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MORPHOLOGY OF THE TIBETAN LANGUAGE

MORPHOLOGY OF THE TIBETAN LANGUAGE

A CONTRIBUTION TO COMPARATIVE INDOSINOLOGY

HY

HANS NORDEWIN VON KOERBER, PH. D.

SOMETIME PROFESSOR OF ORIENTAL LINGUISTICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF AMOl, CHINA ; I’KOKKSSOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Log ANUKLK8; HONORARY CURATOR OF ORIENTAL AUT OF TIIE I.OH AKHULKS Ml'BEUM HEMUEH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT KI1ITAIN AND IRELAND

SUTTONHOUSE

LOS ANGELES SAN FRANCISCO

COPYRIGHT 19.15 BY SLTTUNHOl'BE PUBLISHERS

PKINTKD FOR Sl’TTONHOI'SK BY

J. J. AUGUSTIN, OLUCKSTADT AND IIAMlllHta PKINTKD IN GERMANY

To

Dr. Franz Nikolaus Finch much beloved friend and teacher this book is dedicated in token of affection and gratitude

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page

Introduction ........................................ IX

Preliminary Notes.................................... XI

I. Roots, Stems, Words........................................................1—8

II. Origin of Word-Classes ....................................................9—118

A.    Tenuis ............................................................................9

B.    Ablaut............................................................................20

C.    Ya Itags and Ra btags ............................................36

D.    Aspirates........................................................................40

E.    Formative Elements....................................................46

a)    Inseparable Prefixes and Suffixes ....................46

1)    Guttural Suffixes ............................................47

2)    Dental Suffixes ................................................49

3)    Labial Suffixes ................................................51

4)    The Suffixes t, r, and ḥ....................................53

5)    Guttural Prefixes ............................................59

6)    Dental Prefix d and Sibilant s ....................62

7)    Labial Prefixes ................................................70

8)    The Prefixes I and r........................................72

b)    Separable Formative Elements............................77

1)    Suffix s................................................................77

2)    Prefix b, Prefixes g and d, Tense Formation

of verbs with initial guttural, labial and

dental consonants ........................................7ĩ)

3)    Prefix ḥ................................................................105

4)    Analysis of individual words in the guttural,

dental, and labial groups ............................112

III. Palatalization in Word Formation through the Agency

of Ya btags ....................................................................119—177

A.    Introduction ................................................................119

B.    Imminution of the Initial Sound............................126

C.    Tense Formation ........................................................131

D.    Tense Formation of Verbs with Imminution of the

Initial Sound............................................................146

I’ajro

E.    Verbs with Initial Assibilized Dental Sound .. .. 157

F.    Tense Formation of Verbs with Initial Assibilized

Dental Sound.............................. 159

G.    Initial Imminution of Assibilized Dentals........ 169

H.    Tense Formation of Verbs with Initial Simple

Dental Sibilants .......................... 170

IV. Palatalization in Word Formation through the Agency

of Ra btags .................................. 178—19C

V. Words with La btags............................ 191—19S

VI. Boots and Stems of the Palatal Groups with Word

Analysis of the Palatal Groups ................ 200—207

VII. Wa zur........................................ 208—21S

Appendices:

Table of Word-Classes List of Tibetan Roots The «h» in Tibetan Glossary Index

INTRODUCTION.

“Morphology of the Tibetan Language” is one of the fruits which ripened while I was a prisoner-of-war at Ahmednagar (British India). The five and one half years which I spent there gave me a rich opportunity rarely accorded to any foreigner to make special studies in the field of the morphological development of the monosyllabic languages. My original intention, at the suggestion of Dr. F. O. Schrader, Adyar Library, Madras (now Professor of Sanskrit in Kiel, Germany), was to undertake an investigation of the Tibetan verbal system. I soon found myself, however, in the course of the undertaking nolens volens forced to compile a comprehensive Morphology of the Tibetan Language, for I discovered that the Tibetan verbal system could be made intelligible only by a complete exposition of the morphology of the language itself.

It is now my pleasure to present the fruition of my intensive labors. Only a very limited literature was at my disposal in the prisoner’s camp, comprising — so far as the Tibetan is concerned — the following works: Chandra Das, Tibetan-English Dictionary; Jäschke, Tibetan Grammar; Hannah, Grammar of the Tibetan Language; Amundsen, Primer of Standard Tibetan, and a few Tibetan texts, among them Tāranātha and Milaraspa. In the course of a correspondence, limited by the assiduity of the war censors, with Dr. Johann van Manen, Adyar Library, Madras (now Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta), a few recent publications were brought to my attention, which were, however, not accessible to me during the time of my imprisonment. After I had already laid the foundations for a large part of the work (February, 1917), I received from Dr. Berthold Laufer, Field Museum, Chicago, among other things, his monograph Bird Divination amongst the Tibetans, which I found stimulating; however, as will become evident in the course of my presentation, I differ occasionally with Dr. Laufer. In order to arrive at tangible results I devoted about ten months exclusively to the formal compilation of list after list, table after table, out of which I could slowly read the morphological significance. An abundance of time permitted me to bring all the words listed in Chandra Das under the scholar’s microscope and to view them in their various aspects. Consequently, I hope that nothing has escaped my attention. So that the immense number of listB may be made accessible to others, I have in preparation a Dictionary of Tibetan Boots and their Development, which will, in so far as it is scientifically possible, include crossreferences to associated words in other monosyllabic languages.

After our repatriation in the summer of 1920, I had at hand for the first time since I began this work, the indispensable, if modest, scholarly treatises on the subject, which, however, offered me practically nothing new. I gave particular attention to Conrady’s Eine Indochinesische Kausativ-Denominativbildung, with which I am largely at variance.

Consequent upon the extraordinarily difficult conditions after the war in Europe, immediate publication of my study was out of the question. And as my regular work in the Dutch Indies, China, and the Philippine Islands, occupied me for years to the exclusion of other interests, the actual typesetting has had to be postponed until a more auspicious moment.

I am happy now to be able to print the “Morphology of the Tibetan Language.” I wish to acknowledge the contributions of other recent scholars in this field, whose work, however, has not been closely enough associated with mine to modify in any way my original theories. This work presents not only a morphology, which considers and explains exhaustively all the characteristics of the Tibetan language, but also, as Conrady formulated it in a marginal note on an earlier German version, a “discovery which shows fundamentally new paths to the entire Btudy of Indosinitics.»

In this place I should like to express my gratitude to Miss Carol

F. Hovious, M. A., Mr. O. E. Becker, M. A., and to Dr. Mary Sinclair Crawford, Professor of French, all of the University of Southern California, for their ready assistance in translating from the German original and for their unceasing concern in the tedious labour of proof reading, without which the final publication of this book would not have been possible.

Hans Nordewin von Koerber.

Los Angeles, January 20, 1930.

PRELIMINARY NOTES.

In this work as in my forthcoming Dictionary of Tibetan Roots and their Development the following system of transcription is used:

pr    *ỵ r

k    kh    g    ŋ

y *    t

t    th    d    n

q- sr    ST

p    ph    b    m

3' S’    5' y

tá    thä    di    ny

& £ t

ts    ths    dz

J    2

a* o;

s    z    h

far »r t*r    g-

r    1    y    *    h    w

Intentionally I transcribed the aspirates <$' and <35' by the letters thi and ths, since the initial sounds, morphologically viewed, originally divided themselves into t + h + & and t + h + s respectively, a feature which is not to be overlooked in the initial sounds compounded of palatals and assibilized dentals. Metathesis has entered into present day pronunciation, and it would be, therefore, more correct phonetically to write t + & + h and t -f- s + h.

All prefixes and suffixes are separated from the root or stem by a hyphen. Only those suffixes which transformed roots into stems are represented without a hyphen.

The translations of single forms taken over from the dictionaries compiled by Chandra Das, and by Jäschke, and in the Dictionnaire thibétain-latin-franọais par les missionnaires catholiques

du Thibet are put in ordinary quotation marks («.....»). When,

in order to bring out its inner psychological development, a new translation of a word seemed necessary, this word has been put in small

angle quotation marks («.......»).

In the enumeration of the verb forms of whole groups, forms or single letters in round parentheses are those which I have added in accordance with other quotations in the above mentioned dictionaries. On the other hand, brackets have been used to indicate forms or letters not included in them, but which I have added. An asterisk before a form signifies a reconstructed form.

The lists of verbs in paragraphs 26, 32—36, 39—40, 43—47, 80, 52—56,81—89,92—97,105,107—109,113—116, and 118 are complete. I have intentionally made them so in order to avoid any possible confusions. In paragraphs 25, 27—30, 37—38, 41—42, 48—49, 51, 57—58, 90, 106, and 117 complete lists were superfluous.

For a better understanding of the separate word groups of paragraphs 18, the roots from which they were derived have been added; in the remaining paragraphs this was unnecessary.

Abbreviations arranged alphabetically:

TED Chandra Das, Tibetan-English Dictionary. Calcutta, 1902, The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot.

DTLFDictionnaire thibétain-latin-franọais par les missionnaires catholiques du Thibet. Hongkong, 1899. ICDBConrady, EinelndochinesischeCausativ-Denominativ-Bildung. Leipzig, 1896.

JTED Jäschke, Tibetan-English Dictionary. Lahore, 1881. KTED Alex. Csoma de Körös, Tibetan-English Dictionary. Calcutta, 1910.

DTR von Koerber, Dictionary of Tibetan Roots and their Development. (In preparation.)

I. ROOTS, STEMS, WORDS.

§ 1. In order to understand the Tibetan language it is imperative to trace the various forms of a verb or word to their common original form or root, irrespective of whether in the development of the Tibetan language these roots have served only as mental prototypes of thoughts not yet crystallized into words or whether they have become spoken words, and also irrespective of whether the Tibetan language was from the beginning root-inflecting, or whether the original Tibetan is to be considered as a so-called isolating language like the present day Chinese, etc.

To determine the root of a Tibetan word is generally a comparatively simple matter. Further, every attempt at such a determination must undeniably lead step by step, as will be seen in the course of this treatise, to the conviction that the original element of every Tibetan word is a media + vowel. However, it should not be supposed that in prehistoric times a media + vowel was necessarily the most primitive element of every Tibetan word. It is possible that in pre-Tibetan times a tenuis + media originally existed at the beginning of a word, that then the media was replaced by the tenuis which in turn reappeared in primitive Tibetan transformed into the media, and that finally from this media proceeded the «Stufenwechsel» (series of initial sound mutation). Tt is also possible that some of the roots listed in DTR which begin with the tenuis will later be considered as prehistoric. But, irrespective of these possibilities, according to the Tibetan Sprachgefũhl, the most primitive element of‘every Tibetan word in historical times is unmistakably a media + vowel. On the basis of this theory my whole work has been built up. This element of media + vowel we call the primary root. Where the initial sound appears changed into a tenuis, tenuis aspirate, or a nasal, we speak of it as a secondary root. When a consonant is added to the vowel of the root, a stem results. The Tibetan word may consist of a bare root (primary or secondary); of a bare stem; or of a root or stem plus one of the infixes ya btags or ra blags, plus a prefix or suffix, (or both)

— yes, it may even add several such elements.

Several points concerning the initial sound of the root need still further explanation. From a purely morphological as well as a sema-siological point of view, the media form serves as a basis for the various classes of word development. In addition to this, the forms beginning with media are by far more numerous than any others (cf. DTR). On the one hand through the tenuis are formed medial transitives1, causatives, and completives (see below), and on the other hand denominatives and devcrbatives. The tenuis aspirate may form intransitives or passives (see below). It likewise frequently expresses the thing in itself, the action in itself, or the condition in itself. Finally, the nasal, as many roots in DTR demonstrate, becomes an agent in the building up of highly specialized interrelated concepts, particularly of abstract nouns. Palatalization of initial sounds through the addition of the infixes ya btags and ra btags (one of the means of word formation) makes more difficult or prevents the identification of primary roots; it is, therefore, necessary to deal in a special chapter with all words having initial palatals, including not only the derivates of initial palatals, but also newly formed words. Primary roots are under no circumstances palatal (cf. § 144).

The building up of stems is accomplished through the addition of mediae and nasals, the same mediae and nasals which occur as initial sounds in the primary roots. It must be admitted in our definition of a “stem” that a later comparison of the monosyllabic with other speech families may possibly prove that some of the Tibetan “stems” were in reality «roots» despite the fact that the sonantal as well as the consonantal terminal sounds had long been felt as suffixes. That is to say, apparently in the beginning the inseparable or primary suffixes (cf. §§ 9—22), by means of which the stems are built up, as well as the «infixed» y and r in the form of ya btags and ra btags were not, in part at least, genuine formatives of the Tibetan, but rather had been thought of and employed as such from historical times and probably even long before that.

In addition to the means of word building we have already mentioned (mutation of initial sound, prefixes, and suffixes, etc.), the role of the ablaut must not be overlooked.

A consideration of the special literature on the subject has called my attention to the fact that Hodgson, Houghton, and Boiler were under the impression that Tibetan roots are to be found through mere separation and truncation of the formative elements. Conrady was also originally of this opinion, which on the basis of his Indochine-sische Causativ-Denominativ-Bildung he later considered erroneous, since every initial sound was suspected of being a prefix. If the Tibetan of historical times be used as the basis for a morphological investigation, the question of whether or not a prefix may be inherent in the initial sound is without appreciable importance. To consider the monosyllabic nature of words as a result of Lautver-schleifung (word corruption through slovenly pronunciation) is correct; for, this development may be observed in many languages in the monosyllabic group in historical times. On the other hand, time must elapse before we can come to any definite conclusions about the monosyllabic nature of words resultant from Lautverschleifung in prehistoric times; but this is for our purposes, I believe, without especial significance.

Schiefner formulates the supposition (Bull, hist-phil. Akad. St. Peterb. VIII, 265) that the vowel-(root-) form arose out of the consonantal, or in other words, that the final consonants were dropped. A similar falling away of the final consonants is frequently observable in other languages, especially in Chinese since the period of the Shi King, and in the Tibetan spoken in Central Tibet, which according to my opinion accounts for their loss of feeling for the original value of the final consonants. This loss of final consonants contributes in an alarming fashion to the decomposition of the Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese, etc., affecting a large part of the monosyllabic languages and complicating the scholar’s investigation of them. In the following paragraphs special attention will bo given to demonstrating the fact that in historical times new concepts and new grammatical functions developed through the addition of consonantal suffixes. We must deal in the historical times of Tibet not only with prefixes which appear with recognized grammatical functions, but also with suffixes in similar functions. These prefixes and suffixes must surely some day throw great light upon the other monosyllabic languages which now show a confusing lack of affixes. The foundation and point of departure in a special study of Tibetan in the historical period is a consideration of roots, stems, prefixes, and suffixes (as formative elements).

Only when their being and purpose have been fully mastered, is it possible to find their analogues in related speeches. The alluring possibility opens up before us to discover, in part at least, the lost prefixes and suffixes in Chinese through analogy with those still extant in Tibetan.

To illustrate the above the following examples will suffice for the present:

Group I. (Guttural initial sound).

Media | Tenuis | Tenuis Aspirata | Nasal

Belonging to-√*ga (2) «head» (intellectually, i. e., seat of thinking ability, etc.):

go ba «to under- ị    ŋo bo «essence,

stand, to per-Ị    substance ;in-

ceive mental-1    trinsic natu-

ly”    Ị    re”

s-go ba «to say, 8-lco ba «to se-    s-ŋo ba «to de-

to speak»    lect, to ap-    sign”

' point»

ḥ-god pa «to pro- j b-kod pa «to h-khod pa «to be ject, to plan” | plan, to ar- put, to be set Ị rangc»    down»

Belonging to √*ga (3) «head» (in the metaphorical sense of «chief-tain, leader»):

m-gon po «ma- d-kon «rare, m-khanpo“pro- b-r-ŋan pa «to ster, lord” scarce’*    fessor; head honour, to

of a mon- worship” astery”

Belonging to √*ga (6) «head» (in the meaning of “enveloping, en folding”)2;

ḥ-geb-s pa «to b-kab pa «to co- khebs pa «co-cover up, to ver»    vered, veiled’

conceal”

Media | Tenuis | Tenuis Aspirata | Nasal

Belonging to √*ga (7) «to swell = to arch»:

8-gor mo «ball, 8-kor ba «to re- h-khor ba «to globe; disk» volve»    walk all

round, circumambulate”

d-gur “crooked, b-kur ba «to khur «load for bent»    bend one- men; bur-

self» = “to den» carry, to convey”

Belonging to √*ga (12) «to fall off, decay, diminish»:

gog pa “to crumb-    kog pa “to splin- h-khog-8 pa “dele off, to scale    ter off, to crepit, deca-off»    chip» yed”

h-gum pa «to    b-kum pa “to khum-8 «dimi-

die»    kill» nished”

Group II. (Dental initial sound).

Belonging to √*da (2) « to arrive at, to reach to > to suffice»:

ḥ-dom(-s) pa “to g-tam pa “to fill tham pa “full, nom pa “to be assemble, co- up, make complete” satisfied” me together” full”

Belonging to √*da (3) «to become connected, tied together*:

8-dom pa “to 8-stem pa “to them pa “series, nom pa “to par-bind, to fas- shut or fasten set”    take of”

ten”    (a door)”

Belonging to √da (4) «to appear in a place > to move forward*:

h-don pa “to dis- b-ton pa “to ex- thon pa «to be miss”    pel, drive expelled» =

forth”    “to come

out” (DTLF)

Media | Tenuis | Tenuis Aspirata | Nasal Belonging to √da (5) «to be transferred*: ḥ-deg-s pa «to    theg pa «vehic-

shift, to remo-    le» (DTLF)

ve»

b-dog pa «to take g-tog pa «to thog «property» r-nag-8 «ready possession of» grab, to pluck»    money»

(JTED)

b-taŋ ba «to gi-    g-naŋ ba «to

ve, to send»    permit,allow»

Belonging to √da (6) «to extend» (horizontally): dar ba «to be dif- g-tor ba «to h-thor ba «to be fused, to be scatter, to strewn, to be spread»    strew»    scattered”

Belonging to √*da (10) «to become light (shine)»: b-de «splendour, t-ta ba «to cause    m-no ba «to

prosperity”    to become    think over,

(DTLF)    light (in one’s    to ponder’’

ownintercst)»

= «to look for, to search j for*’

Belonging to √da (11) «to decay, vanish»:

h-deŋ ba «to va-    ịtheŋ po «lame» naŋ ba «humi-

nish”    !    Hated”

(JTED)

1-dad pa «to con-    m-nad m-nad

taminate»    “calumny”

dam pa «deceas-    nembu «doubt»

ed»

l-dam l-dem «du-    h-thom «to be

bious, uncer-    confused,

tain» (JTED)    puzzled»

8-tor ba «to lo-    nor ba «to err”

se” (DTLF)

dal «slow”    thal ba «to elap

se, to be passed”    m-nal «sleep” r-nal «rest»

Media | Tenuis | Tenuis Aspirata | Nasal Belonging to ]f*du (6) «passion, agony, pain*: h-dul ba «to ta- b-r-tul ba «to thul «taming, me»    conquer”    conquest”

(JTED)

Group III. (Labial initial sound).

Belonging to √ba (1) « to arch»:

ḥ-boŋ ba «round-    r-tnoŋ-s pa

ness, rotundi-    «round head-

ty», «arching»    edness, and

therefore stupidity* =

—    «stupidity,

ignorance”

(DTLF)

Belonging to √*ba (2) «to swell, increase*:

baŋ ba “store-    I    maŋ ba «to be

house, store-    much”

room* ’    I

Belonging to √*ba (3) «to swell, increase* (in the metaphorical sense):

r-lad pa «to in-    r-med pa “to in

cite, to insti-    quire, to stu-

gate”    dy”

d-rnod pa «to swear, to affirm”

h-bar ba «to be-    phor ba «to ra-

come ignited”    ve” (JTED)

8-bar ba «to kind- 8-par ba «to ex-le, inflame” cite, incite”

Belonging to √*ba (4) «to decrease*:

8-boŋ ba “to ab- s-poŋ ba “to pkaŋ ba «to use stain from” abandon, re- economy, to nounce”    be thrifty”

Media | Tenuis | Tenuis Aspirata | Nasal Belonging to √*ba (6) «to appear, to become visible*: h-bar ba «to bios- 8-par ba “to h-phar ba ‘‘to be som»    raise, promo- raised, be ele-

te”    vated”

Belonging to √*bit (2) «heap, pile»: buŋ-s “a large d-puŋ pa «a phuŋ po «bund-heap»    heap»    le»

Belonging to i*bu (4) «to proceed from > to move towards»: h-bur ha «to 8-par ba “to h-phur ba «to swell up, rise” make fly,    fly”

scare up”

II. ORIGIN OF WORD CLASSES.

A. TENUIS.

§ 2. A. The very earliest means of building up or evolving a root or a stem consisted in the transformation of the initial media to a tenuis, as a result of which medial transitives, causatives and completives, and denominatives and deverbatives developed; this was apparently a weak, tentative endeavour at a definite formation, but the attempt diverged in various directions. The significance of this old tenuis formation for the morphological development of the Tibetan speech is fundamental to a comprehension of further formations.

In the examples given below, the meaning of the prefixes may in this connection be left entirely out of consideration. Later, their meaning will be made clear. They have nothing to do with the tenuis formation, with ablaut, etc. Conrady likewise sees in the prefix less perfect tense the fundamental form in tense formation (cf. IODB, p. 19). Irrespective of whether or not the initial sound may really with justice be suspected of having had a prefix, it is necessary to assume in the study of the Tibetan historical period that a prefixless initial sound3 was the “basic form” of all words.

Conrady gives the following examples in his causative series (p. 3-18):

gab pa «to conceal oneself” : 8-gab pa «to cover”,

goŋ po «a lump, clod”    : s-goŋ ba «to make balls of

dough,”

grib «shade”    : s-grib pa «to obscure,”

ñams «soul, mind”    : s-ñam pa «to think, consi

der,”

nil ba «to trickle down, fall : s-ñil ba «to break, down, in drops”    destroy,”

nog pa «soiled, dirtied” : r-ñog pa «to trouble, to stir

up,”

bug pa «a hole, crack”    : s-hug pa «to penetrate, per

forate,”

myur ba «quickly”    : s-myur ba «to be quick, in a

hurry,”

or

h-gnl ba «to move, quake” : s-gul ba «to move, put in

motion,”

h-gyur ba «to change” (intrans.): s-gyur ha «to change, transform,”

h-grol ha «fo be released from” : 8-grol ba «to set free, to liberate,”

h-dum pa «to be reconciled : 8-dum pa «to make agree,” with”

ḥ-bag pa «to defile, pollute : s-bag pa «to defile, pollute,” oneself”

h-brel ba «to adhere together, : s-brel ba «to stitch together” to meet together”

These examples leave no doubt that the grammatical changes are due to the influence of prefixes. In other cases ablavt, which almost certainly served a definite purpose, enters in, as Conrady’s examples given below demonstrate:

gad mo «a laughing,laughter”: r-god pa «to laugh,” grog jta «noise, talk”    : 8-grog pa “to call, shout,”

ñal ba “to lie down, to sleep”: s-ñol ba «to lay anything

down,”

dam «root of the concept: : s-dom pa «to bind, fasten,” to bind”

or

m-ñarn pa «like, equal”    : s-ñom pa “to treat impartial-

iy>”

m-nam pa “to smell of”    : s-nom pa “to smell some

thing”,

ḥ-baŋ ba “to be soaked”    : s-boŋ ba «to soak, to drench”

Causatives could, therefore, be built up either through prefixes or through ablaut. When in addition to these there appears (as the further examples in Conrady, p. Off. (ICDB) show) the transformation of the initial media into a tenuis, we have a third means by which the causative may have been brought about. As my further studies will show, prefixes as well as ablaut, and the transformation of media into tenuis are responsible for the formation of causatives. Let us first turn to a consideration of the tenuis. Through the change of the media into a tenuis the following formations result:

1) Medial Transitives

Ex.:

' r-dól ba “to come forth, to make its

baaed on ^ĨŌjī ■    appearance”

h-thol ba4 “to confess” — «to cause so-

k m-thol ba1 mething to appear (in one’s

own interest)»

*grab pa «to plan, to design», from which

based on √*ga(2): ■ grabs “preparation, arrangement”

. b-krab pa «to choose or select from among

many”

-------- f h-dzeg pa “to ascend, climb up”

based on i*ga(ñ)&\    . ,

9 ' [ r-tseg pa to amass, pile up = to be

avaricious” = «to cause something to rise up in one’s own interest = accumulate*

.    (s-goŋ ba «to hide, conceal»

ase on √ ga(6). | s ^    «n    to bury”

the aJiìlaut change to «w» has nothing to do with the formation of medial transitives, cf. § 4, etc.

.- Ị h-diaf) pa «to sneak, creep privily»

based on ga(6). | k-ịhġaJ) pa «to conceal, keep secret» (for

oneself)

2) Causatives (in the usual sense)5

Ex.:

— fh-doŋ ba “to go, to proceed” based on √da(4) or √da(5):{ *    „

[g-toŋ ba «to cause to go» = to send

--— fḥ-dzeg pa «to ascend, climb up”

ase on √ ga(5)a. | r ị8^ ^ <<to amags»» (jn a general sense)

based on ^*60(4)7    “to droP> «Wf

' 7 [ b-t8ag pa «to cause to drop» = to press

out”

,--f h-d&u ba “to melt»

based on y*gu: < *

[ g-tśu ba «to cause to melt» = to

squeeze”

' h-bar ba “to catch fire, to become

based on √*ba(3):    ignited”

. 8-par ba “to excite, incite”

- [ r-dib pa «to fall to pieces, collapse”

based on 1da(ll): \ ... ^    r , j >>

' ’ [ r-tib pa «to break or pull down

, , — (r-dol ba «to come forth, to come up” based on 1*da{9): { . ,, „.    * _**>.

' [ r-tol ba to pierce, to perforate

— f h-diab pa «to sneak, creep privily” based on ^(6):    concear

- ị h-du ba «to come together, to assemble”

based on √ w(l). Ị h-ihu ba «to gather, to collect”

--------- r h-bral ba «to be separated from”

based on )/*6«(5):    Jo ,<to mỊpmta„

, ---ị h-bri ba «to diminish, grow less”

• based on 1^(6):    ha .<to diminish”

1 J i/*ĩ~77T~ M««? pa “to drop, to drip” based on \*ba(4): < ,    _    <t,

' ' [ h-thsag pa «to cause to drop» = to press

out”, etc., etc.

3) Completives1, a name under which are brought together three frequently overlapping verb classes denoting more or less the completion or perfection of an action.

(a) Iteratives or Continuatives, denoting either an action composed of frequently repeated sub-actions or the duration of an action.

Ex.:

- ị h-dom-8 pa «to demonstrate, explain”

ase on √ a(l). | h-ịham pa “to scold, to blame”

Ablaut in contrast to the intransitive h-thom pa.

1 Class (3) cannot always be clearly distinguished from class (1); similarly classes (a) and (b) are often hard to differentiate.

—-—— f 8-gul ba «to move, put in motion” baaed on ft«U): Ị M ^ ,<to exhort aámmUhn

based on    m.n*"

I h-theg-8 pa to pack up

/—-v----f r-dzod pa «to say, recite, pronounce”

based on ỵ*da(10)a:Ị ^ ^ <<to explai„„

Ablaut change from o to a is necessary, because théod pa is a resultative of r-d&od pa (s. below).

based on ì/*ba(3)- I ^ 6° “to küld,einflame

I s-par bato excite, increase”

(b)    Intensitives, indicating greater force in an action.

Ex.:

, f h-bur ba “to rise, swell up” on ]/*M3): {^r6o ,to ^0^ = «to fly»

based on    ị    f f.

[ m-khar «magnificent, continuous camp»

= “a castle, a nobleman’s

seat”

i    { l-daŋ ba “to suffice, to be sufficient”

based on i*da{2 : \ t,J . , .. , . ...

I thaŋ po (also pa ?) enduring, able to

stand fatigue”

f P0, <lt° bend back, turn round”

ase on √ a( | ^ c<to double down, turn in”

, — f b-dog pa “to take possession of” based on Ỵ*da(5). {        . „

I 9~1°9 P*1 to grab, pluck”

(c)    Resultatives, indicating the consequences of an action.

Ex.:

8-gom pa “to meditate, contemplate

based on √*ga(2):    systematically”

h-khum pa “to comprehend” (v. Ablaut)

.----f 8-arun pa “to contend with”

based on √*ga( 10 : \    „

18-krun pa to produce

based on l/^baUV ì 6“ “*° abstain from

\ 8-poŋ ba “to abandon — to renounce,

reject”

/=—7-r- { h-bar ba “to blossom, to bloom”

based on y*6a(6): \ Ịpharba .<to be promoted-.

/r—— [ h-dzug pa «to put into, to plant (KTED)» based on 5 : \ ,,    .. , * j ,*• t A,,

[ g-tẽwg-spa planted, cultivated

4) Denominatives and Deverbatives, denoting verb forms deriving from substantives and substantive forms deriving from verbs. Ex.:

,    Ị r-dze    «lord, master»

ase on √ ga(3). ị h-ịhśe ba «to attest” — «to make oneself

an authority*

Ịm-dzahba ‘ friend, relation”

asec on √ ga(3). Ị b-r-tse ba «to love, to show affection”

don    «sense or signification of

based on √da(lj:    anything”

. 8-ton pa «to show, indicate”

,- (h-dzoŋ vo «archcd» — «oval, cylindric”

based on |/ba(l): \ ’ " . tt    .    „

[ g-tśoŋ ba to excavate, undermine

---- ( buy -s «heap, bulk”

based on Ị *bu(2): | ^ ^t<) assemb|e collcct>. (KTED)

/------- ị g<d> pa “to hide”

based on y*ga(6): { . , , 4<    . . „

[ b-kab    a cover, shelter

{h-bar ba «to burn with, to glare (in

reference to passion)’’

h-phar ba «excess in worldly or religious

matters”

, .    f s-baŋ-s pa «to abstain from” (JTED)

based on √*ba(4): ]    , . „

[ 8-paŋ-8 po “renunciation of everything

------ [ b-zab pa «to use care, diligence”

based on √*ba(3): \ . ,    it    „ 6

I b-zob pa assiduity

/*;------ f h-brul ba    «to crumble, to fall to pieces”

based on y*bti(6): { *    , A1 { 8-prul pa a phantom

Compare also:

, ,    Ị h-g° ba «clothes, clothing”

based on √*ga(6): { , ,    , jL, „ , Mrir™,

\ ko ba skin, leather (JTED)

Note: It should be noticed here that one and the same means,

namely, the suffix -aya-, is used in old Sanskrit to build up causative

and completive forms. In the classical period of the Sanskrit speech a

causative could be built from every root by means of this suffix.

In the preceding period, according to Whitney’s calculation, a third

of all forms with -aya- were not causatives, but rather intensitivcs,

iteratives, and continuatives, as the following examples show:

√stan, stana-, in most cases slanaya- «to thunder» (iterative) fánath, ènath-ì or ènathaya- «to pierce” (intensive)

√üadḥ, vadha- or vadhaya- «to beat, kill, destroy” (intensive) √pat, pata- «to fall, fly,» pataya- «to fly, fly rapidly» (as an intensification of the act of flying, or perhaps as a repetition of wing strokes = «to flap»; in Tibetan the other way round: «to fly” — «to rise up quickly»); on the other hand pataya- «to let fall, let fly.”

√rac, racaya- «to manufacture, to compose”

√rah, raha- «to separate”, rahaya- «to abandon, to quit” (possibly in the sense of «to put away from oneself»)

The in transitives with initial tenuis aspirate listed by Conrady under the causative series (pp. 13—17) are in my opinion not intransitives, simply because they have an intransitive meaning and begin with tenuis aspirate, as Conrady would have us believe. They are rather, as a result of aspiration, intransitives or passives belonging to transitives with initial tenuis sound. As a result of the transformation of the media into the tenuis, these transitives with initial tenuis sound developed from intransitives with initial media (Cf. § 8 below.) Conrady (pp. 21, 54, ICDB) turns his attention next to the original initial sounds of a great many intransitives. ĩ reached the overwhelming conviction that only the media and the initial sounds, developed from them (as found, for instance, in the palatal series and the assibilized dental series), are the original initial sounds of the in transitives. (The nasal initial sound is in a limited way (cf. § 1) sometimes also the “original” initial sound of the intransitive.) Conrady arrives at this conclusion only in the case of the two initial mediae g and d. Of the first of these, the initial g-sound,

he says, p. 55: «...... dass dem Intransitivum offenbar das g-, weil

so gut wie niemals in fraglos transitiven Formen vorkommend, als echter Anlaut zusteht.” To the k- and kh- initial sounds he rightly gives the grammatical function of forming causatives. For a further discussion of the aspiration of 'the initial tenuis sound in transitives cf. §§ 59ff. To complete this, I should like to anticipate and state in this place that in the above case the aspiration is due to p hone tic al reasons only because of the still present prefix ḥ-, which had already disappeared in very rare cases. The initial sound kh- is in and for itself in no case an old transitive formation as Conrady (p. 71) thinks. (Cf. § 8 below.) — The second initial sound discussed by Conrady is d with its subsequent derivatives di and £, all three of which are older as intransitive formations than the corresponding transitives with initial t, th, tẽ, tW, and á (p. 71).

In this connection I should like also to discuss briefly another point in Conrady. In his IODB on page 85 he comes to the conclusion, «dafi die tonlosen und tonlosen aspirierten Laute der tibetischen Schrift-sprache überhaupt erst sekundäre Laute sind,» and (p. 84), that «in der Tat die Tenues aspiratae — wie selbstverständlich die Tenuis und tonlosen unaspirierten Anlaute — in der ganzen Causativbildung aus den präfixhaften Tönenden herzuleiten sind.» All the examples given on pp. 79—83 cannot, even «durch den schönen Parallelismus,” convert me to “his conclusions. Let us take the following examples from Conrady:

8-goŋ ba «to make round koŋ    «curved, excavated”

balls”

8-gor mo «round” (ball, globe) kor    «round”

8-gren mo «naked”    b-kren pa «poor, indigent”

b-8-gag pa «to hinder”    b-lcag pa “hindrance”

8-goŋ ba «to frighten”    b-koŋ ba «to threaten”

8-grol ba «to deliver”    b-kral ba «to explain, ex

pound”

8-gab pa «to hide, conceal” b-kab pa «to hide,” etc.

According to my belief, the tenuis did not develop phonetically in one way or another out of the media with prefixes, but the tenuis formation is, as can no longer be disputed, a second and later formation coequal with the initial media sound in semasiological and grammatical power. The tenuis, therefore, as Conrady rightly perceived, is a secondary development and capable of being augmented by further new formative elements (prefixes, suffixes, etc.). Thus a sort of pleonasm results from the many double forms (or parallel forms), which retain the goal-giving power of the formative elements. As a result we have before us forms with identical aims resulting from different stages of development. The examples given in § 1 illustrate the point sufficiently, although they are meager, selected from a great multitude of others that compose the DTR, which I hope shortly to publish. Let us compare

gog pa «to crumble off, to scale off (of the plaster of a wall)”

{hog pa «to splinter off, to chip» khag po «bad, spoiled, rotten” h-khog-spa «decrepit, very infirm from old age” or compare buŋ-8 «bulk, heap”

with ( W J» “to Püe up”

1 phuŋ po «a bundle”

or compare dal «slow, leisurely”

tel pa «to make vanish, make disappear,» therefore with    also «an instrument for burning”

. thal ba «to elapse, be passed, to change from”.

These comparisons make the purpose of the original initial sound changes very obvious. Intentionally altering the initial sound for the purpose of reaching a definite goal gives to the individual words their spiritual backbone which is maintained even though other formative elements from other stages of development are added.

Compare:

h-gum pa «to die” with b-kum ĩ*1 “to kill»

1 h-khum pa «to shrink”

or

d-gur «crooked, curved”

b-ĩcur ba «to crook, to bend (oneself)» = to carry, to with    convey”

. h-khur ba “to carry”

The two forms b-kur ba and h-khur ba have exactly the same value. The aspirate is phonetically required by the prefix ḥ which, as the sign of the present tense, is interchangeable with the “separable” prefix b (cf. §§ 24—02).

Opposites such as 8-grog pa «to bind, to tie”: b-tag-8 pa «to tie to, to connect,” and r-gyud pa «to connect together, to string up”: g-tấud pa «to twine, twist” or r-dzod pa «to say”: ẽod pa «to say, tell,” which Conrady adduces on pp. 80 and 82 to prove that the tenuis and tenuis aspirate developed from sonants with prefixes, lie on an entirely different road of development. In the first case we are dealing with a sound shift (cf. § 120), in the second and third cases with a degeneration of initial sound (cf. § 79), in no case, however, with parallel forms or even with a saltatory or leaping sound change, which is unknown in Tibetan. We can speak here only of a gradual sound development. When we recognize, then, that the change of the initial sound plays an important, in fact, the most important, role in Tibetan of historical times, and that to this change is added the miraculous building-energy of tho formative elements, it is difficult to imagine, how, phonetically, the change from sg-: kh-: k- (etc.) was effected, and how the speech then once more fell back upon using those means of word building which it might have considered outworn and cumbersome. For, the initial tenuis sounds combine with the same prefixes as the initial mediae, a combination from which the simple initial tenues are said to have arisen, according to Conrady. So far as I can gather; previous investigators have assumed that tenuis and tenuis aspirate arose from the tone system. Opposed to the prefixless, always deep-toned initial media sound in the Tibetan of Central Tibet stand always those which are high-pitched, namely those with initial tenuis sound and those with an initial sound made up of prefix and media. The two latter arc of equal value in the tone system. In the most ancient of the Tibetan dialects (Wcst-Tibetan) the tone system is just now coming into being. It follows from Conrady’s theories that the tone system must once have existed in this oldest dialect and then have disappeared, a supposition which we, in the light of our knowledge, cannot possibly entertain. Conrady (p. 100, ICDB) perceived the difficulty and confessed himself facing a riddle which he could not solve. We are, indeed, confronted with a problem of the highest importance to the entire science devoted to the investigation of the monosyllabic languages, and one with which we must grapple in an entirely different way. The lines of approach to the question are laid down in this morphology.

So far as sound development and sound change in Tibetan are concerned, a sound change involving grammatical change plays a gigantic role, that is, a sound change which in contrast to the gradual or saltatory sound development exists for the purpose of differentiating meaning. The gradual sound development I have just touched upon above. The so called saltatory or leaping sound development or sound change is foreign to the Tibetan. To discover it in the «massenhaften und in jeder Beziehung übereinstimmenden Parallel-formen von Prefix -f- Media- resp. iiberhaupt tönenden und tenuis-resp. Tenuis aspirata- oder tonlosem Anlaut» seems to me unjustifiable. Such a supposition leads straight to the dilemma in which Tibetology finds itself when faced with the huge multitude of parallel forms. Wo pose the questions: Do these parallel forms really have exactly the same meaning ? Do they not seem to have been created to express wider or finer shades of meaning ? Thus h-du ba means simply «to collect,» but Ihu-ba only «to gather flowers»; ḥ-gag “obstacle” in the widest sense, but kag «disturbance, damage, danger,» ìchag «section, division,” etc. (In the other monosyllabic speeches may be found a great many similarly instructive examples. We need but compare the

Siamese gom [f|JJ] «sharp, pointed,” ìehom ['ỊjJJ] «bitter»; gak [f|f]l

«sound of laughter,” khak [ĩjfl] “group laughter»; dimx [ỹìJJ] «to

pierce,” thìm2 [Ị/] JJJ «to pierce with a stick,” and so forth.) We are

under no necessity here of explaining such forms by means of prefixes which have fallen away, particularly where the prefixes in their widest compass are still preserved (as in Tibetan). And if two parallel forms are identical in meaning, it is more probable that we have one and the same word from two different dialects.

On the basis of the facts at hand, I also recognize a regular sound shift, and, indeed, like Conrady, two of them: a spontaneous and a coalescent sound development; only I see evidence of the spontaneous sound development (as the first sound shift) not in the free transformation of the media into mediae aspirates, (through a simple strengthening of the aspiration), but rather into the tenuis. — I doubt very much, if the Tibetan was originally agglutinating (cf. Conrady p. 70). It was rather root-isolating, and accomplished, to my mind, the word-and form-building in the “beginning” also in a dynamic fashion. Agglutination and inflection, which in classical Tibetan appear with the dynamic simple articulating formation, are developments of later periods. If dynamic formations are not found in other languages,1 at least not in such an impressive measure as appears to be

1) Dynamic formations, that is intentional sound alternations for the purpose of changing meaning, may also be found in other languages, although not yet perceived and acknowledged as such by philologists. I think, first of all, of the Dravidian languages, which Conrady also mentions on p. 72. Ho maintained that causative formation through a purely mechanical change of tho initial consonants was impossible. Nevertheless, we find such dynamic formations as Tamil āgu “to become,” àkku “to make”: nirambu “to become full,” nirappu “to fill.” A different form exists likewise, as in Tibetan with certain verbs, especially to differentiate the present and preterit tenses, e.g., nagugirẽti “I laugh,” naỊckẽn “I laughed” (cf. Tib. h-geg-s pa, b-kag, etc); only we must take in Tibetan, have we then a right because of their singularity to diminish their importance on the basis of «philological attainments”? The hypothesis (provisionally arrived at by analogies, cf. ICDB, p. 91) that the media which formerly began a stem went over to media aspirate through the disappearance of the prefixes which had become spirant, and that the media aspirate then split into a tenuis and tenuis aspirate, seems to me for the Tibetan of the historical and perhaps even earlier times no longer tenable. If we assume, on the contrary, a direct evolution (through intentional sound alternation for the purpose of a changing meaning) of the tenuis and tenuis aspirate parallel with that of the unaspirate media, the great «riddle” of the Tibetan language is solved, and a free road lies before us.

B. ABLAUT.

§ 3. Ablaut is a further aid to word building which belongs to the very oldest development of the Tibetan language. It is also instrumental in forming medial transitives, causatives, completives, denominatives and deverbatives as well as in changing sub-jectives into objectives. Ablaut is an older manifestation than any of the other formative elements which we shall discuss later, as is immediately apparent from a consideration of the root, for example in

a) roots which have the same initial sound:

based on √*ga (9): «to extend, spread (horizontally)»

go «room, space” = «extension, breadth»

9ana) “where” ga ru)

based on √*ga (10): «to increase, extend (in the metaphorical sense)#

ha «the, all the, the very” ko «the same”

into consideration that necessarily the change manifests itself in Tibetan only with the initial root sound, in Dravidian only with the final root sound, because in the Tibetan there oxisted no final tenuis, and in the Dravidian no initial media. In Dravidian nominal “transitives” are formed as a result of the transformation of the media into the tenuis; thus, for example, a substantive becomes an adjective or attribute adjective. I owe these examples to Dr. F. Otto Schrader of Kiel, who concedes for tho Dravidian languages a dynamic, i. e. intentional, sound alternation for tho purpose of changing meaning.

based on √ga (12): «to decrease, vanish»

lea ba «a particular faculty acquired by a mystic process in which the appetites, hunger, thirst, etc., are suppressed*’ r-ìee ba «lean, meager” ko in ko thal «cinders, ashes» based on √*ga (13): «to walk forward, proceed, go to» s-ge    «opening, outlet’’

8-go «door, entrance” based on √ga (16): «to become light, to dawn» (physically and symbolically) d-gaḥ ba “delight, joy” d-ge ba «happiness, welfare” based on √da(l): «now, just, at present” (in a strongly demonstrative sense) da    «now, just”

de    «that, that one”

do «this, this one” based on √*dà (2) : «to arrive at, reach to»

r-do    “a stone” (cf. m-daḥ «arrow”)

r-de diminutive of r-do = «small stone, pebble”

g-taḥ ma «a pawn, pledge”

g-te pa «a pawn, pledge, bail,” «present» (Schlag-inweit)

m-thah «end, margin, limits”

m-tho «a span from the tip of a thumb to the tip of the middle finger when extended” = «from one end to the other» based on √*da (3): «to be added, to be appended» tha (gu) «a short cord or rope” the ba «to belong, appertain to” tho    «register, catalogue”

b) roots which substitute one initial sound for another of the same class (guttural, dental, labial, etc):

based on √*ga (2): «head» (intellectual)

go ba «to understand, perceive (mentally)” b-kah «word, speech” kha «language, conversation” ya    «I,” «that which is individual within me»

based on √*ga(3):    «head» (in the meaning of «chieftain»)

go    «chieftain, chief»

kko    «king»

s-ŋa ba    «to be the first”

based on √*da (6):    «to extend, spread» (horizontally)

b-do ba    “to spread, diffuse”

b-r-ta ba    «to expand, grow wide»

no    «meadow, pasture land”

ne rna    “meadow,” etc.

Through ablaut the following classes developed:

1) Medial Transitives1

— f r-ten pa “to adhere to, lean on” based on √*dd (2): {    m. i    n

\r-ton pa to place confidence in a person, rely on”

- ( k-deg-s pa «to shift, to remove”

based on √da (5): \ '    .

{b-dog pa to take possession of

i A 1rn^\ Ị dab pa «to give” (DTLF) based on √da (5):    , „

I r-deb pa to exchange, change

/z— — f h-grag-8 pa «to bind” based on √*ga (14): { *

I ḥ-grog-s pa to associate with

--- Ị h-khel ba «to pack on, load”

ase on √ ga (13). |    make a person a slave”

(= to enslave)

2) Causatives (in the usual sense).

--r- ịh-babpa «to move downward, descend”

based on √*ba(4): {

[ ḥ-beb(-s) pa to cause to descend, cause to

fall down”

1 The same note holds good for the prefixes in this section as for tlioso in the tenuis-group: for the present the prefixes may bo ignored. Their significance is readily perceived from reading §§ 14—22, and 50. Should ĩ be accused of overlooking for example in the opposites nad “sickness’ and g-nod pa “to cause sickness” tho causative effect of the prefix g, which is supposed to be the real carrier of tho grammatical change, I can but refer tho accuser to § 14, in which g is identified as an iterative. This is not an arbitrary assumption of mine. Tho weight of countless examples in Tibetan convinced me that this was true for g. Just by the weight of those countless examples found in Tibetan I succeeded in finding an explanation for tho meaning and function also of all the other prefixes and suffixes — an explanation which is not at all arbitrary, ī have fotuid not one single instance in which g has a causative function.

—    ị l-daŋ ba «to rise, get up” based on √*ga(ö): t , , tt. .

I g-deŋ ba to raise, lift”

,--i 8-aar) ba «to become full”

based on √*ga (8): ị , J

lḥ-geŋ-spa to fill up

,-f h-ga8 pa «to split, crack (intransitive)

based on √*ga(ll):{ '    „ ... ,    ,. „

I ị-ges pa to split, cleave, divide

---- {h-byon pa «to go, set out”

based on 1*la(5):    *nd forth

3) Completives.

(a) Iteratives or Continuatives.

--( h-dam pa «to pick out, to choose”-

based on pga (3): [ Ị^ ^ <<to ^ * in(W>

ba^dony^(2lT |6SOmP“    • ■ »

[ sem-8 pa to think, fancy, imagine

--( g-tam pa «to appoint, commission”

based on pda 10)a:^ ,    ,,**„* ...

[ g-tom pa to talk, to speak

----- f b-tan-8 pa «to be bound, tied”

based on i*da (3): { .    , •« „

I g-tog-8 pa to classify

—    f dam (pa) «bound fast”

based on √*da(3): { ,    ,    , ,    „

\8-dom pa to add together, sum up

(b) Intensives.

/~r“ f P® **to fold, lay together” ase on √ a (2). Ị j ^ ^ «to double down (carefully), to

turn in”

--— ( pan pa «to abandon”

based on √*ba(4): •!    , ««■    .

I s-poŋ ba renounce, reject

based on ]/da (4): f    f “to go, depart

[ h-doŋ ba to go, proceed

--f d-pag-8 pa «to measure, estimate”(JTED)

baaed on ỵ*60 (3): J    „

I d-pog pa to measure, apportion

tz.-;—— f b-kal ba «to load, put a load on”

based on √*ga (13): {    . „

I b-fcot ba to bind to service

(c) Resultatives.

i i i=ĩ—f h-phyar ba «to excite, waken” ase on a( h-phyor ba «to speak deliriously”

based on ^6^ {    

I ạ-phrog pa to rob, to run away with

——— f h-deb-8 pa «to offer” based on √da (5): .    t . „

r ' ' I r-dob pa to give

---- f h-deg-8 pa «to remove”

based on yda(5): I ‘

w I b-dog pa to take possession of

---f a-deŋ (ba) «(to be) certain, confident”

based on i*da (3): 1 , ì.    \

I 8-doŋ ba to join with, enter into partnership”

4) Denominatives and Deverbatives.

, - - f nad «siekness” based on √da (11): < , ti.    . . „

I 9-nod pa to cause sickness

(prefix g has nothing to do with the

causative; it is iterative.)

r -    ị m-thsan “name” = «heading»

ase on ) (1). ị rn-ihson pa «to show forth, exhibit”

( r-iag-8 “sign, token, mark” based on √da (3): \    .

I 9-l°9-8 P® to assign, classify

, ------( 8-kyar ba «again and again”

based on √*ga (10 : \ / . *

I 8-kyor ba to repeat

theg pa «to raise, lift” based on √*ga (5): thog «head = top, on the top” tog «the top of anything”

« - f b-zab pa «to use care” based on √*ba(3): {    tt    „

{ b-zob pa assiduity, perseverance

,, - —— f g-&ad pa «to tell, relate” ase on √ (10)a. | ^ ^ «record, description”

baaed on ^TPjbi    be named, to say”

[zor ma hymns, religious songs

Compare also:

baŋ ba «store-house, magazine” = «that which swells* boŋ «in capacity, in bulk”

5) Subjectives > Objectives.

, , ,——— f s-kam pa «to be dry» based on √ga (12): {    . „

[ 8-ìcom pa to be thirsty”

u i ,/*—i/ĩ' /ov f Whey-s P® “to be f«H, replete” based on √*ga (7) √*ga (8): {    \

I ạ-khoŋ ba to draw in one s limbs,

to squat”

§ 4. a) The ablaut has a further function in distinguishing the transitive tenuis-form of a verb with initial media from the intransitive tenuis-form. This important fact has been already shown in two examples in § 2, 3a. Eight other examples follow:

——- -i r-dzod pa «to say, recite” ase on a(10)a.| Ạ_jh£ad pa «to explain” with afilaut, because

Mod pa «to be decided” is intransitive.

---- [ s-gyen pa «to be on the move”

based on \*ga (13): \ 7    ..    .. ,,

[ 8-kyon pa to put astride upon a thing

with ablaut, because

8-kyen (pa)«(to be) quick, swift, hasty” is

intransitive

, - - - [ h-dog-s pa «to bind, fasten, attach” based on pda 3 : { 1 1

I h-thag pa to weave with ablaut, because

g-tog-8 pa “belonging to» is intransitive

[ r-dzed pa «to honour, reverence” based on √*ga (3): { “ ,    ,    „

[ m-ịhśod pa to honour, to worship with

ablaut, because

m-thẽed «resp. for brother and sister”

is of intransitive origin

, —    [ h-dzag pa «to establish, settle”

based on √*ga(2): { '    ,    „

I Ọ-ịàoQ-8 P® to apprehend, grasp

l-tSog-8 pa «to be able” with ablaut,

because it is the intransitive

form of g-tśag-8 pa

/j.— — ( h-dzeg pa «to climb up, ascend” based on i*ga 6 a: .    <(i    2

' ' [ r-tseg pa to amass, to pile up

b-r-isajg-8 «heaped up, earned” with

ablaut, because it is the

intransitive form of r-tseg pa.

u j i/*—f b-deg-8 pa «to lift, raise” based on √*ga (5)a: <    „    . „

\ teg pa to put up, pack up

l-tag pa «to be uppermost; the upper

part of anything” with

ablaut, because it is the

intransitive of teg pa

— — f 8-bar ba «to kindle, inflame” based on √*ba(3): {    . „

I 8-par ba to excite, incite

phor ba «to be delirious, to speak deliriously” with ablaut, because it is the intransitive of s-par ba etc., etc.

b)    From the above examples it becomes apparent that ablaut is called upon for tho formation of medial transitives, causatives, completives, etc., when these verb forms must be built up from verbs already beginning with an initial tenuis. The same is true of verbs in which the tenuis-form is impossible, that is, in verbs beginning with nasals (ŋ, m, n), with 1, r, z, s, and with z, é, y.

Examples:

- ịg-zaŋ    «the anus”

based on √ba(l): < „    {{ ,    , . „

I ỊỊ-zoŋ pa wooden trough or tub

' bsag pa    «accumulation of religious

based on |/*ba(2):    merits”

. b-sog pa    «to gather, heap up”

z--— [ raxi pa    «to perceive, see”

based on /V (2): Ị    • , .»

[reg pa to perceive, feel

, ----- f sraŋ ba “to be straight” (KTED)

based on √*ga (5)a: { 7 4    . .

[ sroŋ ba to straighten, mako straight

(that which is crooked)”

/=.—    f Zfir ba «to say”

based on √*ga (16)b:{    .. .    „

[zor ma hymns, religious songs

{lan    «response, answer”

Ion    «news, tidings”

c)    An ablaut change of the vowel to u expresses generally the idea of a diminution or of a change for the worse. The ablaut change to u produces sometimes a more specialized meaning deviating from the original meaning.

Examples:

/---— f h-khól ba «to cause a man to serve”

ase on √ ga (13). Ạ-khul ba «to make a person a slave”

, , l/£——[ 8-kyer ba «to be very lonely” (DTLF) based on √*ga(ll):{ ,    , , .

I b-s-kyur ba to be driven away, be expelled” (JTED)

,    ——— Ị b-krad pa «to expel spirits” (DTLF)

based on √*ga(ll): {    4    r

[ 8-krud pa to make another run away

by devices”

---( g-tsag(-s) pa “to thrust in, pierce”

based on √bw(ö): <!    4<    „

[ g-tsug-a pa to scoop out, excavate

- Ị s-koŋ ba “to fulfil, to fill up”

based on √*ga (8): 1 , ,    , *

I 8-kuŋ ba to hide in the ground, to

bury”

{d-gar ba “to confine” gar    “camp”

gur    “tent” (along with m-khar “a

nobleman’s seat, castle”) hkhor ba “to circumambulate, walk all based on √*ga(7):    round”

. h-khur ba «to carry, drag”

,--— Ị h-khyar ba «to err, go astray”

based on √ ga (11). j j^_ỵỵyUr “to be engulfed, swallowed”

(JTED)

----- f h-kham pa «to fall down senseless”

based on 1/ga (12): |    ^ shrink

Ị h-khol ba «to become insensible, to be j    asleep”

I h-khul ba «to be uneasy about something”

,- - [ h-khyog pa «to carry”

based on ỵ«gro(13): { i 7l «*    .ft, „ .

'    {h-khyug pa to run, move swiftly be

longs to h-kyu ba «to run away”

r-ka    «a person or circumstance

causing a separation or based on √*ga (11):    turning aside»

r-ku ba “part, section”

. r-ku ba “to steal”

Compare also

,- ( khaŋ    “house”

based on √*ga (6): { 7,    „

r * ' ' \ khuŋ    “hole, little cave

- f 8-kyom pa «to pour out”

based on √*ga (9): {    , - ,

[ yum pa to strew salt on food, or

ashes on snow”

-— khog    «the interior, inside”

based on √*ga(6):    I(. . -    , „

khog pa “trunk of the body

khug rna    “little bag, small sack”

{khod    “surface”

khud    “any makeshift cloth, wrapper”

/:- - - f 8-gor    “round”

based on √*ga (7): ị    {t. .. ,

[ 8-gur    hunchbacked

Note. The ablaut change to u seems also to have a diacritical effect. Since roots identical in sound formed, with the help of the formative elements, a great number of words with identical sounds, the introduction of an ablaut change to u in the vowel series a, e, o became necessary in order to avoid confusion. However, even this means proved to be very unsatisfactory. From √*ga (2) is formed, for instance, s-gom pa “to fancy, imagine.” For tho derivative idea “to be drawn up, to be contracted” we should expect the form *8-kom pa. We find, however, s-kum pa, since the form s-kom pa signifies “thirst, thirsty” and is built up on another root. Tho same is true of gruŋ po “very intelligent, clever,” from which is derived, 8-gruŋ ba «to invent, feign,” (based on √*ga (2)) instead of *graŋ or *groŋ. graŋ ba means among other things «cold” and groŋ ba «to die” and so forth. Again, we have b-tsun po «king,” m-thsun “ancestor, tutelary deity of a family” (based on √*ga (3)), instead of *b-tsan and *m-tīt8an, since another b-tsan po means “mighty, strong” and another m-lhsan means “name; sign,” etc. (In this connection, i stands entirely alone, compare grin pa, 8-grin pa “clever, witty” (based on √*ga (2)), instead of *gran, *gren, or *gron; for gron pa “expensive, luxurious,” s-gren mo “naked,” and 8-gron pa “to cover” already existed.) —

In this place I should like to mention an objection which has been made and which can perhaps bo made on other grounds by those whose acquaintance with the subject is limited. I indicated above that the aJIjlaut change to u “generally expresses an idea of diminution.” This premise has been thought erroneous, since the diminutive-forming suffix u is notoriously considered only a derivative of bu «son, child,” which apparently led me to my conclusion. True, the suffix u is without doubt a derivative of bu «son, child” (based on ibu (1) «to unfold, blossom (flower)”) and affords by its addition to a form certain phonetical changes (cf. Foucaux, Grammairc de la Langue Tibétaine,p. 24, or Hannah, Grammar of the Tibetan Language p. 61); — bu is, however, a syllable-suffix and belongs to the period when Tibetan had a rather strong leaning towards agglutination. Here, on the contrary, we are dealing with the root or stem-vowel itself, which changed to u by ablaut, a grammatical development of the root-isolating period.

d) Obviously ablaut became necessary for those verb forms which could not be obtained by means of the tenuis. Gradually, however, it appeared also in verbs with initial media sound, so that in many cases there exist simultaneously two forms with the same meaning.

Compare:

h-bab pa «to descend” based on √*ba"(ĩ)7 h-beb-(s) pa\ «to cause to descend, to

bring down ” phab pa (concerning aspirate s. § 8) ' h-gas pa «to split, burst apart”

based on √*ga(ll): ḥ-ges pa)    _

, , > to split, cleave . tj-fcas pa )

' h-gram-s pa

based on √*ga (9): h-grem pa)

] ,    \    ‘to spread over, scatter

. b-kram pa)

h-dam pa    «to pick out, choose”

based on √*ga(3): h-dom pa    «to select; induce”

. g-tam pa    «to appoint, commission”

h-gyer ba    «to throw away = to let fall”

based on pga( 12):. r'gr 60to kiU” = «*0 causo to

fall,« «to remove»

. h-khyer ba «to carry away” (aspirate

s. §8)

baŋ ba «corn magazine, storehouse” = «that which

_________swells»

based on lị*ba(2) V*fat(4): i, “i„ gjze>n bulk” d-paŋ-s «the height” phaŋ «to spare, save” (aspirate ba cf. § 8) cf. d-puŋ ba «to collect, gather, assemble!” (DTLF) (based on √*b?« (2)) ḥ-gog-s «the passing over, transit”

--— h-gag «a place that has to be passed

based on √*ga (13): *    u n »

by all, «transit»

. l-kog    “yonder»

r-gal ba    «to ford, travel through”

based on √*ga (13): ḥ-gel ba    «to load, to impose”

. h-khal ba    “to send, forward (things)”

h-gol ba    «to part, separate”

based on √*ga(ll): h-gal ba    «to disagree”

. h-khól ba    “to keep somebody away”

(JTED)

b-r-gyaŋ ba    “to extend, stretch out»

based on √*ga (9): r-gyoŋ ba    «to extend, spread forth» r-kyaŋ ba «extended, spread”

§ 5. A) A further important role is played by ablaut in the formation of tenses, especially in verbs with the stem vowel a, which changes by ablaut to e or o in the present and to o in the imperative. For a clearer understanding we must anticipate here a part of a later chapter on tense building, and turn next to the tenuis-verbs of the dental and labial classes, including their tertiary derivatives (cf. §§ 66ff.). The tenuis-verbs of the dental class include verbs with the prefix g (iterative, for the purpose of intensifying) and with the prefix b (approaching perfection, purpose, goal), such as g-taŋ ba «to send, dismiss” (intensive) opposed to b-taŋ ba in the same meaning, though more in the aspect of imminent completion, of purpose; or g-tad pa «to hand out, deliver” opposed to b-tad pa, etc. The tenuis-verbs of the labial class, including their derivative tertiary, etc., forms cover verbs with d instead of g (iterative) and d instead of b (imminent completion), such as d-pag pa «to measure,” d-par ba «to command, dictate,” and others. Originally the tenses (as in Chinese) were not distinguished by a change in verb form. As the necessity of indicating tense by a change of the verb arose, the verb form with the prefix g (iterative) was used for the future and the form with prefix b (completion) for the perfect. The latter appears as an intensifier of the form with suffix s (cf. § 23). The present retained the form with prefix g and d, since these interchangeable prefixes served originally to characterize the verb, and prefix b was used for the perfect tense. To differentiate the present from the future and to put emphasis on it by “strengthening” the vowel, an ablaut change to e and more often to o took place. Similarly the vowel in the imperative was “strengthened” almost without exception to o6.

The media-verbs of the guttural, dental, and labial classes including their tertiary, etc., derivatives undergo the same change, if the stem vowel be a. Later these verbs acquired the prefix ḥ- (s. § 59) in the present. They retain, however, the vowel strengthening in the present; in the future and imperative the media forms are largely replaced by the tenuis forms. For further details sec «Tense Formation” (§§ 25—58).

Vowel strengthening from a to e or o in the present and to o in the imperative takes place, for example, in all verbs with prefixes s or r. A small number of verbs retain o, however, also in the perfect and future7.

B) We can distinguish verbs with ablaut and without. The group without ablaut comprises those which

1.    end in a vowel only,

2.    show strengthening of the vowel in the present (a > e or o),

3.    have the stem vowel u,

4.    have the stem vowel i and do not end in n.

Examples:

ḥ-daḥ ba h-das — —    “to go beyond”

r-dze ba b-r-dzes b-r-dze b-r-dzes «to barter, exchange” ḥ-deg-s pa b-teg-s g-defl theg «to raise, lift” h-ùog-8 pa phog d-bog phog «to bestow, impart” h-byed pa ' phye(-s) d-bye phye(-s) «to open, separate” h-th&iŋ ba b-tSiŋ-s b-tjiŋ h-thSiŋ-8 «to bind, tie up” h-dzug pa b-tśug g-zug thẽng «to put into,” and

others.

To the verbs with ablaut belong those of the vowel series a, «, o, which may be divided into the following classes:

a) Verbs with a in the present and no consonantal mutation of the initial sound.

Examples:

a    a    a o

Itaba b-llas ü-Ua Ito-s «to see, perceive”

8-kyag pa b-8-kyag-s b-8-kyag s-kyog «to spend, lay out” h-thsag pa b-tsag-8 b-tsmj thsog «to press out,” etc. p) Verbs with e in the present and with consonantal mutation of the initial sound.

Examples:

e    a    a    o

h-geg-s pa b-kag d-gag khog «to hinder” ḥ-deb-s pa b-talj g-dab thob «to throw” ḥ-beb-s pa phab d-bab phob «to throw down,” etc. ỵ) Verbs with o in the present and no consonantal mutation of the initial sound, i. e., with media throughout or with tenuis throughout (tenuis aspirate).

Examples:

o    a    a o

g-toŋ ba b-taŋ g-taŋ thoŋ «to give” s-koŋ ba b-s-kaŋ-8 b-8-kaŋ koŋ «to fulfill” h-dzog pa b-$ag g-zag zog «to put, place,” etc.

The vowels e and o in the present tense of verbs in the groups (3 and weaken to a in the perfect and future, as already observed above. The imperative in the groups a, (3, is formed almost without exception with o.

8) A small group of verbs occupy a special place; namely verbs with the stem vowel i and final n, which change i to u in all tenses.

Examples :

i    u    u    u

fy-dzin pa b-zuŋ g-zuŋ zuŋ «to lay hold of, seize» h-byin pa phyuŋ d-byuŋ phyuŋ «to expel, drive out»

In this case a simple change of the vowel and a mixing of two verbs identical in meaning seem to be involved. In Ladakhi, forms such a biŋ-ste and phiŋ-s are more often used than byuŋ and phyuŋ and others similar. In this case u as a weakening of i would be conceivable; if, however, i were a “strengthened” form of u — which is scarcely imaginable — we should have to have the same i in the imperative.

e) A change of the final sound occurs in connection with the ablaut. All ablaut-less verbs in n retain n unchanged.

Examples:

ḥ-don pa b-ton g-don thon «to drive out, cxpel» 8-ten pa b-8-ten b-s-ten 8-ten «to adhere to,» etc.

All verbs with ablaut, on the contrary, change final n into ŋ.

Examples:

h-dren pa    draŋ-8    draŋ    droŋ-s    «to draw, pull»

h-byin pa    phyuŋ    d-byuŋ    phyuŋ    «to omit, send forth»

ḥ-phen pa    h-phaŋ-s    h-phaŋ    phoŋ    «to throw, fling»

len pa    b-laŋ-8    b-laŋ    loŋ    «to take, accept”

Note. After the forms with ya btags, ra btags, and with the formative elements (prefixes and suffixes) had laid a solid foundation for the language, ablaut then turned in new directions. These features belong likewise to this chapter. I present herewith my most important observations which are systematic, or at least copious.

1) Verbs with the stem vowel a change a > o or o > e through palatalization with ya blags and ra btags.

Examples:

ḥ-pho ba    «to change place, move oneself away»

phyed pa    «to change”

goŋ    «the above,” «upright»

h-greŋ ba    «to stand”

kraŋ and kroŋ «standing, upright”

2)    Verbs with u change occasionally to o in order to form substantives and adjectives (cf. also § 4).

Examples: b-śur ba «to singe” b-zob    «the burning, singeing” (DTLF)

r-gyuq pa «racing” m-gyog-s «quick, lively”

thsud pa “to dig”

(cf. h-khyud pa «to glide in or into”) g-zob    «spade, shovel”

ḥ-brwb pa «to overflow, gush forth”

h-brum pa «a pock or pustule,” «that which is swollen up» r-lom pa «a boasting, vanity”

(an anlautsreduzierung of the second grade, cf. § 122).

3)    Verbs with a, e, o change frequently to i, when they are palatalized by ya btags.

Examples:

based on }/da (4): «to appear in a place > to move forward »

along with théa ba: «to go away, to leave” we have m-thśi ba «to come, to go (elegant)” based on √da (11): «to be transformed > to decay, vanish» along with h-dzad pa «to disappear gradually” (DTLF) we have h-thẽi ba «to die” based on √*ba (6): «to appear, become apparent» along with men    «pomp, splendour, magnificence”

and    phyog-s pa «to become visible,” etc.

we have byin «pomp, splendour, magnificence” based on √*ga (6): «head» (in the meaning of “enveloping, enfolding”)

along with s-kyab-s “protection, defence” and 8-kyób pa “to defend, protect,” etc. we have s-kyib-s “a place giving shelter”

In addition to these compare also the following analogous words: gyam “a shelter, recess in a rock» h-khyed pa «to be sufficient” khyim “house, residence”    h-phyid pa «to suffice”

h-byon pa “to go, come” h-byin pa “to let go, let free” t-t£a “excrements (animals)” 8-pyon pa «to arrive” l-téi ba «dung»    phyin pa «to arrive,” etc.

Ablaut change to i forms in such a case also substantives, and possibly adjectives and adverbs.

Examples:

s-kyor ba «to repeat” phyir «again, once more”

h-thẽab pa «to hide, conceal”

thśib pa “encompassing, covering all”

s-kyed pa “to bring forth, give birth to” g-zis ka “one’s native place”

nyal ba «to sleep” g-nyid «the sleep”

d-gyes pa 1 «to rejoice, m-nyes pa to be glad”

Sis    «good luck, fortune, bliss”

4)    Verbs with a, e, o change the vowels frequently to i, when they are palatalized by ra btags:

Examples:

8-grol ba «to wind up” (JTED) 8-prod pa 1 «to send a mes-8-gril ba «to roll up”    s-priŋ ba Ị sage, send word”

5)    The change from a, e, or o to i occurs occasionally in the transition of the compound palatals to assibilized dentals.

6)    Verbs with the vowel i, which had been palatalized by ya btags and ra btags sometimes form substantives through ablaut change to a, or o (or e).

Examples:

8-byin pa «to give”    h-gril ba «to be twisted”

yon pa “a present”    gral «a rope, cord”

7)    Verbs with the vowel u frequently change to i through palatalization with ya btags and ra btags.

Examples:

based on √*dw (6): «passion, agony, pain» along with h-dvl ba «to subdue» and    h-dzun pa «to subdue»

we have h-dzil ba «to subdue”

based on √b?t (1): «to become opened (flower), to blos-som»

along with d-buŋ    «middle»

and    g-zuŋ    «middle, centre»

we have h-dziŋ    «middle,» etc.

based on √bw(l): «to become opened (flower), to blossom”

along with h-bru    «grain, corn, seed»

and    8-prug pa «splitting, opening»

we have ḥ-bnŋ    «middle»

based on √*bu (4): «to apj>ear in a place > to move forward»

along with h-brug pa «to overflow, gush forth» and    h-brub pa «to overflow, gush forth»

we have h-brim pa «to distribute, deal out» and perhaps 8-priŋ ba «to give information, send word»

To determine definite rules governing ablaut in the building up of new forms in this connection would be a fruitless undertaking.

C. Ya btags and ra btags.

§ 6. A). In general a root which has been palatalized by ya btags remains unchanged in meaning. In only a few cases is ya-btags responsible for the formation of causatives and completives, or of deverbatives.

Examples:

1) Causatives (in the ordinary sense)

/~—-— Ị bo ba8 «to overflow out of a vessel” ase on √ a (4). | ^y0 ba «to transfer water from one

vessel to another”

——- [ 8-kor ba «to come again and again» based on √*ga (10):*!    , *    .

I 8-kyor ba «to do something repeatedly

= to repeat”

u j ,/—TT^r f £“0“* P® “to laugh” based on Ỵga (16): {    i i u <«*

[ h-gyed pa «to make laugh» = to give a

banquet”

2)    Completives.

a)    īteratives.

r—- f h-pho ba «to change place, migrate”

based on V*6o 4 : \ ' F.    *    ’ 8

I h-phyo ba to roam about

b)    īntensives.

ị d-goŋ-8 pa «to think, ponder,” «to bela-based on √*ga (2): -Ị    bour one’s brains»

I gyoŋ po “difficult to understand,” «to break one’s head»

. ----—. f b-kab pa «to cover, conceal”

ase on √ ga(6). Ị b-{s-)kyab pa «to defend, protect”

c)    Resultatives.

--f h-bad pa «to endeavour, exert oneself ”

based on √*ba 3): { * ,    - '

[ byed pa to manufacture; to cause

/———-- f h-phog pa «to influence” based on √*ba (3): ,    4    .

I phyog-8 pa to diverge, turn; to make

evident”

3)    Deverbatives.

' d-puŋ ba «to assemble, to collect” based on √*bu (2):    (KTED)

phyuŋ ba «the excess or overflow of a thing in a vessel”

Compare also:

iz.—r-r- i kho    “king, lama”

based on √*ga (3): \    „

\ khyo    husband, man

/i- ~v v“ f her ba «to raise, lift” ase on √ ga(5). | lcyer ba “upright, straight”

u—f 8-gam    «trunk, box”

based on √*ga (6): {    tt , .    „

[ gyam    shelter, refuge

{8-kog(-s)pa    4‘a hard covering, rind, bark”

8-kyog-8    «a spoon, ladle”

, , ,/i—Ỵĩī\~ f 8~1cor    “anything round”

ase on √ ga ( | 8-kyor    “thehollowof the hand filled»

B) Ra btags forms causatives, completives, denominatives, and deverbatives.

Examples:

1)    Causatives (only two in number).

, -- f h-phag pa «to be uplifted or raised”

based on √*ba (3): { '    ,

I ạ-phrag pa «to stir up, spur (a horse,

etc.)»

,--Ị h-byi ba «to be effaced”

based on 1*bn (6): | M ha ^ diminigh

2)    Completives.

a)    Iteratives.

--f Pu ba «to press”

based on y*bn(Q): {    ,    ,,

( h-phru ba to press = squash, cru sh

(JTED)

h-bud pa «to blow (either with the

. , , —    mouth)”

based on \bu{ 1):    yl ,, .

to be blown (by the wind)

8-brìvd pa «to stir, poke up (fire)”

b)    Intensives (very numerous).

,    ,— — [ h-khul ba «to be uneasy»

based on √ga (12): { 1 . . <<A , .    ,

ịh-khrul ba to be insane, deranged

—— bab-s (pa) «to take, seize” ascc on } ja(5). | ạ ^    cat(.h suddenly,

snatch”

c)    Resultatives.

. ----i h-bog pa «to grow loosc»

based on \*ba (4):

I d-brog pa to forget

/x------- i 8-g° ba «to bid, command”

based on √*ga(2): i    .    „ .

{ s-gro ba    to debate, discuss (as the

result of the command)

{8-gorn pa «to fancy, imagine” ḥ-gram pa «to publish, proclaim”

3)    Denominatives and Deverbatives.

---( ban    “messenger, runner”

based on √*ba(5): «j , , , tt    f ... „

[ h-braŋ ba to go after, follow

U 1 ,/ī—f 8~9eV    «above, on top”

based on √*ga (5):

[ s-gwy ba to erect, put up

--[ h-khal ba «to send, dispatch”

based on Pga (13): j • ^    ^    ^

- f 8-bam pa «to place together, collect»

based on pba 2): \ . ^    r * „ ,

[ s-bram    largeness, bulk,” and many

others.

Compare also:

f m-gon po «master, lord» based on √*ga(3): \    tt    .

[ m-gron    object of invocation

(Buddh.)»

{8-go fpo “outward looks, bodily appearance” s-gro ba «a leather or hide bag for keeping barley-flour, peas, etc.”

§ 7. We have thus seen that certain formations may be obtained through the tenuis. The ablaut produces the same results in those cases where the use of tenuis is not possible. Ablaut may also occur in verbs with initial media so that two forms with almost the same meaning result. Since through ya btags and ra btags two verb forms with almost identical meanings are formed, these two means of creating words must be considered as agents for the increase of the number of words rather than for the number of concepts. When from one stem there still exist forms of various kinds, these forms offer a good bird’s-eye view of the multiplicity of those forms which belong to the oldest period of the speech, even before the numerous other means of word forming such as Lautverschleifnwj, LautverschieJfmng, Aniautsverkilmmerung, etc., created a new era of the language. Two examples may suffice to illustrate the aggregated means of word building mentioned in §§ 26:

1) Deriving from y*ba (3): stem *bag «to swell up» (intr.), represented by

bag-8 «slowly, gradually, step by step”; in addition to this the tenuis stem:

*pag «to swell up» (trans.), from which is formed by the aspirate (cf. § 8) the intransitive h-phag pa «to be erected, be raised.” From this aidant produces the transitive h-phog pa «to influence” = «to encourage.» In addition to this we have d-pag-8 pa «to measure, fathom” (JTED) d-pog pa «to measure, apportion”

phyog-8 pa «to diverge, to turn; to make evident” (aspiration is due to prefix ḥ-, which has dropped; cf. § 8) h-phrag pa “to stir up, spur (a horse, etc.).» Furthermore: bog-s “profit” and 8-pog-8 «gain, profit”

2) Deriving from √*ga (6):

stem    gaŋ «husk, shell”

8-goŋ ba «to hide, conceal” (denominative to gaŋ, produced by aJilaut, prefix s is intensive (cf. §17))

khaŋ pa «housc, building, residence,” «the interiors made by man, therefore tenuis; tenuis aspirate: the thing in itself, § 1. khoŋ(-s) «the innermost, middle” (ablaut intensive) khuŋ «cave, hole” (Maut change to u diminutive) 8-kuŋ ba «to hide in the ground” denominative formation to khuŋ by means of prefix s-(s. § 16).

8-gyoŋ ba «to hide, conceal”

8-kyoŋ ba «to guard, protect” (tenuis intensive) h-khyoŋ ba «to guard, protect” (aspiration due to prefix ḥ- s. § 8) groŋ «house; village, hamlet” (infix r is causative and ablaut intensive or vice versa : pleonasm).

D. ASPIRATES.

§ 8. A) Intransitives and passives are formed from intransitives through tenuis aspirate, that is, as well from verbs with initial media as from those with initial tenuis.

Examples:

a) Intransitivcs from transitives with initial tenuis.

g-tSu ba «to turn round (like the based on √*ga (14):    twisting of a screw)”

. h-thẽu ba «to be twisted, distorted”

r-—-— f 8-pel ba “to augment, multiply” based on √*ba (3): \ , . ,    ,    .    „

[ h-phd ba to be augmented, increase

——-— Ị g-téun pa “to tame” ase on √ u(6). | ^_^un ^    tamed, subdued”

—-—- Ị 8-kyur ba “to throw (away), let loose” ase on √ ga (11). |    “to be separated, be aban

doned”

8-kyol ba \ tc

baaed on ^”a (Ī3): s-kyd ba} t0 "“T’ 0arry

. h-khyol ba “to be carried, be brought”

- f d-ìcyu ba “to wring out, filter”

ase on √ gu. | h-khyu ba «to be wrought, be filtered»

= «to run away”

/r--— f 8-po ba «to change, alter”

based on √*ba (5): {

[h-pho ba to move away, change pla-

ce

{8-prod pa «to pay”

h-phrod pa “to be given, be offered”

b) Intransitives from transitives with initial media

u ^    f b-9eV-8 ĩ*1to fiI1 UP> satisfy”

based on √*ga(8): {

[ h-kheŋ-8 pa to bo full, bo filled

------ f 8-grol ba “to set free”

asec on √ ga ). | Ạ-khrol ba “to be set free”

------- ( h-dzom-8 pa “to conquer, subdue”

based on √ga (12): \ ’ "    „ ,    , . ,

[ h-thäom-8 pa to be conquered, be subdued”

baaed on    ^ Plan. d-*n

' 7 I h-khod pa to be set down, to be put

= «to be designed»

{r-gyor ba «to kill”

khyor ba «to become dizzy”

h-khyor ba “to reel, stagger”

,—--— f r-dzod pa “to pronounce, proclaim”

baaed on tf,o(I6)b: Ị ^ ^ ,Ifc) ^ proolaJmed be de_

cided”

-——— f h-byin pa “to let go, set free” baaed on i*ba (5): {• ' .    ...

I phyin pa to set out, depart

------r- f h-dzvd pa «to put, insert”

based on √bw (5): { ,    {    .,

I h-thsud pa «to be put inside of

The building up of intransitives and passives from transitives is always and solely the function of tenuis aspirate1. If from transitives with initial media sound are formed intransitives or passives through the aspiration of the tenuis, it is to be observed that the aspiration is possible only with the tenuis. If there is also aspiration in the formation of medial transitives, causatives, completives, etc., it is not the aspiration, but the tenuis itself which has formed the kind of verb in question. The aspirate was necessary in such cases on phonetic grounds only because of the prefix ḥ-. Very occasional words have lost the prefix ḥ-, obviously as the result of carelessness. Laufer finds in the prefix ḥ- the sign of the passive and future (Bird Divination, p. 99). Upon the basis of my theories I am forced to take exception with him. There are only three cases, in which intransitives or passives are formed through the prefix ḥ-, because the transitive is already aspirated! Those three cases are namely:

- f thẽad pa «to separate, to free” ase on √ a (4). Ị ^ ^ “to be separated, cut off”

/iī—TT' i V^ar ba «to fulfill, finish” ase on √ m(3). |    ^ fjns]ìe(jj completed”

------ f thsvd pa «to dig”

based on √bw (5): < , , ,    , ,    (

[ h-thsm pa «to be dug» = to enter, get

into”

B) It has already been said that the aspirate often expresses the thing in itself, the action in itself, or the condition in itself. From a great many the following examples may be selected:

based on √ga (12): Mag po    «bad, spoiled, rotten”

based on √*ga (13): khag    «means, resource”

khal    «a caravan”

khral    «tax, tribute”

based on √*ga (16) b: kha    «word, speech, conversation”

thẽa    «word, sound, news”

thẽod jMi    “determined, decided”

based on √*ga (Ĩ6)a: khoŋ ba    «entertainment during the

day” (KTED)

kham pa    «fox colored, brownish”

1 In Burmese, for example, transitives are formed from intransitives directly by aspiration. Cf. Lonsdale, Burmese Grammar and Analysis, § 246, and Judson, Burmese Grammar, § 106.

based on √*gw: khru-s    «bath, washing»

based on √*ba (5): phar    “exchange, interest of money”

phyin    «that which comes»

phyis    “that which is late, last”

based on √*bn (4): phud    «specimen”

phul    “a handful”

based on i*bu (5): phug-s    «the innermost”

phub    «armour”

phur bu “thunderbolt” based on √*bw (6): phug ma . “dust, chaff”

phul) ma «chaff or chaff-dust with particles of the husk” based on √*da (8): theb-s    “tho coming out, issuing”

based on √*da(10)a: than    «an answer”

based on √da (11): tha ma «vile, inferior, poor, humble” thar po    “old, worn out”

ther    «naked”

thal ba «dust, ashes” based on √dw (1): thun    “collector”

based on √*dw (3): thul pa «garment made of hide” based on √dw (4): thsugs    «station, stopping place»

thugs    «ghost, soul, heart, mind,”

etc.

C) The aspirate is used in the following five cases:

1)    Aspiration in building up intransitive or passive concepts from the transitive with initial media or tenuis sound, this latter tenuis sound representing the causative, completive, etc., form of an intransitive or transitive verb with initial media sound.

2)    Aspiration made phonetically necessary by tho prefix ḥ-, occurring before k, t, p, ky, ty, py, tẽ, and ts.

3)    Aspiration made phonetically necessary also by the prefix m before k, t, tś, and ts.1

4)    Aspiration for diacritical reasons only in the very earliest stage of the language (cf. roots, stems).

5)    Aspiration frequently in the imperative (cf. tense formation).

1 Somo philologists havo said that this is a misconception on my part. They doubt if m could transform the tonuis into tho tennis aspirate. But who can givo a single example of an initial tenuis sound -f- tho prefix m which is not aspirated? Obviously no one, since nono exists.

Note: I should like to add several comments on the origin of the aspirate, in order to distinguish more clearly my theory from that in Conrady’s Indochinesische Causativ-Denominativ-Bildung. Conrady is of the opinion that the tenuis aspirate arose from a (r) -f tenuis and also from a -Ị- media. There seems to be much that is tempting in this theory, especially in explaining pitch, and Conrady has, without doubt, attempted very cleverly to lay out for himself a passable road through a labyrinth of obscurities. I repeat that, when we consider the Tibetan of historical time morphologically, it is in general indifferent whether the initial sound has absorbed an earlier prefix or not. To suspect a word of having had a prefix to its initial sound may well be in place, when we are dealing with primitive Tibetan, which goes hand in hand with the study of the earliest monosyllabic languages. But in this realm we are still groping completely in the dark. Finding the sources of a tenuis aspirate in 8 (r) + tenuis and in s -j- media, as Conrady does simply because of their proximity in many cases, is without sufficient foundation according to my belief. There still remains a great number of forms which raise many other questions not answered in ICBD. If, instead of a development of the tenuis aspirate from the tenuis with a prefix or from the media with a prefix, we assume, as I do on page 9, a development of the tenuis aspirate along with the tenuis, we shall have arrived at an answer to the «unsolved» problems. Conrady has rightly observed, «daB die kh-Bildungen das weitaus gröfite Kọntingent zu den Intransitiven stellen» (ICDB, p. 60), and is of the opinion that the intransitive prefix ḥ- is responsible for it, a belief which I also fostered in my first attempts to write this morphology until, in the course of my work, the ḥ turned out to be what I have sketched in §§ 59ff. Intransitivity is really to be explained only through aspiration. And if we agree further that the prefixes ḥ and m before the tenuis make aspiration phonetically necessary (there is not a single word which does not begin with an aspirated tenuis + prefix ḥ or m!), there remains not the least difficulty in the aspiration of the transitives (causatives) which begin with the tenuis. In fact, we perceive a regularity of such clarity as wo had never dreamed before. The paragraphs on tense formation are an adequate proof of this, but even more convincing is the TDR. Verbs with an aspirated tenuis, which have at the same time a transitive and passive (reflexive) meaning, show the aspirated tenuis, not because they are to be construed within the sentence as grammatically active or passive, but because the transitive or intransitive character has already found expression in the verb form itself. I take the verbs mentioned by Conrady on pages 58 and 59: (1) h-tham pa 1) «to seize” 2) «to join together.” Here we see the stem dam which is still extant today and means «to be bound, fast, obliged” (from √*da (3)). As we have seen, the change of the initial media into the tenuis also produces medial transitives and causatives. The unaspirated tenuis stem itself still exists in s-tem pa «to close (a door),” but the forms tham-s pa, h-tham pa, and h-them-8 pa point to the unaspirated initial tenuis. In the medial transitive belonging to dam, wo should expect *(s-)tam pa «to attach oneself to,” which acquired the aspirate along with the temporal prefix ḥ- and remains today in the form h-tham pa. In the causative belonging to dam we should expect *(8-)tam pa «to make fast bound» = «to bind fast, to hold fast, to stick fast.” Through the adoption of the temporal prefix ḥ- aspiration becomes phonetically necessary, and we find again h-tham pa and tham-s pa. I cannot grant that the aspiration developed in this case from initial s-t.

Or (2) h-thor ba 1) «to be strewn or scattered,” 2) «to scatter.” Here we see the stem *dar, which remains to-day in b-dar ba «to grind, crush,” r-dar ba «to sharpen, grind,” and in b-dar ba a grinding up or grating in the figurative sense: «to examine closely.” The transitive character of these words, which ought to be intransitive because of their initial media sounds, is the result of the suffix r (s. § 13). We also have ḥ-dal ba «to sink down.”

The change of the initial media into an initial tenuis sound produces among other things completives of various shades. Thus we have g-tar ba «to let out blood from a vein” (cf. b-dar ba «to examine closely”) and g-tor ba «to strew” (a completive from b-dar ba «to grind, crush” as a result of the tenuis, prefix g being iterative (!), and the ablaut change to o intensive), g-tor ba through the adoption of the temporal prefix ḥ- becomes aspirated; we have, therefore, h-thor ba «to strew.” By what means now shall a passive be made from this g-tor ba ? Ablaut and all the formative elements fail here. Only by aspiration do we get the passive form h-thor ba «to be strewn, be dispersed,” which morphologically appears the same as h-thor ba above. Should this intransitive-passive acquire other nuances of meaning, without the aid of palatalization of the initial sounds and of their derivates, these nuances can be obtained only with the help of the formative elements (especially of the prefixes). The ablaut change in the vowel series a, e, o is not in question in this case, since the highest strengthening to o is already accomplished. Only the aJjlaut change to u or i would be possible here (thus there exists for example thur «a slope, steep descent»).

Among the formative elements which create new meanings only m may be used to precede the tenuis aspirate. If h-thor ba «to be strewn, dispersed” should undergo a change of meaning, not accomplished by the prefix m, the tenuis aspirate must be changed back to the tenuis. In other words the aspiration disappears. We have as a consequence comparatively few intransitives which begin with a tenuis. In this case we still find 8-tor ba «to go astray”, in which prefix 8 functions somewhat as an iterative-intensive (cf. § 13). The other examples (opposites, parallel forms) cited by Conrady (on pages 60 ff. and 74 ff.) in this connection are to be dealt with in this wise. There is not space within tho limits of this chapter to deal with them all.

E. FORMATIVE ELEMENTS (PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES), a) Inseparable Prefixes and Suffixes.

§ 9. With the introduction of formative elements an enormous possibility of further word building was opened up for the Tibetan. The use of formative elements has already taken its inception in the earliest development of the speech, at a time which has left us no historical fragments. The gutturals g and ŋ, the labials b and m, the dentals d and n along with the sibilant s, as well as 1, r, and ḥ serve as formative elements for further extension of the vocabulary. They arc used interchangeably as prefixes and suffixes, sometimes oven with the same meaning. The letter ŋ is a suffix only, and in the combination Ir metathesis has entered in to form rl.

These formative elements present a somewhat dark chapter, since their original meaning is much obscured and confused. In any case, however, every prefix and suffix had a special use such as causative, iterative, continuative, etc. Even when the root was already felt as continuative or iterative, they might not infrequently be added to it. Often two (or even three) formative elements — prefix and suffix — of the same meaning were added to a root, and pleonasm resulted. To determine with certainty from a few examples the exact meaning of the formative elements would be to yield to one’s imagination. The examples cited here are intended to be merely illustrative. Only after a long careful investigation of individual cases may one arrive at a comparatively certain conclusion. I have fixed the meanings of the prefixes and suffixes as they were revealed to me in the course of this work and confirmed again and again in the preparation of my DTR.

We begin with the stem building suffixes.

1) Guttural Suffixes (g, ŋ)9.

§ 10. g. This suffix has an iterative function.

Examples:

based on √b?/ (5): (h-)bu    «a worm, insect,” from which

is formed {h-)bug(-s) pa «to hollow out, bore”

(d-)bug «a hole, cavity” based on ]/bu (1): (h-)bu ba «to open, unfold (flowers),”

from which (id-)bug(-8) «the breath” based on √*ba (4): bo ba «to overflow out of a vessel” (ḥ-)bog(-s) pa «to sink down, fall to the ground”

based on √*ba (3): *bo ba «to swell, increase*, from

which

bag(-s) «slowly, gradually” based on √da (5): (b-)dahba «to bear away,” from which (ḥ-)deg(-s) pa «to change, remove” based on j/*da( 10)b: *(l-)daba «to shine, radiate,* from which

_ (g-)dag    «day-light”

based on √du (4):    du ba «smokc,” from which

(b-)dug pa «to fumigate”

dug(-s) pa «to make warm, to warm” based on √*dw (6): *du ba «passion, agony, pain» from

which

dug    «poison»

(r-)dwg pa «to devastate, destroy,” «to poison»

Note. This final g was later separated from the stem in some cases by the added diminutive particle ba and taken over by the diminutive particle itself through the elimination of the initial b. (Cf. Foucaux, Grammaire de la Langue Tibétaine, p. 24 under «Diminutifs»). For example *s-myig bu > s-myi gu «a pen of any kind» along with s-myig ma «bamboo, reed»; *s-myug bu «a pen” > s-myu gu «a pen” and the form 8-myug ma, still used to-day in the same sense. Compare also beg ge = be ge «measles.”

ŋ. This suffix indicates emphasis, intensity.

Examples:

based on i*du (6):    *du ba «passion, agony, pain,»

from which (ig-)duŋ ba «to be pained, be tormented”

{r-)duŋ ba «to beat, strike” based on √*ga (14): (r-)gyuba «to walk or move in a

line” (ITED)

(b-) (r-)gywŋ(-s) pa «the marrow in the backbone”

based on √*ga(2):    goba «to perceive mentally,

understand”

(d-)goŋ(-8) pa «to think, consider” based on √*ga (2):    ŋa    «I,” «that which is in

dividual within me,» from which ŋaŋ    “character, disposition,”

«l-ness»

based on √*da (10)b: (l-)taba    «to see,” from which

(m-)thoŋ ba «to see, view” based on √bw (1):    (h)buba «to open, unfold (flo

wer),” from which (d-)buŋ    «middle”

based on √bw (1):    (ḥ-)bru    «seed, grain,” from which

gruŋ po “the com seed that is not rotten” (as to the change of the initial

__sound, cf. §§ 130—131)

based on √bw (5):    (h-)bu    “worm, insect”, from

which

buŋ ba «a humming and singing insect”

2) Dental Suffixes (d, n; (s))

§ 11. d. This suffix forms denominative-causatives. Examples :

based on √*ga (2): (b-) kah    “word, speech, command,”

from which

(b-) kod pa 1 ____ (b-) lead pa) to plan, arrange

based on √*ga(3):    go    “chieftain,” from which

(ḥ-) god pa “to rule, govern”

(r-) dze    “lord, master”

(r-) dzed pa «to venerate, revere” based on √*ga (Ī4): (r-) gyu ba original meaning: “to be laid

out in a line,” from which (r-) gyud pa “to fasten to, tie together” based on √*ba(3):    bya    “deed, action,” from which

byed pa “to do, make” based on √ba (1):    *bah ba «toarch»(cf.(d-)baḥbo“cave”)

from which («-) bod pa “a tassel, tuft,” «that which has been made arched» based on √*ga (2):    goba “to perceive mentally, under

stand,” from which (ḥ-) god pa “to plan, design” based on √b% (1): (h-)buba “to open, unfold (flowers),”

from which ịh~) bud pa “to blow with the mouth,” «to cause to unfold»

n. This suffix produces both the personae agendi belonging to the causative formed by suffix d and the abstract or concrete noun belonging to the causative formation. Deverbatives may be produced by the same means.

Examples:

based on √*ga (3):    go ba «to be a chieftain» (cf. b-kod

pa «to nominate,” from which

(m-)gon po «lord, master” based on √ba(l):    *ba ba «to arch,» wherefrom

ben    «large pitcher”

based on √b« (1): (h-)bu ba «to open, to unfold,” from

which

byin «pomp, splendour, magnificence”

based on √*da (2): *da ba «to arrive at, reach to,» from

which

don    «aim, goal”

based on √*ga(2): (b-)kah    «word, speech, command”

(cognate to b-kod pa «to plan, design”)

(m-)khan po “teacher, professor, head of a monastery”

(8-)ŋo ba «to design, to intend” (m-)ŋon pa “manifestation; to be evident”

based on √*ga (II): (r-)kuba «to steal”

(r-)kun ma “thief”

(b-)g« ba «to part, divide” (cognate to b-god pa «to divide, separate”)

(d-)gon pa «wilderness, solitary place”

To this group belongs also the suffix s, which developed from d and carries with it tho meaning of the transitive-perfect («to have been caused”) or more rarely of the intransitive-perfect («to have become”), for example: b-8-kos «elected,” r-Ui-8 «counting, reckon-ing,” g-ịśe-8 «dear, beloved, precious,” r-dze-s «tucked up, trussed up,” m-khes pa «learned, wise,” thèrn «dress, form, shape” and countless others10. In transcribing some of the examples I have separated the s from the rest of the word and in some not for the following reason: If the suffix is “inseparable” or stem-building (cf. § 21), it should not be set off in the transcription, e. g., b-s-kos is the perfect of 8‘kod pa «to choose, elect.” If, however, the suffix s is «separable,” it is desirable to set it off from the rest of the word, e.g., r-tsi-s “counting, reckoning,” g-tśe-s «dear, beloved,” and others. These are the perfects of r-tsi ba «to count, reckon” and g-tje ba «to love, venerate.” A special chapter will later be devoted to this perfect suffix s (s. § 23). My investigations have been made quite independent of Conrady’s and, as one sees, I have arrived at much clearer results, for he writes in his ĨCDB: «auch d scheint sich im Tibetischen als Suffix zu finden,” for which he gives three examples (cf. p. 45).

3) Labial Suffixes (b, m).

§ 12. b. This suffix shows purpose, an approaching of the goal, perfection.

Examples:

based on /*ba (4): boba «to overflow out of a vessel,” from which (ḥ-)bab pa «to move downward” based on |/*ga(f>): (b-)go ba    «to put on something, to

cover,” from which (h-)get)(-s)pa «to cover, to conceal” based on y*ga (6): (s-)gyoŋ ba «to conceal, hide,” from

which

(h-)dzab pa «to sneak, slink” (cf. formation of the fourth degree by means of ya btags, § 71)

based on √*ga (6): ko ba «hide, leather made of the

yag’s skin”

(b-)kah pa «to cover”

based on √*ga (8): (s-)kaba «thick» (of fluids)

(b-8-)ka

khyab pa «to fill, penetrate» based on √*ga (10): (8-)groba «to augment = to exaggerate”

(8-)grob    «haughtiness, arrogance”

based on √da (5): (b-)dah ba «to carry away,” from

which

rw****1 ,togiv®”

_ (9-)dab paị

based on √b« (5): (h-)bu    “bug, insect,” from which

(h-)bub(-s pa «to put on a roof” = «to build (make) an arch» (cf. (ḥ-)bug(-s) pa «to hollow out”) based on √*da (2): *da ba «to reach to > to become

equalized,» wherefrom (r-)dah pa «to fold, pile one upon another”

based on √*dw (2) : (h-)dzu ba «to catch at, seize on,”

from which (m-)dzub mo «claw, paw”1 based on √bw (1): (h)-bu ba «to open, blossom, unfold,”

from which *h-bub pa «to unfold, develop» in the aspect of aim, perfection, from which comes the form of the perfect tense bwb(-s) “entirely, completely”

m. This suffix always indicates the aspectus actionis perfectae. It also forms at times substantives related to the word forms built up with the suffix b. (resultatives).

Examples:

based on √*d« (2) : (h-)du ba «to assemble, accumulate,”

from which (ḥ-)dum pa «to be reconciled with; concord”

1 *dzub pa would mean “to grasp” in the sense of nearing perfection, or “to grasp,” when the gra sping was bound up with a definite purpose. Through prefix m it becomes a property of man’s body (cf. prefix m, § 19).

based on √*du(6): thu bo «poison,» from which

(h-)thum(-8) «sterile, barren” = «poison-ed»

based on √*ga (2): go ba «to understand, perceive,”

whence

(8-)gom pa «to fancy, imagine” based on √*ga (2): (b-)gro ba «to discuss, consider,” from

which

(ḥ-)gram pa «to proclaim, publish” based on i*bu (2): *bu ba «to swell,» from which bum pa «water-bottle” based on √*bw (2): *buba «to swell up,» from which (h)brum pa «a pock, pustule” based on √*ba (3): bya    «action, deed,” whence

(h-)byem pa «to carry through, accomplish^

«to act with good success” based on √da (5): (h)dahba «to change one’s place,”

from which (l-)dom pa «alms”

(cp. (g-)dab pa «to give”)

based on √*ga (13): gru    «boat, raft, vessel,” from

which

(h-)grul ba «to walk, travel” based on √*da (10)b: (l-)la ba «to take a look at, espy,”

from which {g-)tol ba «to discover, disclose” based on √*bu (6): *bu ba «to wither, vanish,» from

which bul    «slow, lazy”

based on √b?/(1): (h)buba «to open, unfold,” whence bul    «valley, ravine”

r. This suffix forms the intensive-causatives of verbs with the suffix 1.

Examples:

based on √da (4): (r-)dolba «to come forth” to which

belongs

(ḥ-)dor ba «to cast forth” based on √*ga(ll): (h-)galba «to disagree” to which belongs

(d-)gar ba «to set apart, exclude” based on √*ga (13): (h-)khyol pa «to be brought, (to arrive

at),” to which belongs (h-)khyer ba «to take away, bring” based on }/da (11): (h-)lhal ba «to elapse; to change from,”

to which belongs thar po «old, worn out” based on √*ba(5): (h-)byol ba «to give or make way,” to

which belongs (h-)byor ba «to remove» =«to acquiesce” based on √*ba(5): (h-)byol ba «to give or make way,» to

which belongs (h-)byer ba «to escape by flight” based on √ga (12): (h-)gyel ba «to fall, tumble down,” to

which belongs r-gyor ba «to kill” based on √da (4): {g-)nyul ba «to rove about, to step

gently,” to which belongs myur ba «to hurry by” (cf. § 74)

Suffix ḥ.

§ 13a. ḥ. The symbol for the suffix ḥ (^*), which indicates the spiritus asper in Tibetan1, is according to Jaschke’s Tibetan Grammar, p. 2, «newly invented” in contrast to the remaining letters of the alphabet, which may all be traced back to Indian originals. It is considered by both Jäschke and Hannah as a suffix with a purely diacritical purpose, in that it is used to draw out the long final vowel a preceded by two consecutive consonants, the first of which is a prefix and the second the initial stem-sound, thus avoiding the temptation of placing the vowel between the two consonants (cf. Jäschke, Tibetan Grammar § 8, 11, and Hannah, Tibetan Grammar, p. 13, 4), for example: b-kah (^rT{3\*), m-dah (^^'), etc., arc written with ḥ to prevent their being read as bak, mad, etc. That tho vowel a becomes long when spoken because of the suffix ḥ is correct, since every open a inherent in a consonant is half long.2 This half-long a when not 1 F. O. Schrader,

Tib.    Siam.    Burm.

spirittta asper'.    (h)    £ị (h)    —

spiritus lenis'. ĩỹj’ (’)    Q (’)    OS) (*)

mute spiram:    (h)    {ft)    (j^ (h)

8 Jäschke says on page 4, line fl, of his Tibetan Grammar: “It ought to be specially remarked that all vowels including e and o arc short, since no long vowels at all occur in tho Tibetan language, except particular circumstances,” which produce long syllables through the falling away of certain final consonants (loc. cit. p. 5, § ñ). I see in the “short” vowels half-long vowels, when they stand in open syllables, since short vowels (as for example in Siamese) occur only in closed syllables. Tn a few Tibetan provinces short syllables exist where certain final consonants have fallen away (Jäschke, T. G. p. 5, line 21). Although Jäschke further on p. 13, line 14, says of the “quantity of vowels,” “accentuated vowels, when closing llic syllable arc comparatively long (though never so long as in the English words bee, stay; or in Hindi etc.),” these accentuated vowels must nevertheless be considered half-long, as for example in mi, mi la (“man, to the man”), since the lengthening of the i may Ik? accomplished only through the suffix h. And that the Tibetans originally knew no long syllables is demonstrated by the fact that the inventor of the Tibetan alphabet, although the Indian symbols for short i and u os well as those for long ī and ũ were at his disposal (cf.    3fĩ), never once availed himself of the Indian long ī and ū

©\,

in open syllables, and that when he encountered long syllables in Sanskrit anti Pali he felt it necessary to express them by the symbol for length (h) — which incidentally is equivalent in this place to the German h used to indicate long vowels. For this reason, in accordance with F. O. Schrader “Siamese Mute h”,

I give the name half-long to vowels of an open syllable in contrast to the lengthened vowels and tho short vowels of a closed syllable.

5* inherent in a consonant is written in Tibetan by another symbol which, however, is spoken very short, or as Hannah says: «short, hard, compact, and full, uttered forcibly” and becomes through this explosive sound at the beginning of the syllable almost equivalent to the spiritus Unis. This like the I in Arabic, etc., serves as the basis

of the vowel symbols and thus represents through ®T, l£T, ŌT, and

■V

[H, *u, *o, and *e) the half-long vowels i, u, o, and e. Since, however, each open a inherent in an isolated consonant is half-long, the open vowels i, u, o, and e, are in general half-long after consonants (true only of classical Tibetan). In order to represent the isolated vowels and the half-long open vowels after consonants as long, the letter

Gy (h) is placed beneath the vowel base, e.g.: W, ^T, W, , IM'

ra, q, a, n, o,

v    ^

'ah (ā), 'ih (ī), 'uh(ū), 'oh (ō), 'eḥ (ē), or laḥ (lā), ^ duh (dū), ^

^ ^ goḥ (go) etc. — This ^ (ḥ), the spiritus as per, is as a final vowel especially well adapted to vowel lengthening, since according to Hannah «G^ (ḥ) is a long, slow, and gentle emanation” in contrast to «uttered forcibly.” Thus, the vowel is lengthened through a sort of “exhalation.” In order to indicate lengthening of the vowel inherent in a consonant, the spiritus asper ḥ is written as a subscription in transcribing the Sanskrit (and Pali) ä, since only Sanskrit (or Pali) words require the subscription of ḥ to produce the long vowels ī, ū, ō, ē, and a few diphthongs. On the other hand ḥ became a suffix, when the lengthening of the final inherent a occurred in Tibetan words.

And here — as has been generally supposed — we are obviously not dealing with the diacritical purpose referred to above. It is true that words like d-gaḥ (^P\’), m-ŋah (£J£^’), g-daḥ (^^Y), rn-nah 5ĩ^’), etc., could be read as dag, maŋ, gad, man etc. On the other hand, there was reason to add an ḥ for diacritical reasons to the words b-kah (^rTỊ^\'), d-paḥ (^^'), d-kah (^Ị^’), m-khah (^p^), m-thah (^JSJ^*), m-dzah (5J5Q^), h-dzah (Q^E-Q^), b-r-dah (£J^*), etc., since words such as bak, dap, dak, with tenuis suffix, or makh, math with tenuis aspirate suffix, or madz, hadz with final, assibilized dental or with final palatal are entirely foreign to Tibetan. In those words the final ḥ serves only to lengthen the inherent a. And why was this a lengthened in certain words ? There must be a reason for the lengthening of a vowel, and final ḥ seems to have served, like all other suffixes, as an agent to increase the number of concepts, in order to express emphasis, perseverance, and such like. Compare:

based on √*ga (2):    tháa «sound, word; news» (basis)

ịh-l)thẽaba «to draw up, prepare” (action)

based on √*ga (3): (s-2)ŋa ba «to be the first, come first”

(basis)

(m-)ŋaḥ «might, power, sway”(action) based on √*ga (16)a: kha «brightness, light» (cf. DTR)

(basis)

(m-)khah “sky” (action) based on √*da (2): da    «to reach to» (basis)

(m-)daḥ    «arrow,” «to obtain» (action)

thaịna) «so far as, up to” (basis) {m-)thah «end, limit,” «to put an end» (action)

based on √*da (3): (s-)na    «bound, tied together» (basis)

«put together»

(m-)naḥ    «to take an oath” (action)

based on √*da (11 j: da    «to change into > decay»

(basis)

(ḥ-)daḥ ba «to pass away, go beyond” (action)

Suffix ḥ assists — so to speak — the determinative prefixes. If we then find the suffix ḥ in words like b-kah «word, speech,” d-kah «hard, difficult,” g-taḥ ma «pawn,” d-pah “fortitude,” m-dzah bo «husband, friend,” h-dzah “rain-bow,” g-dzah ma “a kind of helmet,” h-dzah ba “interest, rent,” etc., a kind of pleonasm, discussed in § 9, results.

Suffix ḥ may play the same role in d-gaḥ ba “joy, splendour,” .g-daḥ ba “that is, that means,” b-daḥ ba “to drive, chase away,” ḥ-baḥ bo “cave,” d-baḥ “wave, billow,” etc., that is to say, in words where it was supposed to have only a diacritical use. In this case Jaschke’s term «newly invented” (s. above) may be applied to suffix ḥ.

1    From another point of view h is to be considered as the “sign of the present tfnso” (s. § 59).

2    Prefix a is intensive (s. § 17). Prefix m indicates reference to man (s. § 19). Consequently “emphasis” had to be given to the word in another way in order to express the exercise of power, and this other way was the addition of final h. Tho same is true of the next examples.

Suffix ḥ is never found with the other vowels, nor with ya btags, ra btags, la btags, and wa zur for obvious reasons. (See the paragraphs in question).

§ 13b. From their division into guttural, dental, and labial suffixes, etc., it is apparent that certain suffixes are related to each other, that is the media with the nasal as g and ŋ, b and m, d and n. There is also a close connection between 1 and r. The guttural pair presents the iterative or intensive aspect, the labial the aspect of purpose, an approach to the goal, perfection. The dental pair presents a causative aspect, since, as it appears,the nasal always brings the aspect produced by the media even closer to perfection or indicates the strongest stage of continuity. Let us take as an example √da (11) «to change into > decay, vanish»:

(ḥ-)daḥ ba «to pass away, to die”

(m-)dag «glowing embers” - «continual glowing, to be

consumed,» very probably with regard to the dead

bodies consigned to the flames, to which the prefix

m refers (cf. § 19)

(m-)daŋ ba «place of cremation.” Suffix ŋ creates a stronger

effect than g and points to a longer period of

continuity

(h)-dod «funeral repast” ì ...

!, x, , £t, , .    „ f suffix d causative,

(l-)dad pa funeral anniversary J

external manifestation of «the causing the dead body to disappear (or to undergo a change)»

(g-)don would be equivalent with «destroyer»; cf. the corresponding forms g-non pa «to subdue, suppress” and s-ton «he who causes the change» = «autumn” (b-r-)dab pa “to sink, go down” — «approaching the end» (suffix b!)

dam pa “deceased, late” (entire completion, suffix m!) b-dar ba «to grind” = «to cause to dissolvc» (suffix r causative) h-dal ba «to sink down, disappear” (suffix I continuative) b-dar ba is therefore causative to h-dal ba

A further example is √* da (3) «to become connected, to become joined»:

*(l-)da ba «to become combined, appended,»

(l-)de    «a prefixed tribal title of the earlier kings

of Tibet”

(h-)dog-s pa «to bind, fasten,”

daŋ    “postposition for the comitative: with”

(suffix ŋ acts also here stronger and more continuously than the suffix g!)

(ḥ-)ded pa «to follow, succeed” = «to join oneself to» (l-)dan    “belonging to, being in possession of” =

«tied to, joined to,»

(s-)deb pa «to fasten together, to unite,” dam    «bound fast”

dar    «silk” = «that which is spun, tied together»

(r causative),

therefrom (s-)tar ba «to file on a string, to fasten to” and (b-s-)nal ba «to spin out, protract” (continuative) Note. It seems to me that another interesting connection exists between the suffixes d and m, since the word form with suffix d expresses the idea of wish, or desire for something, while that with suffix m indicates the idea of the completed act or the consequences, in comparison with the suffix-less form.

Example:

thought    wish    action (result)

go ba «to under- (ḥ-)god pa «to plan” (h-)gram pa «to pro-stand”    claim»

(b-)daḥ ba «to carry (b-)tad pa «to en- (l-)dom pa «alms» away”    trust”

*du ba «to have (h-)thvd pa «to sub- (g-)tum pa «wild, pain»    jugate”    furious”

perf. b-tud pa

*ba ba «to swell, (ḥ-)bad pa «to en- bam po «that which is

increase»    deavour, exert” done”

to which belongs

d-paḥ “fortitude,

courage”

*b(r)u ba «to in- (h-)brud pa “to fill (8-)brum pa «preg-crease»    up”    nant”

Prefixes. 5) Guttural prefixes.

§ 14. g. 1) Prefix g corresponds chiefly to the suffix g. It is therefore iterative.

Examples:

based on √*dw (6): *du ba «passion, agony, pain,» from

which

g-dug pa “mischievous, vicious, poisonous” (cf. dug «poison»; thus g-dug pa is pleonastic) g-duŋ ba «to be pained, to be tormented”

h-dul ba «to tame, bring under right discipline”

g-dul    future of h-dul ba, thus itera

tive.

based on √dĩT(5): du    “inclination, desire”

g-du ba “to covet, to hanker after” g-duŋ ba “excessive desire, lust” h-dul ba «to till, cultivate” g-dul    future of this, also iterative

based on √*da (6) : *daba «to extend, increase» b-do ba «to spread, diffuse” g-daŋ ba «to stretch, open wide” g-dal ba «to diffuse, encompass” (here pleonasm: suffix I continuative, prefix g iterative) based on √*gu: h-diuba «to melt”

h-thẽu ba «to ladle water” g-tấu ba «to squeeze, strain” based on √*dw (6): zug    «discase, affliction, torment”

g-zug pa «to be able to bear,” and many others.

Prefix g occurs with this meaning before , ny, d, n, ts, á, z, y, ś, and s.

2) Before gutturals and labials g changes with d.

Examples:

based on √*ga (2): go ba «to understand,” from which d-goŋ-8 pa «to think, reflect,” «to strain one’s mind»

(d instead of g iterative; as regards suffix s compare later § 23, 1)

based on √*da(10)a: d-pyod pa «to investigate, to test by

reasoning”

based on √*ga (3): d-hri ba «to conduct one’s pupil from

one stage of learning to another”

based on √bw(l): h-buba «to open, unfold,” whence

d-buŋ    «middle,” «that which opens

gradually#

based on √*bw (2): d-puŋ ba “to gather, collect,” «to con-

centrate»

based on ]/bu(5): h-bu    “worm, insect,” from which

d-bug    “cavern, cavity“ (pleonastic)

based on √*b-w (6): *buba «to whither, vanish», from

which

d-bul po “poor,” «withering away» (pleonasm) based on √*ga (3): d-kon    “rare”

based on √*ga (5): kan    «thorn”

d-kan    «steep or up hill”

based on √*ga(7): gye (gu) «hump, hunch; curve” d-gye ba «to be crooked” based on √*ga (8): kag (ma) «mischief, danger, accident” d-kag ba «constipation”

With initial g, k, and ŋ, d (instead of g) works iteratively also in the following examples:

Examples:

d-god pa «to laugh”    d-kag ba «constipation”

d-ges pa «to be delighted” d-kos “suffering, affliction’ d-gaḥ ba «to rejoice”    d-Jcah «pain, labour, suf

fering”

d-gyer ba «to sing”    d-krog pa «to trouble, irritate”

d-gyes pa «to be glad”    d-ŋaŋ ba «to be afraid”

d-ge ba “to be happy”    d-ŋom pa “brightness, splen

dour”

d-ŋos po “virtue”

Examples:

g-yab pa «fan”    g-yur «sleep, slumber”

g-yób pa «an oar”    g-yer ba «passion”

g-yab pa «to skim”    g-yel “indolence”

g-yab pa «to signal, beckon” g-yel ba «to be idle, lazy” g-yuŋ ba «to cast out”    ff-yel pa «an urgent wish”

(cf. d-byuŋ pa «to banish, expel”) g-yel ma «harlot, prostitute”

g-yem pa «incest, adultery”

4)    Prefix g occurs also before y as a substitute for m which is here phonetically inadmissable, for the combination my could be considered only as m + ya btags. In such a case, it indicates (like prefix m) specifically the parts of the human body, as well as certain attributes of man or common objects in his immediate environment.

Examples:

g-yod «the large intestine” g-yuŋ ba «a person of very ugly g-yan pa «a cutaneous erup-    and repulsive ap-

tion akin to itch”    pearance”

g-yon «the left hand”    g-yer kha ‘‘little bell”

g-yas pa «the right hand” g-yvr mo «a sail” g-yar «mouth, face”    g-y«ḥ «rust, oxide of iron”

g-yuŋ «a low caste people of India”

5)    If g is used before y as a substitute for m, it is conceivable that m may also be occasionally replaced before gutturals by d. Compare, or example, d-kan «palatc, roof of the mouth.”

h-phyaŋ ba «to hang down, be gar po «thick, condensed” suspended”

d-pyaŋ ba «to let hang down” d-gar ba «to confine,” etc., etc.

4)    Prefix d as a causative prefix alternates with g before dentals, palatals, and sibilants.

Examples:

h-dam pa «to choose, select” h-du ba «to come together,

assemble”

g-dam pa «to counsel, advise” g-du ba «to mix with one

another”

thśe ba «to be great” g-tśe ba «to love, esteem, hold dear”

5)    Prefix d is thus interchangeable on the one hand with iterative g before dentals, and, on the other hand, with g for the purpose of a causative formation. īn some cases, to avoid errors, prefix b was used before the media d in forming causatives.

Examples:

da ba «to move forward” du ba «smoke,” whence b-dah-ba «to drive out, ex- b-dng pa «to smoke, fumigate” pel”    (prefix b causative,

suffix g iterative)

h-dah ba «to go over,” from which

b-dan ba «to carry away”

b-dog pa «to take possession *du ba «to have pain, to

of”    writhe with pain,»

from which

ḥ-dal ba «to extend, scatter” b-duŋ ba «to bend the bow in (intr.)    order to shoot,”

and others

b-dal ba «to extend, scatter”

(trans.)

Note. With the tenufes (k), t, tấ, and ts the causative-forming b cannot be used, since the tenuis is in itself causative-forming. Conrady was also aware of this fact. He says (IGDB, p. 70): «Jedenfalls ist der Gebrauch des b- in b&-, bsg-, bsk- einer der stärksten Beweisc fiir die ursprüngliche Transitivität der präfixlosen k-, tñ- usw. Denn wie man auch das b auffasse, so oder so bildet es doch keinesfalls Transitiva aus der Grundform, sondem lediglich einfache Umschrei-bungen davon.» And Gonrady still sees a fundamentally transitive meaning in b, provided the comparisons he gives on pp. 45—46 with the living verbs of other monosyllabic speeches are substantially correct. This transitive function of b he expresses more definitely however on p. 69 i,n connection with the conjectural relationship (only syntactical however) with byed pa. He says, «Denn wenn es (das b-) auch ohne alien Zweifel an und für sich ein transitivierendes Vor-zeichen ist, so ist doch sein vornehmster Wirkungskreis die (sogen.) Tempusbildung.» The latter is certainly true (see the detailed chapters on Tense-formation), but that «das b- auch ohne alien Zweifel an und für sich ein transivitierendes Vorzcichen ist,” I must emphatically question. Prefix b is transitive, and consequently causative-building, only in the few cases where it occurs as a substitute for a causative g before dentals or as a d before gutturals (s. below, § 16). In the above examples b-daḥ ba, b-dog pa, b-dug pa, b-duŋ ba, etc., is it possible that d is an infix as Conrady assumes on p. 5 of his Article, «Eine merk-wiirdige Beziehung zwischen den austrischen und den indochinesischen Sprachen.» Our opinion of the examples which he gives with infix d is clearly expressed in §§ 137 and 139. We admit no infixes in Tibetan other than ya btags and ra btags. Conrady’s supposed infixes are purely hypothetical and collapse when one sees and recognizes the possible means of growth in the not too numerous Tibetan roots which have developed similarly. We wish to discuss this point here only briefly. The grouping together of words on p. 5 in «Eine mcrk-würdige Beziehung zwischen den austrischen und indochinesischen Sprachen” seems semasiologically justified, but it is morphologically impossible, as a few examples will show.

1) Take for instance, the concepts «to become old» and «to calumniate.” The Tibetan equivalents of these two concepts are based on two roots which are related in meaning: √*ga (12) «to decrease, vanish, dccay» and √da (11) «to change into > to decay, vanish.» From these are formed r-ga ba «to be old,» r-gad pa, r-gan pa «old» (to which also belong m-ŋan «curse” and m-ŋan pa «to curse” with initial nasal sound), and na ba, «to be ill,” g-na bo «old, aged,” nod «sickness,” 8-nad pa «to wound, hurt, stab,” m-nad m-nad «falsehood, calumny.” Also among the roots with initial labial sounds there is one with similar meaning, namely √*bā (4) «to come forth out of = to overflow, fall down > to become less,» with which we must also reckon the following words having initial nasal sound: d-mad «calumny,» s-mad pa «to reprove; the reproach,” d-mod pa «cursing, malediction,» 8-mod pa «slander, curse.» We remember, in this connection that «the nasal became an agent in the building up of highly specialized, interrelated concepts, and particularly of abstract nouns» (s. § 1).

2)    Again, take the concepts «profit, advantage” and «to extend.» Here we have the roots √*ba (3) «to swell, increase» (in a figurative sense) and √*da (6) «to come forth > to extend, increase» (horizontally). From the first root is formed d-mar «profit, gain,» and from tho second (g-)daŋ ba «to stretch.»

3)    Finally, we come to the concepts «joy, happiness.” Here we find the two roots √*ga (16) a «to appear ~ to become visible, to grow» (as light physically and symbolically) and √*da (10) b «to appear = to come forth as light, to become bright» (physically and symbolically) which serve as the basis for the forms d-ge ba «joy, happiness” and b-de «splendour, happiness,” etc., etc.

These few examples will suffice to prove conclusively that the assumption that Tibetan had infixes (other than ya btags and ra btags) is not tenable. I dare also to question the existence of infixes in Siamese and Burmese, and other monosyllabic languages. Some day, I hope to prepare morphologies of these languages which will also throw light on this subject.

§ 16. s. 1. At a later period, just when is undoubtedly difficult to say, the causative prefix d, like the suffix d, changed to s. (The change of the initial d of a root or stem to an initial s took place in Tibetan only during the somewhat circuitous transition from the compound palatals to the assibilized dentals. Cf. § 110). So we find for example:

h-phro ba «to issue, emanate ḥ-greŋ ba «to stand” from”

s-'pro ba «to make go out” s-greŋ ba «to put up”

ḥ-brel ba «to be connected” h-byor ba «to stick, adhere to”

s-hrelba “to stitch together” s-byor ba “to affix, attach”

h-phur ba «to fly”    h-dum pa «to be reconciled

with”

s-pur ba «to scare up, let s-dum pa «to bring to an agree-fly”    ment, to conciliate”

From the last example8-dumpa it is clear that causatives, developed from d, was used also before dentals, even though in this case (according to § 15, 4) causative forming g would naturally be expected as a phone tical substitute instead of d.

We find a number of initial guttural and labial verbs which likewise show the same alternating usage of d and s j11 d naturally indicates the older form.

h-phyaŋ ba «to be suspended” h-phar ba «to be raised, promoted”

d-pyaŋba) «to make hang d-por ba\

, }    „    . } to dictate”

s-pyoŋ ba J down    s-por ba J

pad pa “inquiring, in-    bog-s «profit, gain” quiry”

d-pyod pa «to investigate, d-pog pa «to make increase” text”

8-pyod pa «to perpetrate,    s-pog s «profit, gain,” «that

accomplish ”    which was caused to

swell»

d-geŋ f«ì „ „    d-gab pa\

, } on, upon    , } to cover

s-geŋ la J r    8-gat) pa )

d-kan )    d-gur 1

.    the palate, roof

s-kan    , , , „ 8-gur crooked

y .    of the mouth” . y ,

(r-kan)    (r-gur),

Compare also

d-pal    «abundance”    d-puŋ ba «to gather, assemble”

8-pel ba «to augment” 8-puŋ ba «to accumulate, fill

up,” and many others.

2. Now, (according to § 15, 5) the prefix b in the form of a g was used before the media d in place of the causative forming d. Also in the case of initial guttural verbs prefix b occasionally appears as a causative forming agent before the media g and the tenuis k. Side by side with the causative forms produced by the prefix b we may safely place those with prefix s which has developed from d. Compare

b-kad    «arrangement» b-krab pa 1 «to beat the ground

with

8-kad    «precept»    s-krab pa) one’s feet»

b-go ba «to put on, anoint» b-gor ba «to cause constipation”

8-go ba «to anoint»    8-gor ba «to condense, to

constipate”

b-gro baì «to discuss»    b-kal ba «to load, burden”

8-gro baJ    s-kal ba «lot, fate, destiny,”

«that which loads up» (from h-gel ba «to load up”)

Similar combinations are h-gril ba «to bo twisted or wrapped round, to be rounded” 8-gril ba «to roll, wrap up” h-gril ba «to fall, roll” b-gril ba «to fall down, roll down”

b-kren pa «poor, miserable, 8-go ba «to say, speak” hungry”

8-gren mo «to be naked, bare” b-s-go ba «to order, arrange”

[f b-8-go ba is not in reality the perfect tense form (without the suffix s) of 8-go ba, it might be an attempt to use the analogous form b-go ba together with 8-go ba. Since, however, b-go ba exists in the sense of «clothes, garment,” s-go ba was further supplied with b, which in this case had a somewhat more intensive effect.

If then, in order to avoid confusion, it actually proved necessary to create a substitute for the iterative and causative g or to find a suitable substitute for the causative prefixes s and d, that is before the media g and the tenuis k, especially since s and d could also be iterative — it seemed quite natural in both cases to choose the prefix b, which denotes «actions almost completed” (s. § 18). For this reason it was also utilized later as a “loose” prefix for the purpose of forming the perfect tense as indicating the “completed or effected action” (s. § 23).

§ 17. 1. Prefix s1 is also employed in the formation of intensive verbs. Prefix g is the original prefix for the purpose of attaining the

1 Profix a in the form of the 2, cf. note, § 142.

iterative idea, which is very closely related to the intensives. In accordance with § 14, 2, iterative g before gutturals and labials changes with d, which has nothing in common with the causative d. Compare also:

h-geŋ-s pa «to fill up, satiate” bo ba «to expand as a bubble» d-gaŋ ba «to fill to the brim» d-baḥ «wave, billow” ḥ-brab pa «to beat, scorge» d-brab pa «to flog with a whip,» etc.

2.    This iterative d, then, standing in place of g before gutturals and labials, also changed to s as did the causative forming d. This s in its iterative-intensive quality served not only with gutturals and labials, but came also largely into general use together with other verbs.

Examples:

gab pa «to cover” (also «to h-khum-8 pa «to grasp, con-hide oneself”)    ceive”

8-gab pa «to cover”    8-kum pa “to contract” «to

come to an un-derstanding»

nyan pa “to hear, listen» h-dzom-8 pa «to conquer,

subdue»

8-nyen pa «to come near,    s-nyom-8 pa «to destroy,” etc.

approach”

Even here are examples which indicate the use of s along with d. Examples:

h-geŋ-s pa «to fill up, satiate” d-pyas pa

‘ to blame, vitupe-

d-gaŋ ba “to fill to the brim” 8-pyos pa rat°

8-gaŋ «the ridge of a d-puŋ ba «to gather, assem-hill,” «filled up»    ble»

8-gaŋ ba «to become filled” s-puŋ ba «to heap up, fill up” 8-goŋ «an egg”

(The s in 8-goŋ ba «to make round balls of dough” is causative forming).

3.    It is worth noting that verbs with stem vowel a and prefix d tend to change the root vowel a to o or e, when adding the prefix s either in the iterative or causative sense. Obviously, it was felt that s in place of the original d was somewhat too weak and had to be “strengthened” through the ablaui of tho stem vowel. This feature plays a great part in the formation of the tenses.

Examples:

d-vyaŋ ba | „ , , , ,, d-pal «abundance»

, f «to let hang down»

8-pyoŋ ba J    8-pel ba to augment

d-pyas pa Ị «to blame, vitup- nyan pa «to hear, listen” 8-pyos pa J erate»    8-nyen pa «to come, near, ap

proach,” etc.

It is therefore necessary to distinguish carefully between the causative d and s and the iterative-intensive dands. The former functions as an original prefix, while the latter is a substitute forgbefore gutturals andlabials, which finally became general in the form of s.

The recognition of this point is of immense importance. It is true that so far the intensive transitive function of the prefix s was felt, though within somewhat indeterminate limits, as it also clearly appears in Conrady’s ICDB. It had in fact always been impossible to discover a definite principle in the application of s, which as yet seemed rather vague. Likewise the development of s from d appears to some of the Tibetologists as unfounded. Conrady noticed the seemingly arbitrary interchange of the prefixes d, g, r, s, z, and 1 and says on p. 48 of his ICDB: «Will man den Beweis der Verwandtschaft auf diesen Wechsel griinden, so ist das nur unter der Annahme möglich, dafì einer dieser Vorbuchstaben die Grundlage der übrigen, also z. B. 8 aus d entstanden sei; derm sonst könnten ja diese Worte als blofie Par allelf or men angesprochen werden.» And this assumption, as Conrady rightly believes, is not tenable. Quite aside from the development of s from d the untenability of this idea is clear. In changes of d, g, r, etc., it seems to me, however, that here we are dealing not with «mere» parallel forms of a rather accidental character, but quite decidedly with “intended” parallel forms. As a matter of fact, in such words as d-gur, s-gur, r-gur, and m-gur, all meaning «arched, vaulted,” we are confronted with four different aspects. The basis for these is the little word gur in the sense of «that which has been brought to swell and to arch itself (suffix r causative) on a small scale (u — diminutive),» that is «the tent,” the diminutive aspect of «army camp.” d-gur, as a result of the addition of d to the simple gur, indicates rather the causative aspect of arching and bending in general (cf. § 15), while 8-gur gives the causative > iterative intensive aspect of a more recent date (cf. § 17), r-gur the iterative aspect (r in place of g, where the latter is impossible, cf. § 21, 3) — all

three in the sense of «arched, bent,” and m-gur denoting that which is arched or vaulted as applied to a part of the human body (cf. § 19) in the meaning of «throat, neck.”

This also holds true in connection with the other examples mentioned by Conrady. On the other hand, I see in the transition of d to s no purposed change, but a phonetical change, exactly as it frequently can be observed within tho realm of the Indo-European languages. And the Tibetan clearly shows even today the transition of the prefixed d into s, without its being indicated in writing. I would remind the reader of the Ladakhi-words d-gar ba «to separate, place apart,” d-kan «palate,” d-mag «army» and other words which I heard pronounced there as s-gar ba, s-kan, and s-mag. As far as I am concerned the change from d to s certainly does not appear too improbable.

7. Labial Prefixes.

§ 18. b. Prefix b is similar in meaning and function to suffix b. It indicates purpose, end, action almost completed — like the suffix m which as a prefix serves other purposes — and denotes noniina actionis (cf. Laufer, Bird Divination, p. 103).

Examples:

based on √*ga (2): goba «to perceive mentally, understand,” from which b-go ba «to plan, design”

8-gom pa «to imagine, to fancy,” whence

b-8-gom pa “contemplation, reflection” s-ŋo ba «to intend,” from which *s-ŋo-s «intended» b-s-ŋo-s pa «resolution” furthermore b-r-dze ba «to be absorbed in thought” based on √*ga (6): ḥ-go ba «to stain, sully oneself,” from

which

b-go ba «to put on, paste on” sub pa «to keep shut, to conceal,” whence

b-sub pa «to obliterate, rub out” based on √*dä( 10)a: r-déod pa «to say, recite,” whence b-r-diod «speech, clear expression”

based on √*ga (5): ḥ-greŋ ba    «to stand,» « to be upright

whence

b-greŋ    «on, upon»

based on √*da(lO)a: *ẽad pa    «to tell, report”

b-Sad pa    «to explain”

g-èad pa    «to tell, report”

b-Sod pa    «report, description”

based on √*da(10)b: 1-ta ba    «to take a look at, espy»

b-l-ta    «view, prospect”

based on √*da (10)c: èes pa    «to perceive, apprehend”

b-ées ya    «to be acquainted with”

sem-s pa    «to think”

b-sam-s pa    «to ponder,” etc., etc.

Prefix b stands before k, g, tś, dz, ny, t, d, n, ts, ds, z, z, r, ś, s and also before prefix r and s.

Naturally prefix b cannot stand before labials. From a large number of examples I have concluded that in such cases d is used instead, so that d functions for prefix g as well as b before labials; cf. § 16,2.

§ 19. m. Prefix m indicates primarily parts of the human body1, certain attributes of man, and common objects in his immediate environment. It indicates further verbs relative to the ability and peculiarities of man.

Examples:

m-gvl    ‘‘throat, neck» m-khm pa ‘ learned, wise”

m-khrig ma «wrist of the m-gon po «master, lord” hand”

m-grin pa «neck»    m-gron po «one newly come, a

guest”

m-ŋal    «uterus, womb» m-ŋag pa «to send”

m-Ịhśer pa «milt, spleen” m-ŋan pa «to curse” rn-dziŋ pa «neck»    m-ŋah ba «to own, possess”

m-daŋ-8 «forehead» (resp.) m-thśad pa «grave» m-thẽon «index (finger)» m-thśid “speech, talk” m-thsal «blood”    m-thẽod pa «to venerate, wor

ship”

m-th8er pa «milt, spleen, ”etc. m-noŋ ba «to feel ashamed”

1 With the exception of m-dzub mo “claw, paw”, fi*

m-thSum pa «pearl»    m-dag pa «glowing ashes”

m-thSil pa «a fishing hook» m-duŋ «lance, spear” m-nyan «skiff, wherry» m-dud «a knot” m-thur    «halter»    m-dzod «treasure-chest,”etc.

Prefix m stands before kh, g, ŋ, thẽ, dz, ny, th, d, n, ths, dz. m changes with g before y, cf. § 14,4.

m changes occasionally with d before k: d-kan «gums»; cf. prefix g § 14,5 (cf. r-kan «foot.”) m changes with I before tś, cf. prefix 1, § 20. m changes with I before t, cf. prefix 1, § 20. m changes with 1 before labials, cf. prefix 1, § 20. m changes with'r before t, cf. prefix r, § 21. m changes with r before ts, cf. prefix r, § 21.

My lists show further examples in which prefix m is substituted for other prefixes on phonetical grounds. These examples are, however, so rare that they may be disregarded.

8. Prefixes 1 and r.

§ 20. 1. Prefix 1 denotes parts of the human (or animal) body, common objects used by man in daily life, and qualities and actions peculiar to man.

In this function it stands in place of prefix m, before k, p, tS, t, and 1.

Examples :

l-kog «throat»    l-tấog «pot”

l-pag-8 “epidermis”    l-táih-s «shield, gloves»

1-tóag “stick, whip”    l-tàeb pa “to commit suicide”

l-tẽag-s «iron»    l-tog-s pa“to be hungry; to

regret”

In the combination m-l, I might be considered as la btags by analogy with r which always functions as ra btags in the combination m-r. For this reason, 1 is here used for m, except before initial 1 when it is obviously impossible. In conjunction with initial r, I causes metathesis (cf. § 122).

Examples:

rlig pa «testicle”    rlud bu «a leather bag”

rlaŋ-s po «the lowest social rlag pa «to become bodiless” grade”

b-rlaŋ mo «a fierce woman, rlag po «stupid, foolish (as a an amazon»    child)1

rlom pa “conceit, vanity” rlog pa «to destroy; to seduce”

rlab pa «to remove, clear away”

rlob-8 pa «to give, present,” etc. Forms like the following do not belong here.

Ihog pa «a large ulcer or sore” lham «a felt boot, a shoe” Ihen pa «the part of the belly lha ba «to slough, to suppur-below the breast”    ate”

lhum-8 «womb” etc.    Ihon pa «to give back, return”

These forms are not pertinent here, because 1 is an aspirated initial sound instead of a prefix; cf. «Palatalization with ra btags, New Formations,” § 124.

Prefix 1 stands like m before g, dz, and d indiscriminately. Prefix 1 stands in place of m before b. Traceable in only two cases: l-bra «tumor,” 1-bu «tumor, blister.”

Prefix 1 stands also before ŋ; however, only in two cases which have no connection here: 1-ŋa «five,” and 1-ŋa ba «flash (of lightning)”.

§ 21. r. 1) As suffix r forms the intensive-causatives for verbs with final 1, so prefix r sometimes forms causatives, if it stands in place of d (s. § 15,3) before medial and nasal dentals, or (seldom) before medial assibilized dentals. Two similar cases may be recorded for initial gutturals.

Examples:

g-duŋ ba «to be pained” g-dug pa «to be deleterious,

mischievous”

r-duŋ ba «to beat”    r-dug pa «to devastate, de

stroy”

g-nyil ba «to crumble away, *(h-)dzog pa «to come to, reach

to thaw”    to»

r-nyil ba «to break, down, r-dzog-s pa «to finish, com-

destroy”    plete”

(s. DTR sub √*ba (3))

*(h-)dze ba «to project, stand out»ì ____ -

J i «* * i *    s. DTR sub √*ga (5))

r-dzeba to tuck up, truss up J v

h-gyel ba «to fall, tumble *(ị-)gyag pa «to move forward» down”

r-gyal ba «to subdue, over- r-gyag pa «to throw, cast, power» — «to    fling»

cause to fall»    (s. DTR sub √*ga (13)

cf. r-gyor ba «to kill,” «to cause to fall = to remove»

2)    Prefix r forms intensives in most cases as well with initial media and initial nasal as with initial tenuis. In the first case (s. (a) below) it joins readily with words ending in g, ŋ, d, n, s, and r and produces pleonasm. These formations are largely denominatives. In the second case (s. (b) below) pleonasm is again brought about, since prefix r coincides with the tenuis-formation, which itself produces intensives, causatives, etc.

(a)    Examples:

gur    «tent»    s-ŋa ba «to be first»

r-gur    «bent, curved» (b-)r-ŋan pa «to venerate, wor-

ship» «repeat-edly (r-) to cause somebody to be first (-n)»

b-gyaŋ-s pa «spread forth»    mug pa «a moth"

v-Qyaŋ pa «spread forth»    r-mug pa «to bite, to sting

(inscct)»

*h-gyag pa «to swell up, in-    *ga ba «to become less,

increase»    decrease*

r-gyag-s pa «arrogance, pride» r-gad pa «to be old, ta be (see DTR sub √*ga (10))    aged,» etc.

(b)    Examples:

r-tsi ba «to count, reckon” r-tseg pa «to pile up” r-tog pa «to consider,    r-tag pa «eternal”

examine”

r-t8og pa «a pioneer»    r-ten pa «to lean”

r-tsom pa «to begin, under- r-tab pa «confused, frightened,” take”    and a few others.

3)    Prefix r instead of g may also form iteratives in those cases where g is a phonetic impossibility (cf. § 14,1).

Examples : b-r-dze ba «to be absorbed in thought" r-dzed pa «to venerate" (cf. √*ga (3)j r-died pa «to forget» (cf. √ga (12) and others.)

4)    In addition, prefix r signifies a few animals (cf. Laufer, Bird Divination, p. 39) and parts of the animal body (very rarely of the human body). According to Laufer this r is supposed to come from an earlier prefixed ri «mountain.”1

Examples:

r-gaŋ «hedge-hog»    r-nog    «the mane»

r-kaŋ «marrow, pith»    r-men pa    «a goitre»

r-kaŋ pa «foot»    r-mon pa    “a plough-ox»

r-koŋ pa «ringworm, itch"    r-mig-8 pa    «a lizard of a small

kind"

r-kub «anus, back side"    r-tsaŋ-8 pa    «a chameleon”

r-kyaŋ «wild ass»    r-tsid pa    “coarse hair of the

yag”

r-ta    «horse”    r-lsib pa «a rib,” etc.

Prefix r stands before g, k, ŋ, dz, ny, d, t, n, b, m, dz, and ts.

5)    In all remaining cases r stands as a substitute for m and I. It stands for m (1) before k, t, and ts, where m causes aspiration, (2) and before k, t, and ts to avoid aspiration for diacritical reasons.

Examples:

r-kon pa “a fowler’s net”    r-tvl pa «to blunt, dull”

r-kod pa «an engraving”    r-tsub pa «a javelin”

r-kyan «brass vessel”    r-tsol ba «to endeavour, take

pains »

r-kyal ba «sac or leather bag” r stands for 1 in

r-gyan «ornament”

r-bad «crutch”

r-mog «helmet»

r-nam pa «form, figure, shape”

§ 22. Frequently it is still possible to contrast forms of the completive-causative type, which show on the one hand the earliest means of formation by tenuis, and on the other hand the equivalent means by formative elements.

Compare

based on √du (1): *duba    «to be accumulated, to as-

semble»

h-thu ba «to pick up, collect" g-du ba «to mingle, mix-up”

1 Applicable apparently only to a few examples.

based on √*du (3): h-thud pa «to add on, prolong"

8-dud pa «to unite, join” based on √*du (2): h-thum pa «to cover, lay over"

8-dum pa «to make agree" based on √*ga (6): h-kheb pa “to cover"

8-gab pa “to cover" based on √*ga(2): h-khum pa “to grasp, conceive"

8-gom pa “to meditate systematically" based on √*ga (7): s-goŋ-s “ball; disk"

koŋ    “concave, bent, crooked"

khoŋ-s    «concave, bent, crooked," and

many others.

In concluding our discussion of the suffixes we added two examples based on different roots illuminating their formative capacity (cf. § 13 b). It is advisable to do the same for the prefixes.

Examples:

based on √*ga (2): «head» (psychological, i. e. seat of thought, etc.):

go ba «to perceive, understand" (abUivi perhaps intensive-causative s. § 3.) Whence are formed

1)    d-goŋ-8 pa «to think, to ponder" (d- is iterative

cf. § 15, -ŋ is intensive s. § 10, -s nearing perfection (aim) s. § 23).

2)    8-go ba «to order" (s- is causative cf. § 16).

3)    b-god pa «to design > to divide" (b-denoting

purpose s. § 18, -d is causative see § 11)

4)    r-gol ba «to dispute, combat" (r- is causative

s. § 21, -1 is continuative s. § 13) the forms m-khan po «teacher, professor"

l-tSog-8 «to be able” alike belong to this root (s. § 63, Analysis of Words). They have the prefixes m and 1 in order to show qualities which are characteristic of men, cf. §§ 19—20.

The formative elements treated in §§ 9—22 lend to each root or each stem a certain definite aspect. They are characteristic of the word form and cannot be separated again without damaging the concept which has been built up by them. Prefixes b, g, and d, which may change with the present tense sign ḥ, (cf. § 59), are exceptions to this rule. We must call them inseparable, formative elements in order to differentiate them from those which are separable and form the tenses. From the time of the introduction of the formative elements, the speaker’s consciousness of their meaning and their effects has been vitally preserved over long periods of time — probably over several thousand years — and has given to the speech a compact, well constructed mould. Even when the transition from the compound palatals to the assibilized dentals was taking place (that is, in a comparatively recent period), the value of the inseparable, formative elements remained unchanged (cf. §§ 98—103). Only when decomposition of the language began, in the ninth century after Christ according to Laufer’s Bird Divination, did the formative elements give up their function as suffixes (not as prefixes). The words, thus freed from their iron chains, took on suffixes of all kinds to create one and the same concept or aspect (cf. the chapter on the Exchange of Suffixes, § 133).

b) Separable, Formative Elements.

§ 23. It is still necessary to discuss the separable formative elements which form the tenses. These are: the suffix s and the prefixes ḥ, b, and g or d. Let us first consider the suffix s.

1) Suffix s.

Certain words like lus «body,” thấoa «religion,’’ g-nyis «two,’’ and others point to a suffix s, which was used only in word formation. The effect originally attached to this s has been impossible for me to determine. I can only surmise. Laufer in his Bird Divination on p. 87, note 1, points out the necessity of differentiating between the final s as an agent of word formation on the one hand, and final s as a means of instrumentalis as well as tense formation on the other. Thus, we should distinguish between an “inseparable” and a «se-parable» element.

As an example of the inseparable, Laufer mentions d-bu-s, «middle” and of the separable ya-s as the instrumentalis for ya1. We ask, could not the s in d-bu-8 have been derived from d-bud ? d-bud belongs to √bu (1), from which has been formed ḥ-bu ba «to open, unfold (like a

1 Laufer evidently bases his opinion upon his teacher Conrady, who mentions these instances in his ICDB on pp. 43—44.

flower).» d-bu is «a repeated unfolding,* *bud implies the sense of «caused to be unfolded»: hence *d-bud in the meaning of «caused to have become gradually unfolded,» all of which results in the final form of d-bu8 «middle.» — It is very likely that the final s of the instrumentalis ya-s arose from the final d which usually produce the causative aspect.

The suffix s of the perfect tense is preferably deduced from yod pa. In the oldest literature two perfects appear side by side, the verb -f yod and the verb -f- suffix s. The formation of the perfect with yod, however, is relatively recent. We find very old forms like, e. g., gsan-d pa «he heard,» gyur-d «he became,” and g-sol-d pa «he bade,” which seem to point ịo a former yod. One should remember that this yod pa «to be present, to exist” is a form which developed through anlauteverkümmerung or imminution of the initial sound (cf. § 7ö) and completely displaced the original verb. Therefore, yod pa must be regarded as a tertiary formation. This d of the perfect tense soon became lost after final n, r, and 1; after a final vowel and after the consonants g, ŋ, b, and m, it changed, however, to s1. When d was suffixed to a word already ending in d, the two final d’s, after an intermediary step, fused and changed to s. Suffix s of the perfect tense, developed from d, must evidently have arisen very recently, after (1) all tense formation had already long existed, and after (2) yod had not only developed through imminution of the initial sound, but had also become shortened to final d or s. This s, if also found with many verbs in tenses other than the perfect, must be considered as a later generalization applied to the remaining tenses.

In the more recent development of the language there arises the necessity of characterizing the perfect tense through yod pa and similar verbs, even when the suffix s is still found with the principal verb. Yod pa, as we know, denotes completed action or condition. According to Laufer in his Bird Divination, p. 63, the final d is to bo so regarded in connection with certain words, e. g., r-gad pa «old man» derived from r-ga ba «to be old”; nad «illness» from na ba «to be sick,» etc.

A different d, of course, is the causative forming d (cf. § 11). According to Jäschke, p. 33,3 and Chandra Das, sub voce byed pa, byed pa is used in the formation of an intensive or causative aspect, as for example g-toŋ byed or g-toŋ bar byed pa, etc. Quite obviously we have

1 In Ladakhi d became s also after r, as in khyers, zer-s, etc.

such a causative d in verbs like 8-hyed pa «to procreate” derived from 8-kye ba «to be born,» and nud pa «to suckle” from nu ma “breast,” much like byed pa in the following expressions of a later period: d-gra byed pa «to act in a hostile manner/’ gros byed pa «to consult,” byi byed pa «to ravish” (cf. h-byid pa «to glide, to slip”), etc., etc. — In Laufer’s opinion byed pa has developed from bya + yod pa. I, however, see in byed pa a form of the √*ba (3) «to swell, increases palatalized by ya btags, -f the causative forming d and ablaut, which latter can bo completive-causative; thus we have byed pa «to cause to extend» = «to cause to swell» in the meaning of «to bring forth, produce.” Such forms as 8-kyed jja derived from 8-kye byed pa, h-byed pa «to open” from h-bye byed pa appear impossible alongside of r-gad pa from r-ga yod pa and nod pa from na yod pa, since in the case of the last two the d has preserved the concept of yod pa «to be present” while the d in 8-kyed pa, h-byed pa, etc., also in yod pa, is absolutely causative forming. If now on the one hand the d in yod pa is the old, causative forming d, and on the other hand yod pa itself is not only a tertiary formation produced by anlautsverkümmerung, but, in addition, the final s also a development from this d, it naturally follows that the interval which elapsed between the introduction of the “separable” tense-suffixes b, g, or d and the later suffix d or s is so great that the assumption that the final d or s of the perfect is to be deduced from yod pa, is no longer tenable. Upon a close examination of the temporal suffixes we cannot help feeling convinced that suffix s was not merely introduced along with the others, but was very probably first in point of time, and that in a comparatively short period it developed from d. Thus it is also clear that final d > s is added in the perfect, as the tense of the finished or effected act, in the imperative1, as the tense of the emphasized action, and even at times in the present tense as an intensive formation.

renounce his attempts to solve the problem. In order to arrive at a definite decision, it is necessary to discuss separately the several classes of verbs. We shall begin with verbs having initial guttural, dental, and labial sounds. In later chapters, we shall discuss verbs with initial tś, thS, dá; then verbs with ts, ths, dz; following these, verbs with initial ś, á, y, ḥ, h; and finally verbs with s, z; and those with initial r and 1.

A. Gutturals, a) Tenuis.

§ 25. In the chapter dealing with the investigation of roots, we said that verbs with initial tenuis-sound are derived either from a medial stem or from a medial root. In so far as it is possible to trace stems back to a root which still exists or may be deduced with relative certainty from the related word groups, we are dealing with a medial root as the primitive element. Consequently, we must view a stem with initial tenuis and unidentified root as a secondary form of a medial root, of which it represents a completive-causative formation. Every root or every stem takes on inseparable formative elements as prefixes or suffixes and builds up therefrom concepts or words in definite aspects. If these words were verbs, they were originally used indiscriminately for all tenses until certain “inseparable” formative elements (b, g, d, s) and the «separable» prefix ḥ were employed in forming tenses.

Tenuis verbs with initial guttural sound fall into two groups:

1)    Verbs without prefix or with the prefixes d and b;

2)    Verbs with the prefixes r and s.

Group 1) still bears distinct traces of its old character in that it does not distinguish tenses through verb forms, thus making present, perfect, and future alike in form.

Examples:

her ba lce.r    leer «to raise, lift up»

d-kyu ba d-kyu d-kyu “to wring out, filter» d-krog pa d-krog d-krog «to agitate, trouble” b-kag pa b-kag b-kag «to hinder, forbid” b-kod pa b-kod b-kod «to build, arrange, plan,” and

others.

§ 26. The perfect tense in this group was originally formed through the addition of d> s (cf. suffix s, § 23). The future remained unchanged.

Examples:

d-kri ba d-kris d-kri «to wrap up, wind up”

d-brug pa d-krug-s d-krug «to disturb, trouble”

d-krog pa d-hrog-8 d-krog «to mingle, to churn milk”

b-krab pa b-krab-s b-krab «to choose, select”

b-kram pa b-kram-s b-krarn «to spread, scatter,” and others.

§ 27. The verbs of group 2), that is verbs with the prefixes r and s, formed the perfect tense at first only through the a ddition of d > s.

Examples:

8-kytLg pa 8-kyug-a «to vomit”

8-kye ba 8-kye-s «to be bom” s-kraŋ ba s-kraŋ-s «to swell,” and others.

§ 28. Since the perfect suffix d > s became subject to loss after final n, r, and 1 and to assimilation to d after final d, or more often to s, a new means had to be found as an indubitable sign of the perfect, the tense of completion or aim. Admirably suited to this purpose was the “inseparable” prefix b, which is now “separable” as a temporal prefix. Thus prefix b was employed to strengthen suffix d > s. īt stands before guttural and dental verbs, but was probably replaced by d before labials. In many cases the vowel o or e of tho stem was weakened again to a in the perfect, since a is the original vowel of the stem or root, which in the present tense is strengthened to

o or e (cf. § 5).

Examples for guttural tenuis-verbs:

8-kem pa b-s-kam-8 «to dry up, to make dry”

8-hum pa b-8-him-8 «to contract”

8-ko ba b-8-ko-8 «to appoint, nominate”

8-kyuŋ ba b-8-kyuŋ-8 «to lay aside,”    and others.

§ 29. When once the perfect had been distinguished from the present, the creation of a sign for the future tense was only one step further. In this case nothing was more simple than to make use of the iterative g, which may stand before dental verbs and, in the form of d, before guttural and labial verbs. However, before verbs with prefix r and s, prefix g seems to have been found phonetically too difficult of pronunciation (grk, gskt grbt gsb, etc.) and semasiologically superfluous. U as a substitiute for g (cf. § 14,2) appears before r -f- a subsequent consonant equally difficult of pronunciation. Before s it threatened to fuse with the s and become an s. The saving b was once again called upon. This b, as we have already seen with prefix d (cf. § 16,2), was of the same nature as causative s, derived from d. Thus, in the case of verbs with final g, ŋ, b, m (and also d) the future is distinguished from the perfect only through the natural absence of the perfect suffix s. In the case of a few verbs the “weakening” of the stem vowel

o or e to a is continued also in the future.

Examples:

s-hum pa b-s-knm-s b-s-kvm «to contract”

8-kem pa b-s-kam-a b-s-kam «to dry up” (trans.)

8-kyag pa b-s-kyag-8 b-s-kyag «to expend”

8-kyoŋ ba b-è-kyeŋ-s b-s-kyaŋ «to guard”

Note. No verb with the prefixes r, (1), and s may ever take prefix ḥ in the present.12 Prefix ḥ may interchange with prefixed b, g or d only (cf. § 59).

§ 30. The imperative was originally identical in form with the present, perfect, and future tense. Besides the sign of the perfect and future in distinction to the old present tense, other aids were made use of in building up the imperative. They are as follows :

1)    Vowel strengthening to o (r-gal ba, r-gol; r-gyab pa, r-gyob,etc.)

2)    Aspiration (ḥ-gog pa, khog; h-god pa, khod, etc.)

3)    Addition of causative, final s (r-ko ba, r-ko-8; s-kyob pa, s-kyob pa, s-kyob-s, etc.)

Several aids may be utilized at the same time, e. g., s-kem pa, s-kom-s\ ḥ-geg-s pa, Hog; h-grem-s pa, khrom-s, etc.

If a verb admits of neither vowel strengthening, nor aspiration, nor the addition of causative final s, prefix b may be resorted to as a welcome sort of stop-gap (cf. §§ 29 and 16, 2), e. g., s-kur ba, b-s-kur; g-tod pa, b-lod\ h-dzig pa, b-Sig, and a few others. Finally belong here also 8-kyoŋ ba, b-s-kyoŋ-s, and h-thum pa, b-lum-8.

Examples for guttural tenuis verbs:

8-kem pa b-8-kam-8 b-s-kam s-kom-s «to dry up” s-ko ba b-s-ka-8 b-s-ko s-ko-s «to appoint” s-kyag pa b-s-kyag-s b-s-kyag s-kyog «to expend” s-kyob pa b-s-kyab-s b-s-kyab s-kyob-8 «to protect”

(b-krol ba) b-krol    b-krol khrol «to make something

sound,” and others.

§ 31. The perfects must often serve as substantives (sometimes omitting prefix b), or more rarely as adjectives with a special meaning. Similarly, the future stems sometimes occur as substantives, and very rarely also as adjectives.

Examples:

Substantiva perfecti:

s-kur ba «to send, givc» b-s-kur «sending, granting”

8-kyed pa «to give birth, produce” b-8-kyed “production, generation, formation” s-kyin pa «to borrow”

{b~)s-kyin pa «a loan, money borrowed”

Adjectiva perfecti:

8-krum pa «to bring forth, produce” b-8-krum pa «grown up”

8-kyug po «to lose colour” s-kyug-8 po «clear”

Substantiva futuri:

s-ŋoha «to bless; to intend” b-s-ŋo ba «a bliss” in addition b-s-ŋo-s pa «a resolution” r-tsi ba «to tell, count” b-r-tsi    “arithmetic”

sog pa «to collect, accumulate” b-sag pa ‘ ‘accumulation of religious merits,”etc.

p) Aspirate.

§ 32. In the chapter on aspiration (§ 8) we said that on the one hand verbs with initial tenuis are destined to aspiration through the addition of the prefix ḥ; while on the other intransitives are obtained from transitive verbs with initial media or tenuis sound by means of the aspiration of the tenuis. The two cases must indeed be carefully distinguished. In the case of intransitives formed from transitives, aspiration is, of course, maintained in the perfect (as well as in other tenses), omitting however, the prefix ḥ of the present tense and occasionally also adding suffix s (after g, ŋ, b, and m) in the perfect tense.

Examples:

Initial tenuis sound:

trans. b-kum pa    «to kill”

intr. h-khum pa    «to shrink” perf. khum(-8)

trans. 8-kyor ba    «to turn around repeatedly”

intr. h-khyor ba    «to be turned around» = «to reel” perf. khyor

trans. 8-kyel ba    «to carry away, send”

intr. h-khyol ba    «to be brought, be carried” perf. (h-)khyol

trans. g-tśod pa    «to cut off, chop off”

intr. h-thśad pa    «to be cut off” perf. ịhẽad

h-khyed pa    «to be acquitted” perf. khyed

Initial media sound:

trans.    ḥ-geŋ-s pa    «to fill up, satiate”

intr.    h-kheŋ-8 pa    «to be full, filled” perf. kheŋ-8

trans.    ḥ-gem-s pa    «to confound, subdue”

intr.    h-kham pa    «to fall down senseless” perf. kham(-s)

trans.    ḥ-god pa    «to build, form”

intr.    h-khod pa    «to be built, formed” perf. khod

trans. h-gyel ba    «to load up, impose”

intr.    h-khyol ba    «to be brought, carried” perf. khyol

§ 33. In dealing, however, with tenuis-verbs which have been aspirated only by means of the prefix ḥ of the present tense, we find as a rule two perfect tenses (and sometimes also two future tenses). These are represented either by the regular non-aspirated stem (which also, by the way, answered for the present tense in earlier times, when the prefix ḥ did not yet exist) or, by the aspirated form of the stem without prefix ḥ, which is analagous to the perfect tense of the intransitives formed from the transitives.

Examples: h-khal ba «to send”

perf. b-kal ba in the meaning of «to put a load on” khal extant in khal «a load”

khal r-dées «he who conducts a caravan”

khal ban «a jug to hold wine,” etc.

h-khal ha «to spin»

perf. b-kal ba

khal extant in khal tśag «the best sort of wool for manufacturing shawls» h-kheg-8 pa «to hinder, obstruct” perf. b-kag

kheg-8

h-kheb pa «to spread over, cover»

perf. kaJb extant in kab kob «skin» (cf. 8-kyab-8 ‘ ‘protection, defence ’ ’) kheh(-8) pa «to spread over, cover» h-khon pa «to bear a grudge against a person, to be dissatisfied with» perf. b-kon

khxm extant in khon «enmity, anger» h-khrid pa «to lead, conduct”

perf. b-krid extant in b-krid dra cf. Oh. D. p. 71.

Note. Instead of b-krid sometimes b-kri ha is used. It is a verb employed in the aspect of purpose (cf. § 18) along with the iterative d-kri ba «to conduct one’s pupil from one stage of learning to another stage» (cf. § 14, 2) and the intensive 8-kri ba «to conduct” (cf. § 17).

Forms as b-kal, b-kag, kab, b-kon, and b-krid have thus developed from a form with initial media (cf. § 2). In the present tense they became aspirated only in consequence of the addition of the prefix ḥ. The corresponding stems with initial media are the following:

b-kal ba «to load” ḥ-gel ba «to load” b-kag pa «to hinder” ḥ-geg-s pa «to hinder» kab in contrast to gab pa «to hide (oneself)» b-krid is a tertiary formation of the √*ga (3) «head,» formed by means of ra btags, in connection with which we have ablaut (cf. § 5, note 4). b-kal ba «to spin” originally also had a media stem, which is indicated by the form gal “trap, snare; constraint, compulsion”

b-kon the media stem is traceable only by means of the following words: h-khon pa “to be dissatisfied with, to dissent,” h-khon po “discord, dissension,” d-gon pa

«solitude, separation,” d-gon pa pa «one residing in the wilderness, hermit,” b-god pa “separation, to separate,” etc. (As regards substantive nouns cf. § 31).

ỵ) Media.

§ 34. In this group we distinguish four classes:

1)    Verbs with the prefixes d and b;

2)    Verbs with the prefix ḥ and “old” perfect formation;

3)    Verbs with the prefix ḥ and “substitute” perfect formation;

4)    Verbs with the prefixes r or s and perfect formation produced by «loose» (separable) formative elements.

The first group is comprised of verbs with the inseparable prefixes d or b. Verbs with the prefix d remain unchanged13. Verbs with the prefix b form their perfect only by adding the suffix s. The strengthening of the perfect tense by means of the separable prefix b is quite impossible here. The future is the same in form as the present; verbs with final d lose this d to distinguish the future from the present. The imperative is formed by adding the suffix s (cf. § 30).

Examples:

b-go ba b-go-s b-go b-go-s “to put on clothes” b-god pa b-go-8 b-go b-go-s «to divide” b-gom pa b-gom-8 b-gom [b-gom-s] «to step, walk” b-gyid pa b-gyi-s b-gyi [b-]gyì-s «to do” (elegant) h-graŋba b-graŋ-s b-graŋ [b-graŋ-s] «to count, calculate” b-gruŋ ba b-gruŋ-8 b-gruŋ (b-gruŋ-s) «to strain, depurate” h-grvd pa b-gru-8 b-gru    —    “to clear of husks”

b-gre ba b-gre-s b-gre — «to be old” b-gro ba b-gro-s b-gro ịb-gro-s) «to argue, discuss”

§ 35. The second group comprises verbs, whose originally inseparable prefix b (or sometimes d) was forcibly displaced by the prefix ḥ of the present tense. As in the preceding group, the form with prefix b was employed also for tho present tense, in contrast to which suffix s indicates the perfect tense. The original present tense form with prefix b is then replaced by the form with prefix ḥ. In the perfect tense it may take suffix s and even lose the inseparable prefix b. In the future tense the form with iterative d (instead of g) is usually

employed. To form the imperative in this group aspiration is resorted to almost exclusively.

Examples:

ḥ-gom pa «to tread»

perf. b-gom 8 pa (occurs also in the meaning of the present tense «to step, to walk»)

b-gom in b-gom bya «way, road» fb-Jgom[-s] pa (a substantive noun of the perfect tense) ‘‘a step» gom-s ịhi (an adjective noun of the perfect tense) “practised, skilled, wont»

fut. d-gom    imper.---

The form b-gom (-s) is the older present tense form along with h-gom.

k-gegs pa «to hinder”

perf. b-gegs pa ì extant as substantive nouns of b-gags [ the perfect tense in the meaning gags J    of “hindrance, obstacle”

fut. d-gag    imper. khog

The forms b-gag(s) or b-geg(-s) are the older present tense forms along with h-gegs pa. h-gebs pa «to hide, cover»

perf. [b-]gab pa (occurs also in the meaning of the present tense «to hide (oneself)/’

fut. d-gab    imper. khob

The form [b-]gab is the older present tense form along with h-geJj-s pa.

h-gvd pa «to destroy, annihilate” perf. [b-]gud

fut.--- imper.----

If the substantive iterative form d-gun «winter” can be brought into very close relationship with ḥ-gud pa, as I firmly believe it can be, the postulation of a perfect form b-gnd is fully justified, ḥ-gol ba «to deviate, go astray”

perf. *[b-]gol is no longer traceable fut. d-gol    imper.---

h-gyer ba «to let fall, throw down» perf. b-gyer

fut.--- imper.---

The form b-gyer is the older present tense form along with h-gyer ba.

§ 36. The third group is composed of verbs which have prefix ḥ in the present tense and a «substitute» form for the perfect tense. In the older stage of the language, as already mentioned in §§ 34—35, the present tense of verbs with the inseparable prefixes b and d (instead of g) was not especially differentiated. Only the perfect and imperative forms were given diacritical elements; the future tense was rarely indicated (as for example in the case of verbs with a final d as in § 34 and the verbs in § 35). After the prefix ḥ, characteristic for the present tense, had been introduced, and the verbs with «inseparable» prefix b had been stamped as belonging to the perfect, even though they still maintained their original function of the present tense, the exclusive use of such forms as b-gom(-s) pa, b-geg(-s) pa, b-gyer ba, etc., both for the present and the perfect was bound to produce doubt and uncertainty as to the tense. In fact, it became necessary to look for a suitable substitute which might indicate or stamp more precisely the perfect forms b-gom(-8) pa, b-geg(-8), etc. This substitute was found in the tenuis form which corresponded to that of the media (cf. § 2). This tenuis form with inseparable prefix b was then «substituted» for the media form in the case of a number of verbs with initial media and prefix b. As a result we actually find side by side two perfect forms which are still markedly traceable. This same “substitute” perfect appeared also in the case of verbs which seemed to have no “inseparable” prefix b, but took prefix ḥ nevertheless in the present tense. Future and imperative appear as in the former group (cf. § 35).

Examples: h-god pa “to plan, design”

old perfect: b-god pa «to divide” (s. § 34) subst. perf.: b-kọd pa “to plan, build” (s. §§ 25—26) fut.: d-god imper.: khod

b-god pa originally was the form of the present tense, which had developed special forms for the perfect, future, and imperative as shown in § 34; b-kod

remained unchanged in all the tenses (s. § 25). Compare the above with h-khod pa in § 32, and the perfect substantive noun b-kad pa «placed in order, arrangement” in § 31, etc. h-grem-8 pa «to spread out, scatter”

old perfect: b-gram paseparated, spread out” subst. perf.: b-krmn pa «to spread over, scatter”

(cf. § 4)

future: d-gram imper. khrom-s

b-kram pa has also the perfect form b-kram-s (s. §§ 25—26) h-gog pa «to take away, tear away”

old perfect: [b-]gog pa «to scale off (of the plaster of a wall)”

subst. perf.: b-kog pa (in accordance with §§ 25—26) future: d-gog imper. khog

Compare here h-khog-s pa «decrepit, very infirm from old age” (s. § 32). h-gel ba «to load, to lay on a burden”

old perfect: [ib-]gelba «to impose on” (s. § 35) subst. perf.: b-kal ba (in accordance with §§ 25—20) future: d-gal imper. khol

Compare here h-khel ba, perf. tense khel, «to load,” the later present tense form of b-kal ba (s. § 33), furthermore h-khol ba (s. § 3, 3 and § 4) «to make a person a slave” with its two perfect forms b-ìcol and khol (s. § 33), the latter still being extant in khol po «servant.” h-grol ba «to make loose, set free”

old perfect: [b-]grol ba «to set free” subst. perf.: b-krol ba «to untie, loosen” (in accordance with §§ 25—26) future: d-grol imper. (khrol)

Compare h-khrol ba in § 32 and the future tense substantive noun d-grol ba «free will” (s. § 31).

Note. Substitution in the perfect tense of verbs with initial guttural media never occurs when these verbs are palatalized by ya btags. The following seems to be an exception:

present perfect future imper. h-gye ba gye-s    — gi/e-s «to be dispersed,

divided”

h-gyed pa b-gye-s b-kye {gye-s) «to disperse, di-(Ch. D)    vide”

b-kye-s (A. H. Francke)

The irregular future form b-kye of the causative h-gyes pa is only comprehensible. if we surmise that b-gye really existed as a future form Df h-gye ba, derived'from an original present form *b-gye ba, which kvas finally forced to yield to the later present form h-gye ba. Chandra Das mentions of h-gyed ịhi only the perfect form b-gye-s; A. H. Francke s familiar with the form b-kye-s. This form may be the perfect of ¥b-kyed pa or b-kye ba, probably of the latter, since h-gye ba in West Tibetan means “to send somebody away.” The form b-kye ba is ;hen the completive to h-gye ba. It is not justifiable to regard b-kye-s is the perfect of a form *b-kyed pa “to scatter,” since h-gyed pa is ilready the causative of h-gye be. Thus we have here also a “substitute ” future.

§ 37. The fourth group comprises verbs with prefixes r and s. With •eference to the tense formation of these compare §§ 27—30.

8) Nasal.

§ 38. The verbs with initial nasal guttural sound are divided into iwo groups. The first class has as prefixes only d and m, while the >ther has r and s. The former indicate the perfect by means of the mffix s, and the latter are governed by the rules mentioned in §§ 27—30.

B. Dentals, a) Tenuis.

§ 39. In the tenuis group we distinguish the following classes:

1)    Verbs with the prefix g;

2)    Verbs with the prefix b;

3)    Verbs with the prefixes r or s;

4)    Verbs with the prefix 1.

If tho tenses are distinguished at all by special characteristics, rerbs with the prefix g in most cases employ the form with prefix

b for the perfect tense. In the future, the vowel o may be «weakened» to a, and the means mentioned in § 30 are utilized to form the imperative.

Examples:

g-toŋ ba b-taŋ g-taŋ thoŋ «to dismiss, send»

g-tod pa b-tad g-lad g-tod 1

b tod I deliver up, hand over

g-tig-s pa    b-tìg    —    — «to drip, trickle down»

g-tug pa    b-tug    —    — «to reach, to meet with»

g-tum pa    b-tum    —    — «to veil, cover»

g-tor ba    b-tor    —    — «to scatter, strew»

Some verbs add the suffix s only as the sign of the perfect. Examples:

g-taŋ ba    g-taŋ[-s]    g-taŋ    {thoŋ) «to send»

g-tad pa    g-tad    g-tad    {g-tod) «to give»

( g-tam-s — — «to fill” g-tam pa <

I g-tom-a

g-tib pa g-tib-s — — «to be gathering (of clouds)” g-tug pa g-tug-s — — «to reach, meet with» g-tub pa g-tub-8 — — «to cut to pieces»

Still other verbs form the perfect only by means of alilaut. Examples:

g-tor ba «to scatter, strew, throw away» with the perfect form g-tar ba in the sense of «to bleed human beings or animals»

g-tod pa «to direct, turn” with the perfect form g-tad pa in the meaning of «to press, urge»

§ 40. Verbs with prefix b only add the suffix s in the perfect tense. Examples:

b-tig pa b-tig-s — — «to fall in drops” (cf. above

g-tig-s pa)

b-tig pa b-tig-s b-tig — «to cause to fall in drops» b-tum pa b-tum-8 b-tum — “to wrap round, envelope” (cf.

above g-tum pa)

§ 41. Verbs with the prefixes r and s are subject to the rules mentioned in §§ 27—30.

§ 42. Verbs with the prefix 1 are treated exactly like those with the prefix r.

Exception: l-tuŋ ba l-huŋ «to fall”

Note. In this entire group it is possible to use the perfect and future stems as substantive and adjective nouns (cf. § 31).

P Aspirate.

§ 43. Aspiration is maintained throughout the tenses, if it used to form intransitives from transitive verbs which have initial tenuis and media sound (cf. § 33).

Examples: tenuis initial sound:

trans. s-tib pa “to offer (sacrifice)» = «to accumulate» intr. h-thib pa «to be covered, darkened» (said of accumulating clouds) perf. thib-s trans. g-tor ba “to scatter” intr. h-thor ba “to be scattered” perf. thor media initial sound:

trans. ḥ-deb-s pa “to throw”

intr. h-theb-8 pa “to be thrown” perf. theb-s

trans. ḥ-don pa “to cause to go out”

intr. h-thon pa “to come forth” perf. thou

Note. In this group of verbs I have discovered two “form shifts.” Beside the perfect form thor there exists another perfect b-tor, now used almost exclusively. For the future we have g-tor (cf. § 39). Chandra Das mentions thor on p. 595. If we take into consideration the subject matter presented in § 25, the form thor leads us to the assumption that all three tense forms sounded alike: present thor\ perfect thor; future thor. — The second “form shift» appears in connection with h-thib pa. Here, instead of the perfect thib-8 we sometimes find g-tib-8, which in reality belongs to g-tib pa (cf. § 39).

§ 44. If aspiration was added to the verbs merely for phonetical reasons we find two forms in the perfect tense, (cf. § 33).

Examples : h-thag pa «to weave”

perf. b-tag-8 (according to § 40)

thag(-8) extant in thag pa «rope, cord” and thag-8 «texture” fut. g-tag imper. thog h-thig pa «to cause to fall in drops, to distil” perf. b-tig-8 (according to § 40)

thig-8 (pa) «to sprinkle; a drop” fut. b-tig (according to § 40) imper.---

ḥ-thu ba «to gather, collect»

perf. b-tu-s (according to § 40)

(h-)thus

fut. b-tu imper. thus (b-tu) h-thuŋ ba «to drink, imbibe fluid»

perf. b-tuŋs (according to § 40)

(h-)thuŋs fut. —    imper. —

h-thub pa «to cut into pieces”

perf. b-tubs (according to § 40)

(h-)thubs

fut. g-tub (cf. § 39) imper. (h-)thub h-thum pa «to cover, put over”

perf. b-tum-8 (according to § 40)

(ih-)thums

fut. b-tum (cf. § 40) imper. (h-)thum cf. g-tum pa in § 39 ḥ-theg pa «to take up, remove”

perf. b-tags «bound, tied»

(h-)thog-s fut. g-dag(-s) imper. ịthogs)

The tense formation of this verb is comparatively complicated because of the intermixture of the following verbs:

h-dogs pa b-tags g-dag(s) thogs «to fasten” (§ 47) g-dag pa g-dag-s g-dag — «to fasten” (§ 45) b-tag pa b-tags b-tag — «to fasten» (§ 40) h-thog pa is the completive form of h-dogs pa.

Fully as complicated appears the verb h-thig pa.

Compare

g-tigs pa b-tig — — «to drip» (§ 39) b-tig pa b-tigs — — «to drip” (§ 39) b-tig pa b-tig-8 b-tig — «to let fall in drops» (§ 40) Note. It is relatively easy to trace the media origin of these verbs which have an initial tenuis sound.

h-thag pa «to weave”    h-dogs pa «to bind, fasten»

h-thog pa «to bear away” ḥ-deg-s pa «to shift, remove» h-thub pa «to cut into pieces” g-dub pa cf. Ch. D. p. 661 h-thum pa «to cover, coat” ḥ-dum pa «to be reconciled

with”

ḥ-thu ba «to gather, collect” ḥ-du ba «to unite»

The verb r-dib pa «to crumble, fall to pieces, collapse» suggests itself as the medial predecessor of h-thig pa «to drop, to fall in drops» (cf. h-dzig pa «to decay, perish»), and with h-thuŋ ba «to drink” we may probably associate du «sliell (used as a vessel of sacrifice)” or du «desire, lust.”

With regard to substantive and adjective nouns in this connection again refer to § 31.

ỵ) Media.

§ 45. As was the case with the media class of the verbs with initial guttural sound, here we also have four groups:

1)    Verbs with tlĩe «inseparate” prefix g or b;

2)    Verbs with the prefix ḥ and the «old” perfect formation;

3)    Verbs with the prefix ḥ and «substitute” perfect formation (cf. § 36);

4)    Verbs with the prefixes 1 or s.

For the formation of the perfect and future tense of verbs belonging to the first group compare § 34.

Examples:

g-daŋ ba g-daŋ-s g-daŋ — «to open wide (the mouth

and nostrils)”; “to stretch” g-dab pa g-dab(-8) g-dab — «to put, plant” g-dam pa g-dam-8 g-dam — “to advise” g-du ba g-du-8 g-du — «to mingle” g-duŋ ba g-duŋ-8 g-duŋ — «to be pained by physical

causes,” «to long for” g-deŋ ba g-deŋ-s g-deŋ — «to raise, lift”

[*g-dum pa g-dum-s *g-dum — «to become reconciled with”] b-dah ba b-da-s b-dah — “to drive out” b-dal ba b-dal b-dal — “to expend, to spread forth”

[*b-du ba b-du-8 *b-du — «to gather, collect”] b-dug pa b-dug-s b-dug — «to fumigate” b-duŋ ba b-duŋ-s b-duŋ — «to bend the bow in order

to shoot an arrow”

§ 46. With reference to the second group compare §§ 39—40. This group comprises a number of verbs (h-deŋ ba, ḥ-ded pa, ḥ-doŋ ba, ḥ-dor ba, see examples below) which originally had no prefix. This also refers without exception to the verbs palatalized by ra btags. Therefore, we find no prefixes in the perfect nor in the future. Only in the present do we have the tense sign prefix ḥ. In connection with the verbs ḥ-dam pa, h-du ba, and h-dum pa we find tense forms borrowed from the verbs mentioned in § 45.

Examples:

h-dam pa 1 g-dam-s g-dam (h-)dom-s “to choose; to come to-[    gether« (cf.

h-dom pa J (dam)    g-tam jja in § 39)

{b-du-8 —    —    «to collect, accumulate”

h-du-8    (cf. h-thu ba in § 44)

h-dum pa g-dum-s —    —    «to become reconciled

with» (cf. g-tum pa in

§ 39)

h-deŋ ba deŋ deŋ(-s) —    «to go, depart”

ḥ-ded pa ded ded — «to pursue” h-doŋ ba doŋ doŋ —    «to go, proceed”

h-dor ba dor dor —    «to cast forth»

h-dral pa dral dral —    «to rend asunder»

h-drub pa drub(-s) drub(-s) — «to sew, embroider” h-drud pa drĩid drud —    «to rub,» and others,

cf. h-dri ba dri-« dri-s (according to Conrady)

«to ask, inquire” (cf. § 26) h-dre ba (ḥ-)dre-s14 — (ḥ-)dre-s1 «to be mixed up». Exception:

h-dah ba h-da-s1 — —    «to go beyond, pass

away”

as distinguished from b-dah ba b-da-s15 “to put to flight”

§ 47. In connection with the third group compare § 36.

Examples: h-diŋ ba «to lay out (a mat)”

old perf. g-diŋ (Ch. D. p. 660) subst. perf. b-tiŋ fut.    g-diŋ imper. thiŋ-s

h-dud pa «to bend, make a bow”

old perf. dud (Ch. D., p. 629) (according to §46) subst. perf. b-tud

old fut. g-dud (Amundsen p. 166) subst. fut. b-tvd (cf. note to § 36) imper. thud also dud (Jäschke)

ḥ-dul ba “to subdue»

old perf. dul (Ch. D.,p. 631) (according to §46) subst. perf. b-tul fut.    g-dul imper. thul

-deg(-s) pa «to lift, raise, hoist”

old perf. deg (according to § 46; extant in deg go Ch. D., p. 638)

subst. perf. b-teg(-s) fut.    g-deg imper. theg

ḥ-deb-s pa «to cast, throw (praycrs)»

old perf. deb (according to § 46; cf. Ch. D., sub voce deb, p. 639) subst. perf. b-tab    ^

fut.    g-dab imper. thob

h-dog(-s) pa «to bind, fasten”

old perf. dog (according to § 46; cf. Dh. D., sub voce dog, p. 641, 2 and 3.)

subst. perf. b-tag-8

fut.    g-dajg-8 imper. thog-8

cf. h-thag pa and h-thog pa § 44. ḥ-don pa «to cause to go out, expel”

old perf. don (according to § 46; cf. Ch. D., sub voce don, p. 643, II. 4)

subst. perf. b-ton fut.    g-don imper. thon

Note. We never find a “substitute” perfect with verbs which have initial media dental sound and are palatalized by ra btags.

§ 48. The rules mentioned in §§ 27—30 also apply to the fourth group.

0. Labials,

a) Tenuis.

§ 50. In the tenuis group only two classes need to be differentiated:

1)    Verbs with prefix d (as substitute for g or b);

2)    Verbs with prefix s.

If tense is indicated at all in the first group above, the perfect tense is shown by the suffix s. «Weakening» of the vowels takes place in the perfect and future.

Examples:

d-pag pa d-pag-s d-pag — «to measuro» d-par ba d-par d-par — «to order, command» d-pog pa d-pag-8 d-pag — «to measure, apportion” d-por ba d-par d-par — «to prescribe, order” d-pyad pa d-pyad d-pyad — «to investigate” d-pyaŋ ba d-pyaŋ-8 d-pyaŋ d-pyoŋ-8 «to dangle, to make

hang down”

d-pyod pa d-pyad d-pyad — «to investigate, to examine into”

§ 51. Verbs with prefix s take only the suffix s as a sign of the perfect tense. Prefix h is never used.

P) Aspirates.

§ 52. Intransitives formed through aspiration retain, as do gutturals and dentals, the aspirate in all tenses (cf. § 32).

Examples:

Initial tenuis sound: trans. 8-pel ba «to augment”

intr. ḥ-phel ba «to become more, increase” perf. ḥ-phel trans. d-pog pa «to measure” = «to make expand»

s-pog-8 “profit, gain” = «that which was made to swell» based on √*ba (3) «to swell, increase» intr. fy-phag pa “to ascend, to rise up” perf. (h-)phag-s trans. 8-pur ba “to make fly, to scare up” intr. h-phur ba “to fly” perf. phur trans. s-po ba “to change, remove (residence)” intr. ḥ-pho ba «to wander about” perf. (h-)pho-8 trans. 8-porn extant in 8-pom 8-pod cf. Ch. D., p 803 intr. Ẹ-pham pa “to be defeated, subdued” perf. pham trans. 8-prod pa “to give, deliver”

intr. h-phrod pa «to be given, delivered” perf. phrod trans. d-pyo ba «to change”

intr. h-phyo ba «to flow forth (of fluids); to float” perf. (h-)pJiyo-8

trans. s-pro ba «to make go out, disperse” (Jäschke) intr. h-phro ba «to emanate from, to diffuse” perf. (h-)phro-s For the following verbs the corresponding transitives arc no longer to be found:

pheb pa pheb-s «to go, to come” ḥ-phwŋ ba phuŋ «to degenerate, decay” h-phye ba (h-)phye-s «to crawl, creep”

In this class there are no intransitives corresponding to transitives with initial media sound.

§ 53. Verbs which have aspiration for phonetical reasons have, like the gutturals, two perfect tenses.

Examples:

h-phaŋ ba «to spare»

i s-paŋ-s «to give up, abandon”

h-phen pa «to throw” (instead of former *d-paŋ ba)

d-paŋ-8 used as a noun of the perfect tense in the sense of «the height”

(h-)phaŋ-s also occurs as a substantive noun of the perfect tense in the meaning of «the height” h-phig(-s) pa «to pierce into, bore»

*8-pig, perhaps preserved in 8-pig rdzoŋ perf.    cf. Ch. D., p. 798

phig-8

h-phya ba «to blame, chide”

Ị d-pya-8> extant in d-pya-8 po «fault, \ h-phya-8 blunder” from d-pya ba «to blame”. Ch. D. supposes d-pya to be of Indian origin (p. 793).

ḥ-phub pa «to pitch (a tent)”

J 8-pub(-8) «to reverse, turn upside down”

* \ phvb-8 «to put on a roof” h-phyag pa «to sweep”

{s-pog-s «to shift, remove» The form with (h-)phyag-s ya btags does no longer exist. h-phyaŋ ba «to hang on to, to cling to»

{s-pyaŋ-s pa «having seized» (Ch. D., p. 804) h-phyaŋ-s

h-phyaŋ ba «to hang down, be suspended”

J d-pyaŋ ba (cf. § 50)

P I h-phyaŋ-s h-phyar ba «to hoist, lift up; to show, represent”

8-por ba perf. d-por ba (cf. § 50)

phyar imper. h-phyor h-phral ba «to separate, divide”

I d-bral    (d-bral ba “taking off, flaying»;

prefix d causative, cf. h-bral ba in § 65.

phral

d-bral is usually considered only as a form of the future tense. However, originally it indicated all tenses (cf. § 54, end). Through the introduction of the present prefix ḥ it became necessary to replace the form h-bral, which had the meaning of «to be separated,” by h-phral — hence the two perfect forms d-bral and phral. h-phrad pa “to interview, meet together»

Ị s-prad P j phrad fut. phrad k-phri ba “to diminish, take away from»

perf. d-^(:s)

{ phn-8

fut. d-pri (cf. Ch. D., p. 854) Imper. phri-8 compare with this the corresponding intransitive d-bri ba, perf. d-bri(-s), and the verb h-bri bay perf. (id-)bri(-8), fut, d-bri “to be diminished.” h-phrog pa «to rob»

f d-brog ^er ' | phrog-s

fut. d-brog imper. phrog-s

d-brog indicated originally all tenses (cf. § 54,

end). The present tense form h-brog must have been exchanged with h-phrog, because h-brog already existed in the sense of «soli-tude, uncultivated land», cf. d-brog pa «to forget.”

We should note that in this group there are perfect forms with the prefix s for the verbs ḥ-phaŋ ba, h-phig-s pat h-phvh pa, h-pyag pa, h-phyaŋ ba, h-phyar ba, and h-phrad pa. — In § 29, note, and § 60 it is expressly stated that verbs with prefix r, 1, and s never form the present tense with ḥ. The two verbs ḥ-phel ba and h-phyar ba have the double perfect tense forms s-pel and s-por, and d-pal and d-por. d-pal and d-por are older forms than s-pel and s-por, cf. prefix d and s before labials in §§ 15—17. If the forms ḥ-phaŋ ba, h-phig-s pa, etc., can be identified in the old present tense forms *s-paŋ, *s-pig, etc., wo cannot go far wrong in assuming the existence of lost forms with prefix d.

Note. The media origin of this group of verbs (cf. § 53) is also traceable.

Compare :

ḥ-phaŋ ba «to spare»    s-boŋ ba «to abstain from»

h-phig-s pa «to pierce into» h-big-s pa «to pierce into” ḥ-phub pa «to pitch (a tent)” ḥ-bub-s pa «to put on a roof” h-phyag pa «to sweep”    h-bag pa «to take away”

h-phri ba «to diminish” h-bri ba «to diminish” h-phyaŋ ba «to cling to” h-thẽaŋ< g-deŋ “confidence”

(see √*da (3))

h-phenpa «to throw’’based on √*ba (5), to which also belongs    ḥ-bor ba «to throw”

ḥ-phel ba «toaugment” based √*ba (3), to which also

on belongs    h-bar ba «to become ignited”

h-phyal ba «to chide” based on √*ba (4) «to diminish» h-phyaŋ ba «to hang down” based on √*ba (4) h-phral ba and h-phrog pa see above h-phrad pa «to meet together”.... ?

For substantives and adjectives cf. § 31.

y) Media.

§ 54. We distinguish here four groups (cf. also §§ 39—46):

1)    Verbs with the “inseparable” prefix d or without prefix;

2)    Verbs with prefix ḥ and the «old” perfect tense;

3)    Verbs with prefix ḥ and the “substitute” perfect tense;

4)    Verbs with prefix s.

For the tense formation of the first group cf. § 34.

Examples:

byab pa byabs byab [*byob-a] «to cleanse, wash» byib pa byib-a byib [*byibs] «to hide, envelop» byil ba byil    byil (byil) «to pat (a person’s

head)»

byed pa bya-a bya byo-a «to make, do» byerba byer    byer (byer) «to separate, disinte-

grate»

bran pa bran bran (bran) «to saturate with

water »

brug pa brug(-a) brug [*brug-a] «to stream out, gush

forth»

brill ba brul    brul (brul) «to crumble, fall to

pieces”

bred pa bred    bred (bred) «to be alarmed, de

pressed”

brel ba brel    breĩ    (brel) «to be busy, engag

ed”

'blag pa16 blags blag —    «to hearken to»

blu ba1 blus blu [*blus] «to ransom, redeem”

d-bur ba d-bur d-bur —    «to smooth”

d-bol ba d-bol    d-bol    —    «to draw up water

from a tank”

d-byuŋ ba d-byuŋ(s) d-byuŋ [*d-byuŋ-s\ «to turn out, banish” d-byug pa d-byugs d-byug [*d-bytigs] «to shake” (Amundsen)

d-bye ba d-byes d-bye [*d-byes] «to differentiate” d-bral ba d-bral d-bral [*d-brol] «to separate” d-brog pa d-brog d-brog [*d-brog] «to rob” d-brog pa d-brog[-a\ d-brog [*d-brog] «to forget”

§ 55. For the second group cf. § 40. The few verbs of this group, which have a prefix at all in the perfect or future, have prefix d.

Examples:

ḥ-bag pa d-bagsỵ d-bag —    «to defile, pollute

(h-)bags J —    oneself”

h-bad pa (d-bad ?) — (ḥ--)bod    «to try, make effort”

, , , , ,, v [ (h’)bób    «to descend, fall

ị-babpa bab(-s) - ((^    down..

ḥ-bal ba (ḥ-)bal 1    «to pluck out the

(d-bal ?) J d Ml ~    hair”

h-bu ba h-bus — —    «to open, unfold”

(original d-bus and d-bu is still preserved in numberless examples.)

ḥ-bud pa bind — —    «to fall down”

ḥ-bub pa bub — bub-sl    «to be turned over

h-bibị-s) pa bibbibs J    upside down”

ḥ-bur pa (bur) bur —    «to rise, swell up”

(ḥ-)bod pa bosbos    «to call; to invite”

h-bar ba bor (bor) bor    «to throw, fling”

h-byaŋ ba byaŋ(s) byaŋ [*byoŋs]    «to clean, purify”

h-byam pa (h)-byams — —    «to flow over”

h-byiŋ ba byiŋ[s] byiŋ [*byiŋs]    «to sink down”

h-byug pa byug(s) (byug) byvgs    “to wet, moisten”

(cf. d-byug pa in § 54)

h-byuŋ ba byuŋ[s] byuŋ byuŋ[s] «to come forth”

(cf. d-byuŋ ba in § 54)

h-byer ba byer (byer) byer    «to escape by flight”

h-byog pa byogs (byog) (byogs)    «to lick”

h-byoŋ ba byaŋ byaŋ [*byoŋ-s\    «to be cleansed”

h-byon pa byonbyon    «to arrive”

Ịh-byar — —    «to be prepared, be

•    ūbyar or byor( ?)    ready”

, , ,, f byól d-byól byol    “to give or make

h-byolba ị ,, f    „

*    \d-byol    way

h-braŋ ba ì

ḥ breŋ baj (b'firaŋs(h-)broŋs    “to follow, go after”

_ , f bradbrod    “to tear with the

l-bradpa\d-brad    claws”

7    f brob    —    brob «to beat, scourge”

h-brab pa ịd brab

h-bral ba bral    (bral) brol «to be separated

from” (cf. h-phral ba in § 53)

h-bri ba bn-s (bn)    bn-s «to write”

f bn (cp. perf. bn-s of — h-bn ba    ,,v    to grow less

yd-bri h-bn ba to write )    °

h-brid pa brid    —    —    «to beguile”

h-brim pa brims — —    «to distribute”

(ḥ-)bru ba brus —    brus «to pry into”

h-brud pa brud brud —    «to rub”

h-brvh pa brub(s) brub —    «to overflow”

ḥ-bre ba bre-s (bre)    bres «to screen off,

(cf. d-bres pa «dirt, filth”)    spread over”

ḥ-breg pa breg(s) (brog) brog(s) «to amputate”

h-brel ba brel    —    —    «to adhero together”

(according to Jäschke brel ba is not the same as

h-brel ba\ I consider, however, both the same.)

h-broŋ pa broŋ    —    —    «to wait upon, scr-

ve

h-bros pa (h-)bros h-bros —    «to run away, es

cape”

In the “Preliminary Notes” a complete list of certain verb classes was promised. I have made these lists purposely in those classes in which difficulties might possibly arise that could be avoided by a complete enumeration of the verbs in consideration. The lists of verbs with initial media sound serve to strengthen the original assumption that the media vowel is the most primitive element of a word. Of the many verbs in this group there are only a few, in which prefix ḥ has replaced another prefix. The greater part of them had originally no prefix at all and could be used indiscriminately for all tenses (cf. § 25). § 56. For the third group cf. §§ 36 and 53. ḥ-bub-s pa «to put on a roof or something for a roof”

old perf. bubs “something entire,” «that which is rounded up» (cf. h-bttb pa in § 55).

subst. perf. phub-8 (cf. h-phub pa) fut. d-bub imper. phubs

ḥ-bul ba «to give, proffer, send»

old perf. d-bul (cf. Ch. D., sub ḥ-bul ba as syn., p. 921)

subst. perf. phul (according to § 83) fut. d-hul imper. phul h-big(-s) pa «to pierce into, bore”

old perf. *big-8 (no more extant) subst. perf. phig-s (cf. h-phig(-s) pa in § 53) fut. d-big imper. phig-8 ḥ-beb-s pa «to cause to descend, throw down” old perf. d-bab (pa) «devotedness” subst. perf. phab (according to § 53) fut. d-bab imper. phob h-bog-s pa «to bestow, impart”

old perf. bog-8, a perfect noun: “benefit, advantage”

subst. perf. phog (according to § 53)

fut. d-bog imper. phog (cf. d-pog in § 50 ad 1)

h-byin pa (substituted for *h-phyuŋ ba = d-byuŋ ba, cf. § 22) «to let proceed”

old perf. d-byuŋ ba (cf. d-byuŋ ba in § 54) subst. perf. phyuŋ (according to § 53) fut. d-byuŋ imper. phyuŋ h-byed pa «to open, unloose”

old perf. d-bye-8, a perfect noun: “magnitude, dimensions”

subst. perf. phye-8, phyed, phye (according to § 53) fut. d-bye imper. phye-8 h-byo ba «to pour into another vessel” old perf. byo[-s] subst. perf. phyo(-s) (cf. h-phyo ba in § 52) fut. byo (?) imper. phyo Note: Verbs with initial media labial sound, which have been palatalized by ra btags do not have a substitute perfect.

§ 57. The fourth group comprises verbs with prefix s, which are subject to the rules in §§ 27—30. There is in this group but one verb with prefix r (namely r-bad pa “to irritate”) and none at all with prefix 1.

8) Nasal.

§ 58. A. Verbs with initial nasal labial sound may be divided into three groups:

1)    Verbs without prefix;

2)    Verbs with prefix d;

3)    Verbs with prefix r or s.

The verbs of group 1) and 2) indicate the perfect by means of the suffix s. Verbs of the third group are governed by the rules given in §§ 27-30.

B. The verbs with initial guttural, dontal and labial sound afford an adequate sketch of tense formation. The palatal verbs represent a much later period and also offer many more difficulties. We shall take up the tense formation of the palatal verbs a little later (cf. §§81 seq.), following a discussion of the origin, development, and the characteristic features of all palatal verbs and their derivatives.

As far as the temporal suffixes are concerned, we have seen that the perfect tense makes use of the suffix s and prefix b (or d before labials), while the future employs the prefix g (or d before gutturals and labials), especially in cases where no phonetical changes or difficulties arise from these affixes, and in those instances where the tenses are formed by means of a shifting of classes (substitution). All that remains now is to devote a chapter to the prefix ḥ.

was used to show an action going on in the present, thus indicating the present tense.

In most cases, the words with prefix ḥ in reality are present tense forms, which at the same time appear as substantive nouns, e. g. h-khor ba «to turn around; rotary existence”; h-gyur ba «to become, grow,” h-gyur «change, alteration”; h-gyiŋ ba «to assume air of greatness,” h-gyiŋ pa «an appearance of greatness”; h-khyom pa «to reel; giddiness,” etc. — In this case prefix ḥ is a so-called «loose” prefix and apparently the most recent of the temporal suffixes.

We find, in addition, a number of substantive nouns which in no sense may be taken as formations of the present tense, such as ḥ-go «the beginning,” h-jgaŋ «hedge-hog,” h-di «this,” ḥ-tho «a span,” ḥ-bog «an upper-garment,” ḥ-boŋ «roundness,” h-dziŋ “expanse, the whole bulk,” etc. — From such examples it is evident that we arc dealing with an “inseparable” prefix ḥ, likewise having the effect of emphasis or continuity, thereby in a sense crystalizing the effect previously obtained by means of the suffix or other word forming elements. No doubt, “inseparable” prefix ḥ must have served a specific function: that of producing emphasis. Compare go «position, rank,” ḥ-go «foremost, in front”; gaŋ «roundcd, vaulted,” h-gaŋ and r-gaŋ «hedge-hog”; tha*tho “reaching to” with ḥ-tho or m-tho “a span, between thumb and middle finger,” etc. — In fact, it would seem that prefix ḥ was very closely related to prefix s, as we may conclude from ḥ-go and s-go «the beginning.” This corresponds to the above observation that Tibetan prefixed ḥ (there is no prefixed h in Tibetan) is equal to Siamese prefixed h. The latter, undoubtedly, serves the same purpose as Tibetan s. Compare the following examples mentioned in F. 0. Schrader, «Siamese Mute h”:

Siamese    Tibetan

hna2 «facc; opposite to”    s-na    «nose, top, sum

mit”

hŋọn «tuft, comb, crown” 8-ŋondu «at the head, in

front of”

hnäŋ «to suspect”    b-s-ñeŋ-s pa «to fear”

hnun “to strengthen”    8-nun pa «to multiply”

hŋap “hasty, quick”    8-wū)-8 pa «to stretch out the

hand in order to grasp,” etc.

Now, in certain dialects this prefix ḥ has a sound similar to h -f svarabactic a1, or the sound of a plain a. This fact led many a Tibetolo-gist to transcribe prefix ḥ by ạ. But in agreement with Siamese and Burmese2, this prefix must be represented by ḥ, which really is a spiritus asper. This transcription by ạ may suggest that the present tense prefix ḥ (ạ) is identical with the old Tibetan demonstrative pronoun a, but this theory cannot by substantiated, because the demonstrative a is represented by and not by Concerning the demonstrative pronoun as such compare B. Laufer, «The prefix a- in the Indo-Chinese Languages” in J. R. A. S. October 1915, p. 775, and see also in the T‘oung Pao 1914, note on p. 56.

Prefix ḥ stands before g, kh, d, th, b, ph, dz, thS, dz, and ths.

Prefix ḥ necessitates for phonetical reasons the aspirate before the tenuis (cf. § 8,2). It never serves as a present tense sign in verbs with the prefixes r, 1, or s3. It is interchangeable only with the truly “inseparable” prefixes b, g, or d.

In certain cases prefix ḥ is found in the perfect of guttural, dental, and labial verbs, and in the imperative of dental and labial verbs.

1    This probably also explains the singular form ĩut og ba “to understand, perceive.” Due to the fact that in Tibetan script a dot (Tib. thseg) is placed after tho h in ha go bit, the h must not be taken as a prefix, but as an independent syllable. It may be, however, entirely possible that this h occurred in place of the original h, which in this case undoubtedly was especially emphasized in order to differentiate it from the other three words h-go: h-go “tho beginning,” h-go “foremost, in front,” h-go ba “to dirty, sully oneself.” Compare also § 77.

2    As in Siamese, there exists also in Burmese the prefixed h which corresponds to h in Tibetan. In Burmese, this h (pronounced nasally) can be prefixed (in pronunciation, but in writing, suhfixed) to such consonants as have no special aspirate forms (as is the case with the gutturals k, kh, the dentals t, th, etc.) Aspiration produces causatives in Burmese, as already indicated in § 8. Prefixed (or subfixed) h arises in tho same or similar relation.

Compare:

   “to fall”    hĩä “to fell”

Iwä “to err”    hlwä “to exchange”

IvHit “to be free”    hlwnt “to set froe”

nwmnZ “to be tiresome”    hnwam% “to tiro somoono”

naiuS “to awake”    hnniu% “to wake”

mraŋ 0 “to be high”    hmraŋ 0 “to lift”

mrọ “to be afloat”    hmrọ “to let float” etc.

(In regard to a suitable system of transcribing Burmese, lot me refer to my article “Transcription of the Burmese Language,” now in preparation).

3    For a few exceptions see § 53).

It does not seem to me necessary in either case; it has only slipped over into these tenses in the same way as perfect suffix s slipped into the present (cf. § 23). Furthermore, we are not entirely justified in considering prefix ḥ as a means of forming the imperative, since, except in the case of verbs with the vowel u, only those means listed in § 30 come into consideration. Verbs with the vowel u may perhaps attract prefix ḥ for the formation of the imperative.

Lepsius sought to find the source of ḥ in g and d (s. «Ūber chinesische und tibetische Lautverhältnisse,’’ Abh. d. Berl. Ak. (1861), p. 482) and Conrady classified it together with m (s. ICDB, p. 23). Both attempts at explaining the ḥ are untenable on the basis of the present position of our investigation. The first completely mangles unassailable evidence and the proof for the latter is very insecure. Conrady bases his opinion on the fact that in Central Tibet m is pronounced like a, while «in Khams durchweg, im übrigen Tibet wenigstens in Compositis, die nasale Artikulation des Präfixes gehört wird, z. B. lcam-bum bka-ạbum und die Tibetisierungen kha ạda (neben khan-da) für skr. khanda, ạbi-ạbi für skr. bimbi, etc.» We are dealing here, however, only with a sort of assimilation of ḥ in two words or syllables, the first of which ends in a vowel and the second of which begins with ḥ, which becomes nasalized, the nasal being always of the same class as the following consonant. This process is not an adequate basis for making ḥ of equal value with m, nor for constructing with the help of parallel forms in Singpo, Katsarĩ, etc., a basic form *ma for the Tibetan.

Furthermore, in respect to the meaning of prefix ḥ, I perceive in the ICDB that Conrady’s feeling for the ḥ is similar to mine in that he gives it a durative character especially with intransitives (p. 20ff.), through which the copulative verb «to be» is possibly expressed. For this reason Conrady arrived at the opinion (now regarded as fallacious) that by far the greatest number of the kh- formations were intransitivcs as a result of the intransitive ḥ. The aspiration of k- formations is, as we have already seen in detail, semasiologically and phonetically obligatory, semasiologically absolutely without the influence of the prefix ḥ, and phonetically only through its influence.

§ 60. We are here at the end of our discussion of the formative elements. There follows a brief summary of the most important points. The “inseparable” and “separable” formative elements must be differentiated. The inseparable formative elements serve for the building up of the words and cannot be separated from the word as a whole. Only the prefixes b, g, or d and sometimes m (cf. m-thẽad pa and h-thSad pa «killed, slain,» etc.) may be displaced by the “separable” prefix ḥ. The “separable” formative elements serve only for the building up of tenses and are, with the exception of prefix ḥ, borrowed from the “inseparable.”

§ 61. To trace the origin of the prefixes is for the time being, considering our present knowledge of the monosyllabic languages, a formidable, if not altogether hopeless undertaking. Even the very earliest roots avail themselves of the prefixes, compare go «chieftain,” m-go «head,” ḥ-go “beginning,” b-go “dress, garment,” d-go “antelope,” r-go “antelope,” s-go «door, entrance;” or *da «to be transferred,® ḥ-daḥ «to go over,” b-dah «to carry away, m-dah «arrow”; or bo ba «to expand as a bubble” ḥ-bo ba «to swell up,” d-bo ba «to swell up repeatedly,” etc.

It seems possible at present to unravel the meaning of prefixes in certain substantives. B. Laufer conjectures in his «Prefix a- in the Indo-Chinese Languages” that l-tSe «tongue” is a combination of the two elements le -f- tśe, since the former has remained above all in the Gurung-dialect as well as in many other Indo-Chinese and Austrolasian languages and survives as la in Si-hia; the second corresponds to Chinese she2. He conjectures further that g-ser «gold” developed out of ge (ke) + ser, as the comparison with Mo-so k-se, Miao-tse ko and Si-hia k‘ä confirms, and that prefix r in r-ta is to be traced back to rö-tà, as the two forms mo-ró (Jya run) and riñ-ro (Si-hia) seem to indicate. Such examples may refer only to substantive nouns, especially to those which were originally synonym compounds. On the other hand, words such as mi «man”, lus «body,” etc. functioned as numeratives and then developed into the corresponding prefixes of substantives. B. Laufer also came to this conclusion in his Bird Divination amongst the Tibetans, p. 109. In the same monograph Laufer also demonstrates that certain prefixes, for example s and 1 were used as graphical signs for tone-pitch (pp. 79, 83, and 105). Such an explanation for the prefixes of verbs is applicable but rarely.

Apparently the greater part of the formative elements are to be explained neither from the Tibetan nor even from the Indo-Chinese itself, for the problem of their origin implies nothing less than that of the origin of the Tibetan language. We know no stage of the language where, for example, a full syllable or word stood in the place of prefix d, and only through comparison with other speech families may such a reconstructed form be obtained, provided the reconstruction is possible and permissible. The time has not yet come for this comparison. The ways, however, which it must follow, we claim to perceive. There are, it seems, three ways.

The first Laufer indicated in his Bird Divination (as already mentioned above), where he says on p. 109: «īn all Indo-Chinese languages

.......tho original significance of the majority of them (numcratives)

can no longer be made out, and will probably remain obscure.» He maintains that the suffixes m, 1, and r occur in connection with words referring to parts of the body (a fact with which not much can be done.) It is clear that we have here to do with the same peculiarity which is characteristic for exạmple in the Bantu languages — classification of nomina by means of certain fore-syllables. So far as the Bantu speeches are concerned, there is no doubt that the fore-syllables which grew out of independent words such as «man,» «animal,” “implement” still imperfectly indicate the ever expanding classes of words. Thus there exist Tibetan prefixes which are to be viewed as the surviving first member of a former compound of noun -ị- noun or noun verb (as possibly in 1-dad pa «to chew,” l-dag pa «to lick,” etc.).

The second case, to which we wish to draw attention, does not deal with composites,but with uncompounded, originally two-syllabled words, whose first syllable has atrophied as a result of heavy stress on the last syllable. End-stress is a recognized characteristic of the Turkish languages. If one compares, for example, the Osinanli-Turkish doquz «nine” with the Tibetan d-gu «ninc” it is clear what has happened (the identity of the two words has not yet been proved, although it is scarcely open to doubt). This obviously does not mean that Tibetan is only a decadent dialect of an original primitive Altaic speech (for d-gu or doquz might have been foreign words), but that the present one-syllabled words of the Tibetan may perhaps bo traced in part to original two-syllabled words with end-stress. Out of these one-syllabled words were then abstracted the prefixes as formative elements1.

The third case is perhaps applicable to the greater part of Tibetan words. It seems to me highly possible that already in primitive Tibetan the prefixes were added to the root or stem as originally independent single letters with semasiological and grammatical power, but without

1 Conrady is also somewhat of this opinion. He attempts to provo that all Tibetan prefixes were originally syllabic. (Cf. ICDB, p. 53).

any sort of inherent vowel. Even to the present day there exist in certain eastern dialects of Tibetan but few words17 where a vocalic sound is found after the supposed prefix. Also in the remaining languages of the Tibetan-Burmese group are such cases very rare. On the contrary, in the Siamo-Chinese languages and dialects we find the peculiar tendency to insert a vowel between the prefix in question and the root or stem. This vowel seems to me inserted for physiological reasons, since it is usually rather difficult for the Siamese, Chinese, and related peoples to pronounce even the most simple compound of initial consonants without difficulty. The simplest experiment is adequate to convince one of the truth of this statement. The experiments which I had ample opportunity to make in the Far East, using the most simple Tibetan words, culminated in the theory (which so far as I personally am concerned has become a certainty) that in Tibetan and even in primitive Tibetan the prefixes existed originally without any sort of subsequent vowel, and that this vowel was later inserted in single words of a few dialects.

§ 62. Even more difficult it is to ascertain the origin of the suffixes. They can be either the initial sounds or the final consonants of the following word. Both are highly improbable. It is apparent in Tibetan that modal auxiliaries such as yod pa, byed pa, etc., were employed in the formation of verb classes and tenses at a time when the language was beginning to change from a root-isolating monosyllabic stage to an agglutinating stage. Attempts to trace for example final d > s to this process are inadmissable. What is true of the prefixes may be true of the suffixes; even the infixes (ya btags, etc.) may be explained analogously. For infixes compare §§ 68ff., §§ 120ff., and §§ 146—147.

In this connection the possibility is obviously not excluded that one or the other formative element (after, if not before, the above mentioned process had once set in) developed directly as such, and not through any sort of “abstracting process.” This may be the case with prefixed s, and possibly even with suffixed s.

Note. The prefixes of the Tibetan numerals (g-tśig, g-nyis, g-sum, b-zi, l-ŋa, etc.) seem especially incomprehensible and evasive. I believe that I have found an approximately exact explanation, but

I reserve its publication for another place.

4) Analysis of Words.

§ 63. In connection with the discussion of word and tense formation (s. §§ 1—62), we shall add for illustrative purpose in each case an example of the guttural, dental and labial classes.

a) Guttural.

1)    gab pa    «to hide, hide oneself»

based on √*ga (6) «head» = «enveloping» -Ị-suffix b as the sign of goal or aim (s. § 18).

2)    ḥ-geb-s pa «to hide, cover»

ablaut to form the present tense (s. § 5 (3); prefix ḥ is to characterize the present tense (s. § 59); suffix s adds intensity to the present tense (s. end of § 23).

3)    8-gab pa «to cover»

by means of prefix s it is intensive to 1) (s. § 17); no ablaut in the present tense (s. § 5).

4)    8-gam    «box, trunk”

substantive noun to 8-gab pa, produced by suffix m (s. § 12), aspectus actionis perfeetae.

5)    b-kab pa «to cover»

intensive by means of tenuis (s. § 2); prefix b denotes aim, purpose (s. § 18); it functions as a «substitute» perfect of gab pa sub 1) (cf. § 36).

6)    kab kob    «hide; untanned skin» kab éa «leather shoe”

completive form of gab pa sub 1) by means of tenuis (s. § 2).

7)    h-kheb pa «to cover, spread over»

ablaut in connection with the present tense formation (s. § 5); later present tense form of b-kab pa sub 5) (s. § 59), wherefore aspiration for phonetical reasons (s. § 8,2).

8)    kheb-8 pa “covered, veiled»

a perfect tense form of 7) (s. § 33).

9)    kheb-s    “a cover, li

substantive of the perfect tense belonging to 7) (s. § 31).

10)    khom    «leather trunk”

ablaut is intensive (s. § 3,3a); through suffix

m aspectus actionis perfeetae (s. § 12), belonging to h-khei) pa.

11)    gyam    «a shelter, recess in a rock”

a form of 1) palatalized by ya btags; through suffix m a substantive form of 1) (s. § 12).

12)    s-kyah-8    “protection, defense”

a substantive of the perfect tense, palatalized

by ya btags, belonging to 13) and 15), built up in accordance with b-kab pa ad 5)

(8. § 6).

13)    b-s-kyab-8 “protected”

perfect tense of 15) (cf. §§ 27—28).

14)    b-8-kyat)    future tense of 15) (cf. §§ 27—28).

15)    s-kyob pa «to protect, defend”

ya btags see § 6; ablaut in connection with the present tense (s. § 5 p); prefix s is probably intensive (s. § 17) in this case.

16)    8-kyob-s    “assistance”

a substantive noun of the perfect tense, belonging to 15), yet without ablaut \ suffix 8 is causative with the effect of producing the perfect tense (s. § 23).

17)    khyab pa “to embrace”

a form pertaining to 7), palatalized by ya btags; this form is associated with the perfect tense, though it has not prefix s («. § 33).

18)    khyéfj-s “a cover”

substantive noun of the perfect tense pertaining to 17); aĩtlaut intensive (§ 3,3 b); it corresponds to kheb-s sub 9).

19)    8-kyib-8    “a place giving shelter”

alike a substantive noun of the perfect tense belonging to 15); as regards ablaut compare note 3 to § 5.

20)    khyim    «a home, dwelling-place”

formation of a substantive noun by means of

suffix m (s. § 12), belonging to khyab pa; as regards ablaut compare note 3 to § 5.

21)    h-grib pa «to grow dim, get dark»

a form of gab pa suti 1) palatalized by ra btags; prefix ḥ is the sign of the present tense; as regards ablaut compare note 4 to § 5.

22)    s-grib pa «to obscure, cover; obscuration, sin»

prefix s acts causative (s. § 16).

23)    b-s-gnb-s perfect tense of 8-grib pa (cf. §§ 27—28).

24)    b-8-grib    future tense of 8-grib pa (cf. §§ 27—28).

25)    grib    «shade, stain»

modified stem of gab pa; original present tense of 21).

26)    khrab (pa) «shield, buckler»

substantive noun of the perfect tense, yet without suffix 8 (cf. §§ 31 and 33).

27)    klub pa “to cover the body with ornaments”

concerning subfixed 1 compare §§ 135ff.; tenuis is intensive (§ 2); as regards ablaut to u cf. § 4.

In addition compare the palatal forms and others in § 145 a).

§ 64. b) Dental.

1)    ḥ-dom (pa) “a lineal measure”

based on √*da (2) «to arrive at, reach to > to be become equalized, to suffice»; by means of suffix m (s. § 12) it is put under the 08pectus actionis perfectae; prefix ḥ crystallized the effect of suffix m (cf. § 59); ablaut is intensive (s. § 3,3a).

2)    h-dom(-8) pa «to assemble, come together”

ablaut in connection with the present tense formation (s. § 5 Ịü); concerning suffix s in the present tense compare § 23.

3)    dam-8 ì perfect tense of h-dom pa.

y-darn-s J the stem of h-dom-s pa is *dam which appears in the perfect forms dam-8 and g-dam-8 (s. § 23); g-dam-8 is more correctly the perfect of g-dam pa (s. § 45), where prefix g functions iteratively (s. § 10); cf. also § 46.

4)    g-dam    future tense of h-dom(-s) pa.

g-dam was the proper future of archaic

g-dam pa (s. § 45).

5)    h-dom-s    imperative of h-dom(-s) pa.

cf. § 30.

6)    m-dom(-a) «a measure”

see above number 1); here, suffix s has possibly developed from causative forming suffix d, which was applied for the formation of the perfect tense (s. § 23).

Concerning prefix m s. § 19.

7)    g-tam pa «to fill up”

tenuis is intensive (cf. § 2, 3b); prefix g iterative (§ 10).

8)    g-tam-s pa «filled up”

perfect tense of 7) because of suffix s (s. § 23); compare also § 39.

9)    g-lom-s pa «filled up, full”

another perfect form of 7) with ablaut which acts intensively (s. § 3,3a).

10)    l-tam-8 pa «to be full”

original perfect form of a present tense H-tam pa, built up analogous to number 8); as regards prefix 1 s. § 20.

11)    b-l-tam-s perfect form of 10).

proper perfect of H-tam pa (s. number 10), characterized by suffix s (s. § 23) and prefix b (a. § 28).

12)    b-l-tam    future tense of 10).

the simple form H-tam should have been sufficient in the future tense; prefix b might, in this case, point to «aim, goal” (s. § 18).

13)    l-tem pa «the state of being full”

ablaut is intensive (s. § 3,3a).

14)    tham pa “complete, full”

since g-tam pa means «to fill up» (see number

7), tham pa is the corresponding intransitive (cf. § 8 a); compare also § 43.

15)    them pa «to be complete, full»

the same intransitive with «strengthening of the present tense» (cf. § 50).

16)    h-them-8 pa «to suffice”

the same as number 15), only showing the present tense prefix ḥ (s. § 59) and suffix s (s. end of § 23).

17)    h-ihem-8 pa “completion of a specified number”

ablaut is intensive (s. § 3,3a).

18)    r-nam pa «manner, way, form, shape,” «having mea

sure^ wherefore r-nam par “complete”; concerning nasal initial sound s. § 1, and concerning prefix r see § 21,5.

19)    nom pa «to be satisfied”

formation in tho metaphorical sense (metaphorical because of nasal initial sound), belonging to g-tom-s pa (s. number 9) and h-thom-8 pa (s. number 17).

20)    nom-8    perfect tense of number 19).

suffix s sign of the Ị>erfect tense (s. § 23).

In addition compare the palatal forms and others in § 145b).

§ 65. Labial.

1)    bay ba    «store-room, store-house”

stem bay developed from √*ba (2), extant in bo ba «to expand (as a bubble)”; suffix ŋ is intensive (s. § 10).

2)    boy    «in size, in capacity”

ablaut is intensive (s. § 3,3b).

3)    bray    «the chest, breast”

ra btags acts intensively (s. § 6).

4)    h-bray ba «to give birth to (of animals)”; «to swell up

strongly;»

denominative formation of 3); prefix ḥ stands for the present tense (s. § 59); the function of ra btags is intensive-causative (s. § 6).

5)    ḥ-broŋ    “wild yak”

ablaut is here completive (s. § 3,3).

6)    dray    «beer» — «that which is swollen*

a tertiary formation produced by ra btags and initial sound shift (s. §§ 130—131); cf. also DTR sub √*ba (2).

7)    may ba «to be much, become much, increase» may po «much,» «that which became much»

concerning the nasal initial sound s. § 1.

8)    d-may-s    «the populace; mob»

prefix d instead of iterative g (s. § 14); as regards suffix s s. § 23.

9)    myay-s «united»

as regards ya btags s. § 6; suffix s in the perfect tense (s. § 23).

10) r-moy-s pa «stupidity, ignorance”

a kind of completive-rcsultative form to d-maŋ-8 «common folk,” Ablaut resultative (cf. § 3,3c); prefix r possibly intensive (s. § 21,2); suffix s causative in the formation of the perfect (cf. § 23). In the forms may and *moŋ lies the concept «much, accumulated” in connection with the resulting idea «obscure, dark” similar to the case of gab pa, etc., based on √*ga (6). In this connection compare also the Chinese words tJJ mèng2 «people,” mang2 «blind,” mang3 «the sun obscured,” ^ mèng2 «to cover; foolish, stupid,” mèng2 «dim, indistinct,” mèng3 «stupid, doltish,” B$| ming2 «dark,” ị|ị ming2 «mist, f°g,» Bg ming2 «to close the eyes,” etc., furthermore Burmese C y 3 £ hmauŋ «dark,” «jEs hmoy8 and hmun «dark,” moh «blind,” CỊỊ O myā «much” and Siamese tnf| mag «much,” ỊJHLI māi «many, in a »/

great number,” LH muā «dark,” JJ\J mang

«dark,» JJHU mānx «curtain,»    mekh

“cloud,” MỊJtJ hmon, «dark,» and others.

Since the palatal forms derived from √*ba (2) (to which belong also the above examples) are few in number, we shall add here two additional forms of √ba (īj «swelling, arching» as a basis for further derivatives :

1)    ḥ-boŋ ba    «roundness, rotundity”

ablaut intensive-completive (cf. § 3,3); suffix ŋ intensive (cf. § 10); prefix ḥ a means of crystallizing the effect of the suffix (cf. § 59).

2)    droŋ ma „ «a large basket provided with a lid and carried

on the back»

tertiary form by means of ra btags and initial sound shift (s. §§ 130—131); cf. also DTR sub √ba (1).

In addition compare the palatal forms and other in § 145, c).

III. WORD FORMATIONS PALATALIZED BY ya btags.

A. GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

§ 66. We distinguish two groups of initial palatal sounds. In addition to the compound palatal initial sounds dz, ỊS, thẽ the first group comprises words, the initial sound of which was palatalized by ya btags, as g -Ị- ya btags, k + Va btags, kh + ya btags, b -j- ya btags, p + ya btags, ph -f- ya btags, etc. The second group includes the simple palatal initial sounds z, S, and y. The following table will serve as a general survey.

Tenuis Aspirata Media Nasal

i i i Guttural    ky    khy    gy

compound palatal _ f    ^    ,

Labial    py    phy    by my

initial sounds    * "    '

. in addition té    thś    dz ny

substitutable simple initial sounds y    Ś    z

We are already familiar with the compound palatal initial sounds ky, khy, gy, and py, phy, by (cf. § 6). These appear as palatalized forms of the gutturals and labials showing little or no change of meaning. It is quite certain that formerly a sharp differentiation was made between the tenuis, aspirata, media, and nasal forms of the guttural and labial palatalizations. Yet, as a result of the ease with which the palatal sounds tended to mix with one another, they actually became intermingled both phonetically and orthographically, especially in tho earlier period of the language. Furthermore, they even developed into the compound palatal sounds , thś, and dz sometime after tho ninth century A. D. according to Laufer’s Bird Divination. At any rate, through Laufer we know that for instance the transition from phyi to thś had not yet been established in the first half of the ninth century (op. cit., p. 86). Thus, today we find side by side the forms d-pyod pa, h-théad pa, r-dzod pa, s-nyod pa, and myad pa, all having the original meaning of speaking or communicating; and likewise s-kyed pa, byed pa, b-gyid pa, and s-pyod pa in the sense of fabricating, producing, etc. (concerning ablaut, cf. § 3). Such a multiplicity of forms at first 9*

Impedes the investigation of the stem or root to such an extent that it appears almost impossible. That forms like 8-kyab-8, 8-kyob pa, 8-lcyib-8, lchyab pa, khyeb-8, and gyam are to be derived from the stem gab, is obvious. However, that forms as b-thSab-s pa, h-thẽab pa, l-täib-8, théib pa, inb pa, Subs, and yib pa should also be formations of the same stem gab is not quite so clear. An investigation into the phonetical changes in the palatal word group will clarify this point.

§ 67. The question now arises, if the guttural and labial series of words show palatalizations by ya btags, should we not then also expect to find dentals palatalized by ya btags ĩ A thorough study of Tibetan leaves no doubt that the question really exists and that the assumption is justifiable. Let us take √*da (3) «to become connected.» Here we find beside h-tham pá «to attach oneself to,» also the form h-thấam pa «to accord, agree,» which is the palatalized aspirata,’, hence ḥ-th -Ị- ya btags (+ a) -f m > *h-thyamh-thấam. The dental immediately turns palatal before ya btags. — Based on √da (4) «to move forward» we find besides ḥ-dor ba «to cast forth, throw out» also the form h-thẽor ba «to pursue, chase,» where we again have the palatalized aspirata, developed from ḥ-th + ya btags (-f- o) + r > *h-thyorh-thẽor.18 — Or let us take √du (1) «to become accumulated.» On this is based for instance the form g-du ba «to mingle, mix up»; from this again we have the perfect tenuis form b-tu-8 pa «to accumulate, to gather,” which corresponds to the later form g-tẽus pa «to meddle with, interfere,” developed from g-t + ya btags (+ u) + s > *g-tyu-8 > g-tẽu-8 pa. — Based on √du (5) «desire, inclination” we have for instance g-duŋ «excessive desire, passion,” to which corresponds the palatalized form h-diuŋ-s “avarice,” developed from ḥ-d + ya btags (-J- u) + ŋ (+ s) > *h-dyuŋ-8 > h-diuŋ-8. From the related √*du (6) «passion, agony, pain» arises h-dul ba “to subdue, tame” together with the later palatalized form h-dĩil ba “to subjugate,” developed from ḥ-d -|- ya btags -f u > % (cf. § 5, note 3) + 1 > *h-dyil ba > h-dzil ba.

A number of other words also point clearly to palatalized dentals

Examples:

g-tSer    “bare, uncovered” b-tSer ba “to heap, pile up”

ther    “bare, denuded” g-ter “store-place”

h-déar ba «to stick together, s-nyen pa «to come near, ap-cohere”    proach”

8-tar ba «to tie, fasten” 8-ten pa «to keep close to»

§ 68. In most cases, the original prefixes are not carried over into the palatalized form. The palatalized stem as such takes new prefixes in accordance with the psychological and phonetical principles previously discussed in §§ 14—22.

§ 69. In the case of gutturals and labials, palatalization produced by ya btags is indicated in writing by g -1- ya btags (ỊỊT), k -\- ya btags (3*)> e^c-» whfch» however, is not the case with dentals. The latter correspond exactly to the Sanskrit compound sounds ch, c, j, which in writing are each represented as a single character and as such taken over into Tibetan.

For all further investigations it ìb of fundamental importance to regard dz, tś, and thś also as d + ya btags, t -f- ya blags, and th -Ị- ya btags, in accordance with the palatalizations of the gutturals and labials.

§ 70. We shall call a root palatalized by ya btags (or ra btags) a tertiary root, since the secondary root formation by means of tenuis, aspirata, and nasal (cf. § 1), was prior in point of time. Thus, based on √*ga (6) «hcad, enveloping,» the form gon pa «coat; to put on clothes» must be considered as primary, the form s-kon pa «to dress» as secondary, and the form gyon pa «to put on clothes» as tertiary. So also from √*bu (2) «mass, pilc» the form buŋ-s «great heap” is primary in character, phuŋ po “bundle” secondary, and phyuŋ ba «the overflow of a thing in a vessel» tertiary. Likewise from idu (ī) «to become accumulated® was derived g-du-s, the perfect tense form of g-dn ba “to mingle,” which should be considered as primary, b-tu-s, the perfect form of ḥ-thu ba “to pluck» as secondary, and g-tśu-s pa «to interfere” as tertiary in nature.

§ 71. When the initial guttural or labial sounds palatalized b y ya btags became in the course of time phonetically identical with tho dentals palatalized through ya btags, it followed easily that tho combinations ky, khy, gy, py, phy, by should be written as tè, thś, and dz. Such formations we call quartary. Similar dental formations must also be called quartary (cf. § 70). The third stage in dental formations must have disappeared very quickly, since there remains not a single example of it. Thus, for example, along with the tertiary forms b-s-kyab-s «guarded, protected,” gyoŋ po “difficult to understand,» h-byem pa «to act with promptness,” and h-phyor po “foppish,” we have the quartary forms b-ttó-s “hidden,” g-tSaŋ po19 «clever, sagacious.” g-tSam po1 “done, made,” and m-thSor po «foppish.”

As a result of the conversion of the gutturals and labials palatalized by ya btags into the compound palatals tś, thS, and dz a meaning deviating from the original, but still fundamentally relating to it, is likely to be brought about.

§ 72. When various homophonous roots exist simultaneously, numerous words alike in sound and construction, but different in meaning, would result from the application of tenuis, ablaut, aspiration, and formative elements. There are, for example, six bu-roots: √bu (1) preserved in h-bu ba «to open, unfold (like flowers),” √*bu (2) «mass, pile», √*b?/ (3) «to increase, expand,® etc. √bu (1) forms for instance bul «valley, ravine,” ]/*bu (4): ḥ-bul ba «to give,” and √*bu (6): bnl «lazy, slothful.” √bu (1) forms for example h-bur ba «to spring up, to blossom,” √bu (5): d-bur ba «humming insect,” and √*bu (2) forms phuŋ po «bundle,” and √*bu (6): phuŋ pa “destroyed,” etc.

In order to avoid too many forms identical in sound, the language applies certain specific word forming agents only with certain roots (thus we have the form bnb-s only from √bu (1) or bum only from √*bu (2), or the language passes in some cases from the labial to the guttural and dental series (provided the initial dental sound be nasal), of from the guttural to the labial or dental scries (provided the initial dental sound be nasal) in order to avoid an all too possible confusion with the palatalized forms. Thus for example √*ga (6) forms instead of h-khoŋ ba the word h-phyoŋ ba “to protect” with initial tertiary sound, in order to distinguish it clearly from h-khyoŋ ba «to observe” which belongs to √*ga (2), etc. — The regular substitute for the palatalized nasal of the guttural series is n -f- ya btags (ny), and the nasal of the labial class interchanges readily with the dental group (cf. § 74). We call this phenomenon the initial sound shift.

§ 73. According to Laufer’s investigation in his Bird Divination the transition from gutturals and labials palatalized through ya bUigs to tẽ, thS, and dz cannot have taken place until the end of the ninth century A. D.20, at a time that is, when the decomposition of the language was just beginning and the feeling for the exact word image, built up according to set principles, was being lost. We must consequently conclude that such phonetical substitutes for words with tertiary or quartary initial sound are not to be found in texts written before the ninth century (cf. my analysis of √*gu «water» § 144).

§ 74. a) We must add here a few comments on m -j- ya btags (= my) and n -f- ya btags (— ny). Both are nasal palatals — a fact which makes it probable that ŋ was also at one time palatalized through ya btags. No definite proof, however, remains; yet, n -f- ya btags belongs of course to the palatalized dental series.

Compare

m-nal «the sleep»    r-nil{t    „

nyal ba «to sleep»    r-nyil J tlG &ums

m-nol ba «to grow feeble» nar ì    „

g-nyel ba «tired, to get tired» nyarị

m-nyel ba «to be tired, fati- m-nod pa «to find, acquire” gued»

s-nyol ba «to bed a person” r-nyed pa «to acquire” or

ḥ-dem pa «to prove, examine” b-r-tas pa «to be delighted” s-nyam pa «to think, con- m-nyes pa «to take delight in” sider»

s-ten pa «to keep close to”

s-nyen, pa «to come near, approach,” and others.

Naturally m -f- ya btags which survives only in very few examples is a representative of the labial series. īt is used almost exclusively as a substitute for dental tertiary initial sounds.

Examples:

r-ton pa    «to place confidence in a person”

s-myan (pa) “intermediation between a disagreeing pair”

cf. s-nyen pa    «to come near, approach”

b-8-nar ba    «to stretch, extend in length»

8-myur pa    «to stretch oneself after sleep”

cf. nyer pa    «to tarry, linger”

8-dig-s pa    «to point at, threaten”

myug pa    «to show ostentatiously”

cf. nyug nyug pa «to stand out, project”

myul ba    «to roam about, search into”

cf. g-nyul ba    «to step gently, steal through,” etc., etc.

The interchange of ny and my likewise cannot, according to Laufer’s investigations, have taken place before tho ninth century A. D.

b) Tho palatal nasals require further analysis. In the Tibetan litera-tion of Sanskrit words, the Sanskrit palatals, with the exception of ñ (5f), are represented through characters whose compound nature is indubitable. That means they are compounded dentals (tf, etc.) and appeared as such in the speech of the Kāsmĩr-Pandits even before the invention of the Tibetan alphabet. Whether the Tibetan palatals (5, etc.) should be considered as simple or as compound is still an open question, for they were palatals in contradistinction to the dentals, including the compound dentals.

Originally compound palatals were unknown in Sanskrit and are still unknown in correct pronunciation (e. g., in the pronunciation of the Madras-Pandits). (If éh is doubled after certain vowels, we simply have duplication, or assimilation or “position” produced by assimilation). In words such as pañóa «fivo,” and muñja «reed,” etc., 'ỹị (ñ) is undoubtedly a compound character. It is erroneous to assume that the palatal n is always n -f V and can be spoken in no other wise. The Spanish ñ as well as the French and Italian gn is simply a gliding ysound abruptly terminated (Abglitt), as one may easily convince oneself by prolonging the pronunciation of m or n; or in similar wise by attempting to pronounce the French word digne, with a long-drawn-out n. If we pronounce dignement as it is usually pronounced by the Frenchman in rapid conversation, we get a pure n without y, such as we find in Sanskrit ñó, ñj, etc. An unmixed n as a final sound is also known in Hungarian in such words as ẽovān (sovány) “thin,” kemẽn (kemény) «hard,” fẽn ịfény) “the light,” etc.

Sanskrit has five simple nasals: guttural, cacuminal, palatal, dental,

and labial (g; = ñ, w = n, —j = ñ, ^ = n, ^ = m). The guttural v    \    \    \    \

and palatal distinguish themselves from the others in that they never

occur (1) between vowels, or (2) in connection with y (^ị). We have therefore:    x

simple \ ih n ñ n m compounded with y:nyny my None of these compounded sounds correspond to the Tibetan, ỹ. Rather the writing of TỊ? for    (lcāñéī) shows that Tibetan ỹ

is to be identified with the Sanskrit

Sanskrit is ordinarily anteconsonantal (in contrast to ỹ); it is s

antevocalic only in the few cases where it has developed from dental n (^j), i. e. through progressive assimilation. For instance yaj + suffix

nayajña, and rāj -f- n% > rājñī. Such an antevocalic n is not easily differentiated from ny and ny and therefore has replaced them in Pali as ññ (yajñayañña, punyapuñña, etc.). Meanwhile initial ny appears as ñ, for instance in Pali ñāya < Skr. nyāya. Also in Tam ip (where the juxtaposition of dental n with y is not possible) ñaya is written along with niyāya, and hero, as well as in Malayalam n is considered as a simple sound, in Sindhĩ tho intervocalic Sanskrit iig (’jy) became ñ (ŋ, ^), and ny (^ị) became ñ (^j): Skr. ấrvuja > Si; sinu; Icanyākaña, i. e., ŋg > ŋ; ny > ny > n (in other words a simple palatal with or without y).

The inventor of Tibetan writing, in adopting his probably had in mind primarily the antevocalic Sanskrit ñ as it occurs in such words as jñāna < √y'an, rājñī, etc., that is an n with which a protracted and suddenly terminated y- sound (ny) easily occurs (y-Ahglitt). This ñ was cither identical with the Tibetan sound or must have seemed similar to it (in case it was an n -f- y), in contrast to Sanskrit ny which Tibetan also indicates as n -j- y (^), as in the oxample

above nyāya «logic» (name of a philosophical system).

In Middle Indian (Prākrt, Pali) a compounded palatal develops from t -f y, etc., e. g., Skr. satyam > Middle Indian saééam, vidyā > Middle Indian vijjā, etc. — (ny > nn or ññ). On the other hand, initial t -f y is a simple palatal, since consonantal groups are not admissible at the beginning of a word.

Morphology leaves no doubt that in Tibetan the palatals were nothing other than the dentals -f ya btags, which must have lost their dental character, else otherwise the Sanskrit ty, dy (ịịj, ^j), etc., would

also have remained in the forms of etc., as is^actually the case

with JỊỊ, etc. Consequently, ỹ must then be considered as n -f- y, not as n-f- y.

However, the possibility still remains that in ^ two sounds have coalesced — namely (1) the above-mentioned dental n palatalized through y, and (2) a more primitive, uncompounded palatal n, still extant in words like nywa ịñtva), although the general pronunciation perhaps does not distinguish the two.

It is also possible that in Tibetan tho palatal dentals are counted among the simple palatals é, /, n, although they are perhaps today not so spoken. This- is not to be assumed, in case they bring about «position» in metrics (for “position” would prove their compounded character), supposing always that in Tibetan metrics tho same law of position is valid as in Sanskrit. But I am not yet prepared to deliver judgment on this point.

B. IMMINUTION OF INITIAL SOUND.

§ 75. The initial sound of the gutturals, labials, and dentals palatalized by ya btags, in other words the tertiary initial sound, undergoes a process called Imminution or reduction of the initial sound (<anlauts-verkũmmerung, anlautsreduzierung), which results in the release of ya btags. In this free condition, ya btags, in the form of y, then creates new words whose meaning is the same as or related to that of the word from which ya btags originally came. We call this manifestation an imminution of the initial sound in the first degree (of a tertiary formation).

Examples:

{h-khyoŋ ba «to come”    phyed-pa «to be sufficient”

yoŋba «to come”    phyod pa «to be complete”

{h-Jchyom pa «to reel, be giddy”    yod pa “to be existant”21.

yom pa «to totter”    b-s-nyor ba «to sort, sift” Ị

yar ba «to disperse” J

{h-byib pa «to hide, conceal”    s-byin pa «to give” 1

yib pa «to hide oneself”    yon «a present” J

This new stem beginning with y may assume additional pre- and suffixes (cf. § 68).

Examples:

phyuŋ ba «to cast out, throw nyal ba «to lie down, sleep» away”

g-yuŋ ba «to outcast”    g-yel ba “to be idle, lazy»

yoŋ ba «to come» yoŋ-8 pa «to come,” and others.

Note. In modern Lhasa-dialect it is customary in the case of a media labial initial sound, prefixed by d and palatalized by ya btags, to suppress d and b in pronunciation and permit only tho sound y to be heard, e. g., d-byar ka «summer» has the sound of yar ka, and d-byug pa, «to blossom” the sound of yug pa, etc.

An interesting case we find in h-bur ba «to rise, swell up, bud, unfold,” which in the conversational language of Lhasa has the sound of yur ba (and hur ba cf. § 76)22, just as if it were palatalized by ya btags. There is, however, a form yur wa in the sense of «to water, irrigate,” which ought, in reality, to be derived from h-phyur ba «to become separated” (from which we again have the form b-zur ba «to sieve, filter”), and likewise a form hur ba in the sense of "humming insect, beetle.” This hur ba is, of course, more recent than h-bur ba, from which developed s-bur ba "beetle,” which now also retains only the sound of hur ba.

§ 76. Initial y, a resultant of the imminution of the initial sound, changes to ḥ (^).

Examples:

yoŋ ba «to come”    together with hoŋ ba

yug pa «oats”    together with hug pa

yud pa «a moment”    together with hud pa

yob (pa) «a trench, ditch” together with ḥob pa

The form ḥor ba «to transfer,” according to Chandra Das, p. 1121, corresponds to the verb s-por ba. The latter is the nonpalatalized causative form of h-byor ba «to arrive.” The form h-byor ba would answer to the form *s-pyor ba, from which *yor ba = ḥor ba arose. We call this manifestation an imminution of the initial sound in the second degree (of a tertiary formation).

§ 77. This same ḥ, developed from initial y, then changes to h. So for instance hur ba «to be noisy, chattering” becomes hur «an expression of amazement» and hur ba1 «passionate, hasty» (probably originated from ḥ-bur wa «to swell up»). This stage of development we call an imminution of the initial sound in the third degree.

§ 78. Imminution of the initial sound occurs likewise in the following cases: (1) in the dental series palatalized by ya btags as in d -f ya btags (== dy = dz), t -f ya btags (= ty — tś), th -f ya btags (= thy — thś), and n-\- ya btags {= ny oder my); (2) in the substituted forms mentioned in §§ 72—74; (3) in the quartary formations mentioned in § 71.

In reference to (l^and (2), imminution of the initial sound appears to have occurred so rarely in the dental series palatalized by ya btags that thus far I have succeeded in discovering but one reliable example. In this case the imminution of the initial sound apparently occurred as described in § 75: ya btags first becomes released and in the form of initial y changes to ḥ or h, and as such may assume prefixes or suffixes (cf. §§ 75 and 124). Evidently we are dealing here also with imminution of the initial sound in the first, second, and third degrees (tertiary nos. 1 and 2; quartary no.3 see below).

Example: l-hon pa «to return, pay back»

is to be derived from l-don pa «to pay back» (based on √da (5) «to be transferrcd»); palatalized: s-nyon pa «to deny,” «to reject (in a dishonest way)»;2 wherefrom imminution of the initial sound of the tertiary degree (tertiary formation): *hon + prefix 1 = l-hon pa.

Note. In all the remaining words with initial Ih, this Ih can have been produced either by the imminution of the initial sound resulting from the palatalization through ya btags, or by the reduction of the initial sound achieved by means of palatalization through ra btags. In the former case we use the transcription 1-h, and in the latter Ih. After a careful perusal of my DTR, I have been forced to the conclusion that in the majority of these cases we deal with 1 + aspiration (Ih) — hence with a reduction of the initial sound resulting from palatalization through ra btags.

Only in a few instances are both possible.

1 Cf. German “liurr deburr,” “hur(tig),” English “to hurry”.

a From the same root we also have b-r-ñyan pa “to borrow.”

Compare

based on √*ga (6): lkab-8 ì«the middle,’* to which are or l-hab-s (?) j related h-théab pa «to hide» thèib pa “encompassing” and khrab pa «a shield”

__or

based on √*ga (14): Ihe ba ì«to twist, plait,”

or l-heba(ĩ) Jto which are related T-gya «a net” and s-gre ba «to put or place in order,”

and others.

In reference to (3). Quartary formations can also point to tertiary

forms, which reveal imminution of the initial sound in the first, second,

and third degrees. It is true, however, that illustrative examples are

rather rare. As illustration for the initial sound Ih let us take an

example from √*bu (2):

l-hun «mass, bulk” ì , ,    > whereto are cognate

l-hun po «heap, hill” J    ö

thấunpa (<*phyunpa) «to bundle together”

théunpo (<*phyunpo) «a bunch, bundle”

Besides bum pa «water-bottle,” d-puŋ pa «heap,” and others, there are also from this same root forms with ya btags, as for example phyuŋ ba «the overflow of a thing in a vessel,” etc.; but there is no parallel form with ra blags ending in n. Hence one is compelled to ascribe l-hun to the action of ya btags. So we have l-hun, and not Ihun! Of this same root the following ra btags-forms can be found; s-brum pa «pregnant,” and rum(-s) «the womb,” in addition to which we also have lum(-s) «a bath used as a medical cure,” and Ihum-s «the womb.”

Another example of a quartary formation is

yib pa «to hide oneself,” to be derived from gab pa “to hide” (based on √*ga (6) «head, enveloping»). From this we have the palatalized tertiary forms s-kyób pa “to guard, protect” and s-kyib-s “a place giving shelter,” and the quartary form 1-tSib-s “gloves, shield”; besides the latter two there is still yib pa “to hide oneself” as an example of imminution of the initial sound in the first degree (of a tertiary formation)23.

§ 79. The compound palatal initial sounds dz, tś, and thś undergo still another imminution of the initial sound regardless of whether or not they are dentals palatalized by ya btags or quartary formations at all (cf. § 71). The compound sounds dz, tś, and thś split up into

4 + ì + and th + ś;24 or to be more specific, dz, tś, and thś become reduced to á and ś. These roots or stems which have the initial z or ś in turn assume quite independently prefixes as well as suffixes (cf. §§ 68, 75, 78). This imminution of the initial sound we designate as quintary.

Examples of the quintary imminution of the initial sound: b-zig pa «to be undermined, decay” from h-dzig pa .«to destroy, devastate” b-śig pa «to upset, destroy” from h-dzig pa (= *h-thśig pa) «to devastate” b-zug-s pa «to sit, dwell” from h-dzug-8 pa, a palatalized form of ḥ-dug pa «to sit, remain” b-śum pa «to weep” from h-dzum pa (= Hhśum pa) «to cause to shudder” b-zed pa «to propose” from r-dzod pa «to say, announce” zu ba «to melt” from h-dzu ba «to melt”

b-śor ba «to drive away” from h-thśor ba «to drive away” g-śo ba «to pour away” from g-tśo ba «to pour out”

Śnl «narrow passage, a track” from *tśul*pyvl, a palatalized tenuis-form to bul «valley, ravine” based on √bu (1) «to become opened,” and many others.

§ 80. As a result of these investigations we are now in a position to complete the table given in § 66. The following is a résumé of §§ 67—79:

Tenuis    Aspirata Media Nasal

guttural    ky    khy    gy    —

labial    py    phy    by    my

dental ịẽ = t-\-ya thś — th-\-ya dz — d + ya ny or my btags    btags    btags

quartary = ky or py thś = khy or dz = gy or by — formations    phy

simple palatal initial sound produced by imminution of the initial sound in the

first degree...................... y

imminution of the initial sound in the of tertiary and

second degree.................... ḥ quartary form-

imminution of the initial sound in the    ations (cf. § 78)

third degree ..................... h.

quintary imminution of tho initial sound ś z.

C. TENSE FORMATION.

§ 81. In this chapter we come to tense formation of the palatal verbs. Since the verbs palatalized by ya btags and ra blags have been dealt with in §§ 24—65, only those verbs which have the initial sounds of tś, thś, and dz need still to be treated.

a) Tenuis.

This class comprises only such verbs as have the “inseparable* prefixes g, b, or 1. Some of these verbs show the common characteristics (1) the ablaut o > a both in the perfect and future (s. § 28), (2) aspiration, or strengthening of the vowel, and (3) the addition of suffix s in the imperative (s. § 30).

Examples:

g-tśag pa g-tśag(-s) g-tśag ịthśog-sị «to break, break asunder»

g-tśag-s pa g-tśag-s — — «to grasp, apprehend” g-tśag-s pa (g-tśag-s) — —    «to love»

g-tśog pa g-tśog-s g-tśog — “to break into pieces” g-tśad pa g-tśad. g-tśad — «to cut into pieces” g-tśar ba g-tśar g-tśar —    «to cut out, knock out”

g-tśal ba g-tśal g-tśal —    “to spread, display”

g-tśi ba ì

g-Uidpa j g^l-s ^ 0-^'s t°P,8S

g-tẽil ba g-tẽil g-tẽil — «to destroy, spoil” g-tẽu ba 1

", r g-tẽu-s g-t&u — «to strain, whirl” g-tẽud pa ị

g-tẽun pa g-tẽun (g-tẽun) — «to reprove; to subdue” g-tẽur pa g-tẽur (g-tẽur) —    «to shun”

g-tẽu-8 pa g-tẽu-8 — — «to meddle with” g-tẽe ba g-tẽe-8 {y-Ịẽe) —    «to esteem, hold dear”

g-tẽer ba g-tẽer g-tẽer — «to heap, pile up” g-ỊSod pa ?    — — “to cut, chop off”

g-tẽor ba25 (g-tẽar) — — «to disperse” b-tẽag pa [b-tẽag-s] — —    «to split, cleave”

b-tẽaŋ ba b-tẽaŋ-8 — — «to hold” b-tẽad pa [b-t3a-s] — [thẽod] «to cut; to decide” (b-tẽaỊ) pa) b-tẽab-s — —    "to conceal”

b-tẽar ba b-tẽar (b-tẽar) —    «to interview”

b-tẽar ba b-tẽar — — «to squeeze, press” (cf.

g-tẽor ba)

b-tẽal ba b-tẽal — — «to weigh, to pay” b-tẽiŋ ba b-tẽiŋ-8 — — «to bind” b-tSib pa b-tẽib-8 b-tẽib thẽib-8 «to ride on a horse” b-ỊMr ba b-tẽir (b-tẽir) — «to squeeze, press out”

(cf. b-tẽar and g-tẽil)

b-tSil ba b-tẽil — —    «to abandon, give up”

(cf. g-tẽil ba, intensive)

b-tẽu ba b-tẽu-s b-tẽu thẽu-8 «to ladle water; to water” (cf. g-tẽu ba, intensive)

b-tẽug pa b-tẽug[-s] — — «to interfere, meddle in”

b-tẽun pa b-tẽun — — «to subdue”

b-tẽum pa b-tẽum — — «to become contracted”

(cf. 8-ham pa «to contract”)

b-tẽur ba b-tẽur — — “to bar, obstruct”

(cf. g-tẽur ba\) b-tẽem pa b-tẽem-8 b-tẽem — «to chew” b-tẽer ba b-tẽer — — «to heap, pile up” (cf.

g-tẽer ba, intensive)

b-tẽo ba b-tẽo-s (b-tấo) b-tẽo-s «to make, manufacture” b-tśog pa26 b-téag[-s] (b-tśag) — «to cut down, reduce” b-tấom pa b-tẽom-sthSom «to conquer, subdue” b-tẽol ba b-tẽol b-tẽol —    «to entrust” (cf. g-tSal

ba!)

Here we have the tenuis stems with the prefixes g and b, g representing the iterative (intensive) element, and b the sign of purpose, aim. Both groups which have the prefixes g and b are wholly independent as present tense forms and, therefore, form in part the perfect as well as the imperative by the addition of the suffix s.

Only three verbs show irregular tense formation, and for them regular forms surely must have existed at an earlier period. They form the perfect by means of substitution. The three verbs are these: g-tẽod pd\

7b-tẽad g-tsad thẽod «to cut, chop off; to decide” g-tẽad pa) "

g-tśog pa b-tśag g-tśag thẽog-8 «to break, split, cleave” g-tśoŋ ba b-Soŋ-s — — «to undermine, wash out”

In place of a form *g-tśaŋ or *b-tẽaŋ the last named verb has as a substitute the form b-áoŋ-s, which indicates imminution of the initial sound.

The verbs with prefix 1 use only the suffix s. There are no more than three comprising this group:

l-tẽeb pa l-tẽeb — — “to kill oneself” l-tśog-s pa l-tẽog s — — "to be agitated, tremble” l-tẽog-s pa l-tấog-8 — — “to be able”

p) Aspirata.

§ 82. Verbs with an aspirated initial sound are subdivided into two classes:

1)    Verbs with aspirata as the sign of the intransitive;

2)    Verbs with aspirata due to prefix ḥ.

In the first case the perfect, of course, is also aspirated, and we find no second perfect form, while in the other we have two perfect forms side by side (cf. §§ 32, 33, 43, 44, 52, 53).

In reference to 1)

Initial tenuis-sound:

trans. b-tSag pa «to break, split up” (§ 81)

intr. h-thśag pa «to be broken, to break» perf. thśagị-s) trans. b-tśag pa «to break, split up» (§ 81) intr. thśag-8 pa «to spring up, to be begotten» perf. thśag-8 trans. g-tśag-8 pa “to love» (§ 81) intr. thśag-8 pa «to indulge in, to be fond of» perf. thśag-81 trans. g-tśod pa «to cut, split up» (§ 81) intr. h-Ịĩiśad pa «to be cut off»

perf. thśad (also in the sense of-«to descend from»)

trans. g-tśod ])a «to cut, chop off» (§ 81) intr. thśod pa “to be cut off» perf. /hśod trans. g-tśod pa «to cut, chop off, divide» (§ 81) intr. m-thśed pa «to be cut, be scattered to spread” perf. m-thśed

trans. b-tśum pa “to contract” (§ 81) intr. thśum pa “to become contracted, to shrink ~ to be frightened” perf. thśum trans. g-tśun jxi «to subdue” (§ 81) intr. h-thśun pa “to be subdued” perf. thśun

trans. g-tśu ba    “to turn round (like the twisting of a

screw)” (§ 81) intr. h-thśu ba “to be turned round, be twisted” perf. h-thśu-s trails, g-tśeba    “to esteem, hold dear» (§ 81)

intr. fhśe ba «to be great» perf. thśe-s

trans. b-tśom pa “to conquer, subdue” (§ 81) intr. thśom pa «to be finished, accomplished” perf. thśom

trans. b-tśom pa «to conquer, subdue” (§ 81)

1 On p. 385, Ch. D. says sub vocc g-tśag-ə that it may ho synon. with thśag-s pa “to lovo.” A more detailed morphological investigation plainly shows that g-tśag-8 pa is transitive, while thśay-s pa is intransitive. Therefore, the, latter usually tends to join with tho pure dative.

intr. h-thśom-s pa «to be conquered” perf. thśom

Initial media-sound:

trans. h-dzal ba «to weigh, measure”

intr. h-thśal ba «to fluctuate in mind -- to hesitate,» «to be weighed» perf. thśal cf. b-ịśal ba § 81. trans. h-dzil ba «to expel, eject”

intr. thśil    extant in thśil s-grog “wavelets” cf. b-tśil ba

§ 81.

trans. h-dzug pa «to put into, insert; to appoint” intr. h-thśug (pa) “having reached, arrived at” possibly belongs here perf. h-thśug cf. b-tjng pa complete, § 81. trans. h-dzml pa “to put into, insert” intr. thśvd ịhi “to enter, get into,” «to be inserted* perf. thśud trans. h-dzvn pa “to tame, subdue” intr. h-ịhśun pa “to be tamed, subdued” perf. (h-)thśun cf. g-tśnn ịhi intensive-completive, §§ 81 and 82.

trans. h-dzmn pa «to contract, cause to shudder” intr. thśum pa «to be contracted, to shrink, to be frightened”

perf. thśum cf. b-tśum pa § 81. trails, h-dzur ba, “to draw tight”

intr. thśur ba «a kind of cheese or curd extracted from milk after boiling and evaporation,” very probably belongs here, cf. b-tśur ba § 81. trans. h-dzoba    «to be fascinating, charming”; «to fetter»v

intr. thśo ba «to be fettered, chained” perf. ?

trans. h-dzo ba    «to milk”

intr. thśo    originally «to be milked” still extant in thśo

bra and thśo ris “extraction,” yet in most cases in the meaning of «descent, family.» trans. h-dzog pa «to cut, chop, split up» intr. h-thŚag pa «to be broken, (be cut)» perf. h-thśag cf. b-tśag pa and b-tśog pa § 82, 1 and § 81 trans. h-dzom-s pa «to conquer, subdue» intr. h-thśom-s pa «to be conquered” perf. thśom cf. h-tĩiśom-s pa § 82,1 and b-tśom pa § 81. trans. h-dzol ba «to let hang down» intr. h-thśol ba «to be topsy-turvy, upsidc-down» perf. h-thśol (?)

In addition to these it is necessary also to mention the following few verbs, where aspirata certainly was used in the production of the intransitive. The corresponding transitive tenuis forms can no longer be definitely traced.

thśa ba «to go away, start» m-thśi ba «to go, come; to appear» thśa-8 pa «to set forth, dcpart» h-thśi ba «to die»

The first three verbs are forms of √da (4) «to move forward» palatalized by ya btags. A corresponding tenuis form *b-tśáh ba in all probability had the meaning of «to send» as in g-doŋ ba «to go» and g-toŋ ba «to send» (cf. § 2). Compare also the form b-tśah ba byed pa «to give notice” and b-tśah yig «letter of notice,» — Tho fourth verb h-thśi ba is a form of √da (11) «to vanish» palatalized by ya btags, of which g-tśil ba «to destroy, annihilate” is the tenuis form.

Further :

h-tliśar ba «to arise, become visible”

intransitive; therefore we have in the first place aspiration along with the present tense prefix ḥ. The form h-thśar ba is based on √*da (1Ō)Ī) «to become light (shine),» from which derived tho transitives g-tśar ba «to cut out, knock out” («to make appear»), and g-tśor ba «to spread, scatter.” The perfect tense of above mentioned h-thśar ba is ấar, cf. §§ 90—-97.

h-thẽor ba «to flee, escape”

intransitive because of aspiration; the ḥ of the present tense also requires aspiration. Passive voice of h-thẽor ba (= g-tẽor ba!) «to pursue”; cf. also h-thẽor ba § 83.

h-thẽim-s pa «to bo full, become full”

quartary formation of the tertiary form h-khyim-8 pa «to be encircled with a halo, like tho sun and moon.” To h-khyim-8 pa answer the media-form h-gyim pa «the circumference” and the tenuis-form 8-kyim «dressed leather”; both are substantives formed by means of final m (s. § 12), belonging to s-kyaẤt pa «to cover, envelop.” The aspiration in h-thẽim(-s) pa is thus the sign of the intransitive or passive.

[ḥ-]th£ud pa «to get into, penetrate”

intransitive, therefore aspiration; perf. thẽud

m-thẽoŋ ba «to leap up, jump”

intransitive, wherefore aspiration besides aspiration required by prefix m (cf. § 8,3).

§ 83. In reference to (2) compare the text in § 33.

h-thẽag pa «to tread, walk, move” perf. thẽag-s

b-tSag-8    fut. b-tẽag

In the case of this verb wo are dealing only with a tenuis stem, which as a result of the present tense prefix ḥ was forced to undergo aspiration. Proof of this are the two perfect forms. Although the original verb b-tẽag was lost, it undoubtedly meant something like «to bring.” It is a quartary form either of √*ga (13) «to proceed to» (from which h-khyog pa «to bring”), or of √da (4) «to move forward.®

h-thẽaŋ ba «to hold, take hold of”

perf. thẽaŋ27 still extant in thẽaŋ b-zuŋ «closed

hand”28 (compare h-zuŋ ba «to capture”)

b-tśaŋ-s fut. h-tśaŋ imper. thśoŋ{-s) (cf. § 81) h-thśab pa «to conceal, keep secret”

perf. thśab29 represented by thśab ma «lid, valve,” thśah tf-go «door,” t/tśah brom «ice,” etc. b-fmb-s fut. b-tśah imper. thśob (cf. § 81) h-thśam pa «to accord, agree”

perf. *thśam(-s) extant in thśam b-zag «to be in a tranquil state, to keep quiet” *b-tśam (a verb b-tśam pa, b-tśam-s cannot be traced anymore; yet it is not at all wrong to surmise its having once existed). h-thśah ba “to draw up, construct” perf. h-thśa-s

b-tśa-s fut. b-tśah imper. thSos

b-ija-s as perfect form is still extant only in

b-tśa-s raŋ “notification, information” b-tśa-s pahi khrim-s “Buddhist canon, religious regulations” cf. b-tśah ba byed pa «to give notice” b-tśah yig “letter of notice” h-thśal he “to fluctuate in mind, be confused, hesitate”

perf. thśal30 extant in thśal thśil “wavering, fluctuating”

b-tśal this form belongs here.

b-tśal ba means «to weigh” = «to make fluctuate,* intensive-completive of h-dzal baì

We should remember that h-thẽal ba, and b-tẽal ba really are quartary forms of h-gyel ba «to fall down, tumble,” possibly also of s-kyal «swimming» or h-khyal “irrelevant.” In their quartary character these forms point to a more recent period, according to Laufer not prior to the ninth century A. D. Thus it is also clear that, as tho language deteriorated, the true feeling for the laws of word formation gradually vanished.

h-thẽiŋ ba «to bind, make fast”

perf. thẽiŋ-s still used in the meaning of «that which binds.” (Though the translation appears as in the present tense, thẽiŋ-s is nevertheless a form of tho perfect tense). b-Ịẽiŋ-s fut. b-tẽiŋ imper. h-thsiŋ(-s) (cf. §81) h-tìiẽib{-s) pa «to mount a horse or carriage, to ride»

perf. thẽib-s31 extant as a substantive noun of the perfect tense in the meaning of «horse» (honorific form for r-ta). b-tẽib-s fut. b-iẽib imper. thẽib-s (cf. § 81) h-thẽir ha «to press, squeeze”

perf. tliẽir no more traceable; yet it is found in the form thsir, cf. § 108. b-tẽir cf. § 81. h-thẽu ba «to ladle water, to water»

perf. ịhẽii-s no more traceable; probably it was soon suppressed alongside with ḥ-thSu-8 pa as tho perfect tense of h-thẽu ba (§ 82). b-tẽu-8 fut. b-tẽu imper. tliẽu-s (cf. § 81). [h-]thẽud pa «to make enter, put into, insert» perf. thẽud

*b-tẽu-s no more extant, yet compare g-tẽu-8 «having interfered” fut.— imper. —

h-thẽe ba «to attest”

perf. *thśe-8 no more traceable; it soon became obliterate alongside with thife-s, the perfect form of thSe ba «to become great, grow.” b-tśe-8 fut. b-tSe imper. thśe-8 (cf. g-tśe ba § 81)

h-thấem-8 pa «to chew”

perf. *th&em-8 no longer extant in the meaning «to chew” b-tśem-8 fut. b-täem. h-théog pa «to smite»

perfl Hhśog no longer extant.

(b-tẽag-8 pa fut. b-tśag cf. § 81) h-théoŋ ba according to Ch. D. «to be holding, keep fast” cf. above h-thśaŋ ba and h-thẽiŋ ba h-thśo-8 pa «to make, prepare”

perf. thẽo s cannot be traced with certainty.

Could we possibly bring it in relation to thSo-8 «religion, doctrine ?»

h-thSo-8

b-ịèo-8 fut. b-tèo imper. thSo-8 (cf. § 81) h-théah ba «to snap at, mangle”

a transitive verb; aspiration is therefore due only to the present tense sign ḥ. The same is true also of h-thśel ba «to believe, give credence to» m-thśod pa «to revere, worship»

m-thśod pa is the only verb of this group, where the aspiration was necessitated by prefix m. By reason of the tenuis as well as of the suffix d it is the causative form of dio ba «to be a lord» or of dzo bo «lord,» thus «to make someone lord» -f prefix m (cf. § 10).

Three verbs, aspirated because of the present tense prefix ḥ, show irregular perfect and future forms in order to distinguish them from other homophonetical formations. These tenses take forms produced by imminution of the initial sound (cf. §§ 95—90). These are: h-lhẽad pa «to explain»

perf. b-Sad in distinction from théad, perfect of

h-thẽad pa «to be cut off» and of b-tẽad pa «to cut.» h-thấeg pa «to cut in twain, split; to confess»

perf. b-ẽag-8 in distinction from thSag(-s), perfect tense of h-thẽag pa «to be broken» and of b-tẽag pa «to split, cleave»1 fut. b-ẽag in distinction from b-tẽag pa «to split, cleave»

imper. ẽog in distinction from

thẽog pa «to suffice» or ịhẽog pa «to be permitted.”

In addition to these we shall enumerate a few more verbs, the aspiration of which was obviously produced by means of the present tense sign ḥ. The corresponding unaspirated tenuis or media forms are traceable, if at all, only with difficulty.

thẽod pa «to cover over, put into shade»

a transitive verb, the aspiration of which is explicable only as a result of the omission of the present tense sign ḥ (cf. § 8). Possibly it is related to g-tẽod pa (Ch. D., p. 390), whose numerous meanings also admit of a “suppressing, obstructing, stopping.» — Possibly tẽod pan «crown worn by kings» also belongs here. h-thẽam pa «to dance»

aspiration required because of present tense sign ḥ, in case it can be brought in relation to g-tẽam bu “artificial expression of feeling, flattery.” h-thẽum pa «to long for, wish”

aspiration possibly required because of ḥ; a corresponding non-aspirated or media form is not extant. h-thẽor ba «to pursue, chase”

h-thẽor ba «to flee» (§ 82) is passive voice of h-thẽor ba (= *g-ịẽor ba) «to pursue.» This h-thẽor ba is the present tense of *g-tẽor ba in the meaning of «to make flee» — aspiration then required by present tense prefix ḥ.

1 Tho language itself evidently found differentiation necessary, since tho “strengthening of the vowel” in the present (as tho overwhelming majority of verbs show), in tho perfect and the future tenses was not preservod. (cf. § 5A).

h-thẽor ba «to pursue, chase»

perf. b-ẽor in distinction from b-tẽar ba «to interview”

fut. g-ẽor in distinction from g-tẽor ba «to scatter, disperse» (cf. § 95). h-thẽor ba «to flee, escape”

perf. ẽor in distinction from b-ẽor, perfect of h-thẽor ba «to pursue.»

Y Media.

§ 84. This group contains no verbs with the inseparable prefixes g or b, unlike the media group of the gutturals, dentals and labials. We find only one verb with tho inseparable prefix m: m-dzal ba (perf. m-dzal, imper. m-diol) «to meet, interview.” Here we have the following classes:

1)    Verbs with prefix ḥ, maintained also in the perfect;

2)    Verbs with prefix ḥ and an old perfect tense;

3)    Verbs with prefix ḥ and with “substitute” perfect and future tenses formed through imminution of the initial sound.

4)    Verbs with prefix ḥ, an with perfect and future tenses formed through imminution of the initial sound.

5)    Verbs with the inseparable prefixes r or 1.

§ 85. In reference to 1) Examples:

h-dzaŋ ba —    «to devour, swallow”

h-dzah ba h-dza-s «to lame”

h-dza-8 pa ~ s-gyid 8-kyur ba «acute pain in the knee and leg,” cf. Ch. D., p. 328. h-dzah, ba —    «to confederate”

h-dzar ba (= h-byarba)t(to cohere, stick together” h-dzig-a pa h-dzig-8 “to be afraid, terrified” ḥ-dáib(-s) pa h-dzib-s «to taste, relisli» h-dzu ba h-dzu-8 «to grasp, seize» h-dzug pa h-dzug    «to plant, erect»

h-dzug pa h-dzug-8 «to insert” h-dzum pa h-dzum-8 «to cause to shudder” h-diol ba h-dìol    «to hang down (as of a robe or

garment)”

§ 80. In reference to 2) Examples: h-diag pa dzag-8    «to establish, settle”

h-diag-8 pa dzag-8 (Amundsen) «to give, donate»

§ 87. In reference to 3) Examples: h-d&al ba «to weigh, measure” perf. b-tśal (§ 81) fut. g-zal imper. h-dzol

cf. g-tśal ba (§ 81) «to spread, lay out» h-dzil ba «to expel, eject” perf. b-tśü (§81) fut. g-zil

cf. g-tśil ba (§ 81) «to spoil, destroy” h-dzug pa «to put in, insert” (cf. § 88) perf. b-tśug (§ 81) fut. g-zug imper. thśug

cf. g-tśug “difference, discord” h-dzun pa «to subdue, make tame” perf. b-tśun (§81) fut. g-śun

cf. g-tśun pa (§ 81) «to subdue” ḥ-dáum pa «to cause to shudder” (s. above to 1)) perf. b-tśum (§ 81) fut. g-ĩum

This verb has no corresponding tenuis form *g-tśum, although one probably existed in an earlier period. Provided it did not really exist, then the scheme of the future formation by moans of imminution of the initial sound was simply preserved as in the case of the other verbs referred to under 3).

h-diur ba «to draw tight” perf. b-tśur (§81) fut. —32

cf. g-tśur pa (§ 81) «to evade, shun” h-dzom-8 pa «to conquer, subdue» (cf. § 82) perf. b-tśorn(-s) (§81)

fut. g-zom (this is also future of zom pa § 93) imper. thśom

cf. g-tŚom «that which is overpowering; haughtiness, arrogance”

§ 88. In reference to 4) Examples:

h-dzah pa «to sneak, creep» perf. b-iab-8 fut. b-zab imper. —

For the future we might expect *g-zab; either this form was given up in order to differentiate it from g-zab pa «to rub with the hand; to lick,” or wo have the verb b-zab pa with inseparable prefix b. This verb takes the suffix s in the perfect and drops it again in the future tense (cf. §§ 34, 45, 54).

h-dzig pa «to destroy, devastate” perf. b-zig

fut. g-zig imper. Sig (instead of thSig) h-diig pa «to be lost, perish” perf. b-iig

fut. sig (instead of g-zig in differentiation to the above)

imper. — ḥ-dáib(-s) pa «to suck (of a baby)» perf. b-iib-s fut. g-zib h-diu ba «to melt, digest” perf. b-iu-s fut. b-zu imper. —

In reference to the future tense form see the note in connection with ḥ-dáab pa above. Here we have the verb b-iu ba with an inseparable prefix (cf. §92).

h-dzvjg pa “to go into, enter»

perf. Zug-8 in differentiation to b-iug-8 pa «to sit» zug-8 also occurs in the meaning of «to bo converted to; to be involved in» fut. — no future, because g-zug belongs to the transitive ḥ-dáug pa (cf. §§ 87 and 82)

imper. lug-s instead of thèug-s which belongs to the transitive h-dèug pa

h-dzo ba «to milk»

perf. b-zo-s Ị both forms derived from a present fut. b-zo J tense form b-zol (cf. § 92) imper. h-dzo-s h-dZog pa «to put, place, settle” perf. b-zag. fut. g-áag

inij)er. zog in distinction to four other forms thśog mentioned in Ch. D., p. 427. h-dzog pa «to cut, how, carve» (cf. §§81 and 83)

1 e^h°rr,ìl shows no weakening per . ( )zog s Ị ^ 0 to a in distinction to the fut. g-zog jformabove

imper. zog h-dzom-8 pa «to conquer, subdue» (cf. § 87)

perf. zom together with b-tśom; more correct would be *b-èom-8

fut. g-zom imper. thśom

In reference to 5). Verbs with inseparable prefixes r and 1 are governed by the rules given in §§ 27—30.

§ 89. In §§ 81—89 we have a clear example of the regularity of the tense formation. It was found that in addition to the normal, standardized means of tense formation through tenuis, aspirata, and Maut, prefix b occured only in the perfect and prefix g only in the future. If notwithstanding wo find shifting or mixture of tenses in the case of certain verbs, this is to be regarded as a tendency toward incorrectness in the language itself.

Examples of this type are: with reference to h-dzom-8 pa (§§ 81, 87, and 88): pres, b-tśom-8 perf. g-iom-8 fut. h-dìom-8 with reference to h-dzur ba (§§ 81 and 87): pres, h-diwr perf. g-tśur with reference to h-dzo ba (§ 88): pres, h-dèo perf.». b-zo-s with reference to h-dìib pa (§ 88):

pres, h-diib-8 perf. g-zib-s fut. b-áib., etc., etc.

5 Nasal.

(Compare also §§ 58 and 74)

§ 90. The group of verbs with nasal initial sound ny has either the prefixes g, m, r, and s, or none at all. Those which have no prefix, and those which have prefix g or m take no prefixes in forming the tenses, and rarely — if ever — suffix s. Verbs with the prefixes r and s come under the rules stated in §§ 27—30. A number of verbs with prefixes r and s already have the prefix b in the present tense; these likewise follow the rules given in §§ 27—30.

Only r-nyid pa “to wither, fade» is irregular: pres, r-nyid pa perf. b-r-nyid or b-r-nyi-s fut. g-r-nyid (Amundsen) or g-nyid (Ch. D.)

D. TENSE FORMATION OF VERBS WITH IMMINUTION OF THE INITIAL SOUND.

§ 91. According to what was said in §§ 75—79, we distinguish two groups in this division. The first group is composed of verbs with 1nitia.l y or ḥ, and h. The second group comprises verbs with initial

2 and A. There are indeed only very few verbs with initial y. Some take prefix g indiscriminately as the sole tense sign of all the tenses. It appears that initial y was not at all suited to take on prefix b, since we have not a single instance of its occurrence. Verbs with initial ḥ or h remain totally unchanged; rarely, if ever do we find s as the suffix for tho perfect.

If, however, we are dealing with imminution of the initial sound in the quintary degree, i. e., roots or stems with initial z and é, we observe that such verbs take the liberty of adding foreign inseparable prefixes, disregarding entirely the rightful prefix of the original verb to which they belong.

Verbs with initial z are divided into two classes :

1)    Verbs with «inseparable» prefixes g and b;

2)    Verbs without a prefix in the present tense.

§ 92. In reference to 1). Verbs of this class remain unchanged. Only the perfect suffix s may eventually be added.

Examples:

Ịg-za-s — — «to sport, play» g-zaḥ ba { „ ti    * „

"    [g-za-8 sport, play

g-£ah ba    —    — — «to believo, confide in»

g-zag pa    —    — — «to make a place for”

(used as the future of k-dzog pa “to put, place,» § 87) g-zab-pa    —    — — «to rub with the hand»

g-zab pa    —    — — “to lick»

g-áal ba    —    — — «to weigh»

(used as the future of h-dzal ba, § 87) g-zig-s pa —    — — «to investigate”

g-zib-s pa —    — — “to put or lay in order»

must be traced from the tertiary d-byib-s «figurc, form, symmetric measure” — quartary *dzib-s; therefore *zib-s + prefix g which corresponds to prefix d. Compare g-śib pa in § 95. g-zil ba    —    — — «to break down, conquer.”

(also used as the future of h-dzil ba, § 87) g-zu ba    —    — — «to strike, whip»

g-zug pa g-zuŋ[-ti] — — “to put in, insert” g-zuŋ ba g-zuŋ-s — — “to be heedful” g-zud pa    —    — — «to walk; to put into”

g-zun pa g-zun g-zun — “to subdue»

(used as the future of h-dzun pa “to subdue,» § 87) g-zum pa g-zum g-zum — «to cause to shudder” (used as the future of h-dzum pa, § 87) g-zen pa    —    — — “to kindle, inflame”

g-zer ba    —    — — “to attend, serve»

g-ze-s pa    —    — — “to be well, prosper”

g-zom pa g-zom-s — — «to be split, cracked” g-zol ba    —    — — «to flow down; alight”

(cf. h-dzol ba, § 85!) g-zol ba    —    — — «to remain fixed, absorbed

in»

g-zol ba    —    — — «to be low, open»

b-zag pa    —    — — “to wear (of cloth)»

b-zag pa    —    — — “to burst, split»

(used also as the perfect of h-dzog pa «to put, place,» § 87) b-zad pa    —    — — “to blossom, develop”

b-Sad pa    —    — — “to laugh, smile”

b-zab pa b-zab-s b-zab — “to sneak, creap»

(used as the perfect and future of h-dzah pa «to sneak, creep,” § 88)

b-èam-8 pa — — — «to stroke, caress»

from the tertiary formation byam-8 pa «love, affection»; from this the quartary form h-dzam pa «tender, soft, charming/’ whence through imminution of the initial sound *zam + formative elements = b-zam-s pa. b-Sar ba — — — «to shave, shear” b-zig pa b-zig — — «to perish»

(used as the perfect of h-dzig pa “to perish,” § 88) b-zu ba b-zu-s b-iu — «to melt, digest” b-zug-8 pa b-zug-s — — «to sit, to dwell” b-ĩud pa — — — «to start, depart” b-áur ba    — — — «to strain, filter”

(by means of suffix r causative of b-iu ba «to melt,” cf. § 13) b-áeŋ ba b-zeŋ-sb-zeŋ-s «to raise, erect”

(derived from g-deŋ ba «to raise, lift”; g-deŋ ba > g-dzeŋ ba > zeŋ ba > b-zeŋ ba; cf. DTR sub √*ga(5) «head») b-zeŋ-s pa — — —■ «to rise, get up” b-zed pa    — — — “to wish, desire”

b-zed pa    — — — “to propose, maintain”

b-zed pa b-ze-s (b-zed) — «to accept, take” b-%o ba b-éo-8 b-zo — «to milk”

(used as the perfect and future of h-dzo ba «to milk,” § 87) b-zog pa b-zog-s — — «to cut at, chip”

(used as the perfect of h-dzog pa «to cut,” § 87)

§ 93. In reference to 2). Verbs which have no prefix in the present tense take b as a prefix for the perfect (prefix s is also found frequently in the perfect) as well as g for the future tense.

Examples:

[zog pa] b-zag g-zag — «to put, place”

(b-áag as the perfect and g-hxg as the future of ḥ-diog pa, § 87).

The present tense form zag pa apparently could not maintain itself alongside with the older form h-dzog pa «to put, place, settle.” It is still extant in the sense «that which places itself, settles”; cf. examples in Ch. D., p. 106ö. ìig pa33 b-Zig g-iig — «to destroy”

(b-zig as the perfect and g-iig as the future of h-dzig pa, § 88)

(lib pa) b-Zib-8 g-ĩib — «to suck (of a baby)»

(b-ĩib-8 as the perfect and g-Zib as the future of ḥ-dáśb(-s) pa «to suck,» § 88)

I feel that the form zib is the same which Ch. D. mentions on p. 1070 in several examples. Among several we find it in the meaning «that which is minutely subdivided,» zib thẽen «one who inquires into every detail,” zib tu “exactly thoroughly,” etc.

Zu ba    b-zu-8 g-Zu — «to melt, digest”

Zu ba    (b-)zu-8 — — «to ask, request”

[*áog pa] (b-)zog-8 g-Zog — «to cut at, chip”

(b-zog-s is used as the perfect and g-Zog as the future tense of h-dzog pa «to cut, hew,” § 88. The present tense form *Zog pa can no longer be found.) iom pa b-Zom g-iom — «to suppress, subdue» (Skr.

samvfta)

(Zom is used as tho perfect and g-Zom as the future tense of h-dzam pa «to conquer,” § 88.)

The verb Zi ba “to be peaceful, be pacified” is an exception, since it remains unchanged in both the perfect and future.

To this group should be added the following combinations: mb-s    b-zab g-Zah — «to lower»

Zah-8 represents an imminution of the initial sound derived from h-dzah pa «to sneak, creep;” h-dzah pa is to be regarded as a quartary form of 8-kyah-8, etc. (cf. §§ 03 and 71); 8-kyah-8 is a tertiary form of the stem gab «to cover, conceal.» This original meaning is probably basic for the three following forms: Zah-8 «foot” — compare 8-krah pa «to beat the ground with one’s foot,” § 03, No. 27 — b-zab pa «to sneak, creep” and g-Zah pa «to rub with the hand” (cf. DTR sub √*ga (0)). zug-8 pa b-zug-8 — — «to entertain, dwell with» b-Zug-s is a quintary formation as a result of the imminution of the initial sound of h-dZug-8 which is quartary to ḥ-dug-s «to sit, dwell.” The form h-dug-8 pa belongs to √du (4) “smoke.” From this root have also derived Zug-8 pa “to cherish” = «to assemble conveniently around the fire» and Zug-8 “fire.” — The form zug-8 pa «to be converted to, to be involved in» = «entered into» belongs to h-dZug-s pa «to enter» § 88.

áud pa    — — — «to twine, twist»

points, as a quintary form, to *ḥ-dzud pa which is quartary to r-gyud pa «to tie, connect together» (sub √*ga (14) «to become connected»). éum pa    — g-lum pa — «to be timid; to cry, weep»

is, by means of the imminution of the initial sound (§ 79), a quintary form from the quartary ḥ-dáum pa (§ 87). Belated to this is the secondary form s-him pa «to contract.” The perfect form *b-zum pa might once have existed.

To enumerate here all the words with initial sound z would lead us too far afield. Undoubtedly, without exception, all these words arose as a result of imminution of the initial sound. Not a single word of this whole group is to be regarded as a primary root with the initial sound z.

§ 94. Verbs with initial z are divided into two classes:

1)    Verbs with the “inseparable” prefixes g or b;

2)    Verbs without prefix in the present tense.

§95. In reference to 1). Verbs with “inseparable” prefix g orb remain unchanged; rarely, if ever, do they add the suffix s in the perfect.

Examples:

g-ấag pa g-ấag-8 — — “to distinguish, differentiate”

(imminution of the initial sound from g-tẽay-s or b-tẽag pa § 81) g-śad pa g-ẽad — — «to explain, relate”

(imminution of the initial sound from b-tẽad pa, § 81, or h-thśad pa, § 82) g-ẽarba g-śar — — «to move one after another” g-ẽer ba 1

g Sor ba) b-ẽar (single exception!), cf. Ch. D., p. 1248.

(imminution of the initial sound from g-tẽor ba or b-tẽar, § 81, or from h-thẽor ba, § 82) g-ẽib pa g-ẽibs — — «to arrange so that one

covers the other,» also «to put side by side” (imminution of the initial sound from a *[g-]tẽib pa, which must have existed alongside with *dzib-8 pa, whence derived g-zib-8 pa (§92). These forms belong to the stem gab pa (§ 63), the form g-ẽib pa (§ 79) is thus quintary.)

g-ẽuŋ ba g-śuŋ-s — — «to rebuke, blame»

(surely an imminution of the initial sound from g-tśun pa «to reprove» (§ 81). These forms show the (probably) dialectical exchange of the final consonants n and ŋ, cf. § 5Be: Change of the final sound.) g-śe ba g-śe-s — — «to abuse, revile»

(imminution of the initial sound from a former *[g-]tác ba). g-śeg-8 pa g-śeg-8 — — «to depart (respectful)» (imminution of the initial sound from h-thśag pa «to go,» § 83). g-śer ba g-śer    — — «to ask, beg for»

(imminution of the initial sound from a former *[g-]tścr ba). g-śo ba g-Śo-s — — «to pour away»

(a quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound (§ 79) from h-phyo ba «to roam about; to flow forth (of fluids)” = «to be poured out.» Quartary: h-thśo ba, tertiary: h-phyo ba, alongside with the likewise tertiary form h-byo ba «to pour into another vessel’* (sub √*ba (4).)

g-śog pa g-śag-s- g-śag g-śog «to break through; confess» (imminution of the initial sound from b-tśag pa or b-tśog pa, § 81, and from h-thśag pa, § 82). g-śod pa (g-śod) — — «to comb»

(imminution of the initial sound from g-tśod pa to cut asunder,” § 81). g-śor ba g-śar    — — «to measure, weigh»

(used alongside with g-zal ba, § 92. By means of the imrninu-tion of the initial sound a quintary formation of b-tśal ba (§ 81) with exchange of the final consonants 1 and r, cf. § 13.) g-śor ba g-śar (?) — — «to chase, run after”

(imminution of the initial sound from g-tśor ba, § 81, or h-thśor ba, § 83). b-śah ba b-śa-s — — «to slaughter, kill”

(imminution of the initial sound from a *[b-]t£aḥ ba which belongs to √da (11) «to change into.» Related to this are h-thśi ba «to die,” and h-dzad pa «to dwindle,” with which could be associated a *[b-] tsad pa «to cause to disappear gradually,» whence g-sad pa and g-sod pa «to kill.”) b-śag(-s) pa b-śag-8 b-śag — «to explain, lay open” (imminution of the initial sound from g-tśag-8 «to comprehend,

understand,” belonging to √*da (10)c «to become light (shine),» from which is formed the secondary r-tog pa «to consider, examine.”) h-àad pa b-éad — — «to explain, declare”

(cf. g-ẽad pa, intensive form of b-Sad pa by means of prefix g.) b-Sar ba b-Sar — — «to measure, weigh»

(cf. g-ẽor ba by means of prefix g and ablaut intensive form of b-Sar pa.)

b-Sál ba b-Sal —    — «to wash out, cleanse»

(imminution of the initial sound from a b-tSal ba «towash»( ?)) b-ẽig pa b-Sig-8 — — «to destroy”

(imminution of the initial sound from an intensive form *[b-]téig pa «to destroy,” which must have existed alongside with h-diig pa, § 88, whence áig pa, § 93.) b-èìb    b-Sib-8 — — «to arrange evenly”

(cf. g-ẽib pa, which is intensive of b-èìb pa by means of prefix g.)

b-Su ba b-èu-8 b-Su b-ẽu-s «to pull off, peel” b-ẽug pa b-Śug-s — — «to barter, exchange”

(imminution of the initial sound from a *[b-]tẽug pa\ could it be possibly traced from b-tẽug pa, § 81 ?) b-Suŋ ba b-ẽuŋ — — «to bring down, degrade;

to curse”

(cf. g-Suŋ ba)

b-śud pa b-Sud — — «to take off; to scratch” (imminution of the initial sound from a tenuis form *[b-]t§ud pa, which could have existed alongside with a media form *h-dzud pa, whence the intransitive b-áud pa, § 92.) b-ẽud pa b-éud — — «to purify by fire” b-Sud pa b-ẽud — — «to put into the scabbard” b-Sum pa b-Śum-8 — — «to shed tears, to weep” (imminution of the initial sound from b-ịẽum pa, § 81; cf. g-zum pa, § 92, and him pa, § 93.) b-Surba b-Sur — — «to singe” b-áes pa b-ẽes — — «to be acquainted with,

to be friendly”

b-ẽo ba b-ẽo-s — — «to have sexual intercourse

with»

b-Soba b-ẽo-8 — — «to pour out; to vomit»

(cf. g-ẽo ba, which is really the intensive form of b-ẽo ba by means of prefix g.) b-ẽog pa b-ẽags — — «to confess”

(cf. b-ẽag-8 pa and g-ẽog pa) b-ẽor ba b-ẽor — — «to chase»

(cf. g-ẽor, by means of prefix g intensive of b-ẽor ba.) b-ẽor is used as perfect of h-thẽor ba, § 83 g-ẽor is used as future of h-thẽor ba, § 83 b-ẽolba b-ẽol — — «to wait, defer, delay»

§ 96. In reference to 2). Verbs without a prefix in the present either add no prefix in the other tenses — occasionally suffix s in the perfect

— or consistently show the prefix b in all other tenses. In the latter case, the prefixless form is to be considered as the specific form of the present tense like that of verbs with prefix ḥ. This prefixless form then came to take the place of a present tense form with “inseparable” prefix b as described in § 33, etc.

Examples:

ẽad pa    — — — «to comb, to brush”

(cf. g-śod pa, § 95) ẽar ba ẽar    — — «to rise, dawn»

(used as the perfect tense of h-thẽar ba, § 82) ẽi ba    — — — «to di

(used as the perfect tense of h-thẽi ba «to die»; cp. note to b-ẽah ba «to slaughter,” § 95.) ẽib pa    — — — «to whisper” (cf. §§ 145,

and 52)

ẽil ba    ẽil    — — «to drip through”

(cf. g-nyil ba «to dry”) ẽuŋ ba ẽuŋ-s — — «to snore, hum”

(cf. b-ẽuŋ ba «to curse” and g-Suŋ ba «to reprove,” § 95) ẽvb pa Subs (ẽub) ẽubs «to speak in a low voice” (cf. ẽib pa and §§ 145 and 51—53) ẽoŋ ba ẽoŋ    — — «to hold, contain”

ẽoŋ ba ẽoŋ    — — «to comprehend”

ẽor ba ẽar    — — «to be fled, lost; to escape”

(this ẽor can have derived only from the aspirate h-thẽor ba, § 82, if g-ẽor ba and b-ẽor ba, § 95, means «to chase, pursue”; ẽor is used as the perfect tense of h-thẽor ba, § 83.) ẽu ba    b-ẽus b-ẽu b-ẽus «to take off, peel”

Sud pa b-Sud    b-Svd — «to rub»

(cf. b-Svd pa, § 95)

Sum pa b-Sum-8    b-Sum [b-]Sum-8 «to weep»

(cf. b-Sum pa, §    95)

Ser ba    b-Ser    — — «to compare, confront”

Ses pa b-Ses — — «to know”

(cf. b-Ses pa, §    95)

Soŋ ba b-Saŋ-8ì , „

b Soŋ sj ^ —    empty, remove

(the form b-Soŋ-s is used as the perfect tense of g-tSoŋ ba, § 81)

Som pa b-Som-s)

b Sam 81 am "-Som to prepare, make ready

(quintary form of h-byem pa «to act with promptness and success,” whence the quartary forms b-tSam pa «made» and thSom pa “finished.»)

Note: Sad pa “to comb, brush" and Som pa «to prepare” have also the future forms g-Sad and g-Som.

§ 97. What was said in § 93 also applies here. Even though we should ike to regard simple roots with initial z or S as primary, we must recognize them as quintary formations (cf. § 79), based upon a primary root with original guttural, dental, or labial initial sound. In Tibetan there is not a single primary palatal root34 to be found. I shall add here a few words with initial S, the development of which may serve as a good illustration.

Saŋs    «nose (resp.)»

Saŋs can only be the imminution of the initial sound from some tenuis form which itself is no longer extant. On the other hand, the form g-tseŋ ba «to raise” (§ 105) is still extant. This form Saŋs is related to b-zeŋ-8 pa «to rise, get up» (§ 92). Thus, śaŋ-8 is an intensive form, possibly in the meaning of «that which is rising» or «that which has risen.”

San    «union»

quintary form of l-tan “joined together,” with which also goes l-dan “belonging to” (sub √*dä (3) «to become connected»); San “difference” belongs to √*ga (lì) «to part, become separated», from which derived b-god pa “to separate,” h-gyed, pa “to divide,” and khyad pa “difference”; thus, San is quintary.

San    “small boat»

like m-nyan «boat, skiff» and ion pa «to ride,» etc., to be derived from √da (5) «to be transferred»

San pa “ugly, frightful”

is related to g-nyan pa «ficrce, severe”

Sab Sub «whispering, a falsehood”

Sib pa «to whisper”

Sub pa «to speak in a low voice”

Subs    «case, covering, sheath»

Sol)    “falsehood”

These all are quintary formations derived from a tenuis form of the primary stem gab pa «to conceal, hide oneself” (§ 63), in the creation of which ablaut was applied with great virtuosity. Compare g-zab pa «to rub with the hand,” g-libs, § 92, and g-Sib pa, § 95, etc.

Sar    «the east”

Sar ba «dawning, sunrise»

Sar ba «to arise, to become visible"

These are imminutions of the tenuisform h-thSarba, § 82.

Sis    «good luck»

surely shows affinity with 8-kyid «good luck,” see DTR sub √ga (16) a Ses pa «to know»

a quintary form of √*da (10)c «to become light», whereto belong 8-ton pa “to explain,” g-nas pa «to be taught,” and others. èog pa «a wing”

éog pa is like San «small boat" (see above) a quintary formation of √da (5) «to be transferred»; cf. DTR. g-Sin pa “agreeable, gracious, good”

like Sis to be derived from 8-kyid pa. Regarding the change of final d > n or s, cf. § 12. g-Sin pa «ghost, the dead"

belongs to Si ba «to die, pass away" (§ 96). g-Sin pa “shattered, destroyed”

likewise belongs to Si ba; suffix m denotes the aspectus actionis perfectae (§ 12) g-Sed ma “hangman; the angel of death”; «the cutter, reaper» imminution of the initial sound from b-tSad pa “to cut” (§ 81); cf. also b-Sad, g-Sad, etc. (§ 118). g-Serba “moist, damp; water, fluid”

to be derived from b-tSar ba “to squeeze” (§81) b-San pa “a butcher, cruel person” cf. b‘Sah ba (§ 95)

Sul    «a way, track, narrow passage”

b-Sĩd    «road; journey”

the two latter formations belong to √bu (1) «to become opened, to blossom,” whence but «valley, ravine.” To bul belongs a form *byul which is suggested through yul «land, district.” From a corresponding tenuis form of quartary degreo derived the imminution Sul. b-Sol ma “spirit, wine”

can possibly be put in relation to h-khyal ba and h-thSal ba (§ 83) with their corresponding derivations.

E. VERBS WITH ASSIBILIZED DENTAL INITIAL SOUND.

§ 98. Closely related with the verbs palatalized by ya btags are those with assibilized dental initial sound. Also in this case we are dealing with compound as well as with simple sounds. Compound sounds (assibilized dentals) are dz, ts and ths1. The simple sibilants are z and s. In the first place we shall discuss the compound sibilants dz, ts, and th*. These merely represent a variation of compound palatals, as the following examples will show:

g-ỊSog pa «to break»    d-pyod pa «to investigate,

g-tsag pa «to thrust in,    tcst»

poke»    r-tsad pa «to quarrel, dis

pute”

tẽog pa «to have leisure” b-tsog pa «to cast filth»    byaŋ ba «purified, cleans

ed”

h-dzug pa «to put into,    g-tsaŋ ba «clean, pure"

plant»

g-tsug-s pa «to plant, erect" s-myan pa «to take care of"

zen pa «to labour, take g-tSe ba «to esteem, love”    pains”

b-r-tse ba «to love, show b-r-tson pa «to strive, exert affection,” etc.,    oneself”

etc.

§ 99. In Chandra Das we find in all 78 words which illustrate the transition from compound palatals to assibilized dentals. Of this number 53 have not changed their meaning, while the rest have undergone certain changes which we shall discuss a little later.

Among these 53 word formations, however, we do find a number that, along with the afìlaut (which in itself has a definitive function (cf. §§ 5—6), also show a change of the final consonant. We observe the following changes:

I) final d : n (2)*    V) final d : ŋ (3)

II) final d : s (1)    VI) final s : ŋ (2)

III)    final d : r (1)    VII) final r : ŋ (1)

IV)    final r : d (1)    VIII) final r : g (3)

1 In reference to this transcription compare note to § 79.

a The numerals indicate the number of verbs showing the consonantal change in question.

IX) final g : ŋ (1)    XV) final dig    (1)

X) final s : m (1)    XVI) final big    (1)

XI) final r : m (3)    XVII) final n : g    (1)

XII) final 1 : m (1)    XVIII) final ml    (2)

XIII)    final m : g (1)    XIX) final d : b    (2)

XIV)    final g id (1)    XX) final l id    (1)

It is quite probable that this change in the final consonants did not definitely appear until the realization of the value of these final formative elements was lost, that is, until a time, when the language was in a general state of decomposition, (according to Laufer during the ninth century A. D.). The inner connection governing the change of the final consonants as represented in groups I—IV and XIV—XV is still intelligible; but not quite so clear in the other groups.

§ 100. In four cases a kind of diminutive indicative of a change for the worse is brought forth by the change of the compound palatals into assibilized dentals:

tiog pa «to have leisure” nyer ba «to dress» b-tsog pa «to cast filth» h-dzar ba «to dress carelessly”

d-gyer ba «to sing»    thẽon «a tent»

h-dzer pa «to be hoarse» b-tson «prison, jail» (alongside with h-dzer «singing, music»).

§ 101. In four further cases verbal substantive nouns are formed:

h-thèos pa «to make ready” h-dzil ba «to shed blood” g-tsas pa «the harvest”    m-thsal «blood”

h-khyig pa «to bind”    thsud pa «to dig”

thsag ma «sinew, nerve” h-dzor «hoe, mattock, spade”

In addition compare

khyur po «entirely full”    byan po «the cook”

thsar ba «to fulfil, complete” h-thsod pa «to boil, cook” h-thsar ba «to be fulfilled, thsan po «hot, warm» completed”

phyan pa “continually revolving” r-t8en pa «to play, make sport»

§ 102. In five cases intensives are obtained: g-táog pa «to break, split» g-tẽog pa «to break, split» g-tsag pa «to thrust in, poke» g-tsod pa “to cut off, chop off»

b-tśah pa “to cut small, chop»

d-pyod pa “to investigate, b-zes “food, meat» test”

r-t8od pa “to quarrel, dispute” r-dzes “riches, property” b-r-gyaŋ ba “to extend, stretch out” b-tsaŋ ba “to press forward, squeeze oneself in”

§ 103. Finally, we must add the following two causatives: h-khyvd pa “to glide into” b-tẽum pa «to become contracted”

th8ud pa «to dig”    b-tsum pa «to wink with the

eye.”

F. TENSE FORMATION OF VERBS WITH ASSIBILIZED, DENTAL INITIAL SOUND,

a) Tenuis.

§ 104. The tenuis-group is divided into two classes:

1)    Verbs with “inseparable” prefixes g or b;

2)    Verbs with “inseparable” prefixes r or s.

§ 105. Verbs of the first class use only the suffix s to indicate the perfect tense.

Examples:

g-tśag pa —    — — «to thrust in, poke”

(cf. g-téog pa, § 81)

g-tsaŋ ba —    — — «to be clean, pure”

(§ 108)

g-təab pa —    —    —    «to detach with a

crowbar”

g-tsi ba g-tsi-8 (g-tsi) — «to delight in, be fond

of”

g-tsi ba g-tsi-s    — — «to invite, summon,

appoint”

g-isig-8 pa —    — — “to show one’s teeth =

to grin”

g-tsirba —    — — «to press out” (cf. b-

«ir, § 81).

g-t8ug-s pa —    —    —    «to plant, put into»

(cf. §§ 107—108) g-tsug-s pa —    — — «to bore out, excavate»

g-t8ug-8 pa —    — — «to extend, scatter”

g-tsud pa —    — — «to put into»

g-t8ub pa (g-tsub-s) — — «to rub» g-tsub-s pa —    —    —    «to churn» (§ 107)

g-tse ba g-r-tse-s (g-tse) — «to cause mischief, to

injure»

g-tseŋ ba —    — — «to summon, appoint»

= «to raise» (§ 107) g-tser ba —    — — «to injure” (§ 107)

b-tśag pa b-tsag-s ịb-tsag) — «to press out” (§ 108) b-tsaŋ ba b-tsaŋ-s (b-tsaŋ) —    «to press forward, to

squeeze oneself into» (§§ 107—108)

b-tsah pa b-tsah-s (b-tsab) —    «to cut small»

b-tsam pa b-tsam-s (b-tsam) — «to be agreeing, to be

appropriate”

b-tsah ba b-tsa-s (b-tsah) —    «to be born to, bring

forth»

b-tsah- ba b-tsa-s — — “to watch, look on»

(§ 108)

b-tsal ba b-tsal    —    —    “to seek”

b-tsir ba b-tsir    — — “to press out, squeeze”

(cf. § 108 and b-tẽir ba, § 81)

[b-tsug pa] b-tmg-s [b-tsug] (h-thsug-s) “to bore through, penetrate”

b-tsud pa —    — — “to put into” (cf.

§§ 107—108 and the above g-tsud pa) b-tsum pa b-tsum-s (b-tsum) —    “to wink with the eye”

(cf. h-dzum pa «to close; to smile» (§ 109, 4) and b-tẽum pa, § 81)

b-tsem pa b-tsem-s (b-tsem) —    «to sew» § 108)

[b-tse ba] b-tse-s — — «to cause mischief, to

injure» (§ 108) b-tso ba b-tso-8 — — «to dye»

b-tso ba b-tso-8 — — «to boil, cook»

(§§ 107-108)

[b-tsog pa] b-tsag-8 b-tsog — «to chop, mince»

(§ 108)

b-tsog pa b-tsog-8 b-t8og — “to accumulate”

(§ 109, 3)

b-Uoŋ ba b-t8oŋ-8 b-tsoŋ — “to barter, sell» (§ 108) b-t8ol ba b-t80l    — — “to seek»

For g-tsug-s pa Chandra Das gives the perfect form b-tsug-a, and for g-tsub pa the perfect form b-tsub-s. We need then to add two additional verbs, the present tense forms of which are no longer traceable: \b-tsug pa] b-tsug-8 (g-tsug-8) — «to plant, put into» [b-fsub pa] b-tsub-s (g-tsub) — “to rub» (§ 108)

§ 106. The second class of verbs with inseparable prefixes r or s are governed by the rules given in §§ 27—30. To this class belong also those few verbs which add prefix r instead of prefix 1.

P) Aspirate.

§ 107. Verbs with aspirate are divided into two classes:

1)    Verbs, the aspiration of which produces intransitives or passives;

2)    Verbs, the aspiration of which is duo only to the addition of prefix ḥ.

In reference to 1). Verbs of the first group can, of course, only show an aspirated perfect form.

Examples:

Tenuis initial sound: trans. b-tso ba    «to cook» (§ 105)

intr. thsa ba    «to be hot»

perf. (thsa-s) probably the same as

thsa-8 «of a woman in child birth» trans. b-tsaŋ ba    “to squeeze oneself into» = « to fill up»

105)

intr. th8aŋ ba “to be full» perf. th8aŋ-8

trans. g-tsug-s pa «to put into, plant» (§ 105) intr. h-thsug-8 pa "to go into, enter» perf. thsug-8

(cf. h-thsug-8 pa, § 108, and h-thśug pa, § 82)

trans. b-tsvd pa «to put into, place into» (§ 105) intr. h-thsud pa «to enter; to be placed into» perf. thsvd

(cf. Mud pa, (§ 82) trans. g-tsub-s pa «to churn» (§ 105) intr. h-thsub pa «to toss about, swirl" perf. (h-)thsub-s trans. g-tseŋ ba    «to summon, appoint” (§ 105)

intr. ḥ-thseŋ ba «to be satisfied” perf. ḥ-thseŋ-s. trans. g-tser ba    «to damage” (§ 105)

intr. h-thser ba «to grieve, sorrow”

perf. h-thser and thser, extant in thser lea «sorrow» and thser ma «thorn.» īn addition to these, we add the following verbs with initial aspirate, which as transitives possibly would have the initial sound of a nonaspirated tenuis: trans. —

intr. Mig pa    «to burn, give intolerable pain»

perf. thsig(-s)

(cf. h-thsig pa, § 108)

trans. —

intr. thsim pa    «to be contented, consoled”

perf. thsim

trans. —

intr. thsom pa    «to doubt, hesitate”

perf. tJisom-8

trans. —

intr. h-thsar ba «to be finished, completed” perf. h-thsar

(cf. Mar ba «to complete,” § 108)

trans. —

intr. h-thsig pa «to glow» perf. h-thsig

(cf. above thsig pa)

trans. —

intr. h-thsub pa «to be choked, subdued» perf. thsub-s

trans. —

intr. h-thser ba    «to shine, glitter”

perf. h-thser

(cf. h-thśar ba, § 82)

trans. —

intr. h-thsób(-s) pa «to be a substitute, to be deputy”

perf. thsob, thsab in the meaning of “a deputy, representative”

Media initial sound: trans. —    cf. however h-dzab(-s) “mischief, danger”

intr. h-thsab pa «to be afraid, to be in awe of” perf. thsab-s imper. thsób-8

trans. —    cf. however h-dzer pa «to speak, sing,”

m-dzer pa «to speak” intr. h-thser ba    «to neigh”

perf. (h-thser) trans. h-dzug-ə pa «to put into, thrust into» intr. h-thsug-s pa «to go into, enter” perf. (thsugs)

(cf. g-tsug-s pa, § 105, and h-thsug pa, § 81)

trans. h-dzud pa    «to put into, lead into, influence”

intr. h-thsud pa «to bo put into» perf. thswd

(cf.b-tsudpa, §105, andthśudpa, §82) trans. h-dzem pa «to give up, avoid» intr. thsem-s pa «to have the disadvantage” perf. thsem-8

(both verbs must certainly be classed together).

trans. —    cf. m-dzo «breed between the yak-bull and

the common cow» intr. h-thsoba    “to live; to be durable, to last»

perf. (thso-8) obsolete, now so-s trans. r-dzog-s pa “to fulfil, complete” (may possibly be placed here)

intr. h-thsog-8 pa «to come together, assemble”

perf. thsog-8 (as a verbal substantive "assembly, multitude”)

§ 108. In reference to 2). Again, the verbs of the second group have two perfects: one with aspirated and one with non-aspirated initial tenuis sound.

Examples: ḥ-thsaŋ ba «to be clean, pure» perf. thmŋ-8

g-taaŋ-a (§ 105)

thsug-a pa    usually with the negative element ma «not» in the

meaning of «to injure,” originally «not to plant.» perf. thsug-s, also in the meaning «station, rest» = «there, where one usually sets (plants) one-self.» g-tsug-s (cf. § 105) h-thsug-s pa «to bore through, pcnetrate» perf. thsug-s

b-t8ug-8 (§ 105)

(cf. h-thsug-8 pa, § 107 and h-dzug-8 pa, § 109, 4)

ḥ-thse ba «to cause damage, to injure» perf. thse-s

b-tse-s, § 105 and also g-tse ba § 105 h-thseg pa35 «to repay a kindness” perf. th8eg-8

the second perfect is not extant any more; compare however r-tseg pa “successive action, automatic movement”

h-th8ed pa «to cook” perf. h-thsed

the second perfect is no longer extant; but we find r-tsedpa «sun”

h-thsem pa «to sew”

perf. thsem-s

b-tsem-s (§ 105) and b-r-tsam-s h-thso ba «to heal, cure” perf. (h-thso)

non-aspirated perfect is missing

h-thso ba «to cook, boil».

perf. h-thso-8

b-tso-8 (§ 105)

m-thsog pa } ^ chopmince” (of*    P«» § 83)

perf. thsag-8

preserved in Sikkim in the sense of .“thin split bamboo for making baskets»

b-tsag-8 fut. b-tsog imper. tksog (§ 105)

the verb *b-tsog pa or *b-tsag pa as a present tense form is no longer extant; but compare b-tśag pa (§ 81)

(h-)thsvd pa «to dig» = «to cause to enter» perf. thsvd

b-tsud "to put into" (§ 105) thsor ba “to perceive, feel» perf. thsor

non-aspirated tenuis perfect form is no longer extant; compare b-tsol ba "to seek, look for." h-thsag pa «to press out, squceze» perf. thsag-s

b-tsag-s fut. b-tsag imper. h-thsog (§ 105)

the tenuis form h-thsag pa is the transitive of h-dzag pa “to drop, leak.» (§ 109, 5) h-thsaŋ ba “to press into, thrust into” = «to fill up» perf. thsaŋ-8

(6-tsaŋ-s, § 105) fut. b-tsaŋ

(cf. thẽaŋ ba, § 107) h-thsab pa «to repay, replace”

perf. h-th8ab-8    imper. thsob

non-aspirated tenuis perfect form is no longer extant. h-thaal ba «to wish, request, ask, seek”

perf. h-thsal    imper. h-thsol

b-tsal (§ 105)

h-thsal ba «to present, show” perf. h-thsal

non-aspirated tenuis perfect form is no longer extant. h-thsig pa «to burn, destroy by fire»

(cf. h-thsig pa, § 107)

perf. h-thsig

the second perfect form is no more extant.

h-thsir ba «to press out, squeeze” perf. h-thsir

b-tsir (§ 105)

(cf. h-thấir ba, § 83, and h-dzir ba «to leak,” with which goes ḥ-thsir ba that is transitive through the tenuis.)

h-thsog pa «to inoculate” perf. (h-thsog)

the second perfect is lacking h-thsog pa «to blame, scold” perf. (h-thsog)

the second perfect is lacking h-thsoŋ ba «to barter, sell”

perf. thsoŋ as a substantive: «trade, traffic” b-tsoŋ-s fut. b-tsoŋ (§ 105) imper. thsoŋ h-thsod pa «to cook” (see above h-thsed pa)

perf. h-thso-s (also perfect of h-thso ba «to cook,” see above) b-tso-s fut. b-tso (§ 105) imper. thso-s h-thsol ba «to seek, make search”

perf. {h-thsol), cf. above h-thsor ba

b-tsol or b-tsal (§ 105) imper. thsol In addition we have h-thso ba «to feed”

perf. *[h-]thso-s is no more extant; yet we have (b-)so-s fut. g-so

either forms represent the imminu-tions of a verb *b-tso ba or *g-tso ba «to feed”; compare b-tso ba «to dye» (§ 105)

ỵ) Media.

§ 109. Verbs with «inseparable» prefixes g or d are phonetically impossible in this group. We must distinguish the following classes:

1)    Verbs with «inseparable» prefix m;

2)    Verbs with prefix ḥ maintained in the perfect;

3)    Verbs with prefix ḥ plus an old perfect and old future;

4)    Verbs with prefix ḥ plus an old perfect and a substituted future formed through the imminution of the initial sound;

5)    Verbs with prefix ḥplus a substituted perfect and a substituted future formed through the imminution of the initial sound;

6)    Verbs with «inseparable» prefix r.

In reference to 1). These verbs remain unchanged.

Examples:

m-dzah ba (m-dze-s) —    — «to be amicable”

m-dzaŋ-s pa m-dzaŋ-s —    — «to be wise, learnc

m-dzad pa (m-dzad) (m-dzad) (m-dzod) «to make» (honorific) m-dzer pa m-dzvr —    — “to speak»

m-dze-s pa m-dze-s —    — «to be handsome»

In reference to 2). Examples:

h-dzab pa h-dzab —    — «to count on the beads”

ḥ-dzab pa h-dzab    —    — “to strive, endeavour”

h-dzi ba h-dzi    —    — «to be busy, be absorb

ed”

h-dzi ba h-dzi    —    — «to abstain from»

h-dziŋ ba h-dziŋ-s —    — «to contend with»

h-dzir ba h-dzir    —    — «to trickle off”

(cf. h-thsir ba, § 108, g-tsir ba and h-tsir ba, § 105) fy-dzn ba h-dzu-s —    — «to catch at»

(cf. h-dzu ha § 85) h-dzul ba h-dzul    —    — «to glide or steal away”

h-dzeg pa h-dzeg    —    — «to climb up, ascend»

(cf. g-tseŋ ba, § 105, h-thseŋ ba, § 107 and h-lhseg pa, § 108)

h-dzeŋ ba h-dzeŋ    —    — «to throw stones»

h-dzeŋ ba h-dzeŋ    —    — «to project, stick out”

h-dzem pa h-dzem-s —    — «to shrink from, avoid»

h-dzer ba h-dzer    —    — «to speak, sing”

h-dzer ba h-dzer — — «to be hoarse» h-dzog pa h-dzog    —    — «to fold the fist»

h-dzom pa h-dzom-8 — — «to come together,

meet»

h-dzom pa h-dzom-8 —    — «to interlace”

h-dzol ba h-dzol    —    — «to go in the wrong

way»

h-dzol ba h-dzol    — — «to intermix, confuse”

In reference to 3). Example:

h-dzog pa b-tsog-8 b-tsog — «to accumulate” (cf.

(§ 105)    § 3,2)

(Amundsen)

In reference to 4) Examples:

h-dzug-s pa b-tsug-s g-zug-s — «to put into, insert” (cf. g-tsug-s pa, § 105, b-tsug-s pa, § 105, h-thsug-s pa, § 107, and h-dzug pa, § 87) h-dzud pa b-tsud g-zud thsud «to lead into, influence”

(cf. b-tsud pa, § 105, h-thsud pa, § 107, thsud pa, § 108, and thẽud pa, § 82) h-dzum pa b-tsum g-zum thsum «to shut”

(cf. b-tsum pa, § 105, b-tẽum pa, § 81, h-dhim pa, § 87)

In reference to 5). Examples:

h-dzag pa g-zag-s g-zag — «to trickle off”

(here we have a former present tense form g-zag; cf. b-tsag pa, § 105, b-tsog pa «to pile up,” § 105, h-thsog-s pa intransitive of r-dzog-s pa, § 107, h-thsag pa, § 108, h-thsog pa «to inoculate,” § 108, and others.)

h-dzad pa zad    —    — «to run down, become

exhausted”

h-dzarba b-zar g-zar — «to fling over» (clothes) (compare herewith intransitive h-dzol ba, § 85; the latter is intransitive on account of final 1!) h-dzin pa b-zuŋ g-zuŋ zuŋ-s «to seize, grasp»

(b-zuŋ and g-zuŋ are to be traced from h-dzu ba «to seize on»; see also § 5 Change of the Final Sound.)

h-dzug-s pa ịb-'ịzug-s g-zug — «to put, stick, erect”

(see above)

h-dzud pa [b-]«ud g-zud thsud «to lead into» (see

above)

h-dzum pa [b-]zum g-zum thsum «to shut” (see above) h-dzur ba b-zur g-zur — «to draw back, to shy» ḥ-dzed pa b-zed g-zed — «to hold out”

(g-«ed, however, in the sense «to carry”)

In reference to 6). The words with “inseparable” prefix r are governed by the rules given in §§ 27—30.

G. IMMINUTION OF THE INITIAL SOUND OF ASSIBILIZED DENTALS.

§ 110. The initial sound of a word formed by assibilized dentals, as in the case with the compound palatals, is subject to imminution or reduction of the initial sound. The media dz is reduced to z. the tenuis ts and the aspirated tenuis ths to s. Analogous to the case of the compound palatals (s. § 79), where we have the imminution of the initial sound as a formation of the fifth degree, we call this reduction also a quintary sibilant formation.

Examples of quintary sibilant formation:

a)    of a guttural root:

based on √*ga (5)a: h-dzeŋ ba «to project, to be prominent” g-zeŋ-s pa «height, loftiness,” and from a tenuis form pertaining to it seŋ ba «to raise what was hanging down»

based on √ga (16)b: h-dzer pa «to say, speak» zer pa «to speak» based on √*ga (5)a: h-dzug-s pa «to raise»

zug pa «a building”

b)    of a labial root:

based on √ba(ĩj: h-thsag pa «thick, obese»

sag pa «a little bubble» based on √*ba (3): h-dzaf) pa «to strive, endeavour»

b-zab pa «to be careful, attentive”

c)    of a dental root:

based on √da (11): h-dzad pa «to dwindle, to bo consumed» zad po «old cloth» and from a tenuis form pertaining to it g-sad pa ‘ ‘extinguished; death * ’

based on √da (5): h-thsab pa «to repay” b-sab pa «to repay” based on √*du (6): h-dzug-s pa «to thrust into; to prick” g-zug    «pain»

based on √*da(10)a: s-tsal    “said, commanded”

b-sal ba “advertising, announcement,” etc., etc.

Where we find forms such as h-diŋ ba “to lay out” and siŋ ba “to sort out,» g-duŋ ba «to long for” and g-zuŋ ba “inclination, bias,” g-deŋ ba “to lift” and seŋ ba “to raise what was hanging down,” ḥ-doŋ ba “to go” and soŋ “gone,” or h-dem pa «to prove, examine,” and sem-s pa “to think,” etc., side by side, the sibilant has not been developed from the stop sound as in Germanic. Rather does the Tibetan recognize in the initial sound a transition from the dental to the simple sibilant only as a result of the palatalization with ya btags. Moreover, a direct transition from d to s in the initial sound becomes possible only through palatalization with ra btags (s. § 127) as well as with the prefix d (s. § 18).

H. TENSE FORMATION OF VERBS WITH SIMPLE DENTAL SIBILANT IN THE INITIAL SOUND.

§111. In the matter of tense formation we are confronted with two groups of verbs. The first group comprises verbs having initial z, the second having initial s. Those verbs which have initial z + la btags, s + ra btags, and s la btags, whose origin we shall discuss later in §§ 127—128, 139—140, and 137 belong, as far as tense formation is concerned, likewise to group 1 or 2.

§ 112. Those verbs which have the intial sound z are grouped into two classes:

1)    Verbs with the «inseparable» prefixes g or b;

2)    Verbs with no prefix in the present tense.

§ 113. In reference to 1). Verbs with the «inseparable” prefixes g or b remain unchanged; or, if changed at all, take the perfect suffix s.

Examples:

g-zag pa g-zag    — — «to drip, trickle”

(imminution of the initial sound from h-dzag pa, § 109, 5)

g-zag-s pa g-zag-s    —    — «to magnify, multiply”

g-zan pa g-zan    —    — «to devour, consume”

g-zab(s) pa g-zab-s g-zab g-zob-s «to use diligence”

(imminution of the initial sound from h-dzab pa, § 109, 2)

[*g-zaḥ ba] g-za-s    — — «to eat»

g-za8 pa g-zas    —    — «to set about, prepare

for”

g-zas pa g-zas    — — «to brandish”

g-zar ba g-zar    —    — «to put over (clothes)»

(imminution of the initial sound from h-dzar ba, § 109, 5)

g-zig-s pa g-zig-s    — — «to see, observe” (ho

norific)

g-zig-s pa g-zig-s    —    — «to give, grant»

g-zig-s pa g-zig-s    — — “to accept, take; buy»

g-zim pa g-zim-s    —    — «to sleep, fall asleep»

g-zir ba g-zir    — — «to be afflicted; to

suffer”

g-zvjg pa g-zug    —    — «to sustain, to be able

to bear”

g-zug pa g-zug-s    — — «to put into, put up»

(imminution of tho initial sound from h-dzug-s pa, § 109,4)

(g-zuŋ ba) g-zuŋ-szuŋ-s «to seize, take hold of» (imminution of the initial sound from h-dzu[ŋ] ba, § 109,2)

g-zud pa g-zud    —    — “to lead, induce”

(imminution of the initial sound from ḥ-dzud pa, § 109,4)

g-zum pa g-zum[-s] — — «to shoot”

(imminution of the initial sound from h-dzum pa § 109,4)

g-zur ba g-zur    — — «to draw back, to shy»

(cf. b-zur ba)

g-zed pa g-zed    —    — «to spit on a spike»

g-zem pa g-zem    —    — «to do a thing gently»

(imminution of the initial sound from h-dzern pa,

g-zer ba g-zer    — — “to bore into, knock

in»

g-zer ba g-zer    — — «to feel pain, be suf

fering”

g-zo ba g-zo    — — «to remember, keep in

mind”

g-zon pa g-zon    — — «to take in, listen to”

b-zaŋ ba b-zaŋ    — — “to be good”

b-zab pa b-«ab-s — — «to use diligence”

(cf. g-zab{-s) pa the intensive form of this)

b zah ba ^-za-sị    — — «to eat»

b-zo-sj (cf. g-za-8 intensive form of this)

b-zar ba b-zar    — — «to put over (clothes)»

(cf. g-zar ba the intensive form of this) b-zi ba b-zi[-8\    — — «to become drunk,

stupified»

b-zuŋ ba b-zuŋ(-8) — — «to lay hold on, captu-

re

(cf. g-zuŋ ba the intensive form of this) b-zur ba b-zur    —    — «to draw back, to shy»

(imminution of the initial sound from h-dzur ba, § 109,5)

b-zed pa b-zed    —    — «to endure»

(cf. g-zed pa the intensive form of this) b-zo ba b-zo-8    — — «to make, manufac

ture”

(cf. b-tso ba, § 81) b-zod pa b-zod    — — «to suffer, endure; to

resist”

(immunition of the initial sound from h-dzed pa § 109,5)

b-zod pa b-zod    — — «to forgive, pardon”

b-zob pa b-zob    —    — «to fill up, complete”

b-zla-8 pa b-zla-s    — — “to mutter”

b-zlug-8 pa b-zlug-8 —-    — “to inquire, ask for”

§ 114. In reference to 2). As a rule the few verbs which have no prefix in the present, remain unchanged; very occasionally the perfect suffix s occurs.

Examples:

zab pa zab-8 zab    — «to make deep, dee

pen”

(cf. b-zab pa and g-zab pa, § 113) zin pa zin    — — «to commit to memory,

learn»

zin pa zin    —    — «to be finished, ter

minated”

zum pa zum    zum    — «to close, shut up”

(cf. g-zum pd, § 113) zur ba zur    — — «to push»

(is b-zur ba and g-zur ba (§ 113) related to this ?) zer ba    zer    — — «to be named; to say»

The verb za ba forms an exception in so far as it is a present tense form, which takes the old perfect and future forms b-za-8 and b-zaḥ; these in turn were borrowed from the former present form b-zaḥ ba. Thus we have za ba ]

, , . \ b-za-8 b-zah zo-8 «to eat» b-zah ba )

Note: Only those verbs that have la btags take prefix b in the perfect and occasionally in the future, corresponding then to the verbs with prefix z (cf. §§ 28—29) which take b in the perfect as well as in the future.

Examples:

zlug pa [b-]zlug-8 —    — «to pour into, to cast»

dug pa b-zlug-8 (b-zlug) — «to send word»

b-zlug-8 —    — «to inquire”

zlo ba b-zlo-8 b-zlo    — «to summon, call»

zlog pa b-zlog(-8) b-zhg    — «to drive back, re

pulse”

§ 115. Verbs with initial sound s are divided into four classes:

1)    Verbs without prefix in the present tense;

2)    Verbs with prefix b in the present tense;

3)    Verbs with prefix g in the present tense;

4)    Verbs with prefix g in the present and with substituted perfect tense.

§ 116. In reference to 1). Verbs without a prefix in the present usually remain unprefixed, or, in case a prefix is added, employ b in both the perfect and future, as do verbs with prefix s (cf. §§ 29—29).

Examples:

saŋ ba saŋ-s —    — «to cleanse, make

clean»

(cf. g-tsaŋ ba, § 105) sig pa sig    —    — «to jerk, hitch up»

siŋ ba    siŋ    —    — «to pick out, sort out»

sid pa1 sid    —    — «to whistle»

sib pa1 sib    —    — «to be absorbed (as

water on the ground)”

sim pa sim    —    — «to refresh; to be re

freshed”

sug pa sug    —    — «to push, jerk, nudge”

sud pa1 snd    —    — «to cough, breathe

with difficulty”

sun pa sun    —    — «to be tired of, weary

of”

sub pa (b-)sub-s sub    — «to stop up, plug up,

to close, cork”

sum pa sum    —    — «to tie together; con

dense”

sem-s pa sem-s sem-s — «to think”

snd pa2 srid    —    — «to be possible; to

grow”

srib pa srib-s —    — «to grow dark or dus-

ky»

srug pa srug    —    — «to stir, stir up»

sruŋ ba sruŋ-s sruŋ — «to protect, shelter” sruĩj pa srub-s srub    — «to stir up, to churn”

sru-s pa sru-s    —    — «to thicken (by eva

poration)”

sreg pa sreg-s sreg    — «to destroy with fire;

to roast, bake” sred pa sred    —    — «to desire”

sre-s pa sre-s    —    — «to mix up together”

1 Compare noto to § 97 on p. 154.

* In regard to initial sr and si, son explanation in § 111. Thoso verbs havo been added here merely to supplement this list in comiection with tense formation.

sro ba    sro-s    sro    — “to warm (by fire)»

slaŋ ba slaŋ-s slaŋ    — «to raise vertically”

slab pa slabs slab    — “to learn; to teach»

slam pa slam    —    — “to roast slightly”

sloŋ ba slays slaŋ    — “to cause to rise; to

excite, inspire”

saŋ ba bsaŋ-8 b-saŋ    — “to cleanse, clcan»

(see above)

sub pa b-sub-s b-sub    — “to stop up, cork»

(see above)

svJ) pa b-sub-s b-sub    — “to erase”

seŋ ba b-saŋ-s b-saŋì    “to raise what was

b-seŋj    hanging down»

(cf. g-tseŋ ba, § 105, and h-dzeŋ ba, § 107, intransitive) sem-8 pa b-sam-s b-sarn som “to think, imagine»

(see above)

sel ba b-sal    b-sal    sol “to remove, cleanse,

blot out»

sog pa b-sag-s b-sag    — “to gather, heap up»

(cf. h-thsog-s jxi, § 107) sran pa b-sran b-sran sron “to bear, endure» sri ba b-sri-s b-sri    — “to retain, to be par

simonious”

sri ba b-sri-s b-sri    — “to wind, wrap

around”

sriŋ ba b-sriŋ-s b-sriŋ    — “to fling far away, to

postpone; to send» sruŋ ba b-sruŋ-s b-sruŋ b-sruŋ-s “to watch, guard» srub pa b-srub-s b-srub    — “to stir up, cliurn»

(see above)

(cf. g-tsub pa “to rub,» § 105, in connection with ra btags, § 120ff.)

srul ba b-srul b-srul    — “to decompose (of the

human body); to stir, to move to and fro»

sre ba b-sre-s b-sre b-sre-s “to mix with; to add,

sum up»

(cf. above sre-s pa)

sreg pa b-sreg-8 b-sreg b-sreg «to burn; to roast,

bake» (see above) srel ba b-srel b-srel    — «to rear, nurse»

sro ba b-sro-8 b-sro b-sro(-s) «to make warm (at

the fire» (see above) sroŋ ba b-sraŋ-8 b-sraŋ sroŋ{-8) «to make straight” 8lad pa b-8lad [b-slad) — «to mix» slu ba bslu-8 b-slu b-slu-s «to entice, seduce» sleb pa b-sleb-s b-sleb    — «to arrive»

slog pa b-slog-8 b-slog    — «to turn around, to

turn inside out»

(cf. zlog pa § 114) sloŋ ba b-8lay-8 b-sīaŋ sloŋ Ị «to cause to rise; to

sloŋ-s | inspire, excite» (see above)

slon pa b-slan b-slan    — «to return, repulse»

slot) pa b-slab-8 b-slab slob(-s) «to learn; to teach»

§ 117. In reference to 2). All verbs with prefix b in the present retain this b not only in the perfect, but also in the future, for reasons adequately stated in §§ 28—29, 114, 116. These verbs need not be mentioned here since groups of verbs are enumerated in detail only where pecularities or uncertainties may exist.

In reference to 3). There are extant 20 verbs with prefix g, of which 15 retain the prefix g in all tenses, exactly as in the case referred to in 2) of §§ 115 and 117; for this reason an enumeration at this time is unnecessary.

§ 118. In reference to 4). In the perfect tense the following four or five verbs have a substitute perfect taken from the verb-class with prefix b in order to differentiate between the perfect and the future. Thus, our assumption that the “separable” prefix b is to be recognized solely as a sign of the perfect tense, is strengthened (cf. §§ 24 and 58 B). Otherwise we might rightly enough have expected a substitute also for the future1.

Examples:

9+0 ba ị-so-sì g go    _ <<tonourish

o-so-sj

(cf. h-thso ba «to live,” § 107)

1 We do however find ablaut of the stem vowel o > a instead of a substitute for the future with the exception of g-ao ba and g-əo-ə pa.

g-sog pa b-sag(-8) (g-sag) — «to gather, hoard»

(cf. h-thsog-8 pa, § 107) g-sod pa b-aad g-aad\    „

b-sad] ~ to Ml‘ Slay (cf. g-tśod pa, § 81) g-sob pa b-sab g-sab    — «to fill up, complete”

(cf. b-zob pa, § 113) g-so-s pa b-so-s g-so    — «to nourish”

§ 119. After a detailed discussion of words with assibilized dental initial sound and with simple, sibilized dental initial sound it might be well now to give also a general tabulation:

tenuis aspirata media assibilized dentals ts(<tá) ths( <thẽ) dz( <dz) quartery simple, sibilized dentals by means of imminution of the initial sound    $( <ś) s(<á)    z( <z) quintary

IV. WORD FORMATION PALATALIZED BY ra btags.

§ 120. The second kind of palatalization is accomplished by ra btags. The following consonantal series are subject to this palatalization: tenuis aspirata media nasal Guttural: kr    khr    gr    —

Labial: - pr    phr    hr mr

Dental: (tr)1    —    dr    —

The initial sounds sr and hr assume, however, a special place (see later paragraphs).

Palatalization with ra blags was originally throughout intensive (cf. § 6). Even as old as this word-forming element is — and it reaches back to the very earliest beginning of the language — it has preserved for thousands of years its phonetical character. īt was not until after the ninth century, A. I)., that a simple explosive sound developed from the double sound gr, br, dr, etc.; that is, for the media the palatal d and for the tenuis the palatal t. In the first half of the ninth century, according to Laufer’s Bird Divination amongst the Tibetans, p. 86ff., ra btags could still be heard clearly in the guttural and labial scries. The transition from gr to d and from kr or khr to t became practically an established rule (except in West Tibet and Ladakh). The change from br or dr to d and from pr or phr to t is still subject to dialectical caprice. This change we call a sound-shift2. This palatal d and t is not graphically distinguished in genuine Tibetan words.

Palatal d and t which came into being after the ninth century, A. D., — if Laufer is correct — went over to dental d and t with amazing rapidity. Of tho many examples that existed two hundred years later, two may serve as illustrations.

From the stem gab «to hide» are formed h-grib pa «to grow dim, get dark» and s-grib pa «to obscure, to cover.» Initial gr became d, and the corresponding tenuis t then became t; thus there developed

1    Only in very few words, about 10 in number.

2    Cf. Laufer, Bird Divination, p. 91.

the stem *tib which, with its aspirate and media, served as the basis for further formations such as g-tib-s pa «to be gathering (of clouds),” h-ihib-8 pa «to be darkened,” l-dib pa “not clear, unintelligible,» etc.

From ḥ-greŋ ba «to stand» and s-greŋ ba «to erect” is developed in the same way l-daŋ ba «to put up,» g-deŋ ba «to lift,» s-teŋ «the top,» etc. (cf. DTR sub √*ga (5)a).

That d or t, derived through palatalization with ra btags, further changes to d or t is susceptible of proof only in the guttural series. In accordance with § 71 we shall call this a quartary formation. In a dictionary of roots it thus becomes necessary to list g-tib-s pa, etc., for example under √*ga (6) «head, enveloping.»

§ 121. Imminution or reduction of the initial sound may take place in gutturals, labials and dentals palatalized by ra btags (though not in sr and hr which are much later modern forms) as well as in those palatalized by ya btags.

Examples:

s-grig pa    “to put in order”

rig pa    «to put in order»

grog-s    “a friend, companion”

rog-8    «a friend, companion”

b-graud pa    «to open wide”

rad pa    «to open wide»

gruŋ ba    «to be very intelligent, wise”

ruŋ ba    «to be fit, capable for»

h-brub pa    «to overflow, gush forth»

rub pa    «to rush upon, attack”

h-phrag pa    «to envy, to be envious” rag(-s) pa «to be few»

h-dreg-s pa    «to pare nails, to shave the hair”

reg-s pa    «to be shaved, to be shorn”

dral ba    «to split with a blow”

ral ba    «to tear, to Ije torn, rent, cleft»

In conformity with § 75 we call this manifestation reduction of the initial sound in the first degree (of a tertiary formation).

Forms such as rig pa, rad jxi, ruŋ ba are naturally listed under r in the lexicon. Chandra Das records 114 words under r, of which 70 are immediately recognizable as reduced forms. Of the remaining 44, the origin of half is not so easily determined since intermediate forms must first be constructed. The origin of the other half remains stubbornly inexplicable. For all that, I feel myself forced in every case to the conclusion that all words beginning with r — even rag pa, riŋ ba, red pa, ran pa, etc. — are not primary forms!

§ 122. Such reduced new formations, which have thus acquired r as initial sound, take on prefixes anew36. We must next consider prefix 1 which stands in place of m with initial r2, and is subfixed (cf. § 20).

Examples: h-khrig pa «to cohere; become thick» rigs “lineage, relationship” rlig pa «testicles”

h-phrag pa    «to be envious, to envy»

rags pa    «few»

rlag pa    “destructive, ruin»

rlag pa    «to become bodiless»

rlog pa    (and derivations) «to destroy, break down»

d-krug pa    “to disturb, put in motion»

b-rlvg pa    “unsteady, not firm»

h-khrvg pa    “to fight, contend”

rings pa    “to pull down, overthrow”

b-grvd pa «to clear off husks, to shell» rud pa «a falling or fallen mass” rlud bu «a hide bag,” etc., etc.

This formation we call a reduction of the initial sound in the second degree (of a tertiary formation), in conformance with § 76. Hero we do not have an analogous kind of continued formation like that in § 76 where the transition from initial y to ḥ was discussed. The new formation here is obtained by the addition of the prefix 1 to an initial r brought about by reduction of the initial sound. Only for the purpose of better classification may we use, here and in the following paragraphs, the terms reduction of the initial

sound in the second, third or fourth degree (of a tertiary formation), etc.37

§ 123. In connection with this formation, we have still to establish that initial r changes with 1.

Examples :

8-brum pa «pregnant» rum(-8) “womb, uterus» lum-8 «a bath used as a medical cure»

druŋ-8 «root, origin” luŋ pa «native place”

riŋ ba «single, simple” liŋ ba «any entire place»

h-grib pa «to grow less, decrease” rib    «a short time, a little while»

lib    “suddenly, all at oncc»

rliŋ-8 “entire, all» liŋ-8 pa “quite round or globular”

[grim pa “to hurry, hasten») final m : ŋ (cf. § 133) riŋ-8 pa “to hurry, hasten» liŋ-8 pa «hunter,”38 etc., etc.

We call this stage of formation Substituted reduction of the’ initial sound of a tertiary formation (Reduction of the initial sound of a tertiary formation in the third degree, in accordance with § 77).

§ 124. The 1 of the initial sound thus obtained is now further capable of aspiration.

Examples:

rum(-s) «womb, uterus»

lum-8    «a bath used as a medical cure»

Ihum-s    «womb, uterus»

We denominate this kind of formation Aspirated, substituted reduction of the initial sound of a tertiary formation (Reduction of the initial sound of a tertiary formation in the fourth degree)1.

§ 125. Before initial r, obtained by means of reduction of the initial sound, h can be used in place of prefix s, as a prefix to change in-transitives to transitives since initial s -f- ra btags lies in another field of sound change (s. §§ 127—128).

Examples: h-khrig pa «to cohere» rig pa «to cohere» h-rig pa «to hang (a thief)»

dral ba “to split with a blow» ral ba “to be torn, to tear» h-ral ba “to rend, tear up»

The form h-rum pa «to break, smash» must also be added here, since it is related with grum po “a maimed person” and with khrum khrum in the phrase khrum khrum byed pa “to pound in a mortar,» and with similar derivates.

§ 126. Prefix s expresses a general intensive effect; prefix h makes a weak attempt at a parallel function. Possibly the following examples may serve as illustrations:

kraŋ “upright, straight” dral ba «to split»

{1) “upright, straight” ral ba “anything torn,

2) “alone, only (self)”    cleft”

h-raŋ “alone, single”    h-ral    «to be torn”

dril    «a roll”    b-grad paì

ril    «a ball, globe”    h-grad paj    scra*'c

ril ba    «globular, cylindrical” rad pa 1 <4

h-ril po    «round, cylindrical” h-rad pa J to scratc

h-drul ba    «to rot, to grow putrid”

rut ba    «to go bad, turn rancid” ml po 1

h-rvlpo }    ra*gedtatterCd

1 Compare also §§ 20 and 78. If the initial sound l-h was produced by means of ya btags, I functions as prefi'-. If, however, l-h was formed through the agency of ra btags or la btags, 1 is no longer prefix, but an aspirated 1.

We call this type of formation Causative-intensive formation of the reduction of the initial sound in the first degree (Reduction of the initial sound of a tertiary formation in the fifth degree).

Forms such as h-rig pa, h-ral ba (s. § 125), h-ril po (s. § 126), etc., are found in the dictionary sub h, which, however, is misleading in as much as these should be classified under r, their initial sound. Instead of prefix s, as might have been expected, prefix h1 has been added.

§ 127. The consonantal combination sr occupies a special position. In this case, s is not the initial sound palatalized by ra btags. Tho combination sr has a twofold origin. In the chapter on imminution of the assibilized dentals (§ 110) we said that in Tibetan initial s could have arisen only as a result of the transition from compound palatals to assibilized dentals -}- imminution of the initial sound. Wo do not find a direct transition from d > s in the case of palatalization with ra blags. Compare the following words with initial dental:

dro ba «to be warm»    dro-s pa «to be heated, grown

warm»

sroba «to warm, make    sro-s «twiliglit, dusk of

warm»    evening”

drod «warmth»    ḥ-dres pa «to be mixed»

b-srod pa «to dry»    sres pa «to mix up» srod «evening twilight”

drol «custom, habit»    dril “roll or rounded thing»

srol «usage, custom”    aril «silk worm”

dral ba “to split with a h-drul ba «to rot, grow putrid” blow»

b-sral ba «to separate, sort» b-srul ba «to decay (of a dead

body)»

ḥ-dre ba «to blend together” b-zed pa «to wish, desire” sre ba «to mix with»    sred pa «to desire,» etc., etc.

In this group of words, evidently we find intermediate forms like *s-dro ba, *s-dres pa, *b-8-dral ba, *b-s-drod pa, etc. It is possible to explain such an occurrence by the fact that s and d are both dentals; thus d was either assimilated to s or completely eliminated.

1 Compare a similar part which h plays in Burmeses and Siamese to which wo have previously referred in § 59.

13*

So, for example, where we find a srub pa along with g-tsud pa (from *g-tśud pa), a form like *druh pa or *s-drub pa must also have existed. The same applies to sriŋ ba (*driŋ ba, *s-dnŋ ba) «to extend” and to sroŋ ba (*droŋ ba, *8-droŋ ba) «to make straight” (cf. kraŋ in § 126)39.

In the case of b-led pa and sred pa «to wish, desire” there must likewise have existed an initial dental stem *dred analogous to b-zed *h-dzed pa (cf. § 132).

§ 128. Another method of explaining the origin of the consonantal combination sr emphasizes the fact that certain words with prefix s lose the true initial sound, replacing it by prefix s. We call this manifestation an elision of the initial sound.

Examples:

8-prug pa «to shake”    8-prul pa «a disembodied

spirit”

srug pa «to stir, twirl” srul po «a malignant spirit”

b-s-grib-8 pa «darkness, night” b-s-grib pa «to become dark” srib-s «darkness, gloom” srib pa «to grow dark,”

etc., etc.

In addition we have beside d-kri ba a form sri ba «to wind, wrap round,” and beside d-krwg pa a form srug pa «to stir up, twirl.” The forms sri ba and srug pa can only be deduced from the forms *s-kri ba and *8-krug pa. Now *s-kri ba and *s-krug pa developed either from earlier forms such as *s-d-kri ba and *s-d-krug pa (i. e. through the dropping of «d”), or by assimilation of s + d to s. Then, too, a transition from prefix d to s is possible (cf. § 16), whereby forms like d-kri ba and d-krug pa could directly become *s-kri ba and *s-krug pa.

§ 129. All the remaining words with initial sr are easily explained and can bo traced readily enough to their origin. Compare b-krab pa «to choose from among many” srab pa «narrow, slight” sraḥ mo «thin, fine, tender” or

krum-8 «meat (offered to a respected person)” srurn «flesh of animals used as food (resp.)»

and others. Thus the matter of explaining the origin of these words is clear1, e. g. srah from * 8-grab, and srum from s-grum. With *s-grab compare the form 8-grób “haughtiness, pride,” and with *8-grum compare h-grum pa «to cut off.” There are only 12 words, the origin of which is not so easily discernible; for example groŋ: braŋ: sraŋ “inhabited place, village, hamlet, camp.»

An explication of such forms is theoretically possible only in the manner explained at the close of the foregoing paragraph. The probability of such a deduction, however, is of course only relative, since the intermediate forms are no longer traceable.

There still remain such forms as kran ma and sran ma «beans.» The word kran ma is now pronounced ịan ma and appears alongside of sran ma, which latter form is deducible only from a form *s-kran ma or * 8-gran ma. Compare s-kran Ch. D., p. 120.

§ 130. Tho palatal compounds of the ya btags class offered much room for orthographic uncertainties of a more or less incorrect nature. In the ra btags class this is also possible, yet not to such an unfortunate degree. Although in the ya btag8 class these inaccuracies, even mistakes, are so very numerous that certain writers seem to have pleased only themselves in creating varied forms, we meet in fact with but few real orthographic mistakes in the ra btags class. Compare for instance d-krvg-s pa «to disturb”    gruŋ po «very intelligent”

h-drug-s pa «to stir up, agitate” druŋ po «judicious, prudent”

h-khrul «mistake, error” h-khruŋ-s pa «to be born” h-phrul ba «to be mistaken, druŋ-s «root (or origin)» err

ḥ-greŋ ba «to stand”    drag    “vehement,

violent”

kraŋ “standing”    brag    “vehement, fier

ce”

draŋ “straight, upright” khrog “hasty, rash,” and

others.

§ 131. Now and then we find an irregular or unusual orthography, especially where we meet with several homophonetical primary roots. By using the above listed means of word building, they produce forms that are sometimes analogous in outward appearance (cf. § 72). In

1 Chandra Dan enumerates 77 words sub * + ra btags (sr), twelvo of which can be explained, if at all, only with difficulty.

such cases divergent orthography might have been expressly desired, and such specific forms were then in a sense «legally» established. There exist for example six bu-roots, of which the following two are examples; √*bu (2) «mass, pile» and √*bu (6) «to vanish.» The former (√*bu(2)) produces among others the form h-brud pa «to fill up.» The latter (√*bu (6)) gives us the form ḥ-drud pa «to rub.» It is true, apparently without any special reason, there exists along with ḥ-brud pa ‘‘to fill up» another form ḥ-drud pa. This form is decidedly untenable in this connection, since it belongs to √du (1). — Again, √ba (1) «to arch» shows besides braŋ «breast» a form droŋ ma «basket with cover.» The form droŋ ma is not derived from a dental root, since no such root exists in the meaning of «to arch.» In all probability droŋ ma was formed for the direct purpose of avoiding a coincidence with (ḥ)broŋ «a wildyak» (based on √* ba (2)). —We find further that }/bu (5) «worm, insect» has produced (along with a few other similar forms) h-bru ba and ḥ-dru ba «to dig.» Such a manifestation we call exchange of the initial sound in accordance with § 721.

A small, though interesting collection could be made of just such examples as these. The instances given above will suffice to indicate to what lengths a language must go, if the genius of the language wishes to create new concepts and forms from several homophonetical roots with one and the same means at its command. Such forms as these, of course, cannot belong to the earliest creative period of tho language. Undoubtedly, they can have come into being only at a time, when a basic vocabulary was already extant and current among the people. Naturally, such forms were pronounced as the script of today indicates; on the other hand the orthographic inaccuracies mentioned in § 130 do not reproduce the sounds indicated by the letters, but merely the general palatal pronounciation of the words. Such forms showing an exchange of the initial sound evidently cannot have existed before the ninth century A. D. They are, moreover, of recent date. Now, if these combinations of letters representing a palatal sound where to be pronounced in accordance with their real value, we should have a mispronunciation which might indeed prove misleading to the investigator. The historic development of a root can be had only from an authentic dictionary of Tibetan roots.

1 This exchange of the initial sound, however, is not identical with tho so-called saltatory sound change, not to be found in Tibetan, to which we already referred on p. 17 § 2.

§ 133. When decomposition began in a later period of the language, the final formative elements lost their individuality and became practically undifferentiated in function. So we find an apparently lawless interchange of the final consonants in similar as well as in diverse word series. There follows below a complete list of the possibilities of interchange:

1)    d > 8 or d : s in accordance with the dental series, §11; com

pare byad and thSas «shape, aspect, form.»

2)    n : s in accordance with the dental series § 11; compare

khyo-8 ma and yon “a present”; m-khyen pa and ấes pa «to know»; b-kren pa and b-kres pa «hungry.»

3)    b : s, compare bob mo and bos mo “soft, mild»; khyab pa and

r-gyas pa “to embrace.”

4)    m :s, compare g-tSam pa and bya-s pa (*) “made»; h-thấo-8

pa and Som pa (*) «to make ready»; 8-brum pa “pregnant” and dru-8 ma (*) “in foal.”

5)    ŋ : s, compare 8-mray ba and 8-mra-8 pa (*) “to speak”;

g-Suŋ ba and s-myo-s pa (*) «to rebuke.”

6)    1 : s, compare r-dol ba «to come forth, make its appearance”

and r-do-8 pa «to break, flow out»; thsal and thsas «garden»; gral and gras «row, range.»

7)    g : d, compare g-tấog pa and g-tấod pa (*) «to break asunder,

split»; g-zig-8 pa and d-pyod pa «to examine into.»

8)    ŋ : d, compare b-taŋ ba «given» and b-tad pa (*) «presented

to»; g-toŋ ba and g-tod pa (*) «to send.»

9)    n : d in accordance with the dental series, § 11; compare

b-zed pa and zen pa «to wish, desire.»

10)    b : d, compare khyab pa and h-khyud pa «to embrace»; byad

and d-byib-s “shape, form.»

11)    m : d, compare byed pa “to make» and h-byem pa (*) «to act

with promptness and success”; khrod and khrom (*) “crowd, multitude (of men).”

12)    1 : d, compare nyal ba “to sleep” and g-nyid «the sleep”;

d-myal ba “to cut off» and h-thấad pa «to be cut off»; zil ‘ ‘brightness, splendour” andb-r-dzidpa “to shine, glitter.»

13)    r : d, compare h-gyur ba and phyed pa (*) «to change”;

nyer ba and m-nyed pa (*) “to clothe”; g-tấod pa and b-zar ba (*) “to cut off»; g-tấor ba and thấed pa (*) “to spread over» (s. suffix r, § 13).

14)    g : n, compare g-yog-8 pa and r-gyon pa (*) “covering, gar

ment”; h-thsag pa and thson po (*) «fat, plump»; h-thsog-s pa «to meet together, assemble» and b-tson «prison, jail.”

15)    ŋ : n, compare blaŋ-8 pa and len pa «to seize, lay hold of”;

s-nyuŋ ba and s-nyun pa (*) “to be ill”; d-byuŋ ba and h-byin pa (*) «to take out, remove» (s. § 5, p. 33).

16)    b : n, compare r-dzub “deceit, imposture» and r-dzun (*)

“falsehood, fiction, fable” (s. suffix n, § 11).

17)    m : n, compare h-khyam-8 pa and h-phyan pa (*) «to rove,

wander»; h-thấom-s pa and h-thấun pa (*) «subdued»; h-thấam pa «to dance” and Son (*) “the dance”; h-dzam pa and m-nyen (*) “supple, soft”; ram pa and ran pa (*) “a kind of grass (quitch-grass)”; h-grim pa and grin pa (*) “clever, skilful.”

18)    I : n, compare b-r-tul and r-tun pa “diligence”; zil and byin

“brightness, splendour”; r-tsol ba and b-r-tson pa «to endeavour, take pains.»

19)    r : a, compare h-byor ba and h-byon pa (*) «to come, arrive»;

ịg-nyer ba (*) «to tend, take care of» and g-nyen «kinsman.»

20)    ŋ : g, compare phyuŋ ba and s-pyug pa (*) «to expel, bannish,”

21)    b : g, compare ḥ-brub pa and brug pa (*) «to stream out, gush

forth»; g-zaJb pa and h-gyog pa (*) «to lick»; l-dib pa and l-dig pa (*) «to quiver, shudder» (s. suffix b, § 12).

22)    m : g, compare h-dzom pa and thəog-s pa (*) «to meet to

gether, assemble.”

23)    I : g, compare g-nyil ba and g-tigị-s) pa (*) «to trickle down,

drip, melt” (s. suffix 1, § 13, and g, § 10; 1 continuative, g iterative).

24)    b : ŋ, compare s-kyob pa and s-kyoŋ ba (*) «to protect”;

byab pa and h-byaŋ ba (*) «to clean, cleanse”; s-nyób pa and r-kyoŋ ba (*) “to extend, stretch forth.”

25)    m : ŋ, compare l-dom and s-loŋ mo “alms.”

26)    m :b, compare zem “barrel” and g-zeb (*) “a tent, cage”;

r-tsam pa “parched barley ground into meal” and r-t8ab-8 pa (*) “yeast, prepared from barley flour”; h-thom pa and r-tab pa (*) “to be confused.”

27)    1 : b, compare 8-nyil ba and r-tib pa «to break or pull down.”

28)    ŋ : 1, compare doŋ «a deep hole, pit» and b-r-tol (*) “a

cavern.»

29)    m : 1, compare h-kkyim pa and h-khyil ba “to twist, whirl

round;” thấam and thSol ba “headlong, full length”; khrom me and khrol po “sparkling, glittering.»

30)    ŋ : r, compare h-khyoŋ ba and h-byor ba “to arrive.”

31)    b : r, compare g-èob pa and b-Sur ba “to singe.»

32)    m : r, compare s-nem pa and 8-nar ba “to shake.”

33).    1 : r, compare kyal and kyar po “flat (not globular)”; h-thsol

ba “to seek, look for” and h-thsor ba “to perceive, feel”; yol ba “curtain” and g-yor mo “a sail»; nal “precious stone” and nor “any property, wealth, money,” etc.; cf. §§ 13 and 132.

34)    We need also to mention here another small group representing words with ya btags + final n, whoso corresponding forms with ra btags ends in g.

Examples:

d-byin pa “to incite»    d-byen pa “difference, dis-

cord»

h-phrag pa “to stir up, spur» ḥ-breg pa “to prune (trees)» h-drug(-8) pa “to stir up,    ḥ-dreg pa “to pare (nails)»

agitate»

gyon pa “to put on, wear» h-phyen pa “flatulence” phrag pa “the shoulder” brag pa “anger, (malice)» h-grag-8 pa “to bind (a load)» drag pa “vehement, severe”

8-pyan pa “to give heed, s-pyon pa\    ,

* i „ il ,    r "to go, depart”

take care    h-byon pa J

h-brog pa “herdsman”    prog pa “to run away”

grog-8 “friend, compan- grag-8 pa “fame, rumour,”

ion, fellow-    etc., etc.

labourer”

With but few exceptions such as khyab pa and h-khyud pa (sub 10), h-gyur ba and h-phyed pa (sub 13), g-zab pa and h-gyog pa (sub 21), and a few others sub 34, the examples enumerated in this paragraph under the various numbers constitute pairs from one and the same root. In each case the interchange of the final consonants is apparently to be explained by analogy, in as much as in each case a close relationship can be established between two given suffixes, that is, between ŋ and d, g and d, b and n, I and g, etc. Wherever I have discovered an analogy of this kind I have indicated it by means of an asterisk in parenthesis (*).

I have not hesitated to mention the exceptions just enumerated, since occasionally concepts arising from two different roots can lead to an association of ideas. Such a manifestation as this accounts for the many forms of one and the same concept derived, however, from different roots, as for instance h-khyol ba, h-byor ba, h-byon, h-khyoŋ ba «to arrive at,» or thấol ba, h-khyor ba, h-khyom pa «to reel,» and others.

§ 134. In this connection reference must be made to a remarkable feature of the Tibetan language to which I shall have to return later (s. § 141). We have seen that many forms with ya btags show corresponding forms with ra btags (s. § 132), as for instance r-gyab pa «to beat» and d-brab pa “to beat with a whip,» h-thấum pa «to long for» and drum pa “to wish, desirc»; r-gyan “ornament” and s-gron pa «to decorate,» etc. It should be remembered that among the dentals r appears as infix only with the media. Hence tenuis forms with ra btags, which ought to correspond to forms with ya btags, are not to be found. It is, of course, entirely possible that such forms were not produced at all, and that r in this case is to be considered merely as a prefix. Compare s-nyil ba “to throw down, break down» with r-tib pa «to break or pull down» which probably appears in place of *trib pa. Final 1 : b (cf. § 133 sub 27); g-ịèin pa «tide, firm, unshaken» with b-r-tan pa «firm, steadfast,” probably in place of %-tran pa; h-dzun pa «to subdue, make tame» with r-duŋ ba «to beat,” possibly in place of *druŋ ba40. Final n : ŋ (cf. § 133 sub 15). A similar condition we have in 8-byin pa “to give” and r-dob pa «to give» instead of *drob. In this particular case the r may at one time actually have functioned as an infix (s. § 141); today we find that metathesis has occured in this very form. Compare also h-grum pa «to pinch off, cut off,” grum po «a cripple,” and r-dum or r-gum “maimed, limbless.”

V. WORDS WITH la btags.

§ 135. It is not justifiable to regard words with la blags as of almost equal value with words palatalized by ra blags. We find la btags or subfixed 1 in the combinations of kl, gl, bl, si, (Ih), zl, and rl. In the latter combination 1 is to be thought of as a prefix (cf. §§ 20 and 122). The use of la btags may be explained in the following four ways:

1)    In the first place it was surmised that la btags stood in a certain relation to ra btags. In § 132 we called attention to the correspondence between the palatalization by ya btags and that by ra btags. In most cases a form with ya btags has a parallel form with ra btags. In a few instances we find, however, forms with la btags instead of with ra btags, but they are at best nothing more than dialectical variants. In most eases la btags functioned in the beginning as a prefix, which as a result of a consonantal accumulation was later moved forward as an initial sound.

2)    si (Ih) came about from elision of the initial sound to which 1 had been superfixed, so that when prefix s (or aspiration) was added, the original superfixed 1 took the place of the initial sound which had dropped out.

3)    si (Ih) is also the result of elision of an initial sound to which 1 had been subfixed, so that 1 became the initial sound which then took s as prefix.

4)    rl represents a former ra btags as an initial sound, with superfixed prefix 1.

§ 136. Illustrations for 1). Chandra Das gives under kl 14, under gl 19, and under bl 11 words with final consonants, in which la btags is not a simple substitute for ra blags1. It is not necessary to illustrate each of the 44 instances. A few examples will serve the same purpose.

Mag pa «to read, study” and klog pa «to read» are undoubtedly parallel forms of g-tẽag-s pa «to grasp, comprehend.” On the other hand, we cannot trace a form with ra btags.

klad pa “head, brain” is a parallel formation to d-pyod pa «to investigate, test by reasoning.” A form with ra btags does not exist.

1 In only two forms I have not yet been able to traco the origin, in klan pa “vengeanco” and blad pa “thick-headed, dull.”

Mam pa «a thick blanket» is surely an equivalent of khyéb-8 «a cover, lid» from the stem gab “to hide,» cf. § 63. (In this connection compare also s-bram “largeness, bulk» from √*ba (2) «to swell, increases)

glag-8 pa «to go, proceed» is an analogous form of h-th§ag(-8) pa “to tread, walk.» There exists, however, in the sense of «glory, fame, reputation” (grag-s), a form which corresponds phonetically to that with ra btags, but which has nothing to do with «to walk, to go.»

blag pa «to lean towards” is the counterpart of thẽag-s pa «to cling to.” There exists with ra btags a homophonetical word brag pa «anger, wrath,” which, however, is derived from an entirely different root.

blug pa “to pour.into a pot, to fill” is found along with brug pa «to flow out, stream out.” īt is only necessary here to explain why blug pa is transitive in view of the form brug pa. Without losing its medial initial sound, blug pa could form a transitive only by means of the prefix s (= *s-blug pa), as the causative form dug pa “to pour out” bears testimony. This formation will be touched upon again in § 140, illustrations to 3).

3). According to § 124 1 can again become independent and take on aspiration; so we have beside lug-s «the casting of metal” (< *s-blug) the forms Ihug pa “to pour out,» Ihug-s «successive, continuous,” Ihug ma “prose,» and Ihug po41 “abundant, luxurious.” — The form blug-s pa “to pour out” is preferably used as the perfect of l-dug-s pa “to pour out, sprinkle” (cf. § 137, b and c).

bind pa “to pour out; to offer” appears in place of *brud pa as an intensive form of ḥ-bud pa «to set free, let go.” The form blud pa is used as the perfect of l-dud pa «to offer” (cf. § 137b and c).

§ 137. a) To conclude these illustrations, we would discuss two more groups of words.

First group:

blan pa

glan pa    zlon pa

,    i j    to answer

glon pa    l-don pa

Mon pa    r-lon pa

lan «the answer”

It was pointed out in § 120 that out of palatal t and d derived from kr, khr, and gr may furthermore develop dental t and d; in other words, the tertiary roots kra, khra (ta), and gra (da) constitute the basis of the quartary root formations ta or da, which, by means of affixes and ablaut, in turn produce new words. Similarly, one is tempted to seek a relationship between l-don pa, glon pa, etc., but such a relationship is not possible because we have √*da (ĪŌ)c «to become light» (with regard to the mind) and √*da (10)a «to come forth» (as a tone), roots which are evidently original or primitive (see DTR) and stand in close relation to one another. Thus the two words don “reason, mind» and l-don pa «to answer” are the starting point of the present investigation.

In the first place it is necessary to call attention to a manifestation within the initial sound itself: Initialsoundd -f-prefix Ifrequently is changed to b + subfixed 1 — i. e., 1-d > b-l, as for instance in 1-dad pa and blad pa “to chew»; 1-dud pa and blud pa «to pour out”; l-dug-8 pa and b-lug-s pa «to pour out,” etc. Occasionally also bl takes the place of gl — analogous to the initial sounds with ra btags (s. §§ 130—131) —, as for instance in bind pa and glud pa «ransom»; blon «advice» and glon pa «to answer”; glen po and blun po «foolish, stupid,” etc.

A form like l-don pa «to answer” above shows clearly the developmental process of the group blan pa «to answer” and its derivatives. The initial sound *l-do became bio «mind, spirit” and bio pa «to be able,” whence blon «advice» and blan pa «to answer” are derived, and to this blan pa correspond glan pa, glon pa, and klon pa. Tho word zlon pa arose from tbe intensive form *s-blon pa in accordance with the development mentioned in § 139, sub 2). The forms blan and zbn further produced lan “the answer” and r-lon pa “to answer” (by a process like that described in § 122) with this difference, however, that here 1 became the initial sound and r the prefix.

b)    The transition from Id > bl can be explained phonetically only, if we regard b as a prefix to Id, hence Id > b-ìd > bl. Accordingly bio “mind, spirit” must have been derived from *b-ldo. The same principle holds for blud pa “to pour out” and b-lug-s pa «to pour out” (s. § 136). Similarly the form blud pa is to be considered as a derivative of *b-l-dud pa, which is probably a perfect form of 1-dud pa by reason of the prefix b. Accordingly, the form b-lug-8 pa is to be regarded as deriving from *b-l-dug-s pa.

c)    Only in this way is the transition from Id > gl intelligible. As bio «mind, spirit” is to be derived from *!-do, so the forms glon pa and glan pa in all probability arose from l-don pa «to answer” -|- the intensive iterative prefix g, thus giving us *g-l-don pa > glon pa and glan pa. I do not believe that the forms glon pa and glan pa are to be considered as simple forms based upon √*ga (2), subfixed by la btags. Bather have they developed through a shift of the initial sound. On the other hand, it appears that the various stages of the form glon pa were not quite clear in the mind of the Tibetans, and for this reason a tenuis form klon pa occurred alongside of the media form glon pa.

d) As far as bl: gl is concerned, wo are really not confronted here with a manifestation of interchange, but with a juxtaposition of two forms, the development of which progressed along parallel lines. Thus we have blon «an advice» giving us the forms *b-l-donblon, and glon pa «to answer” giving us *g-l-don pa > glon pa. The same is true of bind pa and glud pa «ransom» as well as of glen po and blun po «foolish, stupid,” etc.

§ 138. The second group (cf. § 137) is composed of the following words:

glen pa «stupid, ignorant, idiot”

glo8 pa «stupidity, ignorance”

blad pa «thick-headed, dull, stupid”

blun po “dull, foolish”

l-toŋ-8 pa «a dunce”

bloŋ ba «a dull person”, «imbccile»

r-moŋ-8 pa “stultified, ignorant”

The form glen pa has arisen in one of the two following ways: either it stood dialectically in place of *gren pa or s-gren po «naked, bare, poor” (analogous to r-dzen pa «naked, bare”), or s-gren po produced (by means of reduction of the initial sound) the form *ren po len po (cf. § 123), to which was added the prefix g. — Similarly the form glos like the word glen had a twofold origin and is certainly to be regarded as analogous to s-kyos pa «wasted, spoiled”; to this word also belongs s-kyon «fault, defect”; these forms are all based on √ga (12) «to decrease, vanish, decay.» To these belong also blad pa and blun po. The form blad pa developed from *b-glad pa, glad being also the basis for glod pa «to relax,” glod pa «stupidity”, glen pa «stupid” and even for both blad pa and blun po. The word blun po might be regarded as an ab-lauted form of glen pa (> *b-glen *blen blun). — The remaining forms arose through association of ideas, √da (11) «to vanish» yielded l-doŋ ba “infatuated,” whence developed *b-l-doŋ bloŋ ba «a dull person,” l-toŋ-8 pa «a dunce,” etc. √*ba (1) «to arch» produced the form r-moŋ-8 pa «stupid,” see DTR and § 65, 10).

From all this discussion to which I have devoted considerable space, we may conclude that la btags in the initial sounds kl, gl and bl was originally (with a very few exceptions) a prefix and became itself an initial sound with the prefix b and g through initial “sound shift.” After a time the Tibetan apparently felt that the forms with gl were equivalent to those palatalized by ra btags and ya btags. Thus he considered the prefix g as the initial sound and, for the purpose of further formations, added tho tenuis k to the media. We have thus in actuality a prefix k which is otherwise completely unknown in Tibetan! It is very probable that analogous forms like glag-s pa (sec p. 192) and blag pa (see p. 192) were built up largely by an unconscious parallel with the development with ra btags. It is also probable that such forms as klag pa, klad pa, klam pa, blud pa are possibly only dialectical variants. Nevertheless, one may say that la btags in general is only a fiction of the Tibetan grammarian. Forms like blug pa, blud pa, and a few others can actually have developed through reduction of the initial sound on the basis of the formation with ra btags (cf. § 122), so that the new initial sound r changed to 1, which took the prefix b. Thus, if b, g, and k are prefixes in the initial sound bl, gl, and kl, it is necessary in transcribing them to separate them, as is our custom, from the stem, thus: b-lug pa, g-lag-s pa, k-lad pa, and so on.

§ 139. Illustrations for 2).

a) Sub si Chandra Das mentions 22 words ending in consonants, of which only s-Uim pa «to roast slightly, to make brown» cannot be traced with absolute certainty. Of these 21 remaining words, 14 belong in this paragraph, since the initial sound d, prefixed by 1, is dropped on account of the additional prefix s, thus making 1 the initial sound.

Examples: l-dog pa «to rcturn»

*8-l-dog pas-log pa «to turn round = to turn inside out» along with zlog pa «to cause to return.” l-daŋ ba «to arise, get up”

*s-l-daŋ ba > s-loŋ ba «to cause to rise, to excite,” etc. (plus derivatives). l-dad pa «to contaminate, adulterate”

*8-l-dad pa8-lad pa “to mix with something of an inferior quality, adulterate” (plus derivatives).

l-dob pa «to comprehend quickly»

*8-l-dob pa > 8-lob pa “to learn, teach» (plus derivatives) 1-deb pa «to bend round, double over» (based in √*da (2) «to arrive at, reach to,» s. DTR) *8-l-deb pa > s-leb pa «income, revenue,” s-leb pa «that which comes in, to arrive.”

b)    The verb 1-daŋ ba and its derivatives have likewise a very interesting development which I shall trace here:

It has its origin in the root √*ga (5) a «head, top, uppermost end.» From this are derived the following tertiary formations: ḥ-greŋ ba «to stand”; s-greŋ ba «to put up, erect”; kraŋ and kroŋ «upright”; kroŋ ŋe «upright, straight”; furthermore glag «that which is above, the upper part.” This same glag is an analogous form of *grag, from which arose tog «point, extreme end.» To tog again are related theg pa «to lift, raise»; ḥ-deg-s pa «to lift”; g-deŋ ba «to lift, raise,” and 1-daŋ ba «to lift oneself» = «to arise, get up»; s-loŋ ba «to cause to rise»; b-8-laŋ ba «to raise, lift up,» and others. — Thus we have b-s-ldŋ ba as a quintary formation along with the form s-greŋ ba as a tertiary formation, from which again have arisen the many forms s-raŋ, 8-roŋ, b-s-raŋ, and so on.

c)    To the form s-laŋ ba «to take, accept» with its derivatives it is still necessary to add an explanation:

It has its origin in the root √da (5) «to be transferred.» From this are formed for instance b-dah ba «to carry away»; ḥ-deg-s pa «to remove”; l-dog pa «to send back»; 8-deb pa «to exchange”; r-dob pa «to give”; l-dom pa and l-dum bu «alms,” etc. — If now l-dom pa «that which is given» = «alms” shows prefix 1, we may reconstruct a form like H-daŋ ba «to be brought,» from which have been derived s-laŋ ba «to cause to be brought (for oneself)» = «to take, accept” plus the intensive forms s-loŋ ba «to request, demand” and s-loŋ mo «alms.” The form blaŋ ba (< *b-l-daŋ) «taken” also points to an archaic form *l-daŋ ba.

The form 8-Ion pa «to return; repulse,” based on the same root, is possible only as a derivative of the form l-don pa «to pay back,” which existed along with ḥ-don pa (see Ch. D., p. 694).

d)    Words having the initial sound 1 like laŋ ba, loŋ ba, «to arise,” lad mo «imitation” (cf. b-8-lad «adulteration,” 8-lad pa «to adulterate”), log pa «to go back, return” and others similar, (i. e., as far as purely Tibetan words are concerned) cannot be regarded as primary forms.

§ 140. Illustrations for 3).

Of the 22 words ending in a consonant which Ch. D. enumerates sub si, five have arisen through the elision of the initial sound which had been prefixed by s and subfixed by 1.

Examples: klad pa «what is uppermost”

*8-klad8lad (ma) «what is uppermost” or with reference to time «that which comes later.” glan pa «to mend,” glon pa «to mend”

*8-glanslan pa and slon pa «to patch, mend,” and others. Compare herewith § 128.

Of the forms in question 14 belong to § 139 and 51 to § 140. There remain but the forms slas = sras «son, male child” (mentioned in the note to § 123), sled pa (which belongs to sle ba «to twist, plait,” s. § 142), and slam pa «to roast slightly, make brown,” (which cannot be traced back to a more original form).

§ 141. Illustrations for 4).

The forms having rl as their initial sound have been discussed in § 122. Only r-lob-8 pa «to give, present” still requires an explanation. This form belongs to r-dob pa «to give» (based on √da (5) «to be trans-ferred») with which should be classed also ḥ-deb ma «a wing» — «the transferred and r-deb pa «to transfer, change.” If we wish to explain the forms r-lob-8 pa «to give” and r-lab pa «to remove, clear away,” we evidently can do so in accordance with morphological principles only by assuming the existence of a form like *drob or *dralb (forms with initial d having a subfixed 1 are not traceable), from which developed by means of reduction of the initial sound -f- suffix 1 the forms r-lob-8 pa and r-lab pa (s. §§ 20 and 122).

§ 142. In addition to the above mentioned 22 word forms with the initial sound si (zl), ending in consonants, there are 9 more which end in vowels and can be readily enough explained.

Examples:

z-lo ba «to be capable» is an intensive form of bio ba (cf. § 145). z-la ba «to recite (e. g. mantras), to respond, reply» is related to l-da gu «speech, conversation,” based on √*da (10)a «to appear = to come forth» (as sound). Development: *8-l-da*s-la > z-la (cf. § 139).

1 These five forms are slad “in the future, later” along with slad ma, slad pa, bslad pa (cf. Ch. D„ p. 1298 and p. 1323), also alon pa “to patch, mend.”

14

z-lo ba «to summon, call» is a form of z-la ba produced by ablaut.

b-z-lo-8 perfect form of z-lo ba. z-lo-8 «charm, spell» is possibly a kind of perfect-substantive of z-la ba or z-lo ba; yet it is more probably derived from l-dog ba «to change, undergo a change.» z-la «month» is based on √*da (10)b «to become light (shine)» with which must be classed *l-da ba «to shine forth»; 1-daŋ ba «to come forth (flame)»; z-la ba (< *s-l-da ba) «moon,» z-la ba “beautiful, pretty,” g-zaḥ «planet (sun, etc.),” g-zi «shine, brightness,» g-zig-s pa “to see»; zer “beam, ray,» lha «the shining one» = «God» (deva); lham me “blazings, bright”; Iho “south,” etc. z-la ba “juice, semen” is related to l-da ba “juicy,” also equal to the concept «swollen on account of humidity.» Development: *s-l-ba ba > *s-la baz-la ba (cf. § 139)

z-la bo “helper, friend, husband” I would like to relate to √*ga (14) «connection,» «to become connected,® from which developed 8-gro ga “cord, fetter,” s-grog “strap” and grogs “friend, companion, fellow-laborer.» Through reduction of the initial sound are produced *ra, *ro, rog-8 “friend, companion,” and also *ran (which is explained by gras pa «to bind”). Concerning r: 1 compare § 123. So we obtain the formations *la and *lan, which again take prefixes (cf. § 138 and note to § 142). Thus we have the words g-lan pa and g-lon pa «to patch, mend” and z-la bo «helper, friend.” sle ba «to twist, knit” obviously is related to s-brel ba «to sew on, bind together,” and its corresponding form 8-byor ba «to fasten on, bind together” (cf. § 132). A form s-bre in the sense of «a coarse material manufactured of yak’s hair for tent coverings” still exists today as an intensive-causative form of a tertiary root *bre. By means of reduction of the initial sound + a subsequent initial sound-change arose the basic form *re > *le (cf. § 123). With the aid of prefix s the form s-le ba arose to which belongs also s-led pa «knitting-needling.” The perfect tense form *s-le-s

is no longer extant. Instead we have the newer forms Ihe-s and lha-s, as the perfect forms of Ihe ba «to plait, knit» (cf. § 124). bslu ba «to seduce, decoy» I regard as an ablauted form of sle ba «to twist» (cf. § 4). By a process analogous to that which gave us Ihe ba, there developed out of b-slu ba the vulgar form Ihu ba «to seduce, decoy.» — From this must be differentiated the verb Ihu ba «to ransom» which arose from blu ba «to recompense” (cf. blud pa «to pour out, offer» as in § 136). The intensive, formed by s, is *8-blu > s-lu ba. So we arrive at the other verb b-slu ba, similar in form, but different in meaning: bslu ba, perfect bslus «to ransom, redeem.” From this is formed lu ba «to throw up phlegm, to clear the throat.” (The same might be said of the development of the form lha ba «to slough, suppurate,” derived from a tertiary root *bra.)

Note: In the initial sound zl, z has the function of the prefix s (s. §§ 16—17), a point which the Tibetan grammarians do not seem to have recognized. Compare

«to go back» l-dog pa*s-l-dog pa zlog palog pa

> Ihogs pa (s. § 124).

«to pour out» 1-dug pa*8-l-dug pazing pa > lug(-s) > Ihug pa (s. § 124).

«round”    l-dum po*s-l-dum po zlum po lums >

Ihums, Ihum ( s. § 124).

It would appear that the majority of the words with initial zl (which in most instances still have a corresponding form with initial 1 and Ih) were developed in this same way. Tho question arises here how are si and zl conditioned phonetically ? It seems that si is the earlier form, and zl only a dialectical variant. Modern oriental philology has practically made obsolete Conrady’s contention that si and Ih arose through a simple sound-change; for example si: gl; kl: Ih (ICDB, pp. 73, 76) or gl: kl: Ih (ICDB, p. 76).

VI. ROOTS AND STEMS OF THE PALATAL GROUPS.

§ 143. At the beginning of this work we defined the two words root and stem. The primary root of words with guttural, labial, and dental stems has an initial media sound and is to be found through removing the affixes. If words palatalized by ya btags and ra btags retain unimpaired their tertiary character, the primary root is likewise easily discovered in the same way. As soon, however, as the tertiary formation of the guttural series is substituted for the labial or dental series or vice versa (cf. § 72), detection of the primary root becomes more difficult. In case that a tertiary formation has gone over into a quartary and that imminution or reduction of the initial sound has taken place, we no longer have a reliable means by which to identify the primary root. The connection of such words with their primary root becomes clear only through a dictionary of Tibetan roots. The number of Tibetan primary roots is very small.

Primary roots always have an initial media sound and above all the final vowels a, o, and u — I have never found the vowels i and e in a primary root. If the media of the consonantal series g, d, and b are taken each time as the only combining elements with a, o, and u, we obtain only nine primary roots,1 which through the change of the media into tenuis, tenuis aspirata, and nasal quickly establish 27 further roots which are, however, secondary — making a total of about 36 pure primitive elements which form the base and starting point of all further word formations.

§ 144. Not a single palatal root occurs among the primary roots. One is sorely tempted to consider the word thấu «water” as such, first, because we should like to believe that such an apparently simple word as thấu with such a humble meaning as «water” must have survived from primitive times, and second, because the same word occurs with initial palatal sound in numerous related speeches (e. g., Chin, ấui;

1 However, in the compilation of the DTR wo could not stay within tho limits of these nine roots without a sacrifice of synoptic clearness. As we can gather from tho list of primary roots (see Appendix), they had to be subdivided in order to distinguish the many nuances and shades of meaning which they had developed.

Burmese ye). But first it must be observed that the initial sound of thấu is a compound one, and second that Chinese ấui (Burmese ye) and similar words must be looked upon, from the standpoint of Tibetan, as comparatively late forms. Everything points to the conclusion that in Tibetan the palatals are not primitive even through they precede in point of time the separation of the monosyllabic language family into several branches. The initial palatal sound of thấu, ấui, ye and others might have arisen out of non-palatal initial sounds through a parallel development in their respective languages. It seems more probable that ấui as well as ye was derived from a form similar to thấu through imminution of the initial sound, and that the palatalization of certain words in Tibetan is very old. Consequently Laufer’s assumption that this palatalization took place some time in the ninth century, A. D., is scarcely adequate.

I mentioned in § 73 the phonetical investigation of Laufer, who places the transition from the tertiary to the quartary stage not earlier than the ninth century A. D. Thus the word thấu «water» could not be much older. At that time «water» was pronounced not as thấu, but as ấu (or possibly zu, according to Laufer). The form ấu is quintary, derived from thấu through imminution of the initial sound, and was apparently preferred in the ninth century to the quartary form thấu. However, the word thấu cannot be of such recent date. Surely, the old word for «water» like many other archaic words should have been preserved. This transition from the tertiary to the quartary stage undoubtedly dates very far back, which does not preclude the possibility that a few words of the tertiary formation became quartary during the ninth century or even later.

Be that as it may (a philological comparison of the monosyllabic languages must determino this point later), the Tibetan thấu may be traced back with comparative certainty to a secondary √*&u or even to a primary √*gu through d-kyu ba «to filter,” b-kru ba “to wash.» The secondary √*fcu still remains unimpaired in words like b-ku ba “juice,” and others. This primitive i*ku or √*gu «water» may, to all appearances, be traced back even far beyond the Tibetan.

If a few monosyllabic (Indo-Chinese) parallels seem to bespeak a dental initial sound (cf. Conrady, «Eine merkwürdige Beziehung zwischen den austrischen und indochinesischen Sprachen,» p. 2), the Chinese on the other hand indicates a guttural initial sound. Compare

k'u42 ị|| (Giles No. 6278) «deep water,» kun3 Ịfị (Giles No. 6633) «rushing water,” kuei* (Giles No. 64J1) «flowing water,» kuz (Giles No. 6245) «dropsieal, swollen.” The following are perhaps relat" ed to the foregoing words: ku8 (Giles No. 6249) «to float,” kaix (Giles No. 5792) «flowing water, to flow,» kèng' ỊŨ (Giles No. 6008)

a/

‘soup» (s. below), and Siamese ñlfl guàk «to squeeze, press out” ‘(s. below), etc., etc.

Through the gradual development of √*gu «water” there arose, as in Indo-European, a group of associated ideas. Compare Skr. √su ‘‘to press out”; Latin sucus «juice»; Gr. (Jet «it rains»; OHG sūgan «to suck.»1 Then German √sūp is the source of Suppe (soup), saufen (to swill), and even of Saft (juice). The Tibetan √*gu forms for example (1) b-ku ba «to make extract of a drug by drawing out the juice; juice,» probably thought of at first in the sense of «to squeeze, press out,» (2) and khu ba «juice,” The form b-ku ba must be, since it begins with the tenuis, a completive form of √*gu «water, fluidity.®

The primitive i*gu and the secondary i*ku take ya btags and ra btags. The combination with ya btags gives (1) d-kyu ba «to wring out, filter” (tenuis causative and prefix d: g iterative), corresponding to b-ku ba above, (2) h-khyu ba «to be wrung out or filtered» = «to run away” (aspirata as a sign of the intransitive (cf. § 8), prefix ḥ a later addition (cf. § 59), (3) the quartary (cf. § 71) formations: (a) h-dzu ba «to melt” — this form like b-gruŋ-s pa (s. below) argues very definitely for a primary √*gu, (b) g-ịấu ba «to squeeze, strain” — compare d-kyu ba «to wring out” above, (c) b-tấu ba «to water,” (d) h-thấu ba «to water” from which comes the substantive thấu «water” = «that which is squeezed out» along with other derivates. In addition there belongs here h-dzir ba «to drip,” b-tsir ba and h-thsir ba «tc squeeze out” — «to cause to drip.»

From the combination with ra btags arose: (1) b-gruŋ-s pa «to strain through a sieve” (ra btags causative (cf. § 6 b), suffix ŋ intensive (cf. § 101), (2) b-kru ba and h-khru ba «to wash,” etc. From these forms palatalized by ra btags there developed through a sound shift (§ 120) the following forms (1) thug pa «soup,” (2) b-tuŋ ba and h-thuŋ ba «to drink,» (3) g-tuŋ in g-tuŋ byed «water,» (4) thu «saliva,» (5) thu ba «to spit out,» (6) g-tu-8 «drawn out» somewhat like «pressed out» (7) and even g-tar ba «to let blood for medical treatment” I venture to associate here. (Ablaut u : a to obtain a more special meaning, the reverse of ablaut a : u in § 41).

To b-ku ba «to press out juice» mentioned above, probably belongs d-ku ba «stench, putrid smell,» provided that first, ấuvai (Tamil) above may be traced to √su «to press out,» and that second, d-ku ba may rightly be considered an iterative-intensive squeezing along with b-ku ba «to make extract of a drug by drawing out the juice; juice.» Medicinal juice is usually drawn from plants or roots which often have a penetrating odour. Thus d-ku ba «putrid smell» can mean nothing else than «something pressed out» or «to press out.» From d-ku ba is furthermore derived kun, which is found in such compounds as kun do «onion» kun du ru «sweet smelling tree; a kind of incense,» and kun da «blue jasmine.» Even in kun h-gro, the equivalent of nam m-kha «heaven, sky,» I do not see kun which means «all, the whole,» but a kun coming from (b-)ku ba «to cause water to fall, to cause to drip.»

Word Analysis of the Palatal Groups.

§ 145. Continuing with our word analysis of § §63 seq., we determine here the remaining forms.

a) Guttural.

28)    b-tấab-8 pa «made secret, concealed”

quartary formation, s. §§ 71 and 81.

29)    h-thấab pa «to conceal, keep secret”

quartary formation, s. §§ 71 and 81.

30)    l-tấib-8    «gloves; a shield”

quartary formation, s. § 71; ablaut see note 3 to § 5.

31)    thấib pa “encompassing, covering all”

quartary formation, see § 71.

32)    h-byib pa «to conceal, envelop”

tertiary formation on account of initial sound change, see §§ 70 and 72.

33)    yib pa «to hide oneself”

imminution of the initial sound in the first degree (of a tertiary formation), see § 75.

34)    h-khyim-8 pa «to be encircled with a halo, as the sun and

moon» tertiary formation, see § 70; as to suffix m cf. § 12.

35)    h'-diah pa «to sneak, creep»

quartary formation, see §§ 71 and 88.

36)    b-zab pa «to sneak, creep»

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see §§ 79 and 92.

37)    zub pa «coat of mail»

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see § 79; as to «u» cf. ablaut § 4. Compare also above No. 30)

38)    Sub-8    «case, covering, sheath»

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see § 79.

39)    Sob    «a falsehood”

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see §§ 79 and 97.

40)    ấab Sub «whispering, falsehood”

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see §§ 79 and 97.

41)    Sib pa «to whisper”

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see §§ 79 and 97.

42)    Sub pa «to speak in a low voice”

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see §§ 79 and 97.

43)    h-thsob-8 pa «to be a deputy” = «to cover somebody» quar

tary formation of the sibilant group, see §§ 98 and 107.

44)    h-dzeb pa «to turn up a hat”

quartary formation of the sibilant group, see § 98 and § 109 in reference to 2)

45)    snb-s    «darkness, gloom, night”

formation of the ra btags group by means of initial sound elision, see § 128; cf. also § 63 sub a) Guttural No. 21.

46)    srib pa «to grow dark»

formation of the ra btags group by means of initial sound elision, see 8 128.

47)    l-dib pa «not clear, unintelligible”

formation by means of sound shift, see § 63, No. 21; cf. also § 120.

48)    g-tib-s pa «to be gathering (of clouds)”

formation by means of sound shift, see § 120.

49)    thib pa 1 tt A , A

J very dark, dense thib-8 po)    *

formation by means of sound shift, see § 120.

50)    h-thib-8 pa «to be covered, darkened» h-thib-8 po «dark, dense”

formation by means of sound shift, see § 120.

51)    h-thib-8    «covering»

formation by means of sound shift, see § 120.

b) Dental.

21)    r-tsom pa «to compose, draw up (in writing)”

tertiary sibilant formation, see §§ 98 and 106.

22)    b-r-tsam pa «to compose, draw up»

tertiary sibilant formation, see §§ 98 and 106; perfect tense of No. 21.

23)    h-dzom pa «to come together, to meet»

tertiary sibilant formation, see § 98 and § 109 in reference to 2).

24)    h-dzom po «abundant, swelling, profuse”

tertiary sibilant formation, see § 98.

25)    h-dzah pa «to strive, endeavour, be studious”

tertiary sibilant formation, see § 98 and § 109 in reference to 2).

26)    g-zab(-s) pa «to use diligence, to use care”

quartary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see §§ 1L0 and 113.

27)    b-zob pa «assiduity»

quartary sibilant formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see

§ no.

28)    g-8ob pa «to fill out or up, to complete”

quartary sibilant formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see §§ 110 fl.nH 118

29) b-r-nyab-8 pa «to take pains»

tertiary formation of the stem dab, see §§ 74 and 80.

c) Labial.

3)    h-dzoŋ    «tadpole»

quartary formation of h-boŋ ba (== *h-byoŋ), mentioned in § 65; cf. also § 71.

4)    h-dzoŋ po «oval, eliptical, cylindric»

5)    l-dzoŋ-s «a cultivated valley»

6)    tấiŋ    «a precipice”

7)    g-tấoŋ ba • «to excavate, wash out (by water)”

8)    g-tấoŋ-s    «undulating, uneven»

The forms 4)—8) are also quartary formations of h-boŋ ba mentioned above; cf. also § 71.

9)    thấaŋ    «beer, wine,» «that which is swelling up»

quartary formation of borj (s. § 65, No. 2); the analogous form of draŋ (s. § 65, No. 6); cf. §§ 71 and 132.

10) g-zaŋ    «the anus»

quintary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, evolved from h-boŋ ba (s. § 65); cf. § 79.

1 ^ jjjj    «wooden trough’1

12)    g-zoŋ-8    “valley, basin of a river»

13)    g-ấoŋ-s    «deep valley»

14)    ấoŋ ba “excavation, furrow»

15)    g-ấoŋ ba «a vessel for water»

16)    ấoŋ ba «to empty, remove”; cf. § 96

17)    b-/oŋ-sl perfect tense of ấoŋ ba.

18)    b-ấaŋ-s) the forms 11)—18) represent quintary forma

tions of h-boŋ ba (s. § 65); cf. also § 79.

19)    g-yaŋ (ba) «gulf, abyss”

tertiary formation by means of imminution of the initial sound (in the first degree), see § 75.

20)    g-t8oŋ po «river»

quartary sibilant formation of g-tấoŋ ba (s. above No. 7); cf. § 98.

21)    b-teoŋ    «onion»

quartary sibilant formation of h-boŋ ba (s. § 65); cf. § 98.

22)    g-zeŋ-s pa «wide-spread, spacious”

quintary sibilant formation by means of imminution of the initial sound, see § 110.

23)    raŋ-8 po «all, whole, entire»

24)    roŋ    «deep gorge, defile”

the forms 23) and 24) represent tertiary formations by means of reduction of the initial sound (see ra btags group); cf. § 121.

VII. Wa zur.1

§ 146. The last word-forming element which we must consider is wa zur, still preserved in the following Tibetan words: kwa    «oh»

kwa ye    «oh, holla»

khwa    «crow, raven»

khwa ta “crow, magpie» khwa ba «a rent or tax”

gwa pa «the white mark or patch on the forehead of the kyaŋ.”

grwa    “comer; school» (and combinations)

grwa pa «mouth» grwa ti “plate, disdwa ba “a medical plant”

dwag-s “bright, i. e., reference to openness or cheerful appearance of a place” dwaŋ-s “glare, lustre; pure, clean» dwaŋ-s ma “juice, gravy; relish, taste (fig.)” nywa    “muscles”

phywa    «luck, good luck»

tswa    «spunk, tinder»

r-tswa    «grass, herb»

thswa    «salt»

zwa    «hat, cap»

zwa    «nettle»

rwa    «horn, sting»

Iwa ba    «wollen blanket or cloth»

Swa    «blood; flood, high water»

ấwa ba «deer» hwa    “transient and unsteady”

hwag-s    “sugared medicine like lozenges”

As Laufer, among other Tibetologists, conjectured twenty years ago, wa zur apparently fulfilled both a graphic and a phonetic purpose. In his article «Ūber das va zur» (printed in the Wiener Zeitschrift für

1 I am grateful to Dr. F. O. Schrader for some of the examples in this chapter.

die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Vol. XII, pp. 289—307, Wien 1898, and Vol. XIII, pp. 95—109 and pp. 199—226, Wien 1899), he gives with his usual thoroughness the palaeographic information: «das untergeschriebene va zur ist also tatsächlich das selbständig ge-brauchte indische v» (p. 290). He is obliged later on to admit: «der obere Teil des ỊJ ist nicht erklärt» (pp. 293—94). To me it seems, however, more correct to say that wa (ỊỊ) is a sort of graphic variation of la (GJ).

It is worthy of note that the distinguishing cross-stroke here used is the same as that which differentiates the Slavic velar 1 (I) from the palatal 1. Apparently the inventor of Tibetan writing had exactly these two kinds of 1 in mind, when he recognized the distinction between Tibetan and Sanskrit v. The latter (once bi-labial) had become labio-dental long before his time, in contrast with the half-vocalic Tibetan w (“unsyllabic u»). The nearest approach to the latter which he knew was the velar 1 (1), and his comparison was perfectly legitimate, as is shown by the transition from 1 to u for example in Dutch goud, English gold; or in Polish Stanislas, pronounced Stanisuas. Exactly the same thing happened in South India, where the Tamir alphabet transcribed the Skr. au (unknown to the Dravidians) by el (that is e + cacuminal 1), or more rarely by avu. Thus, for example, Skr. maunam appears as melanam or mavunam. To convince oneself that wa zur, although graphically an 1, cannot be possibly a phonetic 1, one need but attempt to pronounce with a phonetic 1 the words grwa, ìiywa, or phywa to which the preceding palatals would have admitted at the most a palatal 1, from which, however, wa could never have developed.

The 1-character of the wa zur (Ịj) finds use only as an independent letter which, being independent, can only stand at the beginning of a syllable. But wa like ya btags and ra btags is capable only of medial or final placement (final, but preceding the vowel inherent in the consonant), and must then be written as a subscribed letter identical with the Sanskrit va (^). On the other hand the Sanskrit va at the beginning of a syllable is transcribed in Tibetan as ba, the b in which «itself often is pronounced u» (Jäschke). This v, interchangeable with b, is necessarily bilabial and consequently related to the original wa zur. It is, so to speak, a newly arisen or arising wa zur, taking the place of the old wa zur which has died out (except in Balti. See Jäschke, Tibetan Grammar, p. 8).

In a few language related to Tibetan wa zur occurs as w or u. This

sound is still indicated in Burmese writing by w. Compare: Tib. ấwa

«blood»= Burmese ĩwẽ8 G Cg§; Tib. dwag-a «to come out (in evidence)”

= Burm. thwek OgOtS or gu»8 0^08 «to proceed»; or Tib. glag-8 «to

proceed, advance” = Burm. kywa ỊŌg, and others. To Tib. khwa

«crow» corresponds Chinese kua1 ị§ẽ (Giles No. 6298) and Siamese

f|1; to Tib. khwa «tax, rent” corresponds Chin, kua* ^ (Giles i

No. 6310) and Siamese x “price, amount”; to Tib. grwa pa «mouth» compare Chin, kua1 ị§ị «a crooked mouth» (Giles No. 6300); or to Tib. klan pa «to vituperate” compare Chin, kuai* (Giles No. 6330); to Tib. kiwi «above” compare Chin, kuan1 «top, point (of a cap)” ĨĒS (Giles No. 6373) or Chin, k'uei1 «helmot” SI (Giles No. 6482); to Tib. glan pa «to mend» compare Chin, kuan1 «to shut, connect, implicate” $] (Giles No. 6368); or compare: Tib. klog pa «to study” = Siam, klọk «poem» = Chin, kuan1 «to examine” ffỊị (Giles No. 6363); Tib. glan pa «to come back, return” = Chin, kuei1 or ẽifiT (Giles No. 6429 and 6419); Tib. kloŋ «broad, extended” = Chin, kuang3 (Giles No. 6397); Tib. zla ba «moon» = Siam, s/d «clear, bright” and many others. —

A number of words with wa zur indicate that an attempt was made to use it as an infix in the same way as ya btags was used for palatalization. For example the following words are apparently parallel: dwaŋ-s ma «juice” and draŋ «becr,» dwag-s «to shine brightly” and drag pa “distinguished,” dwaŋ-8 «elevation,» etc., and dmŋ-s «chieftain, husband,” etc. On the other hand, dwag-s and dwaŋ-s “splendour,” etc., along with thsaŋ ba “to be pure”, etc., go back to √*da (10). In the same way it is not difficult to associate tswa and thsim, also zwa, with thsa ba “to be hot,» which belongs to √da (12). Whether or not these words are proethnic remains to be investigated, that is, whether dwaŋ-s is related to the still unexplained word Germ. Schwan (or swan), or to Lith. szventas «holy,» or to Skr. àvindate «it glitters, shines,” or to Malay trang «light, bright, clear» and to many others.

There is apparently in the majority of words little substantiation for the hypothesis that wa zur was ever wa btags. I strongly suspect that through the monosyllabic languages we shall be able eventually to unravel with reasonable certainty this language riddle.

Laufer expresses in his articles «über das va zur» the conjecture that «va zur in einigen Fallen graphisch angewandt worden sei» (p. 302) as for instance in dwaŋ-s pa «pure, clear,» yi dwags «the preta,» ri dwags «deer, gazelle,» la dwags «Ladakh,” bla dwags «a .technical term in grammar”. On the other hand he recognises the phonetical significance of wa zur. In connection with the example rtva «grass» (3jE ts‘ao3) ho says that wa zur is equal in phonetic function to the half-vocalic o or u. He says further, «dieser Halbvokal bildet mit dem folgendcn a-Vokal einen Diphthong» (pp. 306—07). Every scholar who studies carefully the Tibetan language must come to this same conclusion. This chapter on wa zur was already prepared for printing, before ī became familiar with Lauf er’s article ‘ ‘ Ober das va zur. ’ * 1 take the liberty of analysing a few further examples in this place.

The Tibetan nouns grim «corner; school» and grwa pa «mouth» are obviously some way connected with Lat. curvus, curvare or with Lat. corbis, MHG. krebe, Germ. Korb (or with Finnish korva «ear»); furthermore with Greek xapitóẹ “wrist,” Sanskrit kurpara «elbow, knee,» OHG hwerban“to turn oneself,” etc. Of this I feel certain. The unextendcd root k-r (g-r, etc.) as in German «krũmmen (— drehen)» again appears in the Tib. s-kyor ha «to turn round repeatedly” h-khyor ba «to reel,» h-khỵìr ba «to turn round,” ĩi-gyur ba «to change, alter» (cf. Sanskrit vartate «turns itself,” etc. =■ German werden); furthermore compare here Tamil kuramīu «to be bent, crooked,” Kanarese kurgu, kuryu “to bend, to shrink together” (also in the meaning of «hump”), kural «curl” girt «the whirling around,” Tamil kiru-kiru “to turn oneself around, to be dizzy, confused,” Malay giUi “distorted, crazy,” Suaheli kereza «to turn (on a lathe)” and many others.

We now take another word from the group formed with wa zur: hwa «transitory and unsteady” which is without doubt the same word as Finnish hupa (Gen. huvan) «futile, transitory; bad, poor,” to which must be added hupene (hnven-) “to decrease, diminish”; the h of these two Finnish words has been derived from Finnish-Ugrian cacuminal S, which is still extant in Hungarian ấovān «mcager» as well as in Hungarian ấavanü «sour,» but it has nothing to do with Tibetan thswa «salt» (since one might expect here the Tibetan h), nor with Mordvin ấuva, cova etc. «thin» (see Szinnyei, Finnisch-Ugrisehe Sprach-wissenschaft, p. 26). The Osmanli equivalent to Tib. hwa is yawan «meager.» Thus we have Tib. h- = Osmanli y- = Fin. Ugr. ị — Dravidian - (the latter we find for instance in Tamil éavu «to become weak, to grow lean»). Along this same road we may probably also find some clue to Tibetan hwag-s «sugared medicine like lozenges»; (one might compare here also Finnish huvi “pleasure,” hyvä «good»).

Furthermore we may assume (1) a connection between Tib. r-wa «horn; sting» and German Schraube,