However much a country is developed, that much happiness will come to the people.
12.13 "How could" constructions with ག་ནས་ and ག་པར་
These are used to convey the rhetorical question "how could ..., " even though the
literal meaning of these particlesis "where" and "from where."
a. ཁོ་ཚོས་ང་ཚོར་དམག་འཁྲུག་བྱེད་ག་ནས་ནུས་ཀྱི་རེད།
How could they dare to make war with us?
b. ང་ས་ཁྱེད་རང་ལ་རོགས་མ་བྱས་ན་ག་ནས་འགྲིགས།
How couldit be all right if I did not help you?
c. ཕྲུ་གུ་འདི་གཅིག་པོར་ཁྲོམ་ལ་ག་པར་འགྲོ་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་རེད།
How could this child be able to go to the market alone?

12.14 Constructions with ཚད་ (ལ་)
Depending on context, this construction conveys "whenever," "whoever, " or
a. ཁོས་མི་འཕྲད་ཚད་ལ་སྐད་ཆ་ཤོད་ཀྱི་འདུག།
He talks to whatever person (he) meets.
b. བླ་མ་དེས་དུས་ཚོད་བྱུང་ཚད་ལ་ཁ་འདོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག།
Whenever the Lama gets time, (he) prays.
c. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་དེས་དེབ་མཐོང་ཚད་ཀློག་གི་འདུག།
Whenever the student sees a book, (he) reads (it).
d. བསོད་ནམས་ཀྱིས་གསར་འགྱུར་གོ་ཚད་ཚང་མ་མོ་ལ་བཤད་སོང་།
Whatever news Sonam heard, (he) told her everything.
12.15 "According to" and "based on" constructions with ལ་གཞིགས་ཏེ་ and ལ་ད་པག་སྟེ་ (ན་)
The meaning conveyed by these constructions is "based on" or "according to"
"in accordance with" X, Y occurred or will occur.
a. ད་ལོའི་གནམ་གཤིས་ལ་གཞིགས་ན་ཐོན་སྐྱེད་ཡག་པོ་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
According to this year's climate, production will be good.
b. མི་མང་ཉུང་ལ་དཔག་སྟེ་ཁ་ལག་བཟོ་དགོས།
In accordance with the quantity (number) of people, (we) have to make food.
c. སློབ་ཕྲུག་དེའི་སློབ་སྦྱོང་བྱེད་སྟང་ས་ལ་གཞིགས་ཏེ་བྱ་དགའ་ཐོབ་ཀི་མ་རེད།
Based on the student's manner of studying, (he) will not win a prize.
d. ཚོང་པ་དེའི་ཁེ་བཟང་བྱུང་སྟངས་ལ་གཞིགས་ན་མགྱོགས་པོ་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཆགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
Based on that trader's manner of making profit, (he) will soon become rich.

12.16 "Go right ahead" constructions with རྐྱང་བྱེད་ or ཀྱང་གནང་
These རྐྱང་ constructions are used with verbs to tell someone to "go right ahead" and
do the verbal action.
a. གལ་སྲིད་ང་ཆུ་ཚོད་བརྒྱད་པར་མ་སླེབས་ན་ཁྱེད་རང་ཕེབས་རྐྱང་གནང་རོགས་གནང་།
If I do not arrive at 8 o'clock, you please go right ahead and go.
b. ཁྱེད་རང་ཚོ་ཕྱག་རོགས་ཞུ་དགོས་འདུག་ན་གསུང་རྐྱང་གནང་རོགས་གནང་།
If you need to ask for help, please go right ahead and say it.
c. ལས་ཀ་དེ་བྱེད་ཀྱང་བྱས་ན་འགྲིག་གི་རེད།
If you go right ahead and do that work, it will be all right.
d. སྐད་ཆ་དེ་འདྲ་བཤད་རྐྱང་བྱས་ན་འགྲིག་གི་མ་རེད།
If you go right ahead and speak like that, it will not be all right.

12.17 "Everything" constructions with གང་ན་ཅི་ཡོད་
This construction means "everything" or, more literally, "whatever exists."
a. ཁོའི་ཅ་ལག་གང་ན་ཅི་ཡོད་རྣམས་མོ་ལ་སྤྲད་པ་རེད།
He gave her whatever things he had.
b.  ཚོང་ཁང་དེའི་ནང་གང་ན་ཅི་ཡོད་ཚང་མ་གོང་ཁེ་པོར་འཚོང་གི་འདུག།
Whatever is in that shop is being sold cheaply.
c. མོའི་འཛིན་ཆས་གང་ན་ཅི་ཡོད་སྔ་ལོ་ཁོ་ཚོས་ཉོས་སོང་།
They bought all her furniture last year (whatever furniture she had).

12.18 "Immediately" constructionswith འཕྲལ་ + vb. + བྱེད་, གཏོང་, and རྒྱག་
འཕྲལ་ ("at once") was encountered earlier as a clause connective particle (6.2). Here
it conveys the same meaning ("at once/immediately") but is used in constructions where it
is placed before the main verb. In this role it adds "quickly/immediately" to the verbal
a. ངར་དངུལ་ཏོག་ཙམ་འཕྲལ་གཡར་བྱེད་རོགས་གནང་།
Please lend me a little money at once.
b. ཏར་འབྱོར་པ་དང་འཕྲལ་བསྐྱོད་བྱས་པ་ཡིན།
As soon as the telegram arrived, (I) immediately went.
12.19 "May it come" constructions vb. + པ་/བ་ or པར་/བར་ ཤོག་
These constructions are used to convey the exclamation "may something come (or
not come) to pass."
a. སང་ཉིན་ཆར་པ་མ་གཏོང་བ་ཤོག།

May it not rain tomorrow.
b. འཛམ་སླིང་ཡོངས་ལ་ཞི་བདེ་ཡོང་བར་ཤོག།
May peace come to the entire world.
c. ང་ཚོའི་སློབ་གྲྭར་ལག་རྩེད་པོ་ལོའི་འགྲན་བསྡུར་གྱི་བྱ་དགའ་ཐོབ་པ་ཤོག།
May our school win the prize for the basketball competition.

12.20 Reading exercises
12.20.1 Reading number one: "The Love of the Male and Female Swan" Tibetan text
མོན་ཏ་རིའི་གཤམ་དུ་གཞོན་ནུ་རྔོན་པ་དབུལ་པོ་ l ཞིག་ཡོད། ཁོང་གིས་ཡིད་འོང་མཛེས་སྡུག་ལྡན་པའི་2 གཞོན་ནུ་མ་
ཞིག་ལ་སྙིང་ནས་བརྩེ་བ་དང་གཞོན་ནུ་མས་ཀྱང་ཁོ་པར་སྙིང་ནས་བརྩེ་པོ་ཡོད། གཞོན་ནུ་མའི་པ་ཕ་ནི་འདོད་རྔམས་ཧ་ཅང་ཆེན་པོ་
ཡོད་པས། ཁོ་པས་གཞོན་ནུ་མར་རྒྱུ་དབང་གཉིས་འཛོམས་ཀྱི་ཕྱུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་སར་བག་མར་འགྲོ་དགོས་ཟེར་ནས་གཞོན་ནུ་མ་དེ་
ཁང་པའི་ནང་དུ་བཅུག་སྟེ་གཞོན་ནུ་རྔོན་པ་དེ་དང་ཐུག་འཕྲད་བྱེད་དུ་འཇུག་གི་མེད།3 མཚན་མོ་ཞིག་གཞོན་ནུ་མ་དེས་ཁྱིམ་ལས་
གཞོན་ནུ་མའི་པ་ཕ་དང་ཕྱུག་པོ་གཉིས་པོས་རྟ་བཞོན་ནས་རྗེས་འདེད་གཏོང་བར་ཡོང་སྟེ། ཕྱུག་པོས་མད་འ་འཕང་ཐེང་ས་
གཅིག་ལ་4 གཞོན་ནུ་རྔོན་པ་བསད། གཞོན་ནུ་མས་རང་གི་སྙིང་གྲོགས་ལ་འཁྱུད་ནས་སེམས་སྡུག་ཆེན་པོས་མིག་ཆུ་བཏང་།
ཁུར་ཏེ་མཁའ་དབིང་ས་སུ་འཕུར་ནས་སོང་། ཁོང་གཉིས་ཐག་རིང་གི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་འཕུར་ཏེ་བྲ་ཕུག་ཅིག་གི་ནང་ད་བུལ་ཡང་སྤྲོ་བ་
སྐྱིད་པོའི་ངང་ང་སྒུག་སྡོད་བྱེད་རོགས། སྤང་རྒྱན་མེ་ཏོག་ཤར་མ་ཐག་ང་ཕྱིར་ལོག་ཡོང་ངེས་ཡིན། ཞེས་བཤད། དགུན་དུས་གྲང་
ངར་ཧ་ཅང་ཆེ་ཞིང་། གཞོན་ནུ་མས་ཐག་རིང་གི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ངང་པ་དྲན་ནས་སེམས་སྡུག་གིས་རྐྱེན་པས་5 ནད་ཀྱིས་
འདས་ཟིན་པ་མཐོང་། ངང་པ་སེམས་པ་སྐྱོ་ཐག་ཆོད་དེ་མིག་ཆུ་བཏང་། ཁོ་པའི་མིག་ཆུ་གཞོན་ནུ་མའི་མིག་གི་ཐོག་ལྷུང་མ་ཐ་གཞོན་
ནུ་མ་དེའང་ངང་པ་དཀར་པོ་ཞིག་ཏུ་གྱུར་པས་མཉམ་དུ་ནམ་མཁའི་མཐོངས་སུ་འཕུར་ཏེ། དེ་ནས་བཟུང་ཁོང་གཉིས་དུས་ཚོད་སྐད་

ཅིག་ཙམ་ཡང་ཁ་བྲལ་གྱི་མེད་པ་རེད། Translation
The Love of the Male and Female Swan
There was a poor young hunter (living) at the foot of Montari. He loved a beautiful
young girl with all his heart, and the girl loved him from her heart too. (But) because the
young girl's father was a very greedy person, he told the younng girl that she had to go as
the bride of a man who was both powerful and wealthy. He kept (lit., put) the young girl
in the house and did not allow her to meet the young hunter. One night, the young girl left
her home and went with the hunter to a distant place to search for a happy life.
The girl's father and the rich man came riding horses in pursuit of them. The rich
man shot one arrow and killed the young hunter. The young girl embraced her lover and
cried with great sadness. As soon as the tears of the girl dropped on the opening of the
young hunter's wound, the hunter turned into a white swan and flew away into the sky
carrying the girl on his back. The two of them flew for a long distance and (then) lived
happily in a cave even though they were poor.
Because autumn came, the swan said to the young girl, "I have to go south to
spend the winter. Please wait here happily for me. I will definitely return as soon as the
meadow flowers bloom." But because it was very cold during the winter and the young
girl missed the white swan who had flown far away and was sad, she was afflicted with
In spring time, (when) the leaves on the trees were gowing and the flowers were
blooming, the swan came back and saw that the young girl had died of illness. The swan
felt extremely sad and cried. As soon as his tears dopped on the girl's eyes, she also
became a white swan, and together (they) flew away into an opening in the sky. Ever
since then, those two have never separated for even an instant of time. Grammatical notes
1. གཞོན་ནུ་རྔོན་པ་ consists of the two nouns "young man" and "hunter." Together these
describe a single person. "a young man who was a hunter." This is a common pattern
with nouns describing types of persons (but not things), for example དེར་གྲྭ་པ་འབྲོག་པ་གཅིག་
འདུག་ "There is a monk who is a nomad here." Note that the first of the two nouns, in this
case གཞོན་ནུ་ ("young man"), is considered more emphasized.

2. ཡིད་འོང་མཛེས་སྡུག་ལྡན་པའི་ consists of two nominals: ཡིད་འོང་ ("attactiveness") and མཛེས་སྡུག་
("beauty") . These have been transformed to adjectivals by ལྡན་པ་ (see 10.3.6) . The entire
phrase then modifies བཞོན་ནུ་མ་ ("young girl").
3. ཐུག་འཕྲད་བྱེད་དུ་འཇུག་གི་མེད་ is the type of construction discussed in 11.8 འཇུག་ here conveys
"allowed."་ Note that while grammatically this could also be translated as "did not make
(her) meet the young hunter," it makes no semantic sense here. Note also that དང་ in this
construction means "with."
4. ཐེངས་གཅིག་ལ་ is a standard construction conveying do/did the verbal action "one time."
The verbal action here is "shot an arrow" (མདའ་འཕང་) . For example, ཁོས་དེབ་ལོག་ཐེངས་གཅིག་ལ་
དོན་ལྟེ་ཚང་མ་ཤེས་པ་རེད། — "Reading the book one time, he understood the meaning
5. The རྐྱེན་ verbal connective constructions (conveying "because") are discussedin 5.9.
Here རྐྱེན་ + the instrumental particle is used with a nominal སེམས་སྡུག་ ("sadness") to convey
"because" or "by" — ("because of sadness").
6. The cause of ནད་ཀྱིས་གདུང་ས་ ("suffer from illness") is conveyed in the two preceding
clauses. དགུན་དུས་གྲང་ངར་ཧ་ཅང་ཆེ་ཞིང་ and གཞོན་ནུ་མས་ཐག་རིང་གི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་ངང་པ་དྲན་ནས་སེམས་སྡུག་
གིས་རྐྱེན་པས་ Thus, she was sick because of the extreme cold and her sadness at missing the

12.20.2 Reading number two: "The Wish-fulfilling Gem Necklace". Tibetan text.
ཡིད་བཞིན་ནོར་བུའི་ l དོ་ཤལ།།
གནའ་རབས་སུ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད། ཁོང་དགུང་ལོ་བཞི་བཅུར་སོན་སྐབས་གཞི་ནས་སྲས་མོ་ཞིག་བྱུང་། སྲས་མོ་དེ་ནི་
གཤིས་རྒྱུད་བཟང་ལ་བློ་གྲོས་ལྡན་པ་དང་། མཛེས་ཤིང་2 ཡིད་དུ་འོང་བ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པས་རྒྱལ་པོས་རང་གི་མིག་འབྲས་ལྟར་གཅེས་
སྐྱོང་གནང་བ་མ་ཟད།3 བླ་མ་རྩ་ཆེན་ཞིག་གདན་དྲངས་ནས་སྲས་མོར་བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷ་མོ་ཞེས་མཚན་བཏགས། མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་
ཁོང་ལ་སྲས་མོ་བཀྲས་ལྷ་4 ཞེས་འབོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད།
སྲས་མོ་བཀྲས་ལྷའི་སྐྱེ་སྐར་གྱི་རྟེན་འབྲེལ་དེ་ལོ་གསྲུམ་རེའི་ཐོག་ཐེངས་རེ་5 བྱས་ནས་རྒྱལ་པོ་དང་བཙུན་མོ་ནམ་གཉིས་
ཀྱིས་གསོལ་སྟོན་གྲ་རྒྱས་གཤོམ་གྱི་ཡོད། སྲས་མོ་བཀྲས་ལྷ་དགུང་ལོ་བཅུ་དགུར་སོན་པའི་ལོ་དེར་སྐྱེ་སྐར་གྱི་རྟོན་འབྲེལ་སྔར་ལས་གྲ་
རྒྱས་བྱས། བརྗིད་ཉམས་ལྡན་པའི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཕོ་བྲང་ནང་རིན་ཆེན་ཕྲེང་དུ་བརྒྱུས་པ་ལྟར་6 དང་ནམ་པར་བཀྲ་བའི་རྒྱན་མཆོར་
གྱིས་བརྒྱན་པ་དང་། སྐུ་མགྲོན་ཚང་མ་དགའ་སྤྲོའི་ངང་ལ་རོལ་བཞིན་ཡོད་སྲས་མོ་བཀྲས་ལྷ་མུ་ཏིག་ལ་སོགས་པའི་རིན་ཆེན་སྣ་
ཚོགས་ཀྱིས་བརྒྱན་ནས་ལྷ་ཡི་བུ་མོ་ལྟ་བུར་གྱུར་ཡོད། རྟེན་འབྲེལ་གྱི་སྨོན་འདུན་ཞུ་བའི་སྒྲའི་གྲོད་དུ་རྒྱལ་པོས་གཟི་མིག་དགུ་པ་བཅུ་

དགུ་དང་བྱུ་རུ་སུམ་ཅུ་སོ་གསུམ། གཡུ་དྲུག་ཅུ་རེ་དྲུག་བཅས་རིན་ཆེན་ལས་འགྲུབ་པའི་7 ཡིད་བཞིན་ནོར་བུའི་དོ་ཤལ་དེ་བྱམས་
བསྐོར་ཞིང་དགའ་སྤྲོའི་གླུ་གར་འཁྲབ། སྲས་མོ་བཀྲས་ལྷས་ཡབ་ཡུམ་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་དྲིན་གྱིས་སྐྱོང་བར་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞུ་ཆེད་སྐུ་ཚེ་ཡུན་
གློ་བུར་དུ་རླུང་དམར་དྲག་པོ་འཚུབས་9 ནས་ནམ་མཁའ་འཐིབས་པ་དང་ས་གཞིར་མུན་པ་རུབ་པ་གློག་འཁྱུགས་པ་དང་།
འབྲུག་སྒྲ་བསྒྲགས་པས་10 རྒྱལ་པོ་དང་བཙུན་མོ་གཉིས་སྐྲག་ཐག་ཆོད་ནས་རང་གི་གཟིམ་ཆུང་དུ་བྲོས། སྐབས་དེར་ཡ་མཚན་ཅན་གྱི་
བྱ་གླག་གཅིག་གིས་སྲས་མོ་ཁྱེར་ཏེ་སྒེ་ཁུང་ནས་འཕུར་སོང་བ་རེད། རྒྱལ་པོ་དང་བཙུན་མོ་རྣམ་གཉིས་ནི་རང་གི་སྲས་མོ་བརླགས་
པའི་སེམས་སྡུག་གིས་གདུངས་བའི་ཁྲོད་དུ་གནས། རི་མོ་མཁན་མཁས་པ་གདན་དྲངས་ཏེ་སྲས་མོ་བཀྲས་ལྷའི་སྐུ་བརྙན་ཚོན་ཁྲ་ཅན་
ཞིག་བྲིས་ནས་གང་སར་སྦྱར་འགྲེམ་བྱས་པ་མ་ཟད། ད་དུང་གལ་ཏེ་སྲས་མོ་གང་ཡོད་ཤེས་ནས་11 སྙན་སེང་ཞུ་མཁན་ལ་གསོལ་
རས་དངུལ་རྟ་རྨིག་པ་12 བཙུ་སྤྲོད་རྒྱུ་དང་། གལ་ཏེ་སྲས་མོ་སྐྱོབ་ཐུབ་མཁན་ཡོད་ན་དེར་མི་ཚེ་གཅིག་རིང་འདང་བའི་གསེར་ས་
ཕག་བརྒྱ་ཐམ་པ་སྤྲོད་13 རྒྱུ། གལ་ཏེ་སྐྱོ་བ་མི་དེ་གཞོན་པ་ཡིན་ན་སྲས་མོའི་མག་པར་ཉར་རྒྱུ་བཅས་ཡིན་ཞེས་རྩ་ཚིག་བཀྲམ།
བ་དང་དཔའ་ཉམས་ལྡན་པའི་བུ་ཡི་མིང་ལ་བློ་རྡོར་ཟེར་ཞིང་། ཧ་ཅང་མཐོང་བར་དཀོན་པའི་14 སེར་དྲག་ཆེན་པོ་དེས་ཤིང་ཁང་
ཀྱོག་ཀྱོག་བཟོས་པ་དང་། ཞིང་ནང་གི་ལྗང་པ་རྣམས་སེར་བས་བརྡུངས་བར་བརྟེན་ཨ་མས་ཞིང་ནང་གི་ལྗང་པ་ནམས་ཡར་སྐྱོར་བ་
བུ་ཡིས་ཁང་པ་ཉམས་གསོ་བྱེད་བཞིན་ཡོད། ཨ་མ་ཚེ་སྐྱིདངལ་དུབ་ཀྱིས་ཁྱིམ་དུ་ཇ་འཐུང་སྤགས་བཟས་15 བྱེད་པར་འགྲོ་ད་གོས་
བསམས། ཕྱིར་ལོག་བྱེད་པའི་ལམ་བར་དྲེགས་ལྡན་སེང་གེའི་ངར་སྐད་བརྒྱབ་པ་བློ་བུར་དུ་ཐོས་མ་ཐ་མགོ་ཡར་བཏེགས་ནས་ལྟ་
ཆོད་དེ་འགྱེལ་བ་དང་བུ་བློ་རྡོར་བློ་རྡོར་ཞེས་བོས། བུ་ཡིས་སེང་གེའི་ངར་སྐད་དང་ཨ་མའི་འབོད་སྒྲ་ཐོས་མ་ཐག་སྟ་རེ་འཕྱར་
བཞིན་རྒྱུག་ཕྱིན། སེང་གེ་དཀར་མོས་ཨ་མའི་རྐང་པར་སོ་བརྒྱབ་ནས་འདྲུད་ཕྱིན་པ་། བློ་རྡོར་གྱིས་སྟ་རེ་གཞུ་སྐབས་སྟ་རེའི་མགོ་
བུད་དེ་ཐག་རིང་སར་ཟགས་པ་16 དང་སྟ་རེའི་ཡུ་བ་སེང་གེའི་སྒལ་སྟེང་དུ་ཤུགས་ཆེ་ཐེབས་སྟབས་གཏུམ་དྲག་ཆེ་བའི་སེང་གེ་དཀར་
མོ་དེས་དེས་དངངས་སྐྲག་གི་སྒོ་ནས་ཨ་མའི་ལྷམ་ཁྱེར་ནས་བྲོས་ཕྱིན། ཨ་མ་ཚེ་སྐྱིད་ལ་ལྷམ་ཆ་དེ་རང་ལས་མེད་པས་བུ་བློ་རྡོར་གྱིས་
རང་དགར་བསྐྱུར་ག་ལ་སྲིད། ཁོང་གིས་སྟ་རེ་ཡར་བསྒྲུགས་རྗེས་ཡུ་བ་བརྟན་པོར་བསྒར་ནས་གོམ་སྟབས་མགྱོགས་པོའི་ངང་རི་
འདི་འཕྲོས་སློབ་ཚན་བཙུ་གསུམ་པར་གཟིགས་ Translation
The Wish-fulfilling Gem Necklace
In ancient times there was a king. When he reached the age of forty, only then did
he get a daughter (was a daughter born to him). That daughter had good character, was
wise, and was very beautiful. Because of this, the king took care of her like his own eyes.
Not only that, he (also) invited a venerable lama who named her Tashi Lhamo
["auspicious goddess"]. (Afterwards) people called her Princess "Drelha."
Princess Drelha's birthday celebration was done every three years. (At this time)
the king and queen prepared an elaborate banquet. On the year when Princess Drelha was
19 years of age, (they) made a birthday celebration more elaborate than in the past. The
inside of the king's magnificent palace had been decorated with beautiful ornaments and
with many precious jewels strung like beads on a rosary. All the guests were enjoying
themselves. Princess Drelha was adorned with pearls and other different kinds of
precious gems and had become like a daughter of the gods (goddess) . In the midst of the
exchange of good wishes, the king lovingly put on Princess Drelha's neck a precious gem
necklace made from precious gems such as 19 nine-eyed si stones, 33 (pieces of) coral,
and 66 (pieces of) turquoise.
(At this time) a group of the palace's female singers wearing pearls and many
other precious gems surrounded the fortunate princess, singing and dancing. Princess
Drelha sang a song in order to show gratitude to her parents (for their kindness), which
said, "May (they) live forever!"
Suddenly it became stormy, the sky clouded over, the earth became dark and
there was lightning and thunder. The king and the queen were very frightened and fled
into their living quarters. At that time a strange eagle (appearedin the hall) and flew from
the window carrying the princess. The king and queen were sad over the loss of their
daughter. (They) summoned an expert artist who drew a color picture of Princess Drelha,
which they put up every where. Beside that, they also disseminated an edict saying, "If
anyone knows where the princess is and reports it, (he, she) will be rewarded with 10
horse-hoof-sized (ingots) of silver. If someone saves the princess, he will be rewarded
with one hundred bricks of gold, a sum that will be sufficient for one's whole life. (And)
if the one who saves her is a young man, he will be taken (into the family) as a

In a gorge there was a poor family (consisting) of a mother and son. The name of
the kind mother was Tsekyi and the name of the brave son was Lodor. Due to a hailstorm
of proportions rarely seen, their wooden house had become lopsided and the sprouts in
the field had been beaten down. Because of this, the mother was working in the fields
propping up the stalks and the son was repairing their house. The mother Tsekyi got very
tired and thought, "I have to go home to drink tea and eat pak (roasted barley dough)."
On the road (she was) returning (on), she suddenly head the roar of a ferocious lion. As
soon as (she) heard it, (she) lifted her head, looked, and saw a lion whiter than snow
leaping towards her (to the font) with its mouth open very wide. She was extremely
scared, collapsed, and called, "Son Lodor, Lodor." As soon as the son heard the shouts of
his mother and the lion's roar, he took an axe and went running. Because the white lion
had bitten his mother's leg and was dagging her (away), Lodor struck (a blow) at (the
lion) with his axe. At that time the head of the axe became unstuck and flew off (lit.,
slipped off) far away. The handle (however) hit the lion hard on its back. The fierce white
lion was frightened by this and fled carrying his mother's shoe. (Lodor thought,) "Since
Mother Tsekyi had just that one pair of shoes, how could her son give it up?" After he
picked up the axe (head), he fixed it on the handle firmlly (and) then went quickly into the
forest on the high mountain to chase after (the lion).
See Lesson 13 for the continuation.

I2.20.2.3 Grammatical notes
The phrase ཡིད་བཞིན་ནོར་བུ་ means "wish-fulfilling gem" and by extapolation is also used
for the Dalai Lama. Here it refers to the gem.
2. This segment consists of 4 adjectivals: (l) གཤིས་རྒྱུད་བཟང་ལ་, (2) བློ་གྲོས་ལྡན་པ་དང་།, (3) མཛེས་
ཤིང་, and (4) ཡིད་དུ་འོང་བ་ strung together by the conjunctives ལ་, དང་, and ཤིང་ See 10.3.7 for
a discussion of adjective conjunction.
3. Although this placement of "not only" may seem semantically inappropriate here, there
is nothing wrong with it in Tibetan semantics.
4. This is an abbreviation of the name བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷ་མོ་ Normally the first and third syllables
are joined, but in this case Tibetan convention uses བཀྲས་ instead of བཀྲ་
5. ཐོག་ in the phrase ལོ་གསུམ་རེའི་ཐོག་ཐེངས་རེ conveys "at" (see 12.1.4) . The particle རེ་ ("each")
was explained in 10.8.
6. The phrase བརྗིད་ཉམས་ལྡན་པའི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཕོ་བྲང་ནང་རིན་ཆེན་ཕྲེང་དུ་བརྒྱུས་པ་ལྟེར་ illustrates three

common ways that Tibetans convey flowery descriptions. In the first segment, an
adjectivized nominal (བརྗིད་ཉམས་ལྡེན་པ) modifies "palace" thurough the genitive particle ("a
palace that was magnificent — a magnificent palace") . In the second part, རིན་ཆེན་ཕྲེང་དུ་བརྒྱུས་
པ་, ལྟར་ ("like") is used to create a simile — "precious gems strung like (beads) on a
rosaury." In the third part, རྣམ་པར་བཀྲ་བའི་, the adjective བཀྲ་བ་ ("beautiful") is modified by
the adverbial རྣམ་པར་ ("completely"), which both are then inked to the noun "decorations"
(རྒྱན་མཆོར་) through the genitive particle.
7. The phrase རིན་ཆེན་ལས་འགྲུབ་པ་ ("came from precious gems") modifies རྡོ་ཤལ་
("necklace") . It should be noted that ལས་ here means "from" rather than its more usual
8. Recall that སོ་ indicates the end of a sentence (see .
9. རླུང་དམར་འཚུབས་ means "to storm" and དྲག་པོ་ functions adverbially conveying "fiercely."
10. This is a common way to list a series of verbal actions (ནམ་མཁའ་འཐིབས་པ་དང་ས་གཞིར་མུན་
པ་རུབ་པ་གློག་འཁྱུགས་པ་དང་། འབྲུག་སྒྲ་བསྒྲགས་པས་). Four verb phrases are linked here by the པ་དང་
clause connective or just listed consecutively.
11. གལ་ཏེ་ ... ནས་ ("if") is nornmally written གལ་ཏེ་ ... ནེ་
12. This literally means "silver made in the shape of a horse hoof."
13. This construction breaks down into མི་ཚེ་གཅིག་རིང་ ("for the duration of one life time")
and འདང་བའི་གསེར་ས་ཕག — བརྒྱ་ཐམ་པ་སྤྲོད་ ("give 100 bricks of gold which are/will be sufficient
14. ཧ་ཅང་མཐོང་བར་དཀོན་པའི་སེར་དྲག་ཆེན་པོ་ is an interesting construction. The core is the noun
"hailstorm" (སེར་དྲག་), which is modified by both the adjective "big" (ཆེན་པོ་) and the
preceding phrase via the genitive particle. That phrase starts with the adverb "very"
(ཧ་ཅང་), which modifies "rare" (དཀོན་པ), which in turn modifies the nominalized verb
"seeing" (མཐོང་བར་).
15. In this construction the verbal phrase "eat ba and drink tea" (ཇ་འིཐང་སྤགས་བཟས་) function
as noun and thus are verbalized by བྱེད་ It could have also have been written ཇ་འཐུང་པ་དང་
16. In the phrase སྟ་རེའི་མགོ་བུད་དེ་ the verb བུད་ ("to come off, get unstrung") conveys that
the head of the axe slipped off as he was in the action of striking the lion.

12.21 Vocabulary
ཀྱོག་ཀྱོག་ crooked, zig—zag
དཀོན་ rare, scarce
གང་གི་ཐད་ནས་ གང་གི་ཐོད་ནས་"by all means/in all respects" construction
བཀྲ་བ་ multicolored, beautiful, lovely; bright
བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷ་མོ་ p.n.
བཀྲམ་ va. to spread out, disperse
གང་གིས་ཤེ་ན "why" construction
བཀྲས་ལྷ་ abbr. བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷ་མོ་
གང་ཅི་ "lots of ways"་ construction
རྐྱང་ "go right ahead'' particle
གང་ཅིའི་ཐད་ནས་ "by all means/in all respects" construction
རྐུ་མ་ thief, va —རྐུ་ to steal
གང་ཅིའི་ཐོག་ནས་ "by all means/in all respects construction
སྐུ་མགྲོན་ guest (h.)
གང་ཐད་ནས་ "by all means/in all respects" construction
སྐུ་བརྙན་ statue, image, portrait (h.)
གང་དང་ཅི་ "lots of ways'" construction
སྐྱེ་སྐར་ birthday
སྐྱེལ་ 1. va. to deliver; 2. va. to spend time
གང་དྲག་ "it's a pity" construction
སྐྱོན་ l "too" particlel 2. error, mistake; 3. damage, harm
གང་འདྲ་ཞིག་ "what kind of" construction
གང་ན་ཅི་ཡོད་ "whatever exists'" construction
གང་ས་ནས་ "by all means/in all respects" construction
སྐྱོར་ va. to support, prop up
བསྐོར་ va. to surround
གང་ཞིག་དྲག་ "its a pity" construction
བསྐྱར་ again
གང་ཡིན་ཅེ་ན་ "why" construction
བསྐྱར་ va. to give up, abandon, throw away
གང་ཡིན་ཟེར་ན་ "why" construction
གང་སར་ everywhere, all over
ཁ་བྲལ་ vi. to separate, to divorce
གོམ་སྟབས་ step
ཁུར་ va. p. of འཁུར་
གྲ་རྒྱས་ elaborate preparations, va. — བྱེད་; — གཤོམ་ to make elaborate preparations
ཁེ་པོ་ cheap
ཁྱུ་ herd, group
ཁྱེར་ va p of འཁྱེར་
གྲང་ངར་ cold, coldness
མཁའ་དབྱིང་ས་ sky
གྲུ་ boat
འཁྱུད་ – va. to embrace, hug
གྲུབ་ཐོབ་ཐང་སྟོང་ a great yogin, siddhi
འཁྲབ་ va. to act, perform
གྲོག་རོང་ gully, gorge, deep ravine
ག་ནས་ "how could" construction
གྲོས་མོལ་ discussion; va. —བྱེད་
ག་པར་ "how could" construction
གླུ་ song
གང་གི་ཆ་ནས་ "by all means/in all respects"
གླུ་གར་ song and dance
ག་པར་ "how could" construction

གློག་འིཁྱུགས་ lightning
ཅི་ཞིག་དྲག་ "it's a pity" construction
དགུན་དུས་ winter time
ཅི་ལ་ཟེར་ན་ "why" construction
མགུལ་ neck, throat
ཅིས་ཤེ་ན་ "why" construction
མགྲིན་དབྱངས་ voice
གཅེས་སྐྱོང་ taking care of, protecting, defending, va. — བྱེད་
འགྱེལ་ vi. to fall, collapse
འགྲན་བསྡུར་ competition ་ va. — བྱེད་
བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་ liberation. va. — གཏོང་
འགྲིགས་ vi. to be all right, okay
ལྕགས་ཐག་ཟམ་པ་ iron-link bridge
འགྲུབ་ vi. to be achieved, fulfilled, completed; to be gathered, assembled
ཆ་ pair, match
ཆུ་གློག་ hydroelectric
ཆུ་གློག་ས་ཚིགས་ hydroelectric station
རྒ་དངུལ་ Chinese silver
ཆེས་ཆེར་ very much bigger
རྒྱན་མཆོར་ ornament, decoration
ཇི་འདྲ་ཞིག་ "what kind of" construction
རྒྱལ་གླུ་ national anthem
རྗེས་འདེད་ chasing, pursuing; va. — གཏོང་
རྒྱབ་ཏུ་ the back side
ལྗང་པ་ a sprout, a plant
རྒྱས་ vi. to flourish, thrive, grow
ཉར་ va. to keep, hold
རྒྱུ་ 1. "should not" particle; to string beads, flowers, gems
གཉིས་པོ་ the two together
མཉམ་འབྲེལ་ cooperation, cooperative
རྒྱུ་དབང་ wealth and power
སྙིན་སེང་ report; petition; va. — ཞུ་
རྒྱུ་དབང་ wealth andpower
སྙིང་གྲོགས་ bosom friend
སྒར་ va. to fix, to put on a handle
ཏར་ telegram, cable; va. –  གཏོང་
སྒལ་ the back (of a person or animal)
སྒུག་སྡོད་ stay waiting; va. —— བྱེད་
སྒོ་ door
བཏགས་ va. p. of འདོགས་
རྟ་རྨིག་ hoof of horse
སྒོར་ dollar or rupee or yuan
རྟེན་འབྲེལ་ ceremony, celebration
རྟེན་འབྲེལ་གྱི་ སྨོན་འདུན་ good wishes offered at a celebration (e.g., "best of luck, long life"), va. – ཞུ་
སྒྲོན་ va. to put on (h.)
བརྒྱན་ va. to aborn, decorate
བརྒྱུད་ via, through
བསྒར་ va. p. of རྒྱུ
རྟོག་ཞིབ་ inspection; va. — བྱེད་
བསྒྲོན་ va. p. of སྒྲོན་
ལྟ་བུ་ similar, like
ངང་པ་ swan
སྟོན་དུས་ autumn
བསྔགས་བརྗོད་ praise. va — བྱེད་
ཐག་རིང་ distant, far
ཅི་དྲག་ "it's a pity" construction
ཅི་འདྲ་ཞིག་ "what kind of" construction
ཐུག་འཕྲད་ meet; va. – བྱེད་
ཐེ་ཇུས་ interference; va. — བྱེད་
ཅི་འདྲ་ཞིག་ "what kind of" construction
ཐེབས་ vi. to get hit, struck by

ཐོག་ l. on; 2. via; 3. in addition to; 4.during at the time when; 5. concerning
ནགས་གསེབ་ forest, jungle
ནད་ illness, disease
ནམ་ཡང་ always
མཐུན་རྐྱེན་ resource
མནར་ vi. to suffer, to be oppressed
མཐོངས་ opening, gap, hole
རྣམ་ honorific term used for second and third person
འཐིབས་ vi. to be overcast, cloudy
འཐུས་མི་ a delegate
རྣམ་པར་ perfectly, completely
དག་པོ་ good quality
དཔའ་ཉམས་ heroic, courageous, spirited
དུས་ཆེན་ festival, occasion
དཔའ་ཉམས་ ལྡན་པ་ heroic
དུས་ཚོད་ time
དེ་ནས་བཟུང་ from that time onwards
སྤག་ name of the staple Tibetan food that is made from roasted barley flour and
དེ་ཙམ་ "how ever much . . ., that much" construction kneaded with tea or water
དོ་ཤལ་ necklace
དྲིན་གྱིས་སྐྱོང་ va. to look after with kindness, to be kind to
སྤང་རྒྱན་མེ་ཏོག་ meadow flower
སྤུས་ཀ་ quality
དྲེགས་ vi. to be arrogant, haughty; to be ferocious
དཔྱིད་དུས་ springtime
སྤྲོ་བ་ལྡན་པ་ happy, joyful, cheerful
གདན་དྲངས་ va. p. of གདན་འདྲེན་
ཕོངས་ be destitute, devoid of
གདན་འདྲེན་ l. va. to summon, call; 2. va to invite
ཕྱག་རོགས་ཞུ་ va. to request help (h.)
ཕྲེང་ rosaury; string of beads, jewels, flowers va. — (དུ་) བརྒྱུས་ to string beads, jewels, flowers
གདུངས་ vi. to suffer from, be tormented by
བདམས་ va. p. of འདམ་
མདའ་ arrow va. — རྒྱག་
འཕང་ va. to shoot, to fire a weapon
མདོག་ཁ་པོ་ "seems likely to occur"
འཕྱར་ va. to hoist, raise, lift up
འདང་ vi. to suffice, to be enough
འཕྲད་ va. to meet
འདབ་ལོ་ leaf
འཕྲལ་ at once, immediately
འདི་གར་ here, over here
བག་མ་ bride
འདོད་རྔམས་ greed, avance
བུད་ vi. to come off, to become unstrung
འདོད་རྔམས་ ཆེན་པོ་ greedy
བོད་མི་ Tibetan person
འདྲུད་ va. to dag, pull
བྱ་གླག་ Tibetan eagle
ལྡན་པ་ having, possessing
བྱམས་བརྩེ་ love
བརྡུངས་ va. p. of རྡུང་
བྱུ་རུ་ coral

བྲིས་ va. p. of འབྲི་
མཚན་ a name (h.)
བློ་གྲོས་ལྡན་པ་ wise, understanding
མཚན་འདོགས་ va. to name, give a name (h.)
བློ་རྡོར་ p.n.
མཚན་བཏགས་ va. p. of མཚན་འདོགས་
འབྲུག་སྒྲ་བསྒྲགས་ vi. to thunder
འཚོང་ va. to sell
སྦྱར་འགྲེམ་ a poster, va. — བྱེད་ to put up a poster
མཛའ་གཅུགས་ love
མཛེས་ཤིང་ཡིད་   དུ་འོང་བ་ beautiful, charming, attractive
མ་བུ་ abbr. mother and son
མག་པ་ bridegroom who comes to live with wife's family
མཛེས་སྡུག་ beauty
མང་ཉུང་ quantity, amount, number
འཛམ་གླིང་ the world
མིག་འབྲས་ eyeball
འཛིན་བཟུང་ arrest; va. — བྱེད་
མིང་ name
འཛོམ་ vi. to be collected together, to be congregated, to be gathered
མུ་ཏིག་ pearl
མུན་པ་རུབ་ vi. to become dark, night, twlight
འཛོམས་ vi. p. of འཛོམ་
མོན་ p.n of an area
ཞི་བདེ་ peace
ཙམ་ about, approximately
གཞས་མ་ singer (female)
བཙོང་ va. p. of འཚོང་
གཞུ་ va. to hit, strike
བཙོན་པ་ prisoner
གཞིས་ཆགས་ resettling. va. — བྱེད་
རྩ་ཆེན་ precious, sacred
གཞོན་ནུ་མ་ young girl
རྩ་ཚིག་ public notice, edict, proclamation; va. — བཀྲམ་ to proclaim, announce an edict
བཞད་ vi. to bloom (flower)
ཟགས་ vi. to fall (off something)
གཟི་ a type of precious stone that is black with dot-like designs that Tibetans refer to as "eyes"
རྩད་གཅད་ investigation; va. — བྱེད་
རྩི་ཤིང་ a plant
བརྩི་ va. to love
གཟིམ་ཆུང་ living quarters, living room (h.)
བརྩེ་པོ་ love
ཚ་བ་ heat
བཟང་ kind, sincere, good
ཚད་ . 1. level, limit, scale; 2. also particle used in "every time/whenever/whoever/whatever" constructions
ཡ་མཚན་ཅན་ strange, unusual
ཡབ་ཡུམ་ parents, father and mother (h.)
ཡར་ upwards
ཡར་ལུང་གཙང་པོ་ name of the main east-west river inTibet
ཚུགས་ vi. p. of འཛུགས་
ཚེ་སྐྱིད་ p.n.
ཡིད་དུ་འོང་བ་ beautiful, pleasing
ཚོན་ཁྲ་ colored
ཡིད་བཞིན་ནོར་བུ་ precious gem

ཡིད་འོང་མཛེས་ས་  སྡུག་ལྡེན་པ་ beautiful, pretty
ཚིགས་ station
ས་གཞི་ earth
ཡུ་བ་ handle
སུ་འདྲ་ཞིག་ like who, like whom
ཡུན་ duration
སུ་ཡི་ "whose"
ཡུན་ནས་ཡུན་དུ་ forever, everlasting
སུ་ཡིས་ "by whom"་
གཡུ་ turquoise
སུ་ལ་ "to whom"
རང་དགར་ 1. leaving something as it is; va. — བསྐུར་ or བཞག་ to leave as it is; 2. on one's own, free
སུའི་ "whose"
སུར་ "to whom"
སུས་ by whom"
སེར་བ་ hail
རི་ཀླུང་ rivers and hills; country, side scenery
སེང་གེ་ lion
སེམས་སྡུག་ sadness, depression
རི་མཐོ་ high mountain
སེར་དྲག་ hail stornm. vi. — བབས་
རི་མོ་མཁན་ painter, artist
སོན་ va. to reach, to receive
རིན་ཆེན་ precious, valuable
སྲས་མོ་ l. daughter (h.); 2. also a term of address for daughters of the aristocracy or royalty — In this case since it is the daughter of a king, it is tanslated as "princess"
རོལ་ vi. to enjoy
རླང་ས་འཁོར་ car, automobile
རླུང་དམར་ དྲག་པོ་ storm, hurricane, typhoon; vi. – འཚུབས་ to storm
ལ་དཔག་ (སྟེ་) (ན་) according to
ལ་གཞིགས་ (ཏེ་) (ན་) according to
གསོལ་སྟོན་ banquet, feast; va. — གཤོམ་ to give a banquet
བསམ་ཚུལ་ འབྲི་དེབ་ suggestion book
ལག་རྩེད་སྤོ་ལོ་ basketball; va. — རྒྱག་
ལསདོན་ work
ལས་མི་ worker
བསོད་ནམས་ luck, merit, good fortune person's name
ལུང་པ་ place, country
ཏྲུའུ་ཅི་ ch. chairnman
ཤིང་ཁང་ wooden house.
ཤིང་སོན་ tree seed
ལྷ་ལྡན་ Lhasa
ལྷམ་ boot, shoe
ཤུགས་ strength, power
གཤམ་ (དུ་) beneath, below
གཤིས་རྒྱུད་ character, personality
གཤོམ་ va. to set out, to arrange, to prepare
ས་ཕག་ a brick

Lesson Thirteen
13.1 Word formation: introduction
As we have seen, virtually all Tibetan syllables have independent meanings. This
"monosyllabic" nature of Tibetan affords tremendous flexibility not only in expressing new
ideas and concepts, but also in expressing old ones in new ways. In fact, it is a mark of
literaury ability and accomplishment to manipulate and recombine syllables (morphemes)
creatively. For the student, however, this means that you will often encounter new
combinations even for very standard ideas. Thus, in order to read written Tibetan
successfully, the basic structure underlying word formation must be understood and this
will be the subject of the following sections.
13.1.l Nominal compounds
Nominal compounds consist of two syllables, l each of which is a non-derived
13.1.2 Synonymic compounds
These consist of two syllables which are synonyms. The meaning of the compound
word is identical to the oveall meaning of the component parts. For example, སྟོབས་ཤུགས་
("power, strength") is comprised of two syllables: སྟོབས་ ("power, strength") and ཤུགས་
("power, strength") .
a. སྟོབས་ཀྱིས་ས་མང་པོ་བཟུང་བ་རེད།
(They) seized many areas by force.
b. སྟོབས་ཤུགས་ཀྱིས་ས་མང་པོ་བཟུང་བ་རེད།
same as a.
Other common synonymic compounds are:
གྲངས་འབོར་ quantity, number, amount སྒྲ་སྐད་ sound, voices
དཀའ་ངལ་ difficulty རེ་འདུན་ hope
དུས་སྐབས་ time, period ངོ་གདོང་ face
བུ་ཕྲུག་ children གྲལ་རིམ་ class (social)

I3.1.3 Premodifying compounds
In these constructions the first syllable modifies the second. Thus, in the word སྨན་
ཁང་ ("hospital"), the syllable སྨན་ ("medicine") describes what kind of a ཁང་ (པ་) (house,
————————————————————— —————
l Four-syllable compounds will be discussed following the section on two syllable units.

establishment") it is. Some other common examples are:
གནམ་གྲུ་ sky + boat = airplane
ཞིང་ཆུ་ agricultural field + water = irrigation water
ས་བདག་ land + owner = land owner, landlord
སློབ་ཕྲུག་ school + children = student
དམག་མི་ war + person = soldier
གནམ་གཤིས་ sky + nature/character = weather, climate
གློག་འཕྲིན་ electricity + correspondence/communication = telegram

13.1.4 Conjunctive compounds
Like premodifying compounds, the component syllables in these compounds also
have different meanings, but here the relationship between them isone or conjunction
rather than modification. For example, "workers and famers" consists of the first syllable
of the word །བཟོ་པ་ ("workers") and the first syllable of the word ཞིང་པ་ ("farmers") . The
meaning is the combination of the two "workers and farmers."
a. བཟོ་པ་དང་ཞིང་པ་མང་པོས་ཚོགས་འདུ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Many workers and farmers held a meeting.
b. བཟོ་ཞིང་མང་པོས་ཚོགས་འདུ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Many workers and farmers held a meeting.
Some other common conjunctive compounds are:
གནས་དུས་ place and time
ཞིང་འབྲོག་ farmers and nomads
དགེ་སློབ་ teachers and students
རྒྱ་བོད་ China/Chinese andTibet/Tibetans
ལོ་ཟླ་ years and months
རྟ་དྲེལ་ horses and mules

13.1.5 Polar compounds
In these constructions each of the syllables has an opposite meaning, but the ove
meaning of the compoundis either conjunctive or an abstract notion deriving from both.
For example, ཕ་མ་ literally consists of ཕ་ ("father") and མ་ ("mother") and as a compound
can mean either "father and mother" or "parent (s)." Other common compounds are
ཉིན་མཚན་ day + night; all the time
ཕོ་མོ་ male + female; sex
གཞུང་སྒེར་ government + private; everything
Adjectives are more commonly used as the components of polar compounds.

They are discussedin the next section.
13.1.6 Adjectival polar compounds
The polar type of adjectival compound functions the same as the nominal polar
compound discussed above. It consists of two comparative adjective stems having opposite
meanings. The overall meaning is either conjunctive or an abstract notion deriving from
both. For example:
ཆེ་ཆུང་ big + small = size
རིང་ཐུང་ long + short = length, distance
ཚ་གྲང་ hot + cold = temperature
བཟང་ང་ན་ good + bad = quality
སྐམ་རློན་ dry + wet = dampness
མཐོ་དམན་ high + low = height
13.1.7 Adjectival postmodifying compounds
These consist of a noun in the first syllable slot and the first syllable of the basic
adjective form in the second. The adjective in the second syllable describes the noun in the
first, and the resultant compound is a new noun.The main difference between this
construction and that of normal adjectival modification is that only the first syllable of the
adjective is used. For example, ཚོགས་ཆེན་ ("big meeting, general assembly meeting, plenary
meeting") consists of the noun ཚོགས་ ("meeting, assembly") and the first syllable of ཆེན་པོ་
a. ང་ཚོགས་ཆེན་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡིན།
I'm going to the general assembly meeting.
b. ཁོང་གིས་ཚོགས་ཆེན་ཐོག་གསུང་བཤད་གནང་བ་རེད།
He gave a speech at the big meeting.
Other common examples of this are:
རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ nation/kingdom + all over/all = nationwide, national
བློ་མཐུན་ mind/thought/ + harmonious/similar/ friendly = state of
having the same opinions/thoughts = comrade
ལས་གསར་ work/worker + new = new work/worker
མི་ངན་ man + bad/evil = evil person

13.1.8 Verbal compounds
Verbal compounds consist of N.-Vb., Adj.-Vb., and Vb.- Vb. combinations. In all of
these, the resultant compound is a nominal, which then can be used with verbalizers such as

བྱེད་ or རྒྱག་ to make verbal constructions. Premodifying compounds: Adj. -Vb.
As was the case with the earlier premodifiers, the first syllable (here the adjective
stem) describes or modifies the second. For example, ལེགས་རྟོག་ ("good/thorough
understanding") consists of ལེགས་པོ་ ("good") and རྟོག་ ("to understand").
a. ཁོ་ཚོར་མི་དམངས་ཀྱི་བསམ་ཚུལ་ལེགས་རྟོག་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
They do not have (a) good understanding of public opinion.
This combination can also be used with a verbalizer.
b. ཁོ་ཚོས་མི་དམངས་ཀྱི་བསམ་ཚུལ་ལེགས་རྟོག་མ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
They did not act (so as to) understand public opinion well.
Other common examples are:
གསར་བརྗེ་ new + change = revolution
དགའ་བསུ་ happy + receive = welcome
གསལ་སྟན་ clear + show = demonstration
གསར་བཟོ་ new + make = new (i.e., not used) product
གསར་གཏོད་ new + create, found = invention, new creation
གསར་འཛུགས་ new + establish = (newly) establish, (new) construction
c. རྒྱ་ནག་གིས་མེ་ཤུགས་འཕུར་མདེལ་གྱི་རྟེན་གཞི་གཅིག་གསར་འཛུགས་བྱས་པ་རེད།
China has newly established a missile base. Synonymic compouhnds Vb.-Vb.
When the meaning of both syllables in the compound are the same, the
meaning does not change but a nominal is created.
For example, འགྲོ་བསྐྱོད་ — go + go = going
a. ལྷེ་སར་ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་མི་རིགས་འགྲོ་བསྐྱོད་བཀག་འདོམས་བྱས་པ་རེད།
(They) prohibited foreign nationalities (from) going to Lhasa.
b. ཁོ་ཚོས་ལྷ་སར་འགྲོ་བསྐྱོད་བྱས་པ་རེད།
They went toLhasa.
Other examples are:
འཛིན་བཟུང་ hold/grasp + hold/seize = arrest, seizure, capture
ཤེས་རྟོགས་ know + know = knowledge
མཇལ་འཕྲད་ meet + meet = meeting (h.)
གསུང་བཤད་ say + say = speech
འཕོ་འགྱུར་ change + change = change
འཕེལ་རྒྱས་ increase + increase = development

གཡོ་འགུལ་ shake/move + shake/move = shaking, moving Verbal summation compounds Vb.-Vb.
These compounds consist of syllables (verb stems) with different meanings. The
overall meaning is the summation of the two independent ones. For example, བཅོས་བསྒྱུར་
("reform") is comprised of བཅོས་ ('"to correct'") and བསྒྱུར་ ("to change") . Like the earlier
example, these function as nouns and take the standard verbalizers. Some common
compounds are:
འཛུགས་བསྐྲུན་ plant/erect + make = construction, building, development
འབོད་བསྐུལ་ call + urge/incite/demand action = appeal
སྲུང་བརྩི་ defend + respect = respect, honor
གསོག་འཇོག་ save + keep = deposit, savings
འཕུར་བསྐྱོད་ fly + go = flying Verbal polar compounds Vb.-Vb.
These compounds consist of verbs with opposite meanings. The overall meaning is
usually the abstract idea derived fom the two syllables, although it may also be simply the
conjunctive meaning with each syllable retaining its independent meaning. For example,
འགྲོ་སྡོད་ breaks down into "going" and "staying" and together means either "movement" or
"going and staying" ཉོ་ཚོང་ ("buying + selling") has the general meaning of "trading."
a. ཁོའི་འགྲོ་སྡོད་སྐོར་སུས་ཀྱང་ཤེས་ཀྱི་མི་འདུག།
Nobody knows (anything) about his movements.
b. ང་ཚོ་འགྲོ་སྡོད་ཐག་ཆོད་མ་སོང་།
We didn't decide whether to go or stay.
Other examples of this type of compound are:
བཤད་ཉན་ telling + listening
འབྲི་ཀློག་ writing + reading
ཐོབ་ཤོར་ winning + losing
ཟ་བཏུང་ eating + drinking
སྐྱེལ་འདྲེན་ transport to + transport from = shipping Verbal premodifying compounds Vb. + N.
In these compounds the first syllable (verb) modifies the second syllable, e.g., སྡོད་
ཁང་ = "live'" + "house" with the overall meaning "a house to live in" or "residence." Some
common examples are:
འགྲོ་ལམ་ go + road = a road (to go on)

རོགས་དངུལ་ help + money/finance = money to help, aid funds, relief money
རྨོ་ཕྱུགས་ plough + cattle = draft animals
འབྲི་དེབ་ write + book = book to write in, notebook Verbal premodifying compounds N. + Vb.
Like other premodifying constructions, the first syllable modifies the second. For
example, "spring planting" breaks down into the first syllable དཔྱིད་ ("spring") (from དཔྱིད་ཀ་)
and the verb འདེབས་ ("to plant/sow"). The first syllable tells us what kind of a planting it
was: a "spring planting." This nominal compound can then be verbalized.
a. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་དཔྱིད་འདེབས་ཀྱི་གྲ་སྒྲིག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འདུག།
The farmers are making preparations for spring planting.
b. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་དཔྱིད་འདེབས་བྱེད་བཞིན་འདུག།
The farmers are doing spring planting.
Other common examples of this are:
རང་སྐྱོང་ self + govern/rule = self-governing, autonomous
བཙན་འཛུལ་ force + enter = forceful entance, invasion, aggression
སྨན་བཅོས་ medicine + treat = medicinal treatment
སྐྱོན་བརྗོད་ mistake + tell = criticism Vrerbal sequential compounds Vb.—Vb.
In these constructions the first verb takes the past stem (if it has more than one
stem) and the second the non-past. The overall meaning derives from the action of the
second verb on the first. For example, in བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་ the first syllable means "to bind"
and the second "to release," with the overall meaning "to release or untie that which was
bound." This compound is used to express the modern concept of political "liberation."
Another example is ཉམས་གསོ་ ("repair, renovation"), which literally means "taking care of
or rearing that which has become deteriorated."
Sequential compounds are usually idiomatic in the sense that the meaning is not
easily derivable from the constituent elements. Like the other compounds cited earlier, they
are verbalized by standard verbs such as བྱེད་.

13.1.9 Ouadrisyllabic compounds
Quadrisyllabic compounds consist of two disyllabic compounds. The relationship
between these two disyllabic units is that of premodification, i.e., the first disyllabic
compound modifies the second. When a quadrisyllabic compound is encountered, each of

the two disyllabic sub-units should be analyzed separately before the overall
determined. The glossary will usually contain these. For example:
a. རྒྱ་བོད་ས་མཚམས།
Sino-Tibetan border (what kind of a border? — the Sino-Tibetan one)
We can substitute for either of the disyllabic compounds:
b. རྒྱ་བོད་དམག་མག་མི་
Chinese and Tibetan soldiers
c. བལ་བོད་ས་མཚམས་
Tibeto- Nepalese border
Other examples are:
d. མི་དམངས་སྨན་ཁང་།
people's hospital
e. གནམ་གྲུ་འབབ་ཐང་།
f. དམངས་གཙོབཅོས་བསྒྱུར།
democratic reform

13.2 "Time to do" particles: ལོང་ and ཁོམ་
These particles are used following the non-past stems of verbs. They convey that
there was or was not "time to do" the verbal action.
a. ཁ་ས་ཨ་མས་ཁྲོམ་ནས་ཚལ་ཉོ་ལོང་བྱུང་མི་འདུག།
Mother didn't have time to buy vegetables from the market yesterday.
b. བཀྲིས་ཞོགས་པ་སྔ་པོ་མ་ལངས་ཙང་། ཇ་འཐུང་ལོང་མེད་པར་སློབ་གྲར་འགྲོ་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
Because Tashi didn't get up early in the moning, he had to go to school without
having time to drink tea.
c. བསོད་ནམས་ལགས་གུང་གསེང་ལ་མ་གཏོགས་ཏན་ཧྲི་གཟིགས་ལོང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
Sonamla doesn't have time to watch television except during vacation.
d. མདང་དགོང་ང་ཚོས་གློག་བརྙན་ཆ་ཚང་བལྟ་ཁོམ་མ་བྱུང་། གང་གིས་ཞེས་ན་ཕྱིས་པོ་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཆགས་སོང་།
Last night we didn't have time to watch the movie completely. If you ask why, it is
because it became too late.
e. སང་ཉིན་ཁྱེད་རང་ནང་ལ་བཞུགས་ཁོམ་ཡོད་པས།
Do you have time to stay at home tomorow?
f. ཟླ་ཉིན་ང་བོད་ལ་འགྲོ་དུས་མཆོད་མཇལ་ཞུ་ཁོམ་བྱུང་།
Last year, when I went to Tibet, I had time to go on religious visits.
g. ཁ་ས་ངས་ཁོ་ལ་སྐད་ཆ་བཤད་ཁོམ་བྱུང་མ་སོང་།
I didn't have time to talk to him yesterday.
h. སང་དགོང་ཁོང་ཚོ་ནང་ལ་སྡོད་ལོང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།

They will not have time to stay at home tomorrow night.

13.3 Vb. + ཁག་པོ་ constructions
ཁག་པོ་ is used after verbs to convey that it was difficult to do the verbal action.
a. སྒེ་ཁུང་མེད་ན་དབུགས་གཏོང་ཁག་པོ་རེད།
If there is no window, it is difficult to breathe.
b. ལམ་ག་དེ་འགྲོ་ཁག་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
It is difficult to go on that road.
c. ཁོང་གི་ཕྱག་བྲིས་དེ་ཀློག་ཁག་པོ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
His letter (handwriting) is not difficult to read.

13.4 Vb. + བདེ་པོ་ constructions
These constructions parallel those with ཁག་པོ་ but convey that it was easy to do the
verbal action.
a. སྒེ་ཁུང་ཡོད་ན་དབུགས་གཏོང་བདེ་པོ་རེད།
If there is a window, it is easy to breathe.
b. ལམ་ག་དེ་འགྲོ་བདེ་པོ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
It is easy to go on that road.
c. ཁོང་གི་ཕྱག་བྲིས་དེ་ཀློག་བདེ་པོ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
His letter (handwriting) is not easy to read.

13.5 Reading exercise: "The Wish-Fulfilling Gem Necklace," continued from
Lesson 12
13.5.l Tibetan text
ན་གཞོན་བློ་རྡོར་གྱིས་དབུགས་ཧལ་བཞིན་པར་ནགས་གསེབ་ཀྱི་ཁྲོད་དུ་སེང་གེ་འཚོལ་བར་ཕྱིན་པ་དང་ནམ་མཁར་ l ཟུག
པ་ལྟེ་བུའི་ཐང་ཤིང་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་གི་འོག་ཏུ་སླེབས་སྐབས་སེང་གེ་དཀར་མོ་དེ་གར་ཡིབས་ནས་བསྡད་2 ཡོད་པ་མཐོང་མ་ཐག་བློ་རྡོར
ཁོང་ཁྲོ་མེ་ལྟར་འབར་ནས་3 སྟ་རེ་གཞུ་སྐབས་ཏང་ལང་ཞེས་པའི་སྒྲ་ཞིག་ཐོས་ནས་མེ་སྟག་འཕྱུར་བ་དང་ལག་གཉིས་ཀྱང་སྦྲིད།
ཡང་བསྐྱར་ཞིབ་པར་ལྟ་སྐབས་དེ་ནི་རྡོ་ཡི་སེང་གེ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པ་རེད།4 འཇིག་རྟེན་ཐོག་ཡ་མཚན་ཅན་གྱི་བྱ་བ་འདི་འདྲ་ཡོད་པ་སྟེ་5
ཨ་མའི་ལྷམ་ནི་དོ་ཡི་སེང་གེའི་ཁའི་ནང་དུ་ཡོད། ན་གཞོན་བློ་རྡོར་གྱིས་ཞིབ་ཚགས་ངང་ལྷམ་ཚུར་བླངས་ནས་ཨམ་ཕྲག་ནང་དུ་